WorldWideScience

Sample records for perform work efficiently

  1. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  2. Processing efficiency theory in children: working memory as a mediator between trait anxiety and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Norgate, Roger; Hadwin, Julie A

    2008-10-01

    Working memory skills are positively associated with academic performance. In contrast, high levels of trait anxiety are linked with educational underachievement. Based on Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET), the present study investigated whether associations between anxiety and educational achievement were mediated via poor working memory performance. Fifty children aged 11-12 years completed verbal (backwards digit span; tapping the phonological store/central executive) and spatial (Corsi blocks; tapping the visuospatial sketchpad/central executive) working memory tasks. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Academic performance was assessed using school administered tests of reasoning (Cognitive Abilities Test) and attainment (Standard Assessment Tests). The results showed that the association between trait anxiety and academic performance was significantly mediated by verbal working memory for three of the six academic performance measures (math, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning). Spatial working memory did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and academic performance. On average verbal working memory accounted for 51% of the association between trait anxiety and academic performance, while spatial working memory only accounted for 9%. The findings indicate that PET is a useful framework to assess the impact of children's anxiety on educational achievement.

  3. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  4. Is less really more: Does a prefrontal efficiency genotype actually confer better performance when working memory becomes difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihne, Jessica L; Gallagher, Natalie M; Sullivan, Marie; Callicott, Joseph H; Green, Adam E

    2016-01-01

    Perhaps the most widely studied effect to emerge from the combination of neuroimaging and human genetics is the association of the COMT-Val(108/158)Met polymorphism with prefrontal activity during working memory. COMT-Val is a putative risk factor in schizophrenia, which is characterized by disordered prefrontal function. Work in healthy populations has sought to characterize mechanisms by which the valine (Val) allele may lead to disadvantaged prefrontal cognition. Lower activity in methionine (Met) carriers has been interpreted as advantageous neural efficiency. Notably, however, studies reporting COMT effects on neural efficiency have generally not reported working memory performance effects. Those studies have employed relatively low/easy working memory loads. Higher loads are known to elicit individual differences in working memory performance that are not visible at lower loads. If COMT-Met confers greater neural efficiency when working memory is easy, a reasonable prediction is that Met carriers will be better able to cope with increasing demand for neural resources when working memory becomes difficult. To our knowledge, this prediction has thus far gone untested. Here, we tested performance on three working memory tasks. Performance on each task was measured at multiple levels of load/difficulty, including loads more demanding than those used in prior studies. We found no genotype-by-load interactions or main effects of COMT genotype on accuracy or reaction time. Indeed, even testing for performance differences at each load of each task failed to find a single significant effect of COMT genotype. Thus, even if COMT genotype has the effects on prefrontal efficiency that prior work has suggested, such effects may not directly impact high-load working memory ability. The present findings accord with previous evidence that behavioral effects of COMT are small or nonexistent and, more broadly, with a growing consensus that substantial effects on phenotype will

  5. Academic Work and Performativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, John

    2017-01-01

    Neoliberal reforms in higher education have resulted in corporate managerial practices in universities and a drive for efficiency and productivity in teaching and research. As a result, there has been an intensification of academic work, increased stress for academics and an emphasis on accountability and performativity in universities. This paper…

  6. Performative Work in Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærenholdt, Jørgen Ole; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of performative work that aims to create experiences for visiting tourists. It reports on qualitative research conducted among frontline employees working in three tourist attractions on the island of Lolland in Denmark, namely Lalandia...

  7. Work-family conflicts and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lawrence; David, Emily M

    2009-08-01

    Prior research indicates that work-family conflict interferes with family far more than it interferes with work. Conservation of resources provides a possible explanation: when shifting resources from family is no longer sufficient to maintain satisfactory work performance, then workers must acquire additional resources or reduce investments in work. One source of such additional resources could be high performance peers in the work group. The performance of workers with resource-rich peers may be less adversely affected by work-family conflict. In this study, 136 employees of a wholesale distribution firm (61% women, 62% minority) working in groups of 7 to 11 in manual labor and low-level administrative jobs rated their own work-to-family conflict. Their supervisors rated workers' performance. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that work-to-family conflict increasingly adversely affected job performance as work group performance decreased. Hence, work group performance may be an important moderator of the effects of work-family conflict.

  8. High Performance Work Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this

  9. Academic Work and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    Reading current accounts of higher education demonstrates the flux and damage of rapid neoliberal changes to the type and conduct of academic work. Opening the Times Higher Education magazine on the 28 April 2011 shows articles about cuts in staffing and undergraduate provision in England, concerns about the quality of for-profit higher education…

  10. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Hertel, N.E.; Pollard, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  11. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  12. Personality Traits as Predictors of Work Efficiency Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality Traits as Predictors of Work Efficiency Among Nigerian Oil ... of 0.85 and reliability co-efficient of 0.85 and Job Performance Appraisal (JPA) from Oliver, ... recommendations were made on assigning individual workers to critical or ...

  13. 'Blue' social capital and work performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2012-01-01

    (Progoulaki & Roe 2011). This challenges social capital on board, i.e. the resources inherent in network cooperation associated with norms of reciprocity and trust (Putnam 2000: 19). Fragmentizing ‘blue’ social capital should however be restored, because work performance depends on the quality of cooperation...... findings suggest that a balance between three types of social capital – bonding, bridging and linking – is needed to achieve a high-performance work system (Gittell et al. 2010). Hence, main actors within the shipping sector should take ‘blue’ social capital into account in order to increase work...... efficiency and economic performance....

  14. Efficient Work Team Scheduling: Using Psychological Models of Knowledge Retention to Improve Code Writing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pelosi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development teams and programmers must retain critical information about their work during work intervals and gaps in order to improve future performance when work resumes. Despite time lapses, project managers want to maximize coding efficiency and effectiveness. By developing a mathematically justified, practically useful, and computationally tractable quantitative and cognitive model of learning and memory retention, this study establishes calculations designed to maximize scheduling payoff and optimize developer efficiency and effectiveness.

  15. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  16. Performance indicators of work activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  17. Technical Efficiency Performance of Conventional Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Endri, Endri

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to measure the performance of the technical efficiency of the conventional commercial banks during the period 2008-2009 by using non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Test results showed that the total of all conventional commercial banks during the period 2008-2009 has not shown that optimal performance in which the level of technical efficiency is still below 100 percent. Appalling conditions, the efficiency of national banks experienced a decline of 73.5...

  18. Propulsive efficiency and non- expert swimmers performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Barbosa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Propulsive efficiency is one of the most interesting issues for competitive swimming researchers, has it presents significant relationships with the swimmer’s biophysical behavior and his/her performance. Although propulsive efficiency is a variable that has been quite studied in elite swimmers, there is no research on this issue in young and non-expert swimmers. Thus, the aim of this study was to: (i estimate the propulsive efficiency on non-expert swimmers; (ii identify biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters that are associated with propulsive efficiency; (iii identify the association between the propulsive efficiency and swim performance. Twenty-eight non-expert swimmers participated on this study. It was assessed the propulsive efficiency, biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters, as well as, the swim performance. The propulsive efficiency of non-expert swimmers is lower than data reported in the literature to higher competitive levels swimmers and there are no significant differences between boys and girls. It was also noted that several biomechanical and anthropometrical parameters, as well as, the swim performance are associated with the propulsive efficiency.

  19. Working memory capacity and redundant information processing efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Houpt, Joseph W; Donkin, Chris; Finn, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Working memory capacity (WMC) is typically measured by the amount of task-relevant information an individual can keep in mind while resisting distraction or interference from task-irrelevant information. The current research investigated the extent to which differences in WMC were associated with performance on a novel redundant memory probes (RMP) task that systematically varied the amount of to-be-remembered (targets) and to-be-ignored (distractor) information. The RMP task was designed to both facilitate and inhibit working memory search processes, as evidenced by differences in accuracy, response time, and Linear Ballistic Accumulator (LBA) model estimates of information processing efficiency. Participants (N = 170) completed standard intelligence tests and dual-span WMC tasks, along with the RMP task. As expected, accuracy, response-time, and LBA model results indicated memory search and retrieval processes were facilitated under redundant-target conditions, but also inhibited under mixed target/distractor and redundant-distractor conditions. Repeated measures analyses also indicated that, while individuals classified as high (n = 85) and low (n = 85) WMC did not differ in the magnitude of redundancy effects, groups did differ in the efficiency of memory search and retrieval processes overall. Results suggest that redundant information reliably facilitates and inhibits the efficiency or speed of working memory search, and these effects are independent of more general limits and individual differences in the capacity or space of working memory.

  20. Working Girls and the Temporality of Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahner, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    The public circulation of temporal discourse fashions the way in which subjects experience and value their time. At the turn of the twentieth century, experts in systematic management mandated that wage-earning women must be prodded into efficient labor in order to increase the overall yield of industry. Against this regime of time, the narrator…

  1. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Coffeng, J.K.; Bernaards, C.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed.

  2. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Coffeng, J.K.; Bernaards, C.M.; Boot, C.R.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed.

  3. Development of an Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; van Buuren, S.; van der Beek, A.J.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to develop a generic and short questionnaire to measure work performance at the individual level – the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The IWPQ was based on a four-dimensional conceptual framework, in which individual work performance consisted

  4. Evaluation and Improvement of Lighting Efficiency in Working Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lighting is an essential element for modern life, promoting a sense of wellbeing for users. However, bad illumination may produce health problems such as headaches and fatigue, among other vision problems. For that reason, this paper proposes the development of a smartphone-based application to help in lighting evaluation to guarantee the compliance of illumination regulations and to help increase illuminance efficiency, reducing its energy consumption. To perform this evaluation, the smartphone can be used as a lighting measurement tool, evaluating those measurements through an intelligent agent based in rules capable of guiding the decision-making process. As a result, this tool allows the evaluation of the real working environment to guarantee lighting requirements, helping in the prevention of health problems derived from bad illumination and improving the lighting efficiency at the same time.

  5. Dental ergonomics: Basic steps to enhance work efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Shaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the dental profession and the postures assumed by the dental surgeons during their professional work has a huge impact on the dental surgeon′s body and carries with it a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. To perform efficiently and effectively, they shall always like to attain a position that allows them to achieve optimum access, visibility, comfort, and control at all times. Good ergonomic design of the workplace is a basic requirement for facilitating the balanced musculoskeletal health that will enable longer, healthier career, enhance productivity, and minimize MSDs among dental surgeons. While treating the patients, they are concerned about patients′ comfort and pay little attention to their own health till they begin to experience discomfort in their body. With a little attention and creativity, dental surgeons can improve their comfort on the job during the course of their career.

  6. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AND EFFICIENCY OF COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMTU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance management is, in fact, that systemic coordination process through communication of actions undertaken by the firm in the context of an environment which is in a continuous movement and transformation, which anticipates changes, taking appropriate response measures, time-reacting, dynamically, flexible and quickly to these changes through appropriate strategies, which application in practice is monitored, controlled and adjusted continuously. Performance management is defined as complete and complex levels of communication on organizing through strategies, policy decisions, coordination with business plans and innovative programs and tactics along with the steps required to implement these levels in the company's activity. Performance management is the management of the company based on communication and participativ management; therefore the efficiency of communication and participativ management is the foundation of performance management, it outlines the priorities, thus becoming the basic factor in the development of management programs and in the course of their ongoing. Consequently, for running relevant and profitable a business, a company needs performance management areas well-delineated, with specific tasks, that can transform customer or generally the society needs into profitable business opportunities.

  7. Evaluating performance of high efficiency mist eliminators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waggoner, Charles A.; Parsons, Michael S.; Giffin, Paxton K. [Mississippi State University, Institute for Clean Energy Technology, 205 Research Blvd, Starkville, MS (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Processing liquid wastes frequently generates off gas streams with high humidity and liquid aerosols. Droplet laden air streams can be produced from tank mixing or sparging and processes such as reforming or evaporative volume reduction. Unfortunately these wet air streams represent a genuine threat to HEPA filters. High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) are one option for removal of liquid aerosols with high dissolved or suspended solids content. HEMEs have been used extensively in industrial applications, however they have not seen widespread use in the nuclear industry. Filtering efficiency data along with loading curves are not readily available for these units and data that exist are not easily translated to operational parameters in liquid waste treatment plants. A specialized test stand has been developed to evaluate the performance of HEME elements under use conditions of a US DOE facility. HEME elements were tested at three volumetric flow rates using aerosols produced from an iron-rich waste surrogate. The challenge aerosol included submicron particles produced from Laskin nozzles and super micron particles produced from a hollow cone spray nozzle. Test conditions included ambient temperature and relative humidities greater than 95%. Data collected during testing HEME elements from three different manufacturers included volumetric flow rate, differential temperature across the filter housing, downstream relative humidity, and differential pressure (dP) across the filter element. Filter challenge was discontinued at three intermediate dPs and the filter to allow determining filter efficiency using dioctyl phthalate and then with dry surrogate aerosols. Filtering efficiencies of the clean HEME, the clean HEME loaded with water, and the HEME at maximum dP were also collected using the two test aerosols. Results of the testing included differential pressure vs. time loading curves for the nine elements tested along with the mass of moisture and solid

  8. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  9. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of

  10. Efficiency of working memory: Theoretical concept and practical application

    OpenAIRE

    Lalović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Efficiency of working memory is the concept which connects psychology of memory with different fields of cognitive, differential and applied psychology. In this paper, the history of interest for the assessment of the capacity of short-term memory is presented in brief, as well as the different methods used nowadays to assess the individual differences in the efficiency of working memory. What follows is the consideration of studies that indicate the existence of significant links between the...

  11. Working Capital Efficiency and Firm Profitability – Nigeria and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian J. Pitt

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to understand the differences in the relationship between working capital management efficiency, working capital investment decisions and working capital finance decisions and the profitability of firms within the context of two African developing economies, Kenya and Nigeria. The study finds that there is a significant difference in the relationship between the firm’s profitability and the working capital variables which suggests different challenges for ...

  12. Does Work Time Flexibility Work? An Empirical Assessment of the Efficiency Effects for German Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Elke; Beblo, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we assess the impact of flexible work time schedules on firm efficiency using representative establishment data for Germany. Following the approach by Battese and Coelli (1995), we estimate a stochastic production frontier and the determinants of technical efficiency simultaneously. The innovation of our study is that we draw on technical efficiency instead of productivity to appraise the success of flexible working hours. The results indicate that while the use of work time sch...

  13. Work performance decrements are associated with Australian working conditions, particularly the demand to work longer hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Vecchio, Nerina N; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-03-01

    To demonstrate the importance of including a range of working conditions in models exploring the association between health- and work-related performance. The Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit study cross-sectional screening data set was used to explore health-related absenteeism and work performance losses on a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians, including available demographic and working condition factors. Data collected using the World Health Organization Health and Productivity Questionnaire were analyzed with negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regressions for absenteeism and work performance, respectively. Hours expected to work, annual wage, and job insecurity play a vital role in the association between health- and work-related performance for both work attendance and self-reported work performance. Australian working conditions are contributing to both absenteeism and low work performance, regardless of health status.

  14. Work domain constraints for modelling surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morineau, Thierry; Riffaud, Laurent; Morandi, Xavier; Villain, Jonathan; Jannin, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Three main approaches can be identified for modelling surgical performance: a competency-based approach, a task-based approach, both largely explored in the literature, and a less known work domain-based approach. The work domain-based approach first describes the work domain properties that constrain the agent's actions and shape the performance. This paper presents a work domain-based approach for modelling performance during cervical spine surgery, based on the idea that anatomical structures delineate the surgical performance. This model was evaluated through an analysis of junior and senior surgeons' actions. Twenty-four cervical spine surgeries performed by two junior and two senior surgeons were recorded in real time by an expert surgeon. According to a work domain-based model describing an optimal progression through anatomical structures, the degree of adjustment of each surgical procedure to a statistical polynomial function was assessed. Each surgical procedure showed a significant suitability with the model and regression coefficient values around 0.9. However, the surgeries performed by senior surgeons fitted this model significantly better than those performed by junior surgeons. Analysis of the relative frequencies of actions on anatomical structures showed that some specific anatomical structures discriminate senior from junior performances. The work domain-based modelling approach can provide an overall statistical indicator of surgical performance, but in particular, it can highlight specific points of interest among anatomical structures that the surgeons dwelled on according to their level of expertise.

  15. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Working mothers: Family-work conflict, job performance and family/work variables

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia J Patel; Vasanthee Govender; Zubeda Paruk; Sarojini Ramgoon

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between family-work conflict, job performance and selected work and family characteristics in a sample of working mothers employed at a large retail organization. The hypothesis of a negative relationship between family-work conflict and job performance was rejected. Married women reported significantly higher family-work conflict than unmarried women, while women in the highest work category gained the highest job performance rating. More than half...

  17. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Ermakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The calculation of the economic efficiency of technology telecommuting at an aviation company of the Russian Federation is done. The method of calculating the cost-effectiveness based on several factors, such as costs for the organization and content of the workplace, change in labor productivity and others, was proposed by the authors. The calculation of economic efficiency by using the number of working hours, the impact on capital inputs and the impact on quit rates is considered.

  18. Synthesis of work-zone performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this synthesis was to identify and summarize how agencies collect, analyze, and report different work-zone : traffic-performance measures, which include exposure, mobility, and safety measures. The researchers also examined comm...

  19. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, Linda; Coffeng, Jennifer K; Bernaards, Claire M; Boot, Cécile RL; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica CW; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods. Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to inves...

  20. Developing concepts for improved efficiency of robot work preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Essers, M.S.; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.

    2013-01-01

    SInBot[1] is a large research project that focuses on maximizing the efficient use of mobile industrial robots during medium sized production runs. The system that will be described in this paper will focusses on the development and validation of concepts for efficient work preparation for cells of intelligent mobile robots that execute medium sized production runs. For a wide range of products, the machining tasks will be defined on an appropriate level, enabling control over the robots beha...

  1. Intelligence, Working Memory, and Multitasking Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Multitasking performance is relevant in everyday life and job analyses highlight the influence of multitasking over several diverse occupations. Intelligence is the best single predictor of overall job performance and it is also related to individual differences in multitasking. However, it has been shown that working memory capacity (WMC) is…

  2. Efficiency of working memory: Theoretical concept and practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalović Dejan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of working memory is the concept which connects psychology of memory with different fields of cognitive, differential and applied psychology. In this paper, the history of interest for the assessment of the capacity of short-term memory is presented in brief, as well as the different methods used nowadays to assess the individual differences in the efficiency of working memory. What follows is the consideration of studies that indicate the existence of significant links between the efficiency of working memory and general intelligence, the ability of reasoning, personality variables, as well as some socio-psychological phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the links between the efficiency of working memory and certain aspects of pedagogical practice: acquiring the skill of reading, learning arithmetic and shedding light on the cause of general failure in learning at school. What is also provided are the suggestions that, in the light of knowledge about the development and limitations of working memory at school age, can be useful for teaching practice.

  3. Mapping the Developmental Constraints on Working Memory Span Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…

  4. Chronic pain, work performance and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Fiona M; March, Lyn M; Nicholas, Michael K; Cousins, Michael J

    2003-05-01

    The overall population impact of chronic pain on work performance has been underestimated as it has often been described in terms of work-related absence, excluding more subtle effects that chronic pain may have on the ability to work effectively. Additionally, most studies have focussed on occupational and/or patient cohorts and treatment seeking, rather than sampling from the general population. We undertook a population-based random digit dialling computer-assisted telephone survey with participants randomly selected within households in order to measure the impact of chronic pain on work performance. In addition, we measured the association between pain-related disability and litigation. The study took place in Northern Sydney Health Area, a geographically defined urban area of New South Wales, Australia, and included 484 adults aged 18 or over with chronic pain. The response rate was 73.4%. Working with pain was more common (on an average 83.8 days in 6 months) than lost work days due to pain (4.5 days) among chronic pain participants in full-time or part-time employment. When both lost work days and reduced-effectiveness work days were summed, an average of 16.4 lost work day equivalents occurred in a 6-month period, approximately three times the average number of lost work days. In multiple logistic regression modelling with pain-related disability as the dependent variable, past or present pain-related litigation had the strongest association (odds ratio (OR)=3.59, P=0.001). In conclusion, chronic pain had a larger impact on work performance than has previously been recognised, related to reduced performance while working with pain. A significant proportion were able to work effectively with pain, suggesting that complete relief of pain may not be an essential therapeutic target. Litigation (principally work-related) for chronic pain was strongly associated with higher levels of pain-related disability, even after taking into account other factors

  5. COMMUNICATION, WORK PERFORMANCE AND HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Florencio Martínez Pérez

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research is to describe the work performance of employees with hearing disabilities in education and their communication style. Theoretically, Karns, Dow and Neville (2012), postulated that the deaf processed Visual and tactile stimuli in their tasks. In job performance there are the contributions of Treviño et al (2010), Chiavenato (2009, 2011) and Robbins and Judge (2009). Venezuelan laws are included as basis and strengthening of inclution-participation of the deaf. T...

  6. Performance Efficient Launch Vehicle Recovery and Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John G.; Ragab, Mohamed M.; Cheatwood, F. McNeil; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dinonno, J.; Bodkin, R.; Lowry, Allen; Brierly, Gregory T.; Kelly, John W.

    2016-01-01

    for space asset recovery and high altitude deployment. The next proposed HIAD flight demonstration is called HULA (for HIAD on ULA), and will feature a 6m diameter HIAD. An update for the HULA concept will be provided in this paper. As proposed, this demonstration will fly as a secondary payload on an Atlas mission. The Centaur upper stage provides the reentry pointing, deorbit burn, and entry vehicle spin up. The flight test will culminate with a recovery of the HIAD using MAR. HULA will provide data from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) return aeroheating environment that enables predictive model correlation and refinement. The resultant reduction in performance uncertainties should lead to design efficiencies that are increasingly significant at larger scales. Relevance to human scale Mars EDL using a HIAD will also be presented, and the applicability of the data generated from both HULA and SMART Vulcan flights, and its value for NASA's human exploration efforts will be discussed. A summary and conclusion will follow.

  7. High Performance Work Systems for Online Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacos-Sawyer, Jonna; Revels, Mark; Ciampa, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify the key elements of a High Performance Work System (HPWS) and explore the possibility of implementation in an online institution of higher learning. With the projected rapid growth of the demand for online education and its importance in post-secondary education, providing high quality curriculum, excellent…

  8. Performance and Quality of Working Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.D. Pruijt (Hans)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAn examination of the deep structure of the discourse on the organization of work shows that the most successful texts share a common structure: they construct an ideal model in which performance and quality go hand in hand. They provide explanations for the self-constructed gap between

  9. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  10. Emotion processing facilitates working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Björn R; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2011-11-01

    The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.

  11. Working mothers: Family-work conflict, job performance and family/work variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Patel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationship between family-work conflict, job performance and selected work and family characteristics in a sample of working mothers employed at a large retail organization. The hypothesis of a negative relationship between family-work conflict and job performance was rejected. Married women reported significantly higher family-work conflict than unmarried women, while women in the highest work category gained the highest job performance rating. More than half the sample indicated that paid work was more important than their housework and reported that their working had a positive impact on their families. The findings are discussed in relation to the changing work and family identities of non-career women.

  12. Performance Standards for Windows | Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry Foundry New Construction Windows Window Selection Tool Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Replacement Windows Window Selection Tool Assessing Options Selection Process Design Guidance Installation Understanding Windows Benefits Design Considerations Measuring Performance Performance Standards

  13. The Relationship between P3 Amplitude and Working Memory Performance Differs in Young and Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older

  14. Budget performance reporting and construction work packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, M.G.; Weyers, L.L.

    1976-01-01

    A changing financial, technological, and regulatory environment has increased the complexity, costliness, and risk involved in constructing new generating facilities. A primary challenge facing utility executives is to hold down costs on these construction projects. New construction management techniques are required to accomplish this. Commonwealth Edison has responded by implementing a new Budget Performance Reporting System and a Construction Work Packaging System. The new systems are being used successfully on four major construction projects with budgets totaling over $4 billion

  15. Working memory, math performance, and math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A

    2007-04-01

    The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.

  16. Task Performance induced Work Load in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: High workload may lead to increase human errors, compromise quality and safety of care, and reduce the nurses’ quality of working life. The aim of this study is to determine the task-induced workload in nursing. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study. All of 214 nurses of one of the educational hospital took part in. After obtaining informed consent from participants, data were collected based on NASA-TLX questionnaire and the desired level assumed less than 50%. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistics and Anova in SPSS software (version 11. 0 at significant level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that perceived mental pressure for nurses is more than other NASA-TLX subscales (P< .001. Also, the mean perceived workload was more than 50%. However, mean workload score of NASA-TLX showed significant correlation with age (P< .001, work experience (P< .001, shift work (P< .02, and department (P< .001. Conclusion: The results show that effective programs will be required to reduce the work load, and to enhance nurses' performance

  17. Responsiveness of the individual work performance questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual work performance is an important outcome measure in studies in the workplace. Nevertheless, its conceptualization and measurement has proven challenging. To overcome limitations of existing scales, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) was recently developed. The aim of the current study was to gain insight into the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Methods Data were used from the Be Active & Relax randomized controlled trial. The aim of the trial was to investigate the effectiveness of an intervention to stimulate physical activity and relaxation of office workers, on need for recovery. Individual work performance was a secondary outcome measure of the trial. In total, 39 hypotheses were formulated concerning correlations between changes on the IWPQ scales and changes on similar constructs (e.g., presenteeism) and distinct constructs (e.g., need for recovery) used in the trial. Results 260 Participants completed the IWPQ at both baseline and 12 months of follow-up. For the IWPQ scales, 23%, 15%, and 38%, respectively, of the hypotheses could be confirmed. In general, the correlations between change scores were weaker than expected. Nevertheless, at least 85% of the correlations were in the expected direction. Conclusions Based on results of the current study, no firm conclusions can be drawn about the responsiveness of the IWPQ. Several reasons may account for the weaker than expected correlations. Future research on the IWPQ’s responsiveness should be conducted, preferably in other populations and intervention studies, where greater changes over time can be expected. PMID:24885593

  18. Nuclear performance standards: Promoting efficient generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, M.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear plant performance standards are designed to share the risks of operation associated with nuclear generation. Such standards often shift risks from ratepayers to utility shareholders, even without a finding of imprudence or mismanagement. The rationale underlying nuclear performance standards is that ratepayers should not be responsible for excessive replacement power costs incurred as a result of unreasonable decisions by utility management, especially because the high fixed costs of nuclear plants are already included in base rates. In addition, performance standards can be designed to provide incentives to reward utilities that achieve superior nuclear performance, for the benefit of both ratepayers and shareholders

  19. Molecular Entropy, Thermal Efficiency, and Designing of Working Fluids for Organic Rankine Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingtao; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Zhiyou

    2012-06-01

    A shortage of fossil energy sources boosts the utilization of renewable energy. Among numerous novel techniques, recovering energy from low-grade heat sources through power generation via organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) is one of the focuses. Properties of working fluids are crucial for the ORC's performance. Many studies have been done to select proper working fluids or to design new working fluids. However, no researcher has systematically investigated the relationship between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. This paper has investigated the interrelations of molecular structures, molecular entropies, and thermal efficiencies of various working fluids for an ideal ORC. By calculating thermal efficiencies and molecular entropies, we find that the molecular entropy is the most appropriate thermophysical property of a working fluid to determine how much energy can be converted into work and how much cannot in a system. Generally speaking, working fluids with low entropies will generally have high thermal efficiency for an ideal ORC. Based on this understanding, the direct interrelations of molecular structures and entropies provide an explicit interrelation between molecular structures and thermal efficiencies, and thus provide an insightful direction for molecular design of novel working fluids for ORCs.

  20. Improved human performance through appropriate work scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Lewis, P.M.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has had a policy, Generic Letter 82-12, on hours of work since 1982. The policy states that licensees should establish controls to prevent situations where fatigue could reduce the ability of operating personnel to perform their duties safely (USNRC 1982). While that policy does give guidance on hours of work and overtime, it does not address periods of longer than 7 days or work schedules other than the routine 8-hour day, 40-hour week. Recognizing that NRC policy could provide broader guidance for shift schedules and hours of overtime work, the Division of Human Factors Safety conducted a project with Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) to help the NRC better understand the human factors principles and issues concerning hours of work so that the NRC could consider updating their policy as necessary. The results of this project are recommendations for guidelines and limits for periods of 14 days, 28 days, and 1 year to take into account the cumulative effects of fatigue. In addition, routine 12-hour shifts are addressed. This latter type of shift schedule has been widely adopted in the petroleum and chemical industries and several utilities operating nuclear power plants have adopted it as well. Since this is the case, it is important to consider including guidelines for implementing this type of schedule. This paper discusses the bases for the PNL recommendations which are currently being studied by the NRC

  1. Evaluation and Improvement of Lighting Efficiency in Working Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Castillo-Martinez; Jose-Amelio Medina-Merodio; Jose-Maria Gutierrez-Martinez; Juan Aguado-Delgado; Carmen de-Pablos-Heredero; Salvador Otón

    2018-01-01

    Lighting is an essential element for modern life, promoting a sense of wellbeing for users. However, bad illumination may produce health problems such as headaches and fatigue, among other vision problems. For that reason, this paper proposes the development of a smartphone-based application to help in lighting evaluation to guarantee the compliance of illumination regulations and to help increase illuminance efficiency, reducing its energy consumption. To perform this evaluation, the smartph...

  2. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently

  3. Improvement of Engineering Work Efficiency through System Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangdae; Jo, Sunghan; Hyun, Jinwoo [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents the concept of developing an integrated engineering system for ER to improve efficiency and utilization of engineering system. Each process including computer system and database was introduced separately by each department at that different time. Each engineering process has a close relation with other engineering processes. The introduction of processes in a different time has caused the several problems such as lack of interrelationship between engineering processes, lack of integration fleet-wide statistical data, lack of the function of data comparison among plants and increase of access time by different access location on internet. These problems have caused inefficiency of engineering system utilization to get proper information and degraded engineering system utilization. KHNP has introduced and conducted advanced engineering processes to maintain equipment effectively in a highly reliable condition since 2000s. But engineering systems for process implementation have been developed in each department at a different time. This has caused the problems of process inefficiency and data discordance. Integrated Engineering System(IES) to integrate dispersed engineering processes will improve work efficiency and utilization of engineering system because integration system would enable engineer to get total engineering information easily and do engineering work efficiently.

  4. Principal Component Analysis as an Efficient Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses the principal component analysis (PCA) to examine the possibility of using few explanatory variables (X's) to explain the variation in Y. It applied PCA to assess the performance of students in Abia State Polytechnic, Aba, Nigeria. This was done by estimating the coefficients of eight explanatory variables in a ...

  5. CITA Working for and with material performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of materials as active, whether compressed, under tension or flexed while handled, is at the root of all craft traditions. The ability to work a material, to saw and chisel wood, to weld and hammer steel or to weave and knit yarn relies on a profound understanding of its...... performance. The soft flex of wood, the sprung stiffness of steel and the tensile elasticity of yarn are inherent properties that inform and shape our crafts traditions. It is through material understanding that we come to shape the world of artefacts and structure that surrounds us....

  6. COMMUNICATION, WORK PERFORMANCE AND HEARING IMPAIRMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Florencio Martínez Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to describe the work performance of employees with hearing disabilities in education and their communication style. Theoretically, Karns, Dow and Neville (2012, postulated that the deaf processed Visual and tactile stimuli in their tasks. In job performance there are the contributions of Treviño et al (2010, Chiavenato (2009, 2011 and Robbins and Judge (2009. Venezuelan laws are included as basis and strengthening of inclution-participation of the deaf. The methodology is phenomenological-hermeneutical (Van Manen, 2003, using techniques and tools as participant observation, interview and questionnaire, respectively. As a result it was obtained that deaf people role is skillfully in their jobs, provided they do not involve hearing and his style of communication is respected; they are more responsible, punctual, and collaborators. It is recommended to avoid understatement, pity and increase knowledge about the skills of the deaf; all capabilities are so valued.

  7. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ninaus

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level. 

  8. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  9. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle cost-effective...

  10. Reports from the Combined Performance Working Groups

    CERN Multimedia

    S. Haywood

    The main goal of the Combined Performance Groups is to study the detector performance for physics, as well as to monitor the effect of changes to the detector layout and the evolution of the software. The groups combine the expertise available in several different subdetectors. In addition, they are responsible for developing combined reconstruction algorithms and are involved in the calibration of energy scales and optimising resolutions. For the Workshop, the four groups made a real effort to compare the reconstruction in Athena (the "New" C++ software framework) and Atrecon (the "Old" software used for the TDR studies). b-tagging Working Group: Over the last few months, the description of the Inner Detector in the simulation has become more realistic, following the evolution of the detector design. This has caused the amount of material in the simulation to increase and the Pixel B-layer has been moved to a larger radius to allow for a wider beam-pipe. Nevertheless, the good performance of the b-tagging (...

  11. Efficiency, Customers' Satisfaction and Deposit Money Banks' Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powel Maxwell Worimegbe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The study seeks to explore the technical efficiency of Nigerian banks using production approach and; to establish the relationship that exists between technical efficiency, customers' satisfaction and bank performance in the face of a volatile economy. Design/methodology/approach - Data used in achieving the research objectives were from both primary and secondary sources. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA and Structural Equation Model (SEM were employed in the analysis of data. 600 hundred questionnaires from 18 deposit money banks. Findings - The study reveals that technical efficiency leads to customers' satisfaction. The findings also show that customers' satisfaction affects bank performance. Further- more, efficiency influences banks' financial performance and this indicates that banks that pursue improved financial performance using a singular approach may be fundamentally misguided. Research implications/limitations - The study has important implications because it suggests that Deposit Money Banks should concentrate effort firstly on efficiency before customers' satisfaction. Bank managers should also seek better way of meeting customers need thereby increasing their customers' satisfaction and increasing bank financial performance. The study is limited in scope since it does not look at other approaches in measuring bank efficiency; further studies should consider using intermediation, user-cost, asset, modern and value-added model approaches in measuring bank efficiency. Originality/value/contribution - The study focuses solely on deposit money banks in Nigeria and empirically analyses the effect of efficiency, customers' satisfaction on financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria(original abstract

  12. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  13. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  14. Self-reported Work Ability and Work Performance in Workers with Chronic Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, Haitze J.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index, single item scale 0-10) and work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, scale 0-10) among 119 workers who continued work while having CMP. Scores of work ability and work performanc...

  15. Working memory in children predicts performance on a gambling task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audusseau, Jean; Juhel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether working memory (WM) plays a significant role in the development of decision making in children, operationalized by the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). A total of 105 children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years old carried out the CGT. Children aged 6-7 years old were found to have a lower performance than older children, which shows that the CGT is sensitive to participant's age. The hypothesis that WM plays a significant role in decision making was then tested following two approaches: (a) an experimental approach, comparing between groups the performance on the CGT in a control condition (the CGT only was administered) to that in a double task condition (participants had to carry out a recall task in addition to the CGT); (b) an interindividual approach, probing the relationship between CGT performance and performance on tasks measuring WM efficiency. The between-groups approach evidenced a better performance in the control group. Moreover, the interindividual approach showed that the higher the participants' WM efficiency was, the higher their performance in the CGT was. Taken together, these two approaches yield converging results that support the hypothesis that WM plays a significant role in decision making in children.

  16. Mapping the developmental constraints on working memory span performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.

  17. Shift Work and Cognitive Flexibility: Decomposing Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Philip; Tallent, Gabriel; Bender, Thomas John; Tran, Kieulinh Michelle; Drake, Christopher L

    2017-04-01

    Deficits in cognitive functioning associated with shift work are particularly relevant to occupational performance; however, few studies have examined how cognitive functioning is associated with specific components of shift work. This observational study examined how circadian phase, nocturnal sleepiness, and daytime insomnia in a sample of shift workers ( N = 30) were associated with cognitive flexibility during the night shift. Cognitive flexibility was measured using a computerized task-switching paradigm, which produces 2 indexes of flexibility: switch cost and set inhibition. Switch cost represents the additional cognitive effort required in switching to a different task and can impact performance when multitasking is involved. Set inhibition is the efficiency in returning to previously completed tasks and represents the degree of cognitive perseveration, which can lead to reduced accuracy. Circadian phase was measured via melatonin assays, nocturnal sleepiness was assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test, and daytime insomnia was assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index. Results indicated that those with an earlier circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness exhibited reduced cognitive flexibility; however, specific components of cognitive flexibility were differentially associated with circadian phase, insomnia, and sleepiness. Individuals with an earlier circadian phase (thus more misaligned to the night shift) exhibited larger switch costs, which was also associated with reduced task efficiency. Shift workers with more daytime insomnia demonstrated difficulties with cognitive inhibition, whereas nocturnal sleepiness was associated with difficulties in reactivating previous tasks. Deficits in set inhibition were also related to reduced accuracy and increased perseverative errors. Together, this study indicates that task performance deficits in shift work are complex and are variably impacted by different mechanisms. Future research may examine

  18. Efficiency performance of China's health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyu; Cheng, Gang; Song, Suhang; Yuan, Beibei; Zhu, Weiming; He, Li; Ma, Xiaochen; Meng, Qingyue

    2017-07-01

    Improving efficiency performance of the health care delivery system has been on the agenda for the health system reform that China initiated in 2009. This study examines the changes in efficiency performance and determinants of efficiency after the reform to provide evidence to assess the progress of the reform from the perspective of efficiency. Descriptive analysis, Data Envelopment Analysis, the Malmquist Index, and multilevel regressions are used with data from multiple sources, including the World Bank, the China Health Statistical Yearbook, and routine reports. The results indicate that over the last decade, health outcomes compared with health investment were relatively higher in China than in most other countries worldwide, and the trend was stable. The overall efficiency and total factor productivity increased after the reform, indicating that the reform was likely to have had a positive impact on the efficiency performance of the health care delivery system. However, the health care delivery structure showed low system efficiency, mainly attributed to the weakened primary health care system. Strengthening the primary health care system is central to enhancing the future performance of China's health care delivery system. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Correlation between social responsibility and efficient performance in Croatian enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Vitezić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to establish if there is a correlation between efficiency and socially responsible business performance in Croatian enterprises. The research is based on the hypothesis that higher corporate efficiency affects social responsibility development in enterprises and vice versa, that socially more responsible corporate performance have a positive effect on efficiency. In their research, many authors have proved the correlation between social responsibility and financial performance, reputation of the enterprise and added value. Cases from transition countries, which transferred to market economy and focused on socially responsible management and sustainability, have not been the subject of research. The social responsibility concept implies balance between economic, ecological and social goals, which means distribution of assets on several actors, so it may be predicted that more efficient enterprises will sooner accept the sustainability concept and act more responsibly. Except for theoretical social responsibility hypothesis, the initial point in the empirical section is dynamic analysis of business activities of Croatian entrepreneurs in the period between 1993 and 2010, on the basis of which a sample of enterprises was chosen, which submit transparent reports on social responsibility. The main result obtained by univariate analysis confirms that socially more responsible enterprises have better financial results, i.e. they are more efficient, and also have better reputation. The research also had limitations in relation to qualitative determination of the social responsibility impact on efficiency. The conclusion is derived that there is a causal relationship between efficiency and social responsibility, i.e. higher efficiency level enables higher allocation of resources with the purpose of socially more responsible corporate performance and vice versa; socially responsible corporate performance have an impact on

  20. 29 CFR 785.41 - Work performed while traveling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed while traveling. 785.41 Section 785.41 Labor... Traveltime § 785.41 Work performed while traveling. Any work which an employee is required to perform while traveling must, of course, be counted as hours worked. An employee who drives a truck, bus, automobile, boat...

  1. Work zone performance monitoring application development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) requires state transportation agencies to (a) collect and analyze safety and mobility data to manage the work zone impacts of individual projects during construction and (b) improve overall agency processes a...

  2. The organisation of work and innovative performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arundel, Anthony; Lorenz, Edward; Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is widely recognised that while expenditures on research and development are important inputs to successful innovation, these are not the only inputs. Further, rather than viewing innovation as a linear process, recent work on innovation in business and economics literatures characterises...... that are used to explore at the level of national innovation systems the relation between innovation and the organisation of work. In order to construct these aggregate measures we make use of micro data from two European surveys: the third European survey of Working Conditions and the third Community...... Innovation Survey (CIS-3). Although our data can only show correlations rather than causality they support the view that how firms innovate is linked to the way work is organised to promote learning and problem-solving....

  3. Efficient Transfer of Graphene-Physical and Electrical Performance Perspective

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2012-11-01

    Efficient Transfer of Graphene –Physical and Electrical Performance Perspective Graphene has become one of the most widely used atomic crystal structure materials since its first experimental proof by Geim-Novoselov in 2004 [1]. This is attributed to its reported incredible carrier mobility, mechanical strength and thermal conductivity [2] [3] [4]. These properties suggest interesting applications of Graphene ranging from electronics to energy storage and conversion [5]. In 2008, Chen et al reported a 40,000 cm2V-1s-1 mobility for a Single Layer Graphene (SLG) on SiO2 compared to 285 cm2V-1s-1 for silicon channel devices [6]. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a common method for growing graphene on a metal surface as a catalyst for graphene nucleation. This adds a necessary transfer step to the target substrate ultimately desired for graphene devices fabrication. Interfacing with graphene is a critical challenge in preserving its promising high mobility. This initiated the motivation for studying the effect of intermediate interfaces imposed by transfer processes. In this work, few layers graphene (FLG) was grown on copper foils inside a high temperature furnace. Then Raman spectroscopy was performed on grown graphene sample to confirm few (in between 3-10) layers. Afterwards the sample was cut into three pieces and transferred to 300 nm SiO2 on Si substrates using three techniques, namely: (i) pickup transfer with top side of Graphene brought in contact with SiO2 [7], (ii) Ploy (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transfer with Graphene and a PMMA support layer on top scooped from bottom side [8], and (iii) a modified direct transfer which is similar to PMMA transfer without the support layer [9]. Comparisons were done using Raman spectroscopy to determine the relative defectivity, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to observe discontinuities and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure surface roughness. Then we conclude with electrical data based on the contact

  4. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON WORK PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUSIC , *HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING), (*ATTENTION, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN)), REACTION(PSYCHOLOGY), REFLEXES, ATTITUDES(PSYCHOLOGY), QUESTIONNAIRES, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, CORRELATION TECHNIQUES

  5. A method of evaluating efficiency during space-suited work in a neutral buoyancy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenisen, Michael C.; West, Phillip; Newton, Frederick K.; Gilbert, John H.; Squires, William G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate efficiency as related to the work transmission and the metabolic cost of various extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks during simulated microgravity (whole body water immersion) using three space suits. Two new prototype space station suits, AX-5 and MKIII, are pressurized at 57.2 kPa and were tested concurrently with the operationally used 29.6 kPa shuttle suit. Four male astronauts were asked to perform a fatigue trial on four upper extremity exercises during which metabolic rate and work output were measured and efficiency was calculated in each suit. The activities were selected to simulate actual EVA tasks. The test article was an underwater dynamometry system to which the astronauts were secured by foot restraints. All metabolic data was acquired, calculated, and stored using a computerized indirect calorimetry system connected to the suit ventilation/gas supply control console. During the efficiency testing, steady state metabolic rate could be evaluated as well as work transmitted to the dynamometer. Mechanical efficiency could then be calculated for each astronaut in each suit performing each movement.

  6. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  7. Self-reported work ability and work performance in workers with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Haitze J; Reneman, Michiel F; Groothoff, Johan W; Geertzen, Jan H B; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index, single item scale 0-10) and work performance (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, scale 0-10) among 119 workers who continued work while having CMP. Scores of work ability and work performance were categorized into excellent (10), good (9), moderate (8) and poor (0-7). Hierarchical multiple regression and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relation of socio-demographic, pain-related, personal- and work-related variables with work ability and work performance. Mean work ability and work performance were 7.1 and 7.7 (poor to moderate). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed that higher work ability scores were associated with lower age, better general health perception, and higher pain self-efficacy beliefs (R(2) = 42 %). Higher work performance was associated with lower age, higher pain self-efficacy beliefs, lower physical work demand category and part-time work (R(2) = 37 %). Logistic regression analysis revealed that work ability ≥8 was significantly explained by age (OR = 0.90), general health perception (OR = 1.04) and pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.15). Work performance ≥8 was explained by pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.11). Many workers with CMP who stay at work report poor to moderate work ability and work performance. Our findings suggest that a subgroup of workers with CMP can stay at work with high work ability and performance, especially when they have high beliefs of pain self-efficacy. Our results further show that not the pain itself, but personal and work-related factors relate to work ability and work performance.

  8. Effect of heat on firefighters' work performance and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rodney; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-10-01

    Wildland firefighters often perform their duties under both hot and mild ambient temperatures. However, the direct impact of different ambient temperatures on firefighters' work performance has not been quantified. This study compared firefighters' work performance and physiology during simulated wildland firefighting work in hot (HOT; 32°C, 43% RH) and temperate (CON; 19°C, 56% RH) conditions. Firefighters (n=38), matched and allocated to either the CON (n=18) or HOT (n=20) condition, performed simulated self-paced wildland fire suppression tasks (e.g., hose rolling/dragging, raking) in firefighting clothing for six hours, separated by dedicated rest breaks. Task repetitions were counted (and converted to distance or area). Core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (Tsk), and heart rate were recorded continuously throughout the protocol. Urine output was measured before and during the protocol, and urine specific gravity (USG) analysed, to estimate hydration. Ad libitum fluid intake was also recorded. There were no differences in overall work output between conditions for any physical task. Heart rate was higher in the HOT (55±2% HRmax) compared to the CON condition (51±2% HRmax) for the rest periods between bouts, and for the static hose hold task (69±3% HRmax versus 65±3% HRmax). Tc and Tsk were 0.3±0.1°C and 3.1±0.2°C higher in the HOT compared to the CON trial. Both pre- and within- shift fluid intake were increased two-fold in the heat, and participants in the heat recorded lower USG results than their CON counterparts. There was no difference between the CON and HOT conditions in terms of their work performance, and firefighters in both experimental groups increased their work output over the course of the simulated shift. Though significantly hotter, participants in the heat also managed to avoid excessive cardiovascular and thermal strain, likely aided by the frequent rest breaks in the protocol, and through doubling their fluid intake. Therefore

  9. Analysis of remote working practice AND CALCULATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Ermakov; A. V. Savyolova

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to description of working from home practice at Allianz Insurance UK и Ernst & Young, UK & Ireland. It fulfilled the analysis of the best practices in the use of new forms of social and labor relations - remote work. The characteristics of using types of distance work, the policy of implementation and realization of such work in the company, the criteria for the transfer of employees to work remotely, the possibility of a flexible approach to workflow are given. The cal...

  10. Performance assessment of Portuguese wind farms: Ownership and managerial efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos; Sequeira Antunes, Olinda

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes ownership and unobserved managerial ability as factors affecting the performance of a representative sample of Portuguese wind farms by means of frontier models. These farms are ranked according to their technical efficiency during the period 2004-2008 and homogenous and heterogeneous variables are disentangled in the cost function, which leads us to advise the implementation of common policies as well as policies by segments. Economic implications arising from the study are also considered. - Research highlights: → Wind farms are heterogeneous displaying distinct ownership and managerial characteristics that affect efficiency. → Managerial practices has a positive impact on the efficiency. → Ownership has a positive impact on the efficiency. Large wind farms are more efficient.

  11. Performance Appraisals: How to Make Them Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    developmental objectives. They found the benefits to support two discrete systems worth the additional administrative and financial costs. But these...the second. They worked in a wide variety of specialty areas. Like most large organizations, the standard instituitional form loosely described the

  12. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  13. Characteristics of shift work and their impact on employee performance and wellbeing: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Dall'ora, Chiara; Griffiths, P.; Ball, J.; Recio Saucedo, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shift work is recognised as a component of work organisation that may affect the balance between employee’s efficiency, effectiveness and wellbeing. Shift work is frequent in healthcare and for nurses in particular, as they typically comprise a large proportion of the workforce in healthcare AIM: To identify the characteristics of shift work that have an effect on employee’s performance (including job performance, productivity, safety, quality of care delivered, errors, adverse ev...

  14. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  15. Conceptual frameworks of individual work performance a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Schaufeli, W.B.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Individual work performance is differently conceptualized and operationalized in different disciplines. The aim of the current review was twofold: (1) identifying conceptual frameworks of individual work performance and (2) integrating these to reach a heuristic conceptual framework.

  16. Energy efficient mechanisms for high-performance Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaify, Baha'adnan

    2009-12-01

    Due to recent advances in microelectronics, the development of low cost, small, and energy efficient devices became possible. Those advances led to the birth of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). WSNs consist of a large set of sensor nodes equipped with communication capabilities, scattered in the area to monitor. Researchers focus on several aspects of WSNs. Such aspects include the quality of service the WSNs provide (data delivery delay, accuracy of data, etc...), the scalability of the network to contain thousands of sensor nodes (the terms node and sensor node are being used interchangeably), the robustness of the network (allowing the network to work even if a certain percentage of nodes fails), and making the energy consumption in the network as low as possible to prolong the network's lifetime. In this thesis, we present an approach that can be applied to the sensing devices that are scattered in an area for Sensor Networks. This work will use the well-known approach of using a awaking scheduling to extend the network's lifespan. We designed a scheduling algorithm that will reduce the delay's upper bound the reported data will experience, while at the same time keeps the advantages that are offered by the use of the awaking scheduling -- the energy consumption reduction which will lead to the increase in the network's lifetime. The wakeup scheduling is based on the location of the node relative to its neighbors and its distance from the Base Station (the terms Base Station and sink are being used interchangeably). We apply the proposed method to a set of simulated nodes using the "ONE Simulator". We test the performance of this approach with three other approaches -- Direct Routing technique, the well known LEACH algorithm, and a multi-parent scheduling algorithm. We demonstrate a good improvement on the network's quality of service and a reduction of the consumed energy.

  17. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P A Drummond

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1 in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night; and 2 following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency. Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care

  18. The effects of two types of sleep deprivation on visual working memory capacity and filtering efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Sean P A; Anderson, Dane E; Straus, Laura D; Vogel, Edward K; Perez, Veronica B

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation has adverse consequences for a variety of cognitive functions. The exact effects of sleep deprivation, though, are dependent upon the cognitive process examined. Within working memory, for example, some component processes are more vulnerable to sleep deprivation than others. Additionally, the differential impacts on cognition of different types of sleep deprivation have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of one night of total sleep deprivation and 4 nights of partial sleep deprivation (4 hours in bed/night) on two components of visual working memory: capacity and filtering efficiency. Forty-four healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two sleep deprivation conditions. All participants were studied: 1) in a well-rested condition (following 6 nights of 9 hours in bed/night); and 2) following sleep deprivation, in a counter-balanced order. Visual working memory testing consisted of two related tasks. The first measured visual working memory capacity and the second measured the ability to ignore distractor stimuli in a visual scene (filtering efficiency). Results showed neither type of sleep deprivation reduced visual working memory capacity. Partial sleep deprivation also generally did not change filtering efficiency. Total sleep deprivation, on the other hand, did impair performance in the filtering task. These results suggest components of visual working memory are differentially vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation, and different types of sleep deprivation impact visual working memory to different degrees. Such findings have implications for operational settings where individuals may need to perform with inadequate sleep and whose jobs involve receiving an array of visual information and discriminating the relevant from the irrelevant prior to making decisions or taking actions (e.g., baggage screeners, air traffic controllers, military personnel, health care providers).

  19. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  20. The interrelationship between performance anxiety and efficiency of solo music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Habe

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to study the influence of performance anxiety on efficiency of solo music performance. Internal (self-contempt, positive self-evaluation and external criteria (musical rewards, successful solo performances, successful auditions of efficiency of solo music performance were taken into consideration. The research was grounded on studies from the field of sports psychology and on the few studies that were carried out in the field of psychology of music. The research was conducted on 94 students of Music Academy, grouped by gender and field of study (instrumentalists, solo vocalists and composers vs. students of music teaching. The symptoms of performance anxiety were measured by a part of the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire, and efficiency of solo music performance by the Efficiency of Music Performance Questionnaire. Both questionnaires were developed for the purpose of the study. The results reveal the interrelationship between the internal criteria of efficiency in solo music performance and performance anxiety. On the other hand, only trends of correlation were established between performance anxiety and the external criteria of solo music performance. The research findings imply the important role of cognition as a mediator between performance anxiety and performance efficiency.

  1. Designing environmental performance indicators (EPIs) for eco-efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental performance indicators (EPI) were discussed and a method by which companies can design indicators to help measure their progress toward greater eco-efficiency was presented. EPIs are quantitative measures of environmental performance. EPIs can measure one attribute, such as effluent released to water, or they can be a complex index. EPIs track impacts on the environment and provide information for decision making. The need for more eco-efficient companies, i.e. companies that produce useful goods and services while reducing their consumption of resources and while making efforts to reduce pollution, was emphasized

  2. Work management practices that reduce dose and improve efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.W.; Hulin, M.

    1998-01-01

    Work management practices at nuclear power plants can dramatically affect the outcome of annual site dose goals and outage costs. This presentation discusses global work management practices that contribute to dose reduction including work philosophy, work selection, work planning, work scheduling, worker training, work implementation and worker feedback. The presentation is based on a two-year international effort (sponsored by NEA/IAEA ISOE) to study effective work practices that reduce dose. Experts in this area believe that effective work selection and planning practices can substantially reduce occupational dose during refueling outages. For example, some plants represented in the expert group complete refueling outages in 12-18 days (Finland) with doses below 0,90 person-Sv. Other plants typically have 50-75 day outages with substantially higher site doses. The fundamental reasons for longer outages and higher occupational doses are examined. Good work management principles that have a proven track record of reducing occupational dose are summarized. Practical methods to reduce work duration and dose are explained. For example, scheduling at nuclear power plants can be improved by not only sequencing jobs on a time line but also including zone and resource-based considerations to avoid zone congestion and manpower delays. An ongoing, global, benchmarking effort is described which provides current duration and dose information for repetitive jobs to participating utilities world-wide. (author)

  3. 10 CFR 830.201 - Performance of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of work. 830.201 Section 830.201 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT Safety Basis Requirements § 830.201 Performance of work. A contractor must perform work in accordance with the safety basis for a hazard category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear...

  4. 75 FR 9544 - Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... inmate may receive performance pay only for that portion of the month that the inmate was working... Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule... work and performance pay by removing redundant language and provisions that relate solely to staff...

  5. Effect of School Climate, Work Stress and Work Motivation on the Performance of Teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaulan, Ramlani Lina

    2016-01-01

    Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a) the school climate affect performance of teachers, b) there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c) work motivation effect on teacher performance, d) school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e) work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a) improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in sch...

  6. Academic Performance and Burnout: An Efficient Frontier Analysis of Resource Use Efficiency among Employed University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the impact of university student burnout on academic achievement. With a longitudinal sample of working undergraduate university business and economics students, we use a two-step analytical process to estimate the efficient frontiers of student productivity given inputs of labour and capital and then analyse the potential determinants…

  7. 48 CFR 37.602 - Performance work statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on the use of measurable performance standards and financial incentives in a competitive environment... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance work statement... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 37.602 Performance work statement...

  8. Creating Efficient Schools: The Wonder Is They Work at All.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    Present and past efforts to enhance school efficiency have failed. Progressive Era reforms of a half-century ago contributed to the creation of a publicly insensitive, professionally dominated education system. Accountability enthusiasts of the '70s failed to understand the fundamental misalignment between the assumptions underlying private sector…

  9. Impacts on work absence and performance: what really matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, Gwenllian; Buck, Rhiannon; Varnava, Alice; Phillips, Ceri; Main, Chris J

    2009-12-01

    A number of factors influence an individual's decision to take sickness absence or to remain at work while ill. The relationship between health, work characteristics, individual perceptions of work and sickness absence and performance is complex and further clarification of the interactions between these factors is necessary. To assess the relative impact of health, work characteristics and perceptions of work on absence and performance. Cross-sectional survey of two public sector organizations (n = 505). Data were analysed using multivariate linear regression to assess the individual and combined influence of each class of independent variables on the following: days sickness absence, spells of sickness absence, VAS performance and presenteeism. Characteristics of work were weakly associated with days absence and performance. Perceptions of work were more strongly associated with performance than absence. Measures of mental health, rather than physical health, had the greatest influence on ability to work. Poor health had a greater impact on work performance than work absence. When considered together, health variables accounted for the largest proportion of explained variance in both absence and performance when compared with characteristics of work and work perceptions. Using absence as a marker of health-associated compromise at work may lead to an underestimation of the impact of health on work. This study demonstrates the need to manage the impact of health problems on the workforce not only from a bio-medical perspective but also in terms of the psychological pressures and the social context in which employees work.

  10. Data Performativity, Performing Health Work: Malaria and Labor in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichenor, Marlee

    2017-07-01

    In this article, I investigate the ramifications of health data production in the health fight against malaria in and around Dakar, Senegal. Malaria health development funding at the community level is contingent on performativity; the Global Fund's "performance-based funding," for example, requires that local actors produce certain forms of evidence and that intermediaries synthesize this evidence into citable data. Analyzing the practices of diagnosis and approximation in health clinics and in global malaria documents, I argue that data production in Senegal is conditioned by and reifies preconceived notions of malaria as a problem addressable by the enumeration of technological fixes.

  11. Residential Electrostatic Precipitator - Performance at efficient and poor combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baefver, Linda; Yngvesson, Johan; Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    The performance of a pilot residential electrostatic precipitator R{sub E}SP (Applied Plasma Physics AS), was investigated at laboratory. Measurements of TSP (Total Suspended Particles), content of organic and elemental carbon, and mass size distribution of particles upstream and downstream of ESP were performed. Values for PM1 (particles < 1 {mu}m) were calculated from the particle size distributions. Concentrations and size distributions with respect to particle numbers were measured in separate tests. Gas concentrations, temperatures and boiler parameters were also measured. The TSP concentrations upstream of the R{sub E}SP were varied in range of 15-390 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}. Up to concentrations of about 300 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, the TSP-concentrations out from the ESP were less than 20 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, which is well below the German emission limit for wood stoves. The removal efficiencies with respect to mass were about 87% at efficient combustion and 93% at poor combustion. Corresponding values with respect to number concentrations were about 97% at efficient combustion and almost 99% at poor combustion. The better performance at poor combustion may be explained by lower flue gas temperature, leading to longer residence time in the ESP. High removal efficiencies were also found with respect to particulate organic and elemental carbon.

  12. EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY OF UNIVERSITY'S PERFORMANCE: FACULTY OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Trapitsin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells upon the issue of the quality and efficiency of higher education and presents the results of the survey which determines the readiness degree of the University teachers and management to the effective contract introduction. The contractual relationship is to be discussion based and similar to the social contract which is possible only if the upper and lower parts of the University structure will combine their efforts and effectively cooperate. The synthetic and multi-faceted socio-economic character of efficiency makes the development of practice-oriented tools for performance management of the University a burning issue.

  13. An efficient method for evaluating RRAM crossbar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin; Zhang, Jinyu; Chen, An; Wu, Huaqiang; Qian, He; Yu, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    An efficient method is proposed in this paper to mitigate computational burden in resistive random access memory (RRAM) array simulation. In the worst case scenario, a 4 Mb RRAM array with line resistance is greatly reduced using this method. For 1S1R-RRAM array structures, static and statistical parameters in both reading and writing processes are simulated. Error analysis is performed to prove the reliability of the algorithm when line resistance is extremely small compared with the junction resistance. Results show that high precision is maintained even if the size of RRAM array is reduced by one thousand times, which indicates significant improvements in both computational efficiency and memory requirements.

  14. 7 CFR 1948.83 - Performance of site development work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Performance of site development work. 1948.83 Section 1948.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Development Assistance Program § 1948.83 Performance of site development work. Site development work will be...

  15. Women-friendly Support Services and Work Performance: The Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study titled 'Women-friendly Support Services (WFFS) and Work Performance: The role of Marital Status', investigated the role of marital status in the work performance of female employees who are beneficiaries of Women friendly Support Services in work organizations. The study's participants consisted of a total of ...

  16. How quickly they forget:The relationship between forgetting and working memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of individual differences in rate of forgetting to variation in working memory performance in children. One hundred and twelve children (mean age 9 years 4 months) completed 2 tasks designed to measure forgetting, as well as measures of working memory, processing efficiency, and short-term storage ability. Individual differences in forgetting rate accounted for unique variance in working memory performance over and above variance explained by measures of p...

  17. Visual Working Memory Capacity Can Be Increased by Training on Distractor Filtering Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cui-Hong; He, Xu; Wang, Yu-Juan; Hu, Zhe; Guo, Chun-Yan

    2017-01-01

    It is generally considered that working memory (WM) capacity is limited and that WM capacity affects cognitive processes. Distractor filtering efficiency has been suggested to be an important factor in determining the visual working memory (VWM) capacity of individuals. In the present study, we investigated whether training in visual filtering efficiency (FE) could improve VWM capacity, as measured by performance on the change detection task (CDT) and changes of contralateral delay activity (CDA) (contralateral delay activity) of different conditions, and evaluated the transfer effect of visual FE training on verbal WM and fluid intelligence, as indexed by performance on the verbal WM span task and Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) test, respectively. Participants were divided into high- and low-capacity groups based on their performance in a CDT designed to test VWM capacity, and then the low-capacity individuals received 20 days of FE training. The training significantly improved the group's performance in the CDT, and their CDA models of different conditions became more similar with high capacity group, and the effect generalized to improve verbal WM span. These gains were maintained at a 3-month follow-up test. Participants' RSPM scores were not changed by the training. These findings support the notion that WM capacity is determined, at least in part, by distractor FE and can be enhanced through training.

  18. Expected Improvements in Work Truck Efficiency Through Connectivity and Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walkowicz, Kevin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-12

    This presentation focuses on the potential impact of connected and automated technologies on commercial vehicle operations. It includes topics such as the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Efficient Mobility Systems (EEMS) program and the Systems and Modeling for Accelerated Research in Transportation (SMART) Mobility Initiative. It also describes National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) research findings pertaining to the potential energy impacts of connectivity and automation and stresses the need for integration and optimization to take advantage of the benefits offered by these transformative technologies while mitigating the potential negative consequences.

  19. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKING MEMORY PERFORMANCE: «OVERLOAD» EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri G. Pavlov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the relationship betweenfrontal midline theta rhythm changes and individual differences in working memory performance.Methods. The methods involve behavioural testing on the basis of the program for a presentation of stimulus and registration of answers «PsyTask»; method of EEG (electroencephalography; a technique of measurement of efficiency of working memory; the comparative analysis. Software packages EEGLab for Matlab and Fieldtrip are applied while data processing.Results. After the behavioral test all subjects were separated into 2 groups according to their performance: with «highly productive» and «low productive» memory. Specially prepared author’s complete set of the tasks which complexity varied from average to ultrahigh level was offered to participants of experiment –students and employees of the Ural Federal University and Ural Legal Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Working memory tasks included sets of verbal stimuli for memorizing in strict order without any mental manipulation and sets of similar stimuli for memorizing in alphabetical order (with manipulations. Measured characteristics of theta-rhythm of EEG during information deduction in memory were compared of two groups’ representatives. The obtained data has shown rather uniform and similar dynamics of decrease in quantity of right answers in process of increasing tasks’ complexity. However, changes of a thetarhythm in different groups had sharply expressed distinctions. «Highly productive» examinees have systematic expansion of a theta-rhythm in the central assignments with stabilisation on the most difficult tasks; «low productive» – while tasks performance of average complexity, a sharp falling of theta-rhythm activity is observed after achievement of its maximum activation.Scientific novelty. The working memory «overload» effect and its EEG correlates are demonstrated on a big sample of

  20. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party: October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries submited to the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) from March to September 2011.

  1. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Project Work in Supersonic Cruise Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA?s Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2011) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  2. Fundamental Aeronautics Program: Overview of Propulsion Work in the Supersonic Cruise Efficiency Technical Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The Supersonics Project, part of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program, contains a number of technical challenge areas which include sonic boom community response, airport noise, high altitude emissions, cruise efficiency, light weight durable engines/airframes, and integrated multi-discipline system design. This presentation provides an overview of the current (2012) activities in the supersonic cruise efficiency technical challenge, and is focused specifically on propulsion technologies. The intent is to develop and validate high-performance supersonic inlet and nozzle technologies. Additional work is planned for design and analysis tools for highly-integrated low-noise, low-boom applications. If successful, the payoffs include improved technologies and tools for optimized propulsion systems, propulsion technologies for a minimized sonic boom signature, and a balanced approach to meeting efficiency and community noise goals. In this propulsion area, the work is divided into advanced supersonic inlet concepts, advanced supersonic nozzle concepts, low fidelity computational tool development, high fidelity computational tools, and improved sensors and measurement capability. The current work in each area is summarized.

  3. Self-reported Work Ability and Work Performance in Workers with Chronic Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, H.J.; Reneman, M.F.; Groothoff, J.W.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.

    Purpose To assess self-reported work ability and work performance of workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP), and to explore which variables were associated with these outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study we assessed work ability (Work Ability Index,

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Lerner, D.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. OBJECTIVES: To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the

  5. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  6. Wavy channel transistor for area efficient high performance operation

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-04-05

    We report a wavy channel FinFET like transistor where the channel is wavy to increase its width without any area penalty and thereby increasing its drive current. Through simulation and experiments, we show the effectiveness of such device architecture is capable of high performance operation compared to conventional FinFETs with comparatively higher area efficiency and lower chip latency as well as lower power consumption.

  7. Relationship between meaningful work and job performance in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ling

    2018-04-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationship between meaningful work and job performance, and the impact of meaningful work on nursing care quality. Meaningful work has been suggested as a significant factor affecting job performance, but the relationship has never been studied in nurses in China. A descriptive correlational study was designed to assess the level of meaningful work, tasks, and contextual performance as well as their relationships. We used a stratified random-sampling approach to enrol nurses from hospitals. Multivariate regression analysis was applied to determine the relationship between meaningful work and their demographic data. There were significant, positive relationships between meaningful work and task performance and contextual performance. Education level, work unit, and employment type influenced meaningful work. The work motivation score of the nurses was lower than that of the other 2 dimensions, and a negative work motivation score negatively influenced job performance. Improving meaningful work and providing more support and assistance could improve nurse performance, thereby improving the quality of nursing care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. High efficiency motors - performance, economy and reliability, by optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselotti, P.; Conchetto, A.; Tavner, P.J.

    2000-07-01

    The challenge of the efficiency initiatives in North America and the European Union is to improve performance without reducing power-weight by adding materials and increasing cost. This has been the subject of other papers, Haataja et al Ref2, where the key area has been identified as reducing loss. This paper suggests that addressing the fundamental problem of heat transfer in the TEFC machine, in addition to reducing loss will make it possible to improve performance and still provide competitive products. (orig.)

  9. How Quickly They Forget: The Relationship between Forgetting and Working Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of individual differences in rate of forgetting to variation in working memory performance in children. One hundred and twelve children (mean age 9 years 4 months) completed 2 tasks designed to measure forgetting, as well as measures of working memory, processing efficiency, and short-term storage ability.…

  10. 重大融资、经营性营运资金管理效率与企业绩效来自中国上市公司的经验证据%Significant Financing,Efficiency of Operational Working Capital Management and Corporate Performance Evidence from China's Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玉珊

    2015-01-01

    将重大融资行为的影响纳入考虑,重新对经营性营运资金管理效率与企业绩效的关系加以探讨,选取沪深两市2004~2012年数据为样本,研究发现:在正常经营状况下,中国上市公司经营性营运资金管理效率与企业绩效之间呈显著正相关关系;而重大融资行为下,二者关系则并不显著。此外,检验结果还显示:重大融资行为本身与企业绩效呈负相关关系;重大融资行为可能会促使经营性营运资金管理效率显著下降。这些可能是导致重大融资行为下经营性营运资金管理效率与企业绩效之间不相关的主要原因。%Based on samples from China's listed companies (2004-2012),this paper investiga-ted the relationship between efficiency of operational working capital management and corporate performance when taking significant financing in account.It could be found that:without signifi-cant financing,there was a certain positive correlation between efficiency of operational working capital management and China's corporate performance;however,the correlation disappeared when significant financing occurred.In addition,the output showed:significant financing was significantly negative to corporate performance and led to the decline of efficiency of operational working capital management.These may be the main cause of the correlation lost.

  11. The impact of a mental work on food preferences, eating behavior traits and satiety efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Miram; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo; Pérusse-Lachance, Émilie

    2016-02-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, which are partly due to the type of labor being performed, have contributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. In general, labor in a modern context solicits mental work, which has been shown to promote overeating and altered satiety efficiency. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of knowledge-based work on food preferences, eating behaviors traits and appetite sensations. The relationship between these effects and the morphological profile was also assessed. A cross-over experimental design was used in this study for which 35 healthy adults (22 men and 13 women (mean age: 24±3years)), were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned the one of the two following conditions: mental work (reading a document and writing a summary of 350 words with the use of a computer) or control (rest in seated position). Each condition lasted 45min, and was followed by a standardized ad libitum buffet-type meal. Measurements included anthropometric variables, ad libitum food intake, appetite sensations before and after each condition, and satiety quotient, a marker of satiety efficiency in response to the meal. Eating behavior traits were also evaluated using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Eating behaviors (restriction, disinhibition) were not associated with the energy intake in both conditions and in both genders. Women appeared to have a higher energy intake after the mental work condition (pwork. These results suggest that increased energy intake in response to knowledge-based work is associated with food preference and an altered satiety efficiency in women and individuals with higher waist circumference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Work-Efficient Parallel Skyline Computation for the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden; Chester, Sean; Assent, Ira

    2015-01-01

    offers the potential for parallelizing skyline computation across thousands of cores. However, attempts to port skyline algorithms to the GPU have prioritized throughput and failed to outperform sequential algorithms. In this paper, we introduce a new skyline algorithm, designed for the GPU, that uses...... a global, static partitioning scheme. With the partitioning, we can permit controlled branching to exploit transitive relationships and avoid most point-to-point comparisons. The result is a non-traditional GPU algorithm, SkyAlign, that prioritizes work-effciency and respectable throughput, rather than...

  13. Investigating the Effects of Different Working Postures on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrates that cognitive performance is affected by working postures. This study demonstrates that standard sitting posture is the best posture. Therefore, it is recommended that sitting posture can help in increasing cognitive performance in the workplace.

  14. Thermoelectric generator performance analysis: Influence of pin tapering on the first and second law efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilbas, B.S.; Ali, H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Double tapering of thermoelectric elements improves first and second law efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing device output work does not maximize thermal efficiency. • Pin geometric feature maximizing first law efficiency slight alters for maximum second law efficiency. • External resistance and operating temperature ratios influence design configuration of thermoelectric generator. - Abstract: Thermoelectric generators are the important candidates for clean energy conversion from the waste heat; however, their low efficiency limits the practical applications of the devices. Tailoring the geometric configuration of the device in line with the operating conditions can improve the device performance. Consequently; in the present study, the influence of the pin geometric configuration on the thermoelectric generator performance is investigated. The dimensionless tapering parameter is introduced and its effect on the first and second law efficiencies is examined for various operating conditions including the external load resistance and the temperature ratio. It is found that the first and second law efficiencies are significantly influenced by the pin geometry. The dimensionless tapering parameter (a), increasing tapering of the thermoelectric pins, within the range of 2 ⩽ a ⩽ 4 results in improved first and second law efficiencies. However, the dimensionless tapering parameter maximizing the first and second law efficiencies does not maximize the device output power. This behavior is associated with the external load resistance which has a considerable influence on the device output power such that increasing external load resistance lowers the device output power

  15. Variables associated with work performance in multidisciplinary mental health teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates work performance among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada). We hypothesized that work performance was positively associated with the use of standardized clinical tools and clinical approaches, integration strategies, "clan culture," and mental health funding per capita. Work performance was measured using an adapted version of the Work Role Questionnaire. Variables were organized into four key areas: (1) team attributes, (2) organizational culture, (3) inter-organizational interactions, and (4) external environment. Work performance was associated with two types of organizational culture (clan and hierarchy) and with two team attributes (use of standardized clinical tools and approaches). This study was innovative in identifying associations between work performance and best practices, justifying their implementation. Recommendations are provided to develop organizational cultures promoting a greater focus on the external environment and integration strategies that strengthen external focus, service effectiveness, and innovation.

  16. Optimization of the working process of the axial compressor according to the criterion of efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturin, O. V.; Popov, G. M.; Goryachkin, E. S.; Novikova, Yu D.

    2017-01-01

    The paper shows search results of the optimal shape of low pressure compressor blades of the industrial gas turbine plant using methods of computational fluid dynamics and multicriteria methods of mathematical optimization. The essence of the methods is that an increase in compressor efficiency should be achieved by increasing the degree of compression up to 2%, and reducing the air flow to 8% relative to basic engine parameters. However, the compressor design elements should be retained as maximally unchanged as possible. During the work, the calculation model of the workflow in the test compressor has been developed and verified in the NUMECA software package, the automated algorithm of the blades shape change has been also developed using a small number of variables, while maintaining its stress-strain state. It allows reducing the number of changeable variables more than twofold. As the result of this study, the option of compressor performance was found, which can increase its efficiency by 1.3% (abs.).

  17. Transaction costs of raising energy efficiency. Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostertag, K. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Centre International de Recherche sur l' Environnement et le Developpement (CIRED), 94 - Nogent sur Marne (France)

    1999-05-01

    In the face of the uncertainties concerning the importance and the actual impacts of anthropogeneous climate change the extent to which measures should be adopted to avoid greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) already today and in the near future is highly controversial. More specifically, part of the debate evolves around the existence and importance of energy saving potentials to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions that may be available at negative net costs, implying that the energy cost savings of one specific technology can actually more than offset the costs of investing into this technology and of using it. This so called 'no-regret' potential would comprise measures that from a pure economic efficiency point of view would be 'worth undertaking whether or not there are climate-related reasons for doing so' (Bruce et al. 1996, p. 271). The existence of the no-regret potential is often denied by arguing, that the economic evaluation of the energy saving potentials did not take into account transaction costs (Grubb et al. 1993). This paper will examine in more detail the concept of transaction costs as it is used in the current debate on no-regret potentials (section 1). Four practical examples are presented to illustrate how transaction costs and their determinants can be identified, measured and possibly influenced (section 2). In order to link the presented cases to modelling based evaluation approaches the implications for cost evaluations of energy saving measures especially in the context of energy system modelling will be shown (section 3). (orig.)

  18. Portuguese state university performance according to students: an efficiency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project is to evaluate the performance of Portuguese state universities in accordance with the expectations and satisfactions of their students and through recourse to the DEA methodology and thus representing one of the very few studies analysing university performance based upon student perceptions. According to an output oriented Variable Returns to Scale model, handling the responses returned by 1,669 students, the results demonstrate that faculties generally attain a good relationship between student expectations and their levels of satisfaction. We furthermore conclude that university scale does not guarantee efficiency. Hence, irrespective of size, universities are able to ensure the satisfaction of their students. Finally, the results show that satisfying only certain expectations related to specific aspects does not prove sufficient to guaranteeing overall student satisfaction. The analysis also correspondingly finds that while some decision making units prove efficient in satisfying expectations on specific aspects, they fail to attain such efficiency in the overall perspective of students.

  19. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  20. Working memory load predicts visual search efficiency: Evidence from a novel pupillary response paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Nada; Schneps, Matthew H; Pomplun, Marc

    2016-10-01

    An observer's pupil dilates and constricts in response to variables such as ambient and focal luminance, cognitive effort, the emotional stimulus content, and working memory load. The pupil's memory load response is of particular interest, as it might be used for estimating observers' memory load while they are performing a complex task, without adding an interruptive and confounding memory test to the protocol. One important task in which working memory's involvement is still being debated is visual search, and indeed a previous experiment by Porter, Troscianko, and Gilchrist (Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 60, 211-229, 2007) analyzed observers' pupil sizes during search to study this issue. These authors found that pupil size increased over the course of the search, and they attributed this finding to accumulating working memory load. However, since the pupil response is slow and does not depend on memory load alone, this conclusion is rather speculative. In the present study, we estimated working memory load in visual search during the presentation of intermittent fixation screens, thought to induce a low, stable level of arousal and cognitive effort. Using standard visual search and control tasks, we showed that this paradigm reduces the influence of non-memory-related factors on pupil size. Furthermore, we found an early increase in working memory load to be associated with more efficient search, indicating a significant role of working memory in the search process.

  1. Sampling Efficiency and Performance of Selected Thoracic Aerosol Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Boivin, Alexis; Bau, Sébastien

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of worker exposure to a thoracic health-related aerosol fraction is necessary in a number of occupational situations. This is the case of workplaces with atmospheres polluted by fibrous particles, such as cotton dust or asbestos, and by particles inducing irritation or bronchoconstriction such as acid mists or flour dust. Three personal and two static thoracic aerosol samplers were tested under laboratory conditions. Sampling efficiency with respect to particle aerodynamic diameter was measured in a horizontal low wind tunnel and in a vertical calm air chamber. Sampling performance was evaluated against conventional thoracic penetration. Three of the tested samplers performed well, when sampling the thoracic aerosol at nominal flow rate and two others performed well at optimized flow rate. The limit of flow rate optimization was found when using cyclone samplers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  2. Relations between mental health team characteristics and work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Farand, Lambert

    2017-01-01

    Effective mental health care requires a high performing, interprofessional team. Among 79 mental health teams in Quebec (Canada), this exploratory study aims to 1) determine the association between work role performance and a wide range of variables related to team effectiveness according to the literature, and to 2) using structural equation modelling, assess the covariance between each of these variables as well as the correlation with other exogenous variables. Work role performance was measured with an adapted version of a work role questionnaire. Various independent variables including team manager characteristics, user characteristics, team profiles, clinical activities, organizational culture, network integration strategies and frequency/satisfaction of interactions with other teams or services were analyzed under the structural equation model. The later provided a good fit with the data. Frequent use of standardized procedures and evaluation tools (e.g. screening and assessment tools for mental health disorders) and team manager seniority exerted the most direct effect on work role performance. While network integration strategies had little effect on work role performance, there was a high covariance between this variable and those directly affecting work role performance among mental health teams. The results suggest that the mental healthcare system should apply standardized procedures and evaluation tools and, to a lesser extent, clinical approaches to improve work role performance in mental health teams. Overall, a more systematic implementation of network integration strategies may contribute to improved work role performance in mental health care.

  3. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  4. Measure Guideline: Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, J.; Haglund, K.

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all US climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The document also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well. This document is for builders, homeowners, designers and anyone making decisions about selecting energy efficient window. It is intended to complement other Building America information and efforts.

  5. FASTSim: A Model to Estimate Vehicle Efficiency, Cost and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooker, A.; Gonder, J.; Wang, L.; Wood, E.; Lopp, S.; Ramroth, L.

    2015-05-04

    The Future Automotive Systems Technology Simulator (FASTSim) is a high-level advanced vehicle powertrain systems analysis tool supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Office. FASTSim provides a quick and simple approach to compare powertrains and estimate the impact of technology improvements on light- and heavy-duty vehicle efficiency, performance, cost, and battery batches of real-world drive cycles. FASTSim’s calculation framework and balance among detail, accuracy, and speed enable it to simulate thousands of driven miles in minutes. The key components and vehicle outputs have been validated by comparing the model outputs to test data for many different vehicles to provide confidence in the results. A graphical user interface makes FASTSim easy and efficient to use. FASTSim is freely available for download from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s website (see www.nrel.gov/fastsim).

  6. Human reliability and plant operating efficiency: Are 12-hour work schedules cause for concern?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    Since the introduction of 12-h shifts to the US nuclear power industry only 8 yr ago, compressed workweek schedules have proliferated among operations departments at a phenomenal rate. Many plants that continue to use 8-h shifts during normal operations routinely change to scheduled 12-h shifts during refueling or maintenance outages. The most critical issue in the use of extended work shifts is whether alertness, physical stamina, or mental performance are compromised to the point of reducing safety or efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. Laboratory and field research sponsored by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health suggests that alertness, measured by self-ratings, and mental performance, measured by computer-based performance tests, are impaired on 12-h shifts compared with 8-h shifts. In contrast to these findings, plant operating efficiency and operator performance have been rated as improved in two field studies conducted in operating nuclear power plants (Fast Flux Test Facility, Washington and Ontario Hydro, Canada). A recent Electric Power Research Institute review of nuclear industry experience with 12-h shifts also suggests an overwhelmingly positive rating of 12-h schedules from both control room operators and management

  7. The effects of working memory training on functional brain network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Nicolas; von Bastian, Claudia C; Wirz, Helen; Oberauer, Klaus; Jäncke, Lutz

    2013-10-01

    The human brain is a highly interconnected network. Recent studies have shown that the functional and anatomical features of this network are organized in an efficient small-world manner that confers high efficiency of information processing at relatively low connection cost. However, it has been unclear how the architecture of functional brain networks is related to performance in working memory (WM) tasks and if these networks can be modified by WM training. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind training study enrolling 66 young adults. Half of the subjects practiced three WM tasks and were compared to an active control group practicing three tasks with low WM demand. High-density resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded before and after training to analyze graph-theoretical functional network characteristics at an intracortical level. WM performance was uniquely correlated with power in the theta frequency, and theta power was increased by WM training. Moreover, the better a person's WM performance, the more their network exhibited small-world topology. WM training shifted network characteristics in the direction of high performers, showing increased small-worldness within a distributed fronto-parietal network. Taken together, this is the first longitudinal study that provides evidence for the plasticity of the functional brain network underlying WM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adolescent Work Intensity, School Performance, and Academic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E.; Bachman, Jerald G.

    2010-01-01

    Teenagers working more than 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and…

  9. Influences of working conditions on the performance of sign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings showed that poor working conditions such as delay in promotion and salary payment and unattractive office accommodation have significant adverse influence on working performance of both teachers and interpreters. Teachers significantly felt the disturbing influence of poor working conditions on their job ...

  10. Examining Relationships among Work Ethic, Academic Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriac, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…

  11. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  12. Efficiency of Pay for Performance Programs in Romanian Companies and the Mediating Role of Organizational Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriesi Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research examined the influences of pay for performance programs on employee performance in the Romanian context, by comparing a sample of employees in companies in which such programs are implemented to a sample of employees in organizations in which performance is not used as a criterion in deciding financial rewards. Results show that the work performances of the former, as evaluated by the direct supervisors of each employee, are significantly higher than those of the latter, and that this effect of performance pay is partly mediated by its positive effects on employee perceptions of distributive and procedural justice. Furthermore, results indicate that the individual – level financial incentive systems are more efficient in fostering work performance than the team – level performance pay programs in the Romanian employee sample, and that they also have stronger effects on the two dimensions of organizational justice.

  13. WORK CULTURE, WORK MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rahayu Wilujeng*, Sri Wahyu Lelly Hana Setyanti , Handriyono

    2018-01-01

    Human resources are an organization asset that becomes an important factor in the progress of an organization. The quality of human resources itself can be seen from the performance of the employees. The purpose of this research is to examine the influence of work culture and work motivation on organizational performance with organizational commitment as mediating. This research is a review from the theory and several researches that have been done on the work culture, work motivation, organi...

  14. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with succe...

  15. Reduced prefrontal efficiency for visuospatial working memory in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Krone, Beth; Fan, Jin; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Schulz, Kurt P

    2014-09-01

    Visuospatial working memory impairments have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, most ADHD research has focused on the neural correlates of nonspatial mnemonic processes. This study examined brain activation and functional connectivity for visuospatial working memory in youth with and without ADHD. Twenty-four youth with ADHD and 21 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an N-back test of working memory for spatial position. Block-design analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity separately for high (2-back) and low (1-back) working memory load conditions versus the control condition (0-back). The effect of working memory load was modeled with linear contrasts. The 2 groups performed comparably on the task and demonstrated similar patterns of frontoparietal activation, with no differences in linear gains in activation as working memory load increased. However, youth with ADHD showed greater activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), greater functional connectivity between the left DLPFC and left intraparietal sulcus, and reduced left DLPFC connectivity with left midcingulate cortex and PCC for the high load contrast compared to controls (p 100 voxels). Reanalysis using a more conservative statistical approach (p 100 voxels) yielded group differences in PCC activation and DLPFC-midcingulate connectivity. Youth with ADHD show decreased efficiency of DLPFC for high-load visuospatial working memory and greater reliance on posterior spatial attention circuits to store and update spatial position than healthy control youth. Findings should be replicated in larger samples. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficiency at rest: magnetoencephalographic resting-state connectivity and individual differences in verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, David; Cuesta, Pablo; Bajo, Ricardo; García-Pacios, Javier; López-Higes, Ramón; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Inter-individual differences in cognitive performance are based on an efficient use of task-related brain resources. However, little is known yet on how these differences might be reflected on resting-state brain networks. Here we used Magnetoencephalography resting-state recordings to assess the relationship between a behavioral measurement of verbal working memory and functional connectivity as measured through Mutual Information. We studied theta (4-8 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10-13 Hz), low beta (13-18 Hz) and high beta (18-30 Hz) frequency bands. A higher verbal working memory capacity was associated with a lower mutual information in the low alpha band, prominently among right-anterior and left-lateral sensors. The results suggest that an efficient brain organization in the domain of verbal working memory might be related to a lower resting-state functional connectivity across large-scale brain networks possibly involving right prefrontal and left perisylvian areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance and efficiency of a hydraulic hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbaschian, Mohammad Ali [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic hybrid powertrains are considered to be a promising technology to save energy and reduce emission in specific automotive fields because of their high power density, components lifetime, and long lasting experience in industries compared to electric hybrid powertrains. Within the first part of the paper, a very brief literature survey on hydraulic hybrid vehicle systems (HHVS) and the related dynamical behaviour is given. No specific activities to improve the efficiency of these systems were detected. Related literature with respect to optimization mainly deals with the management of the system's energy flows trying to control the engine operation point and the high pressure in the system. In the second part, a small simulation study is presented. Therefore, hybrid systems are generally assumed as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) system. The effect of key variables (i.e. accumulator size and pressure, pump/motor displacement and efficiency, valve dynamics) on the system is discussed. The results show that the volume displacement of pump and motor, the performance of the engine, and the state of charge of the accumulator are the most important parameters to specify the efficiency and performance of the hydraulic hybrid powertrain. Additionally, a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with an adjustable state of charge accumulator is compared with one whose state of charge is constant. The result shows the improvement of braking performance and fuel savings. The goal is to optimize the parameters of the system based on the simultaneous consideration of the three (or more) variables for a given load profile with respect to given objectives. (orig.)

  18. Measure Guideline. Energy-Efficient Window Performance and Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, John [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR; Haglund, Kerry [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR

    2012-11-01

    This document provides guidelines for the selection of energy-efficient windows in new and existing residential construction in all U.S. climate zones. It includes information on window products, their attributes and performance. It provides cost/benefit information on window energy savings as well as information on non-energy benefits such as thermal comfort and reduced HVAC demands. The report also provides information on energy impacts of design decisions such as window orientation, total glazing area and shading devices and conditions. Information on resources for proper window installation is included as well.

  19. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - October 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) held in March 2011. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries.

  20. Bioadsorber efficiency, design, and performance forecasting for alachlor removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badriyha, Badri N; Ravindran, Varadarajan; Den, Walter; Pirbazari, Massoud

    2003-10-01

    This study discusses a mathematical modeling and design protocol for bioactive granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorbers employed for purification of drinking water contaminated by chlorinated pesticides, exemplified by alachlor. A thin biofilm model is discussed that incorporates the following phenomenological aspects: film transfer from the bulk fluid to the adsorbent particles, diffusion through the biofilm immobilized on adsorbent surface, adsorption of the contaminant into the adsorbent particle. The modeling approach involved independent laboratory-scale experiments to determine the model input parameters. These experiments included adsorption isotherm studies, adsorption rate studies, and biokinetic studies. Bioactive expanded-bed adsorber experiments were conducted to obtain realistic experimental data for determining the ability of the model for predicting adsorber dynamics under different operating conditions. The model equations were solved using a computationally efficient hybrid numerical technique combining orthogonal collocation and finite difference methods. The model provided accurate predictions of adsorber dynamics for bioactive and non-bioactive scenarios. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated the significance of various model parameters, and focussed on enhancement in certain key parameters to improve the overall process efficiency. Scale-up simulation studies for bioactive and non-bioactive adsorbers provided comparisons between their performances, and illustrated the advantages of bioregeneration for enhancing their effective service life spans. Isolation of microbial species revealed that fungal strains were more efficient than bacterial strains in metabolizing alachlor. Microbial degradation pathways for alachlor were proposed and confirmed by the detection of biotransformation metabolites and byproducts using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  1. Recovery Processes During and After Work: Associations With Health, Work Engagement, and Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bloom, Jessica; Kinnunen, Ulla; Korpela, Kalevi

    2015-07-01

    We examined energy management during work, recovery experiences after work and their connections to health, work engagement, and job performance. An online survey was completed by 1208 Finnish employees. Energy management was assessed through 13 strategies and recovery experiences through four experiences. As outcomes of recovery, we examined self-reported health, work engagement, and job performance. On average, employees applied three energy management strategies. The most beneficial strategies were work-related: shifting focus, goal setting, and helping coworkers. Both energy management and recovery experiences contributed to the outcomes. Employees benefit in terms of energy from shifting their focus to positive aspects of their jobs and demonstrating proactive social behavior at work. Recovery processes during and after work are closely connected to each other, to well-being and performance at work.

  2. ADOLESCENT WORK INTENSITY, SCHOOL PERFORMANCE, AND ACADEMIC ENGAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E; Bachman, Jerald G

    2010-07-01

    Teenagers working over 20 hours per week perform worse in school than youth who work less. There are two competing explanations for this association: (1) that paid work takes time and effort away from activities that promote achievement, such as completing homework, preparing for examinations, getting help from parents and teachers, and participating in extracurricular activities; and (2) that the relationship between paid work and school performance is spurious, reflecting preexisting differences between students in academic ability, motivation, and school commitment. Using longitudinal data from the ongoing national Monitoring the Future project, this research examines the impact of teenage employment on school performance and academic engagement during the 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. We address issues of spuriousness by using a two-level hierarchical model to estimate the relationships of within-individual changes in paid work to changes in school performance and other school-related measures. Unlike prior research, we also compare youth school performance and academic orientation when they are actually working in high-intensity jobs to when they are jobless and wish to work intensively. Results indicate that the mere wish for intensive work corresponds with academic difficulties in a manner similar to actual intensive work.

  3. Power efficient and high performance VLSI architecture for AES algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalaiselvi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced encryption standard (AES algorithm has been widely deployed in cryptographic applications. This work proposes a low power and high throughput implementation of AES algorithm using key expansion approach. We minimize the power consumption and critical path delay using the proposed high performance architecture. It supports both encryption and decryption using 256-bit keys with a throughput of 0.06 Gbps. The VHDL language is utilized for simulating the design and an FPGA chip has been used for the hardware implementations. Experimental results reveal that the proposed AES architectures offer superior performance than the existing VLSI architectures in terms of power, throughput and critical path delay.

  4. Objective Work-Nonwork Conflict: From Incompatible Demands to Decreased Work Role Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…

  5. Ego Depletion Does Not Interfere With Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S

    2018-01-01

    Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.

  6. Contralateral Delay Activity Tracks Fluctuations in Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kirsten C S; Robison, Matthew K; Vogel, Edward K

    2018-01-08

    Neural measures of working memory storage, such as the contralateral delay activity (CDA), are powerful tools in working memory research. CDA amplitude is sensitive to working memory load, reaches an asymptote at known behavioral limits, and predicts individual differences in capacity. An open question, however, is whether neural measures of load also track trial-by-trial fluctuations in performance. Here, we used a whole-report working memory task to test the relationship between CDA amplitude and working memory performance. If working memory failures are due to decision-based errors and retrieval failures, CDA amplitude would not differentiate good and poor performance trials when load is held constant. If failures arise during storage, then CDA amplitude should track both working memory load and trial-by-trial performance. As expected, CDA amplitude tracked load (Experiment 1), reaching an asymptote at three items. In Experiment 2, we tracked fluctuations in trial-by-trial performance. CDA amplitude was larger (more negative) for high-performance trials compared with low-performance trials, suggesting that fluctuations in performance were related to the successful storage of items. During working memory failures, participants oriented their attention to the correct side of the screen (lateralized P1) and maintained covert attention to the correct side during the delay period (lateralized alpha power suppression). Despite the preservation of attentional orienting, we found impairments consistent with an executive attention theory of individual differences in working memory capacity; fluctuations in executive control (indexed by pretrial frontal theta power) may be to blame for storage failures.

  7. Bike Desks in the Office: Physical Health, Cognitive Function, Work Engagement, and Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; De Pauw, Kevin; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effect of implementing bike desks in an office setting on physical health, cognition, and work parameters. Physical health, cognitive function, work engagement, and work performance measured before (T0) and after (T2) the intervention period were compared between office workers who used the bike desk (IG, n = 22) and those who did not (CG, n = 16). The IG cycled approximately 98 minutes/week. The IG showed a significantly lower fat percentage and a trend toward a higher work engagement at T2 relative to T0, while this was not different for the CG. No effects on other parameters of health, cognition, or work performance were found. Providing bike desks in the office positively influences employees' fat percentage and could positively influence work engagement without compromising work performance.

  8. Introduction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Henry

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we presented the planned direction of the UNIX International Performance Management Work Group. This group consists of concerned system developers and users who have organized to synthesize recommendations for standard UNIX performance management subsystem interfaces and architectures. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide a core set of performance management functions and these functions can be used to build tools by hardware system developers, vertical application software developers, and performance application software developers.

  9. Fatigue, Work Schedules, and Perceived Performance in Bedside Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagherian, Knar; Clinton, Michael E; Abu-Saad Huijer, Huda; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne

    2017-07-01

    Hospital nurses are expected to maintain optimal work performance; yet, fatigue can threaten safe practice and result in unfavorable patient outcomes. This descriptive cross-sectional study explored the association between fatigue, work schedules, and perceived work performance among nurses. The study sample included 77 bedside nurses who were mostly female, single, and between 20 and 29 years of age. The majority worked 8-hour shifts and overtime. Nurses who worked during off days reported significantly higher chronic fatigue compared with those nurses who took time off. Nurses who reported feeling refreshed after sleep had significantly less chronic and acute fatigue and more intershift recovery. Nurses with acute and chronic fatigue perceived poorer physical performance. Also, nurses who reported chronic fatigue perceived they were less alert and less able to concentrate when providing patient care. Less effective communication was also associated with acute and chronic fatigue. In conclusion, fatigue has safety implications for nurses' practice that should be monitored by nursing management.

  10. Work-family role conflict and job performance among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family role conflict generates some kind of stress and instability that further ... However, this relationship between work-family role conflict and low job performance is considered higher among women with more children and less spousal/family ...

  11. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL: A STUDY OF HEATHCARE SECTOR IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh, Vineet, KAUR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of working capital means management of various components of working capital in such a way that an adequate amount of working capital is maintained for smooth running of a firm and for fulfilment of twin objectives of liquidity and profitability. Also it is the most crucial factor for survival and solvency of a concern. The present paper attempts to measure the efficiency of working capital of firms in Healthcare Sector in India. The study reveals that most of the firms of this sector have efficiently managed their current assets for the purpose of generation of sales. Further more efficient management of working capital has a positive effect on Income to Average total assets.

  12. Children's auditory working memory performance in degraded listening conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (a) whether school-age children with typical hearing demonstrate poorer auditory working memory performance in multitalker babble at degraded signal-to-noise ratios than in quiet; and (b) whether the amount of cognitive demand of the task contributed to differences in performance in noise. It was hypothesized that stressing the working memory system with the presence of noise would impede working memory processes in real time and result in poorer working memory performance in degraded conditions. Twenty children with typical hearing between 8 and 10 years old were tested using 4 auditory working memory tasks (Forward Digit Recall, Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall Primary, and Listening Recall Secondary). Stimuli were from the standardized Working Memory Test Battery for Children. Each task was administered in quiet and in 4-talker babble noise at 0 dB and -5 dB signal-to-noise ratios. Children's auditory working memory performance was systematically decreased in the presence of multitalker babble noise compared with quiet. Differences between low-complexity and high-complexity tasks were observed, with children performing more poorly on tasks with greater storage and processing demands. There was no interaction between noise and complexity of task. All tasks were negatively impacted similarly by the addition of noise. Auditory working memory performance was negatively impacted by the presence of multitalker babble noise. Regardless of complexity of task, noise had a similar effect on performance. These findings suggest that the addition of noise inhibits auditory working memory processes in real time for school-age children.

  13. Inner work life: understanding the subtext of business performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M; Kramer, Steven J

    2007-05-01

    Anyone in management knows that employees have their good days and their bad days--and that, for the most part, the reasons for their ups and downs are unknown. Most managers simply shrug their shoulders at this fact of work life. But does it matter, in terms of performance, if people have more good days than bad days? Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer's new stream of research, based on more than 12,000 diary entries logged by knowledge workers over three years, reveals the dramatic impact of employees' inner work lives--their perceptions, emotions, and motivation levels--on several dimensions of performance. People perform better when their workday experiences include more positive emotions, stronger intrinsic motivation (passion for the work), and more favorable perceptions of their work, their team, their leaders, and their organization. What the authors also found was that managers' behavior dramatically affects the tenor of employees' inner work lives. So what makes a difference to inner work life? When the authors compared the study participants' best days to their worst days, they found that the single most important differentiator was their sense of being able to make progress in their work. The authors also observed interpersonal events working in tandem with progress events. Praise without real work progress, or at least solid efforts toward progress, had little positive impact on people's inner work lives and could even arouse cynicism. On the other hand, good work progress without any recognition--or, worse, with criticism about trivial issues--could engender anger and sadness. Far and away, the best boosts to inner work life were episodes in which people knew they had done good work and their managers appropriately recognized that work.

  14. Impaired work performance among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Mirza, Fadi G; Mirza, Fadi; Chang, Hong; Renzulli, Karen; Perch, Katherine; Chelmow, David

    2008-10-01

    To assess the work impact of symptomatic uterine fibroids (UFs). A cohort study compared 58 employed women with symptomatic UFs to 56 healthy controls. Data sources included a self-administered mail questionnaire and medical charts. At-work performance limitations and productivity loss were measured with the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate case-control group differences were tested. Based on adjusted mean scores, the UF group had significantly more at-work limitations and productivity loss than controls, while absence rates were similar. The UF group's performance was impaired 18% of the time on average versus 8% for controls (P-values, 0.005-0.040). At-work limitations were explained by depression symptoms, Non-White race/ethnicity, and poorer health-related quality of life. Fibroids and related symptoms impose a burden on the working lives' of women, their employers, and the economy.

  15. The distribution of work performed on a NIS junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Jaime Eduardo Vieira da Silva Moutinho; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup to measure the work performed in a normal-metal/insulator/superconducting (NIS) junction, subjected to a voltage change and in contact with a thermal bath. We compute the performed work and argue that the associated heat release can be measured experimentally. Our...... results are based on an equivalence between the dynamics of the NIS junction and that of an assembly of two-level systems subjected to a circularly polarised field, for which we can determine the work-characteristic function exactly. The average work dissipated by the NIS junction, as well as its...... fluctuations, are determined. From the work characteristic function, we also compute the work probability-distribution and show that it does not have a Gaussian character. Our results allow for a direct experimental test of the Crooks–Tasaki fluctuation relation....

  16. The distribution of work performed on a NIS junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jaime E; Ribeiro, Pedro; Kirchner, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup to measure the work performed in a normal-metal/insulator/superconducting (NIS) junction, subjected to a voltage change and in contact with a thermal bath. We compute the performed work and argue that the associated heat release can be measured experimentally. Our results are based on an equivalence between the dynamics of the NIS junction and that of an assembly of two-level systems subjected to a circularly polarised field, for which we can determine the work-characteristic function exactly. The average work dissipated by the NIS junction, as well as its fluctuations, are determined. From the work characteristic function, we also compute the work probability-distribution and show that it does not have a Gaussian character. Our results allow for a direct experimental test of the Crooks–Tasaki fluctuation relation. (paper)

  17. Goal orientation and work role performance: predicting adaptive and proactive work role performance through self-leadership strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Quinteiro, Pedro; Curral, Luís Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between goal orientation, self-leadership dimensions, and adaptive and proactive work role performances. The authors hypothesize that learning orientation, in contrast to performance orientation, positively predicts proactive and adaptive work role performances and that this relationship is mediated by self-leadership behavior-focused strategies. It is posited that self-leadership natural reward strategies and thought pattern strategies are expected to moderate this relationship. Workers (N = 108) from a software company participated in this study. As expected, learning orientation did predict adaptive and proactive work role performance. Moreover, in the relationship between learning orientation and proactive work role performance through self-leadership behavior-focused strategies, a moderated mediation effect was found for self-leadership natural reward and thought pattern strategies. In the end, the authors discuss the results and implications are discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  18. Work engagement, performance and active learning : the role of conscientiousness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Ten Brummelhuis, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the

  19. Work Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…

  20. Thermal performance and efficiency of supercritical nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romney Duffey; Tracy Zhou; Hussam Khartabil

    2009-01-01

    The paper reviews the major advances and innovative aspects of the thermal performance of recent concepts for super-critical water-cooled nuclear reactors (SCWR). The concepts are based on the extensive experience in the thermal power industry with super and ultra-supercritical boilers and turbines. The challenges and goals of increased efficiency, reduced cost, enhanced safety and co-generation have been pursued over the last ten years, and have resulted both in viable concepts and a vibrant defined R and D effort. The supercritical concept has wide acceptance among industry, as it reflects standard engineering practices and current thermal plant technology that is being already deployed. The SCWR concept represents a continuous development of water-cooled reactor technology, which utilizes the best and latest advances made in the thermal power industry. (author)

  1. Hybrid Building Performance Simulation Models for Industrial Energy Efficiency Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Smolek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenge of achieving environmental sustainability, industrial production plants, as large contributors to the overall energy demand of a country, are prime candidates for applying energy efficiency measures. A modelling approach using cubes is used to decompose a production facility into manageable modules. All aspects of the facility are considered, classified into the building, energy system, production and logistics. This approach leads to specific challenges for building performance simulations since all parts of the facility are highly interconnected. To meet this challenge, models for the building, thermal zones, energy converters and energy grids are presented and the interfaces to the production and logistics equipment are illustrated. The advantages and limitations of the chosen approach are discussed. In an example implementation, the feasibility of the approach and models is shown. Different scenarios are simulated to highlight the models and the results are compared.

  2. The role of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = -0.89 to 0.98 and P gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = -0.65 to 0.81 and P genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently.

  3. The energy performance contract - key towards energy efficiency in Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murafa Corina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the Energy Performance Contract (EPC as a business model for energy efficiency. More precisely, it examines, using two case studies, enablers and disablers – from an economic, legal and institutional/managerial perspective – for advancing this arrangement across the EU. The EU has set a 20% energy savings target by 2020 (roughly equivalent to turning off 400 power stations, with an even more ambitious target of 27% by 2030. To reach these ambitious targets, the investments needed are approximately EUR 100 bn/year across the EU (according to the European Commission. Energy efficiency is not, as fervent proponents often claim, the low hanging fruit in terms of investment efforts. Like any other sub-sector, such as transmission and distribution, it demands innovative financing instruments to ensure adequate scale-up. In the paper, I use two comparative case studies to identify and classify the disablers and enablers of Energy Performance Contracting/Energy Services Companies (ESCOs development: the European frontrunner, namely Germany, and a laggard, namely Romania. As research methodology, I use literature review, comparisons between similar government policy planning and evaluation documents, and stakeholder interviews. While academic literature on the topic (Seefeldt, 2003; Wilhelm, 2015 is developed for Germany, for Romania a critical reflection on EPC promotion policy is to be found only in industry documents (e.g.: ARPEE, 2013; Tractebel, 2015. The German success demonstrates that, contrary to the belief of Romanian stakeholders, it is not the lack of a standardized contract model that prevents EPC development, but lack of genuine commitment, drive and leadership of public officials in promoting this financing instrument. A solid communication between public authorities and private beneficiaries, and public administration capacity for impact assessment and evidence-based policy planning are two other significant

  4. WHICH MOTOR ABILITIES HAVE THE HIGHEST IMPACT ON WORKING PERFORMANCE OF SLOVENIAN SOLDIERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Pori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to find a correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency of soldiers in a battle unit of Slovenia Armed Forces (SAF. The subject consisted of 115 soldiers (age = 27,1 ± 3,7 years who were serving in the first brigade of the SAF. Motor abilities were measured with 11 motor tests, assessing the level of flexibility, speed, strength and coordination. To evaluate working efficiency of soldiers a special questionnaire was used, which consisted of 19 statements. Superior officer was asked to fill a questionnaire for each inferior soldier with values from 1 to 5. The correlation between motor abilities and working efficiency was assessed with the Pearson’s correlation coefficient. We have found 5 statistically significant correlations. Motor tests correlating most with working performance were tests of arm strength.

  5. Performance analysis a of solar driven organic Rankine cycle using multi-component working fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldasso, E.; Andreasen, J. G.; Modi, A.

    2015-01-01

    suitable control strategy and both the overall annual production and the average solar to electrical efficiency are estimated with an annual simulation. The results suggest that the introduction of binary working fluids enables to increase the solar system performance both in design and part-load operation....... cycle. The purpose of this paper is to optimize a low temperature organic Rankine cycle tailored for solar applications. The objective of the optimization is the maximization of the solar to electrical efficiency and the optimization parameters are the working fluid and the turbine inlet temperature...... and pressure. Both pure fluids and binary mixtures are considered as possible working fluids and thus one of the primary aims of the study is to evaluate whether the use of multi-component working fluids might lead to increased solar to electrical efficiencies. The considered configuration includes a solar...

  6. Socioeconomic disparities in work performance following mild stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Joseph K; Wolf, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among the factors that influence return to work for young individuals with mild stroke from different socioeconomic backgrounds. Prospective cohort study of working adults with mild stroke (N = 21). Participants completed an assessment battery of cognitive, work environment and work performance measures at approximately 3 weeks and 7 months post mild stroke. Individuals were placed in "skilled" and "unskilled" worker categories based on the Hollingshead Index. Unskilled workers had significantly poorer scores on the majority of the cognitive assessments. Unskilled workers also perceived less social support (p = 0.017) and autonomy (p = 0.049) in work responsibilities than individuals in the skilled worker group and also reported significantly poorer work productivity due to stroke than those in the skilled group (p = 0.015). Individuals from low socioeconomic backgrounds have more difficulty returning to work following mild stroke than individuals from higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Future work is needed to identify factors that can increase long-term work success and quality of work performance following a mild stroke that specifically targets the needs of individuals who have a lower socioeconomic status.

  7. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children—Impact of age and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mürner-Lavanchy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7–12 years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  9. Question structure impacts efficiency and performance in an interactive guessing game: implications for strategy engagement and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Julia; Liu, Kristy; Chen, Eric Y H

    2012-12-30

    In an interactive guessing game, controls had higher performance and efficiency than patients with schizophrenia in correct trials. Patients' difficulties generating efficient questions suggest an increased taxation of working memory and an inability to engage an appropriate strategy, leading to impulsive behavior and reduced success. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Working group 4B - human intrusion: Design/performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    There is no summary of the progress made by working group 4B (Human Intrusion: Design/performance Requirements) during the Electric Power Research Institute's EPRI Workshop on the technical basis of EPA HLW Disposal Criteria, March 1993. This group was to discuss the waste disposal standard, 40 CFR Part 191, in terms of the design and performance requirements of human intrusion. Instead, because there were so few members, they combined with working group 4A and studied the three-tier approach to evaluating postclosure performance

  11. Assessment of Work Performance (AWP)--development of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Jan L; Törnquist, Kristina B; Henriksson, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Adequate work assessments are a matter of importance both for individuals and society [5,29,31,38,40,46,52]. However, there is a lack of adequate and reliable instruments for use in work rehabilitation [14,15,20,21,31,44]. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an observation instrument for assessing work performance, the AWP (Assessment of Work Performance). The purpose of the 14-item instrument is to assess the individual's observable working skills in three different areas: motor skills, process skills, and communication and interaction skills. This article describes the development and results of preliminary testing of the AWP. The testing indicates a satisfactory face validity and utility for the AWP and supports further research and testing of the instrument.

  12. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  13. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  14. Childhood Obesity and Academic Performance: The Role of Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10-13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 "obese," 23 "overweight," and 92 "normal weight") filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink.

  15. Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Femke; Paas, Fred; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Kirschner, F., Paas, F., & Kirschner, P. A. (2011). Task complexity as a driver for collaborative learning efficiency: The collective working-memory effect. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25, 615–624. doi: 10.1002/acp.1730.

  16. Job Satisfaction and Job Performance at the Work Place

    OpenAIRE

    Vanden Berghe, Jae Hyung

    2011-01-01

    The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction and job performance at the work place. The aim is to define the determinants for job satisfaction and to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance and the influence of job satisfaction on job performance. First we look into the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behaviour to account for the relationship between attitudes and behaviour. Job satisfaction is then explained as a function of job feature...

  17. Association between exposure to work stressors and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Marko; Akila, Ritva; Kalakoski, Virpi; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Härmä, Mikko; Puttonen, Sampsa

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between work stress and cognitive performance. Cognitive performance of a total of 99 women (mean age = 47.3 years) working in hospital wards at either the top or bottom quartiles of job strain was assessed using validated tests that measured learning, short-term memory, and speed of memory retrieval. The high job strain group (n = 43) had lower performance than the low job strain group (n = 56) in learning (P = 0.025), short-term memory (P = 0.027), and speed of memory retrieval (P = 0.003). After controlling for education level, only the difference in speed of memory retrieval remained statistically significant (P = 0.010). The association found between job strain and speed of memory retrieval might be one important factor explaining the effect of stress on work performance.

  18. Efficient high-performance ultrasound beamforming using oversampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Steven R.; Quick, Marshall K.; Morin, Marc A.; Anderson, R. C.; Desilets, Charles S.; Linnenbrink, Thomas E.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    1998-05-01

    High-performance and efficient beamforming circuitry is very important in large channel count clinical ultrasound systems. Current state-of-the-art digital systems using multi-bit analog to digital converters (A/Ds) have matured to provide exquisite image quality with moderate levels of integration. A simplified oversampling beamforming architecture has been proposed that may a low integration of delta-sigma A/Ds onto the same chip as digital delay and processing circuitry to form a monolithic ultrasound beamformer. Such a beamformer may enable low-power handheld scanners for high-end systems with very large channel count arrays. This paper presents an oversampling beamformer architecture that generates high-quality images using very simple; digitization, delay, and summing circuits. Additional performance may be obtained with this oversampled system for narrow bandwidth excitations by mixing the RF signal down in frequency to a range where the electronic signal to nose ratio of the delta-sigma A/D is optimized. An oversampled transmit beamformer uses the same delay circuits as receive and eliminates the need for separate transmit function generators.

  19. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  20. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming A. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24 compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7 had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9. However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16 significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.

  1. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Ming A; Stanford, Arielle D; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C; Lisanby, Sarah H; Schroeder, Charles E; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case-control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7) had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9). However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16) significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.

  2. Teams make it work: how team work engagement mediates between social resources and performance in teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrente, Pedro; Salanova, Marisa; Llorens, Susana; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2012-02-01

    In this study we analyze the mediating role of team work engagement between team social resources (i.e., supportive team climate, coordination, teamwork), and team performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role performance) as predicted by the Job Demands-Resources Model. Aggregated data of 533 employees nested within 62 teams and 13 organizations were used, whereas team performance was assessed by supervisor ratings. Structural equation modeling revealed that, as expected, team work engagement plays a mediating role between social resources perceived at the team level and team performance as assessed by the supervisor.

  3. EFFECT OF SCHOOL CLIMATE, WORK STRESS AND WORK MOTIVATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF TEACHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlani Lina Sinaulan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance is a form of behavior of a person or organization with achievement orientation. The study results are known (a the school climate affect performance of teachers, b there is influence of work stress on teacher performance, (c work motivation effect on teacher performance, d school climate influence on job motivation of teachers, and (e work stress effect on work motivation of teachers. Suggestions studies (a improving teacher performance should the top priority schools in school management efforts. This condition given that performance of teachers are the main pillars that determine the success of the school in improving quality of students. Therefore, performance of the teacher must always be good and necessary to update the knowledge of teachers on the latest information in education as benchmarks increase teacher performance, (b job motivation of teachers needs to improved, among others, with reward and punishment impartial towards the success achieved by the teacher as well as the violations committed so that it becomes part of an effort to motivate teachers to work.

  4. Influence of Manual Labor at Work on Muscular Fitness and Its Relationship With Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eric D; Thompson, Brennan J; Sobolewski, Eric J

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the influence of workplace manual labor on measures of muscular fitness, with a secondary aim to investigate the relationship between muscular fitness and work performance in blue-collar (BC) workers. Leg extension isokinetic strength at slow and fast velocities, hamstring and hip-flexor flexibility, and low back muscular endurance were examined in young and older BC workers and white-collar (WC) controls, while work performance was examined in the BC cohort. There were no differences in muscular fitness variables between BC and WC groups; however, the older men had lower low back muscular endurance (-43.0%) and strength at slow (-9.4%) and fast (-12.7%) velocities. Work performance was associated with strength at fast velocities (r = 0.633) in the older BC workers. Leg strength may influence work performance, with higher velocities becoming more important in older workers.

  5. Predicting work Performance through selection interview ratings and Psychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziwe Nzama

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether selection interviews used in conjunction with psychological assessments of personality traits and cognitive functioning contribute to predicting work performance. The sample consisted of 102 managers who were appointed recently in a retail organisation. The independent variables were selection interview ratings obtained on the basis of structured competency-based interview schedules by interviewing panels, fve broad dimensions of personality defned by the Five Factor Model as measured by the 15 Factor Questionnaire (15FQ+, and cognitive processing variables (current level of work, potential level of work, and 12 processing competencies measured by the Cognitive Process Profle (CPP. Work performance was measured through annual performance ratings that focused on measurable outputs of performance objectives. Only two predictor variables correlated statistically signifcantly with the criterion variable, namely interview ratings (r = 0.31 and CPP Verbal Abstraction (r = 0.34. Following multiple regression, only these variables contributed signifcantly to predicting work performance, but only 17.8% of the variance of the criterion was accounted for.

  6. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  7. The effects of fatigue on performance in simulated nursing work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Linsey M; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2011-09-01

    Fatigue is associated with increased rates of medical errors and healthcare worker injuries, yet existing research in this sector has not considered multiple dimensions of fatigue simultaneously. This study evaluated hypothesised causal relationships between mental and physical fatigue and performance. High and low levels of mental and physical fatigue were induced in 16 participants during simulated nursing work tasks in a laboratory setting. Task-induced changes in fatigue dimensions were quantified using both subjective and objective measures, as were changes in performance on physical and mental tasks. Completing the simulated work tasks increased total fatigue, mental fatigue and physical fatigue in all experimental conditions. Higher physical fatigue adversely affected measures of physical and mental performance, whereas higher mental fatigue had a positive effect on one measure of mental performance. Overall, these results suggest causal effects between manipulated levels of mental and physical fatigue and task-induced changes in mental and physical performance. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Nurse fatigue and performance has implications for patient and provider safety. Results from this study demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional view of fatigue in understanding the causal relationships between fatigue and performance. The findings can guide future work aimed at predicting fatigue-related performance decrements and designing interventions.

  8. Efficiency of Staging Work-Ups in the Evaluation of Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Ha, Sung Whan

    1991-01-01

    A series of 510 patients with carcinoma of the uterine cervix given the curative radiation therapy from March 1979 through December 1986 was evaluated to determine the value of intravenous pyelography(IVP), cystoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and abdomino-pelvic CT as staging work-up prior to treatment. On IVP and cystoscopy, 10.7%(49/456) and 5/3%(24/452) showed abnormality, respectively, but only 0.7% (3/413) did on signoidoscopy. As a result of these work-ups prerequisite to FIGO staging, twenty six (5.1%) out of 510 patients were upstaged from the stage determined by the findings of physical examination alone. The proportions of upstaging in each stage were as follows none in stage IB(35), IIA (89) and IIIA(8), 7.9%(20/252) in stage IIB(14 patients to FIGO Stage IIIB, 6 patients to FIGO stage IVA), and 4.8% (6/126) in stage IIIB (all to FIGO stage IVA). Positive findings of staging work-ups were found only in patients with advanced stages of stage IIB or over determined by physical examination alone but not in those with earlier stages. CT was performed in 337 patients. CT detected pelvic lymph node (LN) enlargement in 25.2% (85/337) and paraaortic LN enlargement in 7.4% (25/337). Pelvic LN positivity was well correlated with increasing stage but paraaortic LN positivity was not. In the evaluation of parametrial involvement, CT findings were in accordance with those of physical examination only in 65.6%(442/674). When compared with endoscopic studies, CT had much lower positive predictive value than negative predictive value in the evaluation of adjacent organ invasion. The staging work-ups should be individualized by the disease extent of each patient, and then the efficiency of work-ups may be increased without compromising the appropriate FIGO staging and treatment

  9. High Performance and the Transformation of Work? The Implications of Alternative Work Practices for the Experience and Outcomes of Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, John

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 508 Canadian workers showed that moderate levels of high-performance work practices were associated with increased belonging, empowerment, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. At higher levels, the association became negative. Work was more stressful with these practices. Team autonomy, just-in-time practices, and…

  10. Flexible working times : effects on employees' exhaustion, work-nonwork conflict and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenbach, R.; Demerouti, E.; Nachreiner, F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to provide a useful conceptualization of flexible working times and to examine the relationships between flexible working times and employees' well-being and peer ratings of performance. It is supposed that an employee's "time-autonomy" would be positively related

  11. Efficiency of lung ventilation for people performing wind instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Anna; Famuła, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Plinta, Ryszard

    Wind instruments musicians are particularly prone to excessive respiratory efforts. Prolonged wind instruments performing may lead to changes in respiratory tracts and thus to respiratory muscles overload. It may result in decreasing lung tissue pliability and, as a consequence, in emphysema. Aim of the research has been to describe basic spirometric parameters for wind players and causes of potential changes. Slow and forced spirometry with the use of Micro Lab Viasys (Micro Medical, Great Britain) was conducted on 31 wind musicians (group A). A survey concerning playing time and frequency, weight of instruments, and education on diaphragmatic breathing was conducted. The control group included 34 healthy persons at similar age (group B). The results were statistically described using Excel and Statistica programmes. The respiratory parameters were within the range of physiological norms and forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) exceeded in both groups the values of 100%. Forced vital capacity and expiratory vital capacity (EVC) values were significantly lower in the group of musicians than in the control group (p wind instrument. Spirometric parameters relative to standards may prove a good respiratory capacity. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and FEV1 may indicate that a proper technique of respiration during performance was acquired. The length of time when performing wind instrument may influence parameters of dynamic spirometry. Med Pr 2016;67(4):427-433. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Thrust Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, and the Role of VDF in Hall Thruster Performance Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C. W; Hargus, William A; Brown, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the propellant jet on the conversion of anode electrical energy to jet kinetic energy. This enabled a mathematically rigorous distinction to be made between thrust efficiency and energy efficiency...

  13. Thrust Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, and the Role of VDF in Hall Thruster Performance Analysis (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C. W; Hargus, William A; Brown, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the propellant jet on the conversion of anode electrical energy to jet kinetic energy. This enabled a mathematically rigorous distinction to be made between thrust efficiency and energy efficiency...

  14. Estimation of efficiency of dust suppressing works at 30-km zone near the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakin, R.I.; Tkachenko, A.V.; Sukhoruchkin, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Data on efficiency of dust suppressing works at 30-km zone near NPP are analyzed. It is necessary: to reduce radionuclide content in the air in the spring, when the weather is dry, to conduct dust suppressing works on roads and sections of surface with nonfixed ground; in the summer, to wash roads every day. 3 figs

  15. Trait anxiety and the neural efficiency of manipulation in working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, U.; Stelzel, C.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of trait anxiety on the neural efficiency of working memory component functions (manipulation vs. maintenance) in the absence of threat-related stimuli. For the manipulation of affectively neutral verbal information held in working memory, high- and

  16. The effect of work accidents on the efficiency of production in the coal sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Kasap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In comparison with other sectors, mining is one of the sectors with the highest rates of work accidents. Such accidents negatively affect a country’s economy by wasting domestic resources and causing losses of both labour force and working days. What distinguishes mining from other branches of industry is that its working environments change continually and the working conditions are particularly harsh. Because of the practice of labour-intensive underground production methods, which leads to an increase in risk factors in terms of work accidents, and the fact that coal is a leading resource in meeting the ever-increasing demand for energy, this study investigated how work accidents affected the efficiency of production in the Turkish Hard Coal Enterprise (TTK between 1987 and 2006. Using data envelopment analysis, the overall sources of technical inefficiency in the years examined were determined. The results from this analysis revealed that the overall technical efficiency was as low as 69.7%, particularly as a result of the disaster in 1992; work accidents therefore had a negative effect on production efficiency. The greatest degree of pure technical inefficiency was found to have occurred in the period between 1992 and 2000, when the highest number of work accidents were noted, whilst the greatest degree of scale inefficiency was found to have occurred between 1987 and 1993. Because TTK has a prominent position among institutions and attaches great importance to workers’ health and safety, an increase was noted in efficiency scores after 1993.

  17. The Impact of Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work Life Conflict to Employee Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Rumambie, Yuliana Fransisca

    2014-01-01

    Employee Performance is an important part in a company or organization. It plays a very important role in an organization because performance of the company or organization largely depends on the performance of its employee. Recently, organizations realize that there are several factors that can affect employee performance. Several factors that can considered as the major determinants of employee performance, such as Performance Appraisal, Reward System, Job Stress, and Work life conflict. Th...

  18. Performance-based management and quality of work: an empirical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Pierre; Nascimento, Adelaide; Gaudart, Corinne; Piney, Cécile; Dujarier, Marie-Anne; Germe, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    In France, in the private sector as in the public sector, performance-based management tends to become a norm. Performance-based management is supposed to improve service quality, productivity and efficiency, transparency of allotted means and achieved results, and to better focus the activity of employees and of the whole organization. This text reports a study conducted for the French Ministry of Budget by a team of researchers in ergonomics, sociology and management science, in order to assess the impact of performance-based management on employees, on teams and on work organization. About 100 interviews were conducted with employees of all categories and 6 working groups were set up in order to discuss and validate or amend our first analyses. Results concern several aspects: workload and work intensification, indicators and performance management and the transformation of jobs induced by performance management.

  19. Improvement of performance operation and cycle efficiency of Al Anbar combined power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbar, Mohammed Q.

    2014-01-01

    The present work will be focusing on available solution which can serve to increase total efficiency of Al Anbar combined cycle power plant - CCPP, and thus to improve the operation performance as much as possible in order to decrease hydrocarbon, CO2, NOx emissions to environment.The simulation and calculations were performed by program software cycle-tempo software. The results were compared with basic design of Alanbar power plant after making modernization with solar tower receiver system-STRS, which represented a heat source in preheat process for a compressor air. Key Words: CCPP, STRS, Solar potential energy, fuel consumption, hydrocarbon emission

  20. Enabling Efficient Climate Science Workflows in High Performance Computing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, H.; Byna, S.; Wehner, M. F.; Gu, J.; O'Brien, T. A.; Loring, B.; Stone, D. A.; Collins, W.; Prabhat, M.; Liu, Y.; Johnson, J. N.; Paciorek, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    A typical climate science workflow often involves a combination of acquisition of data, modeling, simulation, analysis, visualization, publishing, and storage of results. Each of these tasks provide a myriad of challenges when running on a high performance computing environment such as Hopper or Edison at NERSC. Hurdles such as data transfer and management, job scheduling, parallel analysis routines, and publication require a lot of forethought and planning to ensure that proper quality control mechanisms are in place. These steps require effectively utilizing a combination of well tested and newly developed functionality to move data, perform analysis, apply statistical routines, and finally, serve results and tools to the greater scientific community. As part of the CAlibrated and Systematic Characterization, Attribution and Detection of Extremes (CASCADE) project we highlight a stack of tools our team utilizes and has developed to ensure that large scale simulation and analysis work are commonplace and provide operations that assist in everything from generation/procurement of data (HTAR/Globus) to automating publication of results to portals like the Earth Systems Grid Federation (ESGF), all while executing everything in between in a scalable environment in a task parallel way (MPI). We highlight the use and benefit of these tools by showing several climate science analysis use cases they have been applied to.

  1. Teacher performance and work environment in the instructional process in vocational school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncoro, Tri; Dardiri, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Teachers should have pedagogical, personality, social, and professional competency. stated that performance appraisal has several benefits, namely for the implementation of reward and punishment system, provision of feedback for teachers to develop their competencies, identification of training needs, and diagnosis of problems. According to performance is one's work result or success rate as a whole over a certain period of time in performing tasks compared to various possibilities, such as work standards, targets or criteria which have been predetermined and agreed. One's performance is based on daily tasks and responsibilities assigned to him/her. The racial differences in personality are largely due to different environmental influences, where people of different races have progressed for generations. Vocational high school teachers have a low pedagogic and professional performance. The factors that influence performance, according to the partner-lawyer model proposed, are expectations about rewards, encouragements, abilities, needs and traits, perceptions of tasks, internal and external rewards, perceptions of reward levels and job satisfaction. This study used a survey method to collect data or information about a large population using relatively small samples. The population of this research was vocational high school teachers. Data analysis techniques used the Regression Analysis with the assistance of SPSS. The results of teacher performance are as follows: 1) the pedagogic performance was relatively good; 2) professional performance was relatively good, and the overall performance of vocational high school teachers was still less effective and efficient; 3) the teachers' work environment was 42.5234%; and 4) there was no correlation between work environment and teacher performance, meaning that the work environment (conditions of physical work environment, psychological work environment, and non-physical work environment) does not positively support the

  2. Achieving palliative care research efficiency through defining and benchmarking performance metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Jordan E; Aziz, Noreen; Bennett, Rachael E; Abernethy, Amy P; Kutner, Jean S

    2012-12-01

    Research efficiency is gaining increasing attention in the research enterprise, including palliative care research. The importance of generating meaningful findings and translating these scientific advances to improved patient care creates urgency in the field to address well documented system inefficiencies. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group (PCRC) provides useful examples for ensuring research efficiency in palliative care. Literature on maximizing research efficiency focuses on the importance of clearly delineated process maps, working instructions, and standard operating procedures in creating synchronicity in expectations across research sites. Examples from the PCRC support these objectives and suggest that early creation and employment of performance metrics aligned with these processes are essential to generate clear expectations and identify benchmarks. These benchmarks are critical in effective monitoring and ultimately the generation of high-quality findings that are translatable to clinical populations. Prioritization of measurable goals and tasks to ensure that activities align with programmatic aims is critical. Examples from the PCRC affirm and expand the existing literature on research efficiency, providing a palliative care focus. Operating procedures, performance metrics, prioritization, and monitoring for success should all be informed by and inform the process map to achieve maximum research efficiency.

  3. Job Characteristics, Work Involvement, and Job Performance of Public Servants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Johanim; Yahya, Khulida Kirana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study is to assess the predicting role of job characteristics on job performance. Dimensions in the job characteristics construct are skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback. Further, work involvement is tested as a mediator in the hypothesized link. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  4. WORK-FAMILY ROLE CONFLICT AND JOB PERFORMANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    This would create the psychological balance needed in both domains. On the part of the ... concern over the conflicting role of women, as both mothers/wives and workers. ... need for a study on work-family role conflict and job performance.

  5. Communication in marital homes and work performance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of communication in marital homes on secondary school teachers work performance in Akwa Ibom State. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was used in the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, ...

  6. Talent Management for Creating a Performance Work Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines the extent to which talent management can contribute towards creating a performance work environment (PWE) that can enhance sustainable talent identifi cation and development in the public service. The literature analysis results reveal that talent management is essential in creating a PWE in the ...

  7. Communicating Truthfully and Positively in Appraising Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, C. Glenn; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the issue of acceptable behavior for managers when giving feedback to their subordinates. Notes that feedback can be either truthful or untruthful, and can be communicated either positively or negatively. Describes the advantages and disadvantages for each feedback approach to work performance. (MM)

  8. Exogenous and Endogenous Impacts into Teachers' Work Performance Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrun

    2016-01-01

    By this synopsis research which conveyed of findings to unfold mutual effect between teachers' performance and incentive scheme and teachers' personal competency, and principal leadership, and work motivation, by means of explanatory research in which ex facto method was ad hock model chosen because of classified as non-experiment. The grounds…

  9. Construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). Methods: A total of 1424 Dutch workers from three occupational sectors (blue, pink, and white collar) participated in the study. First, IWPQ scores were correlated with related constructs

  10. Improving the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire using Rasch analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Buuren, S. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Vet, H.C.W. de

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) version 0.2 was developed using Rasch analysis. The goal of the current study was to improve targeting of the IWPQ scales by including additional items. The IWPQ 0.2 (original) and 0.3 (including additional items) were examined using

  11. Construct validity of the individual work performance questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). METHODS:: A total of 1424 Dutch workers from three occupational sectors (blue, pink, and white collar) participated in the study. First, IWPQ scores were correlated with related constructs

  12. Similarity, Not Complexity, Determines Visual Working Memory Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Roberts, Mark V.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Haenschel, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that visual working memory (WM) is poorer for complex versus simple items, traditionally accounted for by higher information load placing greater demands on encoding and storage capacity limits. Other research suggests that it may not be complexity that determines WM performance per se, but rather increased…

  13. Useful work and the thermal efficiency in the ideal Lenolr cycle with regenerative preheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Demos P.

    2000-11-01

    In the existing thermal engine concepts negative work transfer (usually needed to drive a compression process) is supplied by the work produced by the engine itself. The remaining difference (i.e., the net work transfer) becomes the useful work, since it is available for external consumption. The thermal efficiency is the parameter that compares this against the heat input into the system. It forms the main optimization parameter in any engine design. The objective of the present study is to show that for the case of the Lenoir cycle with regenerative preheating the entire positive work is available for external consumption, since the negative (i.e., the compression) work is supplied by the atmospheric air. Not only this, but, during the compression process and due to the pressure difference across the two sides of the moving piston, an additional (useful) work transfer may be generated. Thus, the proposed power plant may be considered as a combination of a thermal engine and a wind turbine. In the ideal cycle limit (at least), the total amount of useful work exceeds the heat entering the system. This leads to the definition of a new parameter for the efficiency (called the technical efficiency), which compares the combined positive work transfer (i.e., the useful one) against the heat entering the system and which may exceed the 100% level.

  14. The influence of incline and speed on work rate, gross efficiency and kinematics of roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2012-08-01

    During competitions, elite cross-country skiers produce higher external work rates on uphill than on flat terrain. However, it is not presently known whether this reflects solely higher energy expenditure. Furthermore, the kinematic factors associated with these higher rates of uphill work have not yet been examined. Therefore, in the present investigation the work rate and associated kinematic parameters at similar metabolic rates during roller ski skating on flat and uphill terrains have been compared. Seven elite male skiers performed six 5-min sub-maximal exercise bouts at the same low, moderate and high metabolic rates on 2 and 8% inclines, while roller skiing on a treadmill employing the G3 skating technique. The work rate was calculated as work against gravity and friction, whereas the energetic equivalent of VO(2) was taken as the metabolic rate. Gross efficiency was defined as work rate divided by metabolic rate. Kinematic parameters were analyzed in three dimensions. At the same metabolic rate, the work rate, cycle rate, work per cycle and relative duration of propulsive phases during a cycle of movement were all higher on the 8% than on the 2% incline at all speeds (all P < 0.05). At similar work rates, gross efficiency was greater on the 8% incline (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these elite skiers consistently demonstrated higher work rates on the 8% incline. To achieve the higher work rates on the steeper incline, these elite skiers employed higher cycle rates and performed more work per cycle, in association with a longer relative propulsive phase.

  15. Thermodynamic performance analysis of ramjet engine at wide working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Min; Yan, Li; Tang, Jing-feng; Huang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-qian

    2017-03-01

    Although ramjet has the advantages of high-speed flying and higher specific impulse, the performance parameters will decline seriously with the increase of flight Mach number and flight height. Therefore, the investigation on the thermodynamic performance of ramjet is very crucial for broadening the working range. In the current study, a typical ramjet model has been employed to investigate the performance characteristics at wide working conditions. First of all, the compression characteristic analysis is carried out based on the Brayton cycle. The obtained results show that the specific cross-section area (A2 and A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) have a great influence on the ramjet performance indexes. Secondly, the thermodynamic calculation process of ramjet is given from the view of the pneumatic thermal analysis. Then, the variable trends of the ramjet performance indexes with the flow conditions, the air-fuel ratio (f), the specific cross-sectional area (A2 and A5) under the fixed operating condition, equipotential dynamic pressure condition and variable dynamic pressure condition have been discussed. Finally, the optimum value of the specific cross-sectional area (A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) of the ramjet model at a fixed work condition (Ma=3.5, H=12 km) are obtained.

  16. Dieting and food cue-related working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Meule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  17. Dieting and Food Cue-Related Working Memory Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n -back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.

  18. Energy efficiency performance contracts in the school environment; Contrats de performance energetique dans le milieu scolaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouin, J. [Quebec Ministere de l' Education, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    An overview of new regulations concerning the awarding of energy performance contracts by school boards in the province of Quebec is provided. The article deals with buildings belonging to boards of education that are wholly or primarily utilised for educational purposes. It provides an inventory of such buildings and statistical information about about energy consumption and energy-related costs of educational facilities during the school years 1996/1997 and 1997/1998. Regarding the new regulations, the principal change appears to be that school boards are required to award construction or building services contracts estimated to cost between $50,000 and $100,000 either by public requests for tenders, or by invitation; construction or building services contracts whose cost exceeds $100,000 must be awarded by public tender. In effect, to meet the energy efficiency criteria specified in the new regulations, school boards are obliged to call for bids on any project that contribute to the energy efficiency of school buildings whose cost is estimated to exceed $50,000. The objective of the new regulation is to encourage the consideration of energy efficiency standards by school boards, and by potential contractors. The regulations also prescribe the method of requesting bids and specifies the energy efficiency criteria bidders must meet in order to be eligible.

  19. Energy and exergy utilization efficiencies and emission performance of Canadian transportation sector, 1990–2035

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motasemi, F.; Afzal, Muhammad T.; Salema, Arshad Adam; Moghavvemi, M.; Shekarchian, M.; Zarifi, F.; Mohsin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Transportation sector of Canada is the second largest energy consuming sector which accounts for 30% of the total energy consumption of the country in 2009. The purpose of this work was to analyze the energy, exergy, and emission performance for four different modes of transport (road, air, rail, and marine) from the year 1990–2035. For historical period, the estimated overall energy efficiency ranges from 22.41% (1991) to 22.55% (2006) with a mean of 22.48 ± 0.07% and the overall exergy efficiency ranges from 21.61% (2001) to 21.87 (2006) with a mean of 21.74 ± 0.13%. Energy and exergy efficiencies may reach 20.95% and 20.97% in the year 2035 respectively based on the forecasted data. In comparison with other countries, we found that in the year 2000 the overall energy and exergy efficiencies for Canadian transportation sector were higher than Jordan, China, Norway, and Saudi Arabia but lower than Turkey and Malaysia. Between the year 1990–2009, the highest amount of emission produced in each subsector was: road CO 2 (80%), NO x (72%), and CO (carbon monoxide) (96%); air SO 2 (86%); rail NO x (6%) and marine NO x (7%). The road subsector produced the highest amount of emissions. - Highlights: • Energy, exergy and emission performance for Canadian transport was analyzed. • Maximum energy and exergy efficiencies were 22.55% and 21.87% in 2006 respectively. • Energy and exergy efficiencies may decrease in the year 2035. • CO 2 was the largest pollutant emitted followed by CO, NO x , and SO 2 . • Utilization of green fuels can improve exergy and emission performance

  20. Effective information flow through efficient supply chain management - Value stream mapping approach Case Outokumpu Tornio Works

    OpenAIRE

    Juvonen, Piia

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juvonen, Piia Suvi Päivikki 2012. Effective information flow through efficient supply chain management -Value stream mapping approach - Case Outokumpu Tornio Works. Master`s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 63. Appendices 2. The general aim of this thesis is to explore effective information flow through efficient supply chain management by following one of the lean management principles, value stream mapping. The specific research...

  1. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the January 2010 Country Report Summary is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the previous meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP) held in September 2009. This paper is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. In all of the country reports received, there is evidence of significant energy efficiency policy action. The most significant observations from these country reports cover three areas. The first is that the spending focus on energy efficiency seen in the previous two country reports (31 March and 15 September 2009) appears largely unchanged, and is still concentrated in the building sector. Second, countries are actively undertaking analysis and public consultation to plan for future projects. Third, many countries reported activity taking place in the area of fiscal policy, from amendments to new fiscal measures.

  2. Efficiency and Equity Performance of a Coordinated Ramp Metering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Li

    2016-10-01

    software AIMSUN. Simulation results revealed that the equity of the motorway system can be improved significantly by using the proposed strategy without compromising much on the efficiency of the system.

  3. High Performance Work System, HRD Climate and Organisational Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muduli, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to study the relationship between high-performance work system (HPWS) and organizational performance and to examine the role of human resource development (HRD) Climate in mediating the relationship between HPWS and the organizational performance in the context of the power sector of India. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  4. Software and DVFS Tuning for Performance and Energy-Efficiency on Intel KNL Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Calore

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of processors and memories is quickly becoming a limiting factor in the deployment of large computing systems. For this reason, it is important to understand the energy performance of these processors and to study strategies allowing their use in the most efficient way. In this work, we focus on the computing and energy performance of the Knights Landing Xeon Phi, the latest Intel many-core architecture processor for HPC applications. We consider the 64-core Xeon Phi 7230 and profile its performance and energy efficiency using both its on-chip MCDRAM and the off-chip DDR4 memory as the main storage for application data. As a benchmark application, we use a lattice Boltzmann code heavily optimized for this architecture and implemented using several different arrangements of the application data in memory (data-layouts, in short. We also assess the dependence of energy consumption on data-layouts, memory configurations (DDR4 or MCDRAM and the number of threads per core. We finally consider possible trade-offs between computing performance and energy efficiency, tuning the clock frequency of the processor using the Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS technique.

  5. Dividing wall column: Improving thermal efficiency, energy savings and economic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurangzeb, Md; Jana, Amiya K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A rigorous model is developed for a dividing wall column. • Heat transfer model for metal wall is proposed. • Performance improvement is quantified for a ternary system. • Thermal efficiency, energy savings and cost are three used indices. - Abstract: This work aims at investigating the performance improvement of a dividing wall column (DWC) for the separation of a ternary system. It is true that for fractionating a ternary mixture, at least a sequence of two conventional distillation columns is required. To improve energetic and economic potential, and reduce space requirement, two columns are proposed to merge into one shell with a dividing wall. For developing the mathematical model of a distillation column, we consider the effect of heat transfer through the metal wall placed at an intermediated position inside the cylindrical column. The simulated DWC model is verified using the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator with a wide variety of phase equilibrium models. The superiority of this proposed heat integrated configuration is shown for a ternary hydrocarbon system over a conventional distillation sequence (CDS) in terms of mainly three performance indexes, namely thermal efficiency, energy savings and total annual cost (TAC). It is investigated that the dividing wall distillation scheme can secure a 37.5% energy efficiency, and a 22.6% savings in energy consumption and 23.23% in TAC. The promising performance can also be quantified in terms of a reasonably low payback period of 2.11 years.

  6. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ner, Avner; Hamann, Darla J; Koepp, Gabriel; Manohar, Chimnay U; Levine, James

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a) Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b) Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  7. Does Degree of Work Task Completion Influence Retrieval Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Bogers, Toine; Lykke, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    their perception of task completion. Also, with the exception of full text records and across all document types, both measured at rank 10, no statistically significant correlation is observed with respect to retrieval performance influenced by degrees of perceived work task completion or individual types......In this contribution we investigate the potential influence between assessors’ perceived completion of their work task at hand and their actual assessment of usefulness of the retrieved information. The results indicate that the number of useful documents found by assessors does not influence...

  8. Effect of alternating postures on cognitive performance for healthy people performing sedentary work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Bernhard; Kapellusch, Jay M; Schrempf, Andreas; Probst, Kathrin; Haller, Michael; Baca, Arnold

    2018-06-01

    Prolonged sitting is a risk factor for several diseases and the prevalence of worksite-based interventions such as sit-to-stand workstations is increasing. Although their impact on sedentary behaviour has been regularly investigated, the effect of working in alternating body postures on cognitive performance is unclear. To address this uncertainty, 45 students participated in a two-arm, randomised controlled cross-over trial under laboratory conditions. Subjects executed validated cognitive tests (working speed, reaction time, concentration performance) either in sitting or alternating working postures on two separate days (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02863731). MANOVA results showed no significant difference in cognitive performance between trials executed in alternating, standing or sitting postures. Perceived workload did not differ between sitting and alternating days. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant learning effects regarding concentration performance and working speed for both days. These results suggest that working posture did not affect cognitive performance in the short term. Practitioner Summary: Prior reports indicated health-related benefits based on alternated (sit/stand) body postures. Nevertheless, their effect on cognitive performance is unknown. This randomised controlled trial showed that working in alternating body postures did not influence reaction time, concentration performance, working speed or workload perception in the short term.

  9. The role of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level, and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points [the Federation of International Skiing (FIS) approved scoring system for ski racing] where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r = −0.89 to 0.98 and P < 0.05 in all cases). Gross efficiency was higher at the steeper incline, both for men (17.1 ± 0.4 vs. 15.8 ± 0.5%, P < 0.05) and women (16.9 ± 0.5 vs. 15.7 ± 0.4%, P < 0.05), but without any gender differences being apparent. Significant correlations between gross efficiency and performance level were found for both inclines and genders (r = −0.65 to 0.81 and P < 0.05 in all cases). The current study demonstrated that cross-country skiers of both genders used less metabolic energy to perform the same amount of work at steeper inclines, and that the better ranked elite male and female skiers skied more efficiently. PMID:24155722

  10. The Impact of Working Motivation and Working Environment on Employees Performance in Indonesia Stock Exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Riyanto, Setyo; Sutrisno, Ady; Ali, Hapzi

    2017-01-01

    In the face of the Asean economic community role of capital market demanded to be pro-active. The capital market expected to have contribution to the Indonesian economy by preparing regulations in accordance with the actual of economic conditions which would require of human resources who has a good performance at Indonesia stock exchange (IDX) as the regulator of capital market in Indonesia. This research aims to know the influence of working motivation toward employee performance at IDX, to...

  11. The moderating role of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the work engagement-performance process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Wheeler, Anthony R; Shanine, Kristen K

    2013-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a cognitive disability that affects millions. Although individuals with ADHD are employed throughout many organizations and there is evidence that their performance is lower, scant research exists describing how ADHD impacts an individual's performance. In this article, we extend attentional control theory to examine how ADHD impacts both the effectiveness and efficiency of employee performance. Across 3 samples, 2 of general working adults (n = 257 and 170) and 1 of nurses (n = 243), we found that ADHD was associated with lower performance (rated via self-, coworker, and supervisor ratings) and that the relationship was strongest for in-role performance, suggesting that employees with ADHD may be diverting attention away from task-relevant behaviors. Furthermore, although work engagement was associated with higher performance, that relationship was diminished among those who experienced higher levels of ADHD, suggesting lower performance efficiency. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on attentional control and the management of those with ADHD at work.

  12. Performance analysis of different working gases for concentrated solar gas engines: Stirling & Brayton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf Eldean, Mohamed A.; Rafi, Khwaja M.; Soliman, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different working gases are used to power on Concentrated Solar Gas Engines. • Gases are used to increase the system efficiency. • Specific heat capacity is considered a vital role for the comparison. • Brayton engine resulted higher design limits. • CO 2 is favorable as a working gas more than C 2 H 2 . - Abstract: This article presents a performance study of using different working fluids (gases) to power on Concentrated Solar Gas Engine (CSGE-Stirling and/or Brayton). Different working gases such as Monatomic (five types), Diatomic (three types) and Polyatomic (four types) are used in this investigation. The survey purported to increase the solar gas engine efficiency hence; decreasing the price of the output power. The effect of using different working gases is noticed on the engine volume, dish area, total plant area, efficiency, compression and pressure ratios thence; the Total Plant Cost (TPC, $). The results reveal that the top cycle temperature effect is reflected on the cycle by increasing the total plant efficiency (2–10%) for Brayton operational case and 5–25% for Stirling operational case. Moreover; Brayton engine resulted higher design limits against the Stirling related to total plant area, m 2 and TPC, $ while generating 1–100 MW e as an economic case study plant. C 2 H 2 achieved remarkable results however, CO 2 is considered for both cycles operation putting in consideration the gas flammability and safety issues.

  13. Skylab task and work performance /Experiment M-151 - Time and motion study/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Mclaughlin, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The primary objective of Experiment M151 was to study the inflight adaptation of Skylab crewmen to a variety of task situations involving different types of activity. A parallel objective was to examine astronaut inflight performance for any behavioral stress effects associated with the working and living conditions of the Skylab environment. Training data provided the basis for comparison of preflight and inflight performance. Efficiency was evaluated through the adaptation function, namely, the relation of performance time over task trials. The results indicate that the initial changeover from preflight to inflight was accompanied by a substantial increase in performance time for most work and task activities. Equally important was the finding that crewmen adjusted rapidly to the weightless environment and became proficient in developing techniques with which to optimize task performance. By the end of the second inflight trial, most of the activities were performed almost as efficiently as on the last preflight trial. The analysis demonstrated the sensitivity of the adaptation function to differences in task and hardware configurations. The function was found to be more regular and less variable inflight than preflight. Translation and control of masses were accomplished easily and efficiently through the rapid development of the arms and legs as subtle guidance and restraint systems.

  14. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Hartl, Verena; Grossi, Nina R; Kallus, K Wolfgang

    2018-01-09

    Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to "work" in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job) performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design). The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  15. [Great depth pneumatic caisson and its load work involved with the efficiency of respiratory protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, M; Oda, S; Takeuchi, J; Ikeda, Y; Yamamura, I; Mano, Y

    1989-07-01

    Pneumatic caisson work in Japan has been in operation since 1924. Afterward, this technique of compressed air work has been utilized in the constructions like as foundation works, the basements, and shafts of the bottom tunnel or shields for subway and so forth. While, it means for people to be exposed to hyperbaric environment that they use compressed air work, this technique has risks to be suffered from not only decompression sickness (DCS) but toxicity of poisonous gas or oxygen deficiency. However, this technique is necessary for urban civil engineering and recent compressed air works over than 1.0 kg/cm2 has been increased in 1.5 times more than in 1970's and the higher compressed air work more than 4.0 kg/cm2 will be actually planned in near future. So unmanned caisson work is considered as a better technique for such high pressure work, even though people must enter into hyperbaric working fields for maintenance or repair of unmanned operated machinery and materials. This research is to establish the safety work under hyperbaric environment within 7 kg/cm2. It is necessary for us to establish the system not only to keep safety but to maintain working efficiency. According to obtain the purpose, the effect of respiratory protection has been investigated and work load under hyperbaric caisson work has also been studied.

  16. Effects of Cogmed working memory training on cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton, Joseph L; Oberle, Crystal D; Rhoton, Jayson; Ney, Ashley

    2018-04-16

    Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group. Pretest and posttest measures included multiple measures of attention, working memory, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Although improvement was observed for the full training group for a digit span task, no training-related improvement was observed for any of the other measures. Results of the study suggest that WM training does not improve performance on unrelated tasks or enhance other cognitive abilities.

  17. Construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire.

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the construct validity of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). Methods: A total of 1424 Dutch workers from three occupational sectors (blue, pink, and white collar) participated in the study. First, IWPQ scores were correlated with related constructs (convergent validity). Second, differences between known groups were tested (discriminative validity). Results: First, IWPQ scores correlated weakly to moderately with absolute and relative presenteeism, and...

  18. Game elements improve performance in a working memory training task

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ninaus; Gonçalo Pereira; René Stefitz; Rui Prada; Ana Paiva; Christa Neuper; Guilherme Wood

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participan...

  19. Performance Analysis: Work Control Events Identified January - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, C E; Freeman, J W; Kerr, C E; Holman, G; Marsh, K; Beach, R

    2011-01-14

    This performance analysis evaluated 24 events that occurred at LLNL from January through August 2010. The analysis identified areas of potential work control process and/or implementation weaknesses and several common underlying causes. Human performance improvement and safety culture factors were part of the causal analysis of each event and were analyzed. The collective significance of all events in 2010, as measured by the occurrence reporting significance category and by the proportion of events that have been reported to the DOE ORPS under the ''management concerns'' reporting criteria, does not appear to have increased in 2010. The frequency of reporting in each of the significance categories has not changed in 2010 compared to the previous four years. There is no change indicating a trend in the significance category and there has been no increase in the proportion of occurrences reported in the higher significance category. Also, the frequency of events, 42 events reported through August 2010, is not greater than in previous years and is below the average of 63 occurrences per year at LLNL since 2006. Over the previous four years, an average of 43% of the LLNL's reported occurrences have been reported as either ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' In 2010, 29% of the occurrences have been reported as ''management concerns'' or ''near misses.'' This rate indicates that LLNL is now reporting fewer ''management concern'' and ''near miss'' occurrences compared to the previous four years. From 2008 to the present, LLNL senior management has undertaken a series of initiatives to strengthen the work planning and control system with the primary objective to improve worker safety. In 2008, the LLNL Deputy Director established the Work Control Integrated Project Team to develop the core requirements and graded

  20. Real-time monitoring energy efficiency and performance degradation of condensing boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, Simone; Quang, Thuan Le; Holub, Ondrej; Endel, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fully-fledged set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for condensing boilers. • Detection of boiler performance degradation in condensing and noncondensing mode. • Virtual sensing for estimation of water mass flow rate. • Optimal Kalman detection of actuator and sensor faults. • Structural properties for detection and isolation of faults. - Abstract: Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiency than traditional boilers by using waste heat in flue gases to preheat cold return water entering the boiler. Water vapor produced during combustion is condensed into liquid form, thus recovering its latent heat of vaporization, leading to around 10–12% increased efficiency. Many countries have encouraged the use of condensing boilers with financial incentives. It is thus important to develop software tools to assess the correct functioning of the boiler and eventually detect problems. Current monitoring tools are based on boiler static maps and on large sets of historical data, and are unable to assess timely loss of performance due to degradation of the efficiency curve or water leakages. This work develops a set of fault detection and diagnosis tools for dynamic energy efficiency monitoring and assessment in condensing boilers, i.e. performance degradation and faults can be detected using real-time measurements: this real-time feature is particularly relevant because of the limited amount of data that can be stored by state-of-the-art building energy management systems. The monitoring tools are organized as follows: a bimodal parameter estimator to detect deviations of the efficiency of the boiler from nominal values in both condensing and noncondensing mode; a virtual sensor for the estimation of the water mass flow rate; filters to detect actuator and sensor faults, possibly due to control and sensing problems. Most importantly, structural properties for detection and isolation of actuators and sensing faults are given: these properties are

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Lerner, Debra; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2015-01-01

    The Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ), measuring task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior, was developed in The Netherlands. To cross-culturally adapt the IWPQ from the Dutch to the American-English language, and assess the questionnaire's internal consistency and content validity in the American-English context. A five stage translation and adaptation process was used: forward translation, synthesis, back-translation, expert committee review, and pilot-testing. During the pilot-testing, cognitive interviews with 40 American workers were performed, to examine the comprehensibility, applicability, and completeness of the American-English IWPQ. Questionnaire instructions were slightly modified to aid interpretation in the American-English language. Inconsistencies with verb tense were identified, and it was decided to consistently use simple past tense. The wording of five items was modified to better suit the American-English language. In general, participants were positive on the comprehensibility, applicability and completeness of the questionnaire during the pilot-testing phase. Furthermore, the study showed positive results concerning the internal consistency (Cronbach's alphas for the scales between 0.79-0.89) and content validity of the American-English IWPQ. The results indicate that the cross-cultural adaptation of the American-English IWPQ was successful and that the measurement properties of the translated version are promising.

  2. Investigation on high efficiency volume Bragg gratings performances for spectrometry in space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loicq, Jérôme; Stockman, Y.; Georges, Marc; Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.

    2017-11-01

    The special properties of Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) make them good candidates for spectrometry applications where high spectral resolution, low level of straylight and low polarisation sensitivity are required. Therefore it is of interest to assess the maturity and suitability of VBGs as enabling technology for future ESA missions with demanding requirements for spectrometry. The VBGs suitability for space application is being investigated in the frame of a project led by CSL and funded by the European Space Agency. The goal of this work is twofold: first the theoretical advantages and drawbacks of VBGs with respect to other technologies with identical functionalities are assessed, and second the performances of VBG samples in a representative space environment are experimentally evaluated. The performances of samples of two VBGs technologies, the Photo-Thermo-Refractive (PTR) glass and the DiChromated Gelatine (DCG), are assessed and compared in the Hα, O2-B and NIR bands. The tests are performed under vacuum condition combined with temperature cycling in the range of 200 K to 300K. A dedicated test bench experiment is designed to evaluate the impact of temperature on the spectral efficiency and to determine the optical wavefront error of the diffracted beam. Furthermore the diffraction efficiency degradation under gamma irradiation is assessed. Finally the straylight, the diffraction efficiency under conical incidence and the polarisation sensitivity is evaluated.

  3. Design of coated standing nanowire array solar cell performing beyond the planar efficiency limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong, E-mail: wzshen@sjtu.edu.cn [Institute of Solar Energy, and Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control (Ministry of Education), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-05-28

    The single standing nanowire (SNW) solar cells have been proven to perform beyond the planar efficiency limits in both open-circuit voltage and internal quantum efficiency due to the built-in concentration and the shifting of the absorption front. However, the expandability of these nano-scale units to a macro-scale photovoltaic device remains unsolved. The main difficulty lies in the simultaneous preservation of an effective built-in concentration in each unit cell and a broadband high absorption capability of their array. Here, we have provided a detailed theoretical guideline for realizing a macro-scale solar cell that performs furthest beyond the planar limits. The key lies in a complementary design between the light-trapping of the single SNWs and that of the photonic crystal slab formed by the array. By tuning the hybrid HE modes of the SNWs through the thickness of a coaxial dielectric coating, the optimized coated SNW array can sustain an absorption rate over 97.5% for a period as large as 425 nm, which, together with the inherited carrier extraction advantage, leads to a cell efficiency increment of 30% over the planar limit. This work has demonstrated the viability of a large-size solar cell that performs beyond the planar limits.

  4. Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship between Culture and Organizational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Alan L.; Ouchi, William G.

    1983-01-01

    Arguing from a transaction costs perspective, this paper contends that local organizational cultures distinct from shared background cultures exist relatively infrequently. The relationship between local organizational culture and organizational efficiency is discussed, and it is concluded that changing organizations are more adaptive than is…

  5. Performance of a high efficiency high power UHF klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, G.T.

    1977-03-01

    A 500 kW c-w klystron was designed for the PEP storage ring at SLAC. The tube operates at 353.2 MHz, 62 kV, a microperveance of 0.75, and a gain of approximately 50 dB. Stable operation is required for a VSWR as high as 2 : 1 at any phase angle. The design efficiency is 70%. To obtain this value of efficiency, a second harmonic cavity is used in order to produce a very tightly bunched beam in the output gap. At the present time it is planned to install 12 such klystrons in PEP. A tube with a reduced size collector was operated at 4% duty at 500 kW. An efficiency of 63% was observed. The same tube was operated up to 200 kW c-w for PEP accelerator cavity tests. A full-scale c-w tube reached 500 kW at 65 kV with an efficiency of 55%. In addition to power and phase measurements into a matched load, some data at various load mismatches are presented

  6. Energy Efficient and Performance Analysis of Multihop Wireless Communication Over Nakagami-m Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the performance of multihop communication over Nakagami-m fading is investigated for both cases without and with diversity combining. Closed form expressions of the average ergodic capacity are derived for each of these cases. Then, an expression of the outage probability is obtained using the inverse of Laplace transform and the average bit error rate is bounded using the Moment-Generating-Function approach. The energy efficiency is analyzed using the "consumption factor" as a metric, and it is derived in closed-form. And based on the obtained expressions, we propose a power allocation strategy maximizing this consumption factor.

  7. Performance and energy efficiency in wireless self-organized networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, C.

    2009-07-01

    Self-organized packet radio networks (ad-hoc networks) and wireless sensor networks have got massive attention recently. One of critical problems in such networks is the energy efficiency, because wireless nodes are usually powered by battery. Energy efficiency design can dramatically increase the survivability and stability of wireless ad-hoc/sensor networks. In this thesis the energy efficiency has been considered at different protocol layers for wireless ad-hoc/sensor networks. The energy consumption of wireless nodes is inspected at the physical layer and MAC layer. At the network layer, some current routing protocols are compared and special attention has been paid to reactive routing protocols. A minimum hop analysis is given and according to the analysis result, a modification of AODV routing is proposed. A variation of transmit power can be also applied to clustering algorithm, which is believed to be able to control the scalability of network. Clustering a network can also improve the energy efficiency. We offer a clustering scheme based on the link state measurement and variation of transmit power of intra-cluster and inter-cluster transmission. Simulation shows that it can achieve both targets. In association with the clustering algorithm, a global synchronization scheme is proposed to increase the efficiency of clustering algorithm. The research attention has been also paid to self-organization for multi-hop cellular networks. A 2-hop 2-slot uplink proposal to infrastructure-based cellular networks. The proposed solution can significantly increase the throughput of uplink communication and reduce the energy consumption of wireless terminals. (orig.)

  8. Impact of Age and Hearing Impairment on Work Performance during Long Working Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on demographic prognoses, it must be assumed that a greater number of older workers will be found in the future labor market. How to deal with their possible age-related impairments of sensory functions, like hearing impairment and work performance during extended working time, has not been addressed explicitly until now. The study addresses this interplay. The study was performed on two consecutive days after normal working hours. The 55 participants had to “work” in the study at least three additional hours to simulate a situation of long working hours. The tested measures for (job performance were: general attention, long-term selective attention, concentration, and reaction time. All of the investigated variables were taken at both days of the study (2 × 2 × 2 repeated measurement design. The results show effects for age, the interaction of hearing impairment and time of measurement, and effects of the measurement time. Older participants reacted slower than younger participants did. Furthermore, younger participants reacted more frequently in a correct way. Hearing impairment seems to have a negative impact especially on measures of false reactions, and therefore especially on measurement time 1. The results can be interpreted in a way that hearing-impaired participants are able to compensate their deficits over time.

  9. Performance Characteristics of Hero's Turbine Using Hot Water as a Working Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    藤井, 照重; 太田, 淳一; 赤川, 浩爾; 中村, 登志; 浅野, 等

    1990-01-01

    From the view point of energy saving and the development of new energy resources,it is important to utilize geothermal resources and waste heat from factories. As one of the energy conversion expanders,there is a radial outflow reaction turbine(that is,Hero's turbine). Performance characteristics of Hero's turbine using subcooled hot water as a working fluid are clarified analytically and experimentally. It is found that:(a)there is an optimum rotational speed at which maximum turbine efficie...

  10. Impact of Communication Errors in Radiology on Patient Care, Customer Satisfaction, and Work-Flow Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Bettina; Brook, Olga R; Hochman, Mary; Eisenberg, Ronald L

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of communication errors on patient care, customer satisfaction, and work-flow efficiency and to identify opportunities for quality improvement. We performed a search of our quality assurance database for communication errors submitted from August 1, 2004, through December 31, 2014. Cases were analyzed regarding the step in the imaging process at which the error occurred (i.e., ordering, scheduling, performance of examination, study interpretation, or result communication). The impact on patient care was graded on a 5-point scale from none (0) to catastrophic (4). The severity of impact between errors in result communication and those that occurred at all other steps was compared. Error evaluation was performed independently by two board-certified radiologists. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and kappa statistics. Three hundred eighty of 422 cases were included in the study. One hundred ninety-nine of the 380 communication errors (52.4%) occurred at steps other than result communication, including ordering (13.9%; n = 53), scheduling (4.7%; n = 18), performance of examination (30.0%; n = 114), and study interpretation (3.7%; n = 14). Result communication was the single most common step, accounting for 47.6% (181/380) of errors. There was no statistically significant difference in impact severity between errors that occurred during result communication and those that occurred at other times (p = 0.29). In 37.9% of cases (144/380), there was an impact on patient care, including 21 minor impacts (5.5%; result communication, n = 13; all other steps, n = 8), 34 moderate impacts (8.9%; result communication, n = 12; all other steps, n = 22), and 89 major impacts (23.4%; result communication, n = 45; all other steps, n = 44). In 62.1% (236/380) of cases, no impact was noted, but 52.6% (200/380) of cases had the potential for an impact. Among 380 communication errors in a radiology department, 37

  11. Summary of Country Reports Submitted to the Energy Efficiency Working Party - September 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this summary report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member countries since the last meeting of the Energy Efficiency Working Party (EEWP)1 held in January 2010. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency developments across all sectors, but is not meant to be a comprehensive review of every energy efficiency-related policy in IEA member countries. At the request of the EEWP, this issue of the country report summary focuses primarily on transport. Countries reported a wide range of energy efficiency policy activity. Compared with past reports, energy efficiency policy planning seems to be giving way to programme implementation in the buildings, lighting and appliances sectors. Planning and implementation is underway in the transport sector. Measures in the transport sector are diverse and include financial support for electric vehicle R&D and pilot projects, fiscal policies to encourage the purchase of efficient vehicles, eco-drive programmes and vehicle labelling. Measures of note outside the transport sector include the promotion of smart metering.

  12. Exploring Infiniband Hardware Virtualization in OpenNebula towards Efficient High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais Pitta de Lacerda Ruivo, Tiago [IIT, Chicago; Bernabeu Altayo, Gerard [Fermilab; Garzoglio, Gabriele [Fermilab; Timm, Steven [Fermilab; Kim, Hyun-Woo [Fermilab; Noh, Seo-Young [KISTI, Daejeon; Raicu, Ioan [IIT, Chicago

    2014-11-11

    has been widely accepted that software virtualization has a big negative impact on high-performance computing (HPC) application performance. This work explores the potential use of Infiniband hardware virtualization in an OpenNebula cloud towards the efficient support of MPI-based workloads. We have implemented, deployed, and tested an Infiniband network on the FermiCloud private Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) cloud. To avoid software virtualization towards minimizing the virtualization overhead, we employed a technique called Single Root Input/Output Virtualization (SRIOV). Our solution spanned modifications to the Linux’s Hypervisor as well as the OpenNebula manager. We evaluated the performance of the hardware virtualization on up to 56 virtual machines connected by up to 8 DDR Infiniband network links, with micro-benchmarks (latency and bandwidth) as well as w a MPI-intensive application (the HPL Linpack benchmark).

  13. Neurofeedback training improves attention and working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinn-Rong; Hsieh, Shulan

    2013-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the frontal-midline theta (fmθ) activity uptraining protocol on attention and working memory performance of older and younger participants. Thirty-two participants were recruited. Participants within each age group were randomly assigned to either the neurofeedback training (fmθ uptraining) group or the sham-neurofeedback training group. There was a significant improvement in orienting scores in the older neurofeedback training group. In addition, there was a significant improvement in conflict scores in both the older and young neurofeedback training groups. However, alerting scores failed to increase. In addition, the fmθ training was found to improve working memory function in the older participants. The results further showed that fmθ training can modulate resting EEG for both neurofeedback groups. Our study demonstrated that fmθ uptraining improved attention and working memory performance and theta activity in the resting state for normal aging adults. In addition, younger participants also benefited from the present protocol in terms of improving their executive function. The current findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback training in cognitive function, and suggest that the fmθ uptraining protocol is an effective intervention program for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Unlocking the Black Box: Exploring the Link between High-Performance Work Systems and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Jake G.; Patel, Pankaj C.; Lepak, David P.

    2011-01-01

    With a growing body of literature linking systems of high-performance work practices to organizational performance outcomes, recent research has pushed for examinations of the underlying mechanisms that enable this connection. In this study, based on a large sample of Welsh public-sector employees, we explored the role of several individual-level…

  15. Roles of Working Memory Performance and Instructional Strategy in Complex Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, V.; Altun, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…

  16. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  17. Restless legs syndrome and impact on work performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. The RSL prevalence in the general population is 0.1% - 11.5%, and increases with age, with the highest effect of producing a primary sleep disorder (70%-80%. Women appear to be at increased risk, as do individuals with certain chronic conditions, including renal failure and anemia. The pathophysiology of RLS is incompletely understood, but it probably results from derangements in dopamine and iron metabolism, and has a genetic component. RSL could be idiopathic or secondary (usually related with iron deficiency, terminal renal failure, pregnancy, and spinal cord lesions. RLS patients usually have sleep disorders, so the disease can cause difficulties and problems in occupational and social life. Subjects with RLS symptoms appear to experience significantly more daytime problems, including being late for work, making errors at work, or missing work because of sleepiness. The diagnosis of RLS is made by following the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. Pharmacologic RLS therapy, in which dopaminergic drugs constitute the first line, is effective and may have a dramatic effect on symptoms and quality of life. Identifying and treating RLS may improve sleep quality, daytime function and work performance.

  18. Restless legs syndrome and impact on work performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Samara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS is a neurological sensorimotor disorder characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs and an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. The RSL prevalence in the general population is 0.1% - 11.5%, and increases with age, with the highest effect of producing a primary sleep disorder (70%-80%. Women appear to be at increased risk, as do individuals with certain chronic conditions, including renal failure and anemia. The pathophysiology of RLS is incompletely understood, but it probably results from derangements in dopamine and iron metabolism, and has a genetic component. RSL could be idiopathic or secondary (usually related with iron deficiency, terminal renal failure, pregnancy, and spinal cord lesions. RLS patients usually have sleep disorders, so the disease can cause difficulties and problems in occupational and social life. Subjects with RLS symptoms appear to experience significantly more daytime problems, including being late for work, making errors at work, or missing work because of sleepiness. The diagnosis of RLS is made by following the criteria of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG. Pharmacologic RLS therapy, in which dopaminergic drugs constitute the first line, is effective and may have a dramatic effect on symptoms and quality of life. Identifying and treating RLS may improve sleep quality, daytime function and work performance.

  19. Quality initiatives: lean approach to improving performance and efficiency in a radiology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskal, Jonathan B; Reedy, Allen; Pascal, Laurie; Rosen, Max P; Boiselle, Phillip M

    2012-01-01

    Many hospital radiology departments are adopting "lean" methods developed in automobile manufacturing to improve operational efficiency, eliminate waste, and optimize the value of their services. The lean approach, which emphasizes process analysis, has particular relevance to radiology departments, which depend on a smooth flow of patients and uninterrupted equipment function for efficient operation. However, the application of lean methods to isolated problems is not likely to improve overall efficiency or to produce a sustained improvement. Instead, the authors recommend a gradual but continuous and comprehensive "lean transformation" of work philosophy and workplace culture. Fundamental principles that must consistently be put into action to achieve such a transformation include equal involvement of and equal respect for all staff members, elimination of waste, standardization of work processes, improvement of flow in all processes, use of visual cues to communicate and inform, and use of specific tools to perform targeted data collection and analysis and to implement and guide change. Many categories of lean tools are available to facilitate these tasks: value stream mapping for visualizing the current state of a process and identifying activities that add no value; root cause analysis for determining the fundamental cause of a problem; team charters for planning, guiding, and communicating about change in a specific process; management dashboards for monitoring real-time developments; and a balanced scorecard for strategic oversight and planning in the areas of finance, customer service, internal operations, and staff development. © RSNA, 2012.

  20. Pengaruh High Performance Work Practice (Hpwp) Terhadap Job Performance Pada Frontliner Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Ihdaryanti, Monica Amani; Panggabean, Mutiara S

    2014-01-01

    Generally High Performance Work Practice (HPWP) is a part of management human resources. The objectives of this research are getting and analyzing the effect of HPWPs with Job Satisfaction; HPWPs with Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction with Organizational Commitment; Job Satisfaction with Job Performance; and Organizational Commitment with Job Performance. The total of sample in this research is 100 respondents which are as Front liner BNI and Mandiri. The result of th...

  1. Aphysiologic performance on dynamic posturography in work-related patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrosa, F; Durà, M J; Menacho, J; González-Sabaté, L; Cordón, A; Hernández, A; García-Ibáñez, L

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that malingering should be suspected in patients suffering from dizziness or imbalance and who had a potential gain associated with insurance and worker's compensation claims. This study aimed to assess and compare the prevalence of aphysiologic performance on computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) in patients with the potential for secondary gain using a retrospective review of two groups of patients: work-related patients referred for dizziness and/or imbalance (Group 1) were compared against a group of patients with complaints of dizziness or imbalance, who had no history of work-related injury, or litigation procedures (Group 2). CDP and videonystagmography (VNG) were carried out in all patients. The Sensory Organization Test summaries were scored as normal, aphysiologic, or vestibular using the scoring method published by Cevette et al. in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 112:676-688 (1995). 24 out of 88 (27%) patients had aphysiologic CDP in Group 1 and 9 out of 51 (18%) in Group 2 but these differences were not significant (p > 0.05). Definite signs of vestibular dysfunction were found in 12 out of 24 (50%) of patients with aphysiologic performance in Group 1 although the presence of VNG abnormalities was significantly higher (p = 0.005) in Group 2. The hypothesis that the occupational group could show a significantly higher rate of aphysiologic results than a control group is not confirmed. Furthermore, VNG abnormalities were found in 50% of the work-related cases with non organic sway patterns. These results suggest that patient's complaints should be considered genuine in work-related cases and due caution exercised when evaluating aphysiologic CDP patterns.

  2. The Relationships between Work Team Strategic Intent and Work Team Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-30

    assessed performance measures or data. Podsakoff and Organ’s (1986) work highlighted that the most critical concern was that the use of self...obtaining data from self- reports. The Podsakoff and Organ (1986) article highlighted, though, that under specific conditions it seems that self-report... Podsakoff and Organ also stressed in their study that it is unlikely that such techniques of using self-reports will be abandoned. They do recommend that

  3. Improving the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire using Rasch analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Buuren, S. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Vet, H.C.W. de

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ) version 0.2 was developed using Rasch analysis. The goal of the current study was to improve targeting of the IWPQ scales by including additional items. The IWPQ 0.2 (original) and 0.3 (including additional items) were examined using Rasch analysis. Additional items that showed misfit or did not improve targeting were removed from the IWPQ 0.3, resulting in a final IWPQ 1.0. Subsequently, the scales showed good model fit and relia...

  4. Performance analysis and binary working fluid selection of combined flash-binary geothermal cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyghami, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal power cycle for geofluid temperatures between 150 and 250 °C is studied. A thermodynamic model is developed, and the suitable binary working fluids for different geofluid temperatures are identified from a list of thirty working fluid candidates, consisting environmental friendly refrigerants and hydrocarbons. The overall system exergy destruction and Vapor Expansion Ratio across the binary cycle turbine are selected as key performance indicators. The results show that for low-temperature heat sources using refrigerants as binary working fluids result in higher overall cycle efficiency and for medium and high-temperature resources, hydrocarbons are more suitable. For combined flash-binary cycle, secondary working fluids; R-152a, Butane and Cis-butane show the best performances at geofluid temperatures 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The overall second law efficiency is calculated as high as 0.48, 0.55 and 0.58 for geofluid temperatures equal 150, 200 and 250 °C respectively. The flash separator pressure found to has important effects on cycle operation and performance. Separator pressure dictates the work production share of steam and binary parts of the system. And there is an optimal separator pressure at which overall exergy destruction of the cycle achieves its minimum value. - Highlights: • Performance of the combined flash-binary geothermal cycle is investigated. • Thirty different fluids are screened to find the most suitable ORC working fluid. • Optimum cycle operation conditions presented for geofluids between 150 °C and 250 °C. • Refrigerants are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature ≤200 °C. • Hydrocarbons are more suitable for the ORC at geothermal sources temperature >200 °C

  5. An organic group contribution approach to radiative efficiency estimation of organic working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Kobayashi, Noriyuki; He, Maogang; Wang, Jingfu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We use group contribution method to estimate radiative efficiency. • CFC, HCFC, HFC, HFE, and PFC were estimated using this method. • In most cases, the estimation value has a good precision. • The method is reliable for the estimation of molecule with a symmetric structure. • This estimation method can offer good reference for working fluid development. - Abstract: The ratification of the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 mark an environment protection era of the development of organic working fluid. Ozone depletion potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) are two most important indices for the quantitative comparison of organic working fluid. Nowadays, more and more attention has been paid to GWP. The calculation of GWP is an extremely complicated process which involves interactions between surface and atmosphere such as atmospheric radiative transfer and atmospheric chemical reactions. GWP of a substance is related to its atmospheric abundance and is a variable in itself. However, radiative efficiency is an intermediate parameter for GWP calculation and it is a constant value used to describe inherent property of a substance. In this paper, the group contribution method was adopted to estimate the radiative efficiency of the organic substance which contains more than one carbon atom. In most cases, the estimation value and the standard value are in a good agreement. The biggest estimation error occurs in the estimation of the radiative efficiency of fluorinated ethers due to its plenty of structure groups and its complicated structure compared with hydrocarbon. This estimation method can be used to predict the radiative efficiency of newly developed organic working fluids.

  6. Indicators to monitor NPP safety performance. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Numerical indicators to monitor safety status and overall safety performance of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are used by operators and some regulators worldwide. During the last few years, the IAEA, through Technical Committee Meetings and Consultants' Meetings has worked on this area. This report presents a framework for nuclear power plant safety performance indicators that was developed during two consultant meetings held at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna in December 1995 and November 1996. Annex 2 on risk based indicators was prepared during a consultants' meeting held in Vienna in July 1996. An additional outcome from these activities, was the recommendation that the IAEA conduce pilot exercises at several nuclear power plants that might be interested to participate, in order to test the validity of the concept and its usefulness. 6 figs

  7. Enhancement of human performance with developing ergonomic workplace environment and providing work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs,; Henrietta Finna

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomy aims at creating a work place that suits the employee’s needs. A well-developed office does not only increase work efficiency but it can also significantly reduce costs. This study researches and reveals the specific personal attributes and the factors of workplace environment, which have an effect on the efficiency of the workforce. We were searching for studies, where the core work wasn’t changed -the increase in work efficiency was reached only by changing the work environment.

  8. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Li Haiming

    2011-01-01

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  9. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  10. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  11. Measuring economy-wide energy efficiency performance: A parametric frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B.W.; Zhou, D.Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a parametric frontier approach to estimating economy-wide energy efficiency performance from a production efficiency point of view. It uses the Shephard energy distance function to define an energy efficiency index and adopts the stochastic frontier analysis technique to estimate the index. A case study of measuring the economy-wide energy efficiency performance of a sample of OECD countries using the proposed approach is presented. It is found that the proposed parametric frontier approach has higher discriminating power in energy efficiency performance measurement compared to its nonparametric frontier counterparts.

  12. 28 CFR 545.22 - Institution work and performance pay committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institution work and performance pay... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.22 Institution work... Institution Inmate Work and Performance Pay Committee to administer the institution's work and performance pay...

  13. Treadmill workstations: the effects of walking while working on physical activity and work performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Ben-Ner

    Full Text Available We conducted a 12-month-long experiment in a financial services company to study how the availability of treadmill workstations affects employees' physical activity and work performance. We enlisted sedentary volunteers, half of whom received treadmill workstations during the first two months of the study and the rest in the seventh month of the study. Participants could operate the treadmills at speeds of 0-2 mph and could use a standard chair-desk arrangement at will. (a Weekly online performance surveys were administered to participants and their supervisors, as well as to all other sedentary employees and their supervisors. Using within-person statistical analyses, we find that overall work performance, quality and quantity of performance, and interactions with coworkers improved as a result of adoption of treadmill workstations. (b Participants were outfitted with accelerometers at the start of the study. We find that daily total physical activity increased as a result of the adoption of treadmill workstations.

  14. The role of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency of roller ski skating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind eSandbakk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to efficiently utilize metabolic energy to produce work is a key factor for endurance performance. The present study investigated the effects of incline, performance level and gender on the gross mechanical efficiency during roller ski skating. Thirty-one male and nineteen female elite cross-country skiers performed a 5-min submaximal session at approximately 75% of VO2peak on a 5% inclined treadmill using the G3 skating technique. Thereafter, a 5-min session on a 12% incline using the G2 skating technique was performed at a similar work rate. Gross efficiency was calculated as the external work rate against rolling friction and gravity divided by the metabolic rate using gas exchange. Performance level was determined by the amount of skating FIS points (the Federation of International Skiing approved scoring system for ski racing where fewer points indicate a higher performance level. Strong significant correlations between work rate and metabolic rate within both inclines and gender were revealed (r=-0.89-0.98 and P

  15. Data-efficient performance learning for configurable systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jianmei; Yang, Dingyu; Siegmund, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    results on 10 real-world configurable systems demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of DECART. In particular, DECART achieves a prediction accuracy of 90% or higher based on a small sample, whose size is linear in the number of features. In addition, we propose a sample quality metric......Many software systems today are configurable, offering customization of functionality by feature selection. Understanding how performance varies in terms of feature selection is key for selecting appropriate configurations that meet a set of given requirements. Due to a huge configuration space...... and the possibly high cost of performance measurement, it is usually not feasible to explore the entire configuration space of a configurable system exhaustively. It is thus a major challenge to accurately predict performance based on a small sample of measured system variants. To address this challenge, we...

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS AND ITS IMPACT ON WORK PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Madalina - Adriana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in times of economic crisis, most managers or entrepreneurs have to cope with a lot of new job challenges which can easily transform into stressors. Work related stress is of growing concern because it has significant economic implications for the organization. Even if some stress is a normal part of life, excessive stress can influence one's productivity, health and emotions and it has to be taken under control. When people lose confidence, they refuse to take responsibilities, they get quickly irritated, they are unsatisfied of their job, their performance will be very low and the organization will be in danger. Fortunately, most managers and entrepreneurs know which stress main symptoms are and have the necessary knowledge for managing and reducing it before it can affect employees' daily work. Stress can have an impact both on the organizational welfare and on personal behavior of supervisors or employees, that's why, the ability of managing it can make the difference between job's success or failure. The purpose of this paper is to study Romanian managers and entrepreneurs from Bihor County's perception regarding the stress phenomenon, if they feel that they are affected by stress, if they promote some methods to reduce it and if they consider that stress can influence the organizational performance. As a research method we used an online questionnaire, applied to a number of 75 managers and entrepreneurs that represent the target group of the project "Flexibility and performance through management", project financed by the European Social Fund - "Invest in people". Each participant had to answer a number of 35 questions regarding stress and the results will be presented in this paper. The main conclusion is that, even if job itself is seen as a stressor, there are other important factors that can produce stress such as: family problems, personal problems or social problems.

  17. OPTSDNA: Performance evaluation of an efficient distributed bioinformatics system for DNA sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Ibrahim; Sheel, Chotan

    2013-01-01

    Storage of sequence data is a big concern as the amount of data generated is exponential in nature at several locations. Therefore, there is a need to develop techniques to store data using compression algorithm. Here we describe optimal storage algorithm (OPTSDNA) for storing large amount of DNA sequences of varying length. This paper provides performance analysis of optimal storage algorithm (OPTSDNA) of a distributed bioinformatics computing system for analysis of DNA sequences. OPTSDNA algorithm is used for storing various sizes of DNA sequences into database. DNA sequences of different lengths were stored by using this algorithm. These input DNA sequences are varied in size from very small to very large. Storage size is calculated by this algorithm. Response time is also calculated in this work. The efficiency and performance of the algorithm is high (in size calculation with percentage) when compared with other known with sequential approach.

  18. Financial performance monitoring of the technical efficiency of critical access hospitals: a data envelopment analysis and logistic regression modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Asa B; Kerr, Bernard J; Bastian, Nathaniel D; Fulton, Lawrence V

    2012-01-01

    From 1980 to 1999, rural designated hospitals closed at a disproportionally high rate. In response to this emergent threat to healthcare access in rural settings, the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 made provisions for the creation of a new rural hospital--the critical access hospital (CAH). The conversion to CAH and the associated cost-based reimbursement scheme significantly slowed the closure rate of rural hospitals. This work investigates which methods can ensure the long-term viability of small hospitals. This article uses a two-step design to focus on a hypothesized relationship between technical efficiency of CAHs and a recently developed set of financial monitors for these entities. The goal is to identify the financial performance measures associated with efficiency. The first step uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to differentiate efficient from inefficient facilities within a data set of 183 CAHs. Determining DEA efficiency is an a priori categorization of hospitals in the data set as efficient or inefficient. In the second step, DEA efficiency is the categorical dependent variable (efficient = 0, inefficient = 1) in the subsequent binary logistic regression (LR) model. A set of six financial monitors selected from the array of 20 measures were the LR independent variables. We use a binary LR to test the null hypothesis that recently developed CAH financial indicators had no predictive value for categorizing a CAH as efficient or inefficient, (i.e., there is no relationship between DEA efficiency and fiscal performance).

  19. Design of multisegmented freeform lens for LED fishing/working lamp with high efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Min-Feng; Anh, Nguyen Doan Quoc; Gao, Jia-Zhi; Ma, Hsin-Yi; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2015-10-01

    A novel LED fishing/working light is proposed to enhance the lighting efficiency of a fishing boat. The study is focused on the freeform secondary lens design so as to create a lamp that attracts fish and sheds light on the deck for the crew's work. The experimental results show that the proposed multisegmented freeform lens can deliver the proposed aim, giving 3 times as much illuminating power as the traditional high-intensity discharge fishing lamp does with the same input of electrical power.

  20. Pornographic picture processing interferes with working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.

  1. Efficiency of Working Capital Management in the System of Financial Safety of Trade Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates theoretical and methodological and practical aspects of managing the financial security of enterprises of wholesale and retail trade in Ukraine, summarizes the scientific approaches to assessing enterprise financial security. There justified the influence of the level of efficiency of working capital management on improving the indicators of profitability of financial and economic activity, business activity; increasing financial sustainability and stability of development; ensuring an acceptable level of financial safety of trade enterprises. The main results of financial and economic activities of Ukrainian trade enterprises for the period 2010-2015 that influenced the level of their financial security are analyzed, the negative trends in the dynamics of receiving net profit, low profitability of sales and unprofitableness of using the current assets are highlighted. There revealed a significant disproportion in the structure of capital formation sources, high deficit of own financial resources, trend of financing the current assets entirely from borrowed funds, rapid growth of the level of credit interest rates. There performed an estimation of indicators of financial sustainability by means of the coefficient and aggregate approaches, which indicated the unstable and crisis financial condition of the majority of enterprises of wholesale and retail trade in Ukraine. There determined reserves of increasing financial security with the identification of the key components in the subsystems of financial security, criteria and indicators for an objective assessment of the financial status, taking into account the influence of the external environment, which will allow making sound management decisions regarding the analysis, prevention and neutralization of real and potential threats to trade enterprises.

  2. Adaptive Working Memory Training Reduces the Negative Impact of Anxiety on Competitive Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Smith, Tim J; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2017-12-01

    Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training. Measures of WM capacity as well as performance and objective gaze indices of attentional control in a tennis volley task were assessed in low- and high-pressure posttraining conditions. Results revealed significant benefits of training on WM capacity, quiet eye offset, and tennis performance in the high-pressure condition. Our results confirm and extend previous findings supporting the transfer of cognitive training benefits to objective measures of sports performance under pressure.

  3. Take-Off Efficiency: Transformation of Mechanical Work Into Kinetic Energy During the Bosco Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandova Sona

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study is to present a new method for determining the efficiency of take-off during a 60-s Bosco repeated vertical jump test. Method. The study involved 15 physical education students (age: 21.5 ± 2.4 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.08 m; mass: 76 ± 9 kg. The data were collected with the use of a pedobarographical system (Pedar-x; Novel, Munich, Germany. The statistical analysis utilized a simple linear regression model. Results. Owing to possible fatigue, flight time and flight height decreased. The average flight height was 0.260 ± 0.063 m, and the average contact time equalled 0.54 ± 0.16 s. The average anaerobic power values calculated for the 60-s work period had the mean value of 21.9 ± 6.7 W · kgBW-1; there was a statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease in anaerobic power during the 60-s Bosco test. Conclusions. The efficiency of mechanical work was highest at the beginning of the test, reaching values of up to 50%. The efficiency of mechanical work conversion into mechanical energy seems to be an appropriate determinant of rising fatigue during the 60-s Bosco jumping test.

  4. Efficient performance simulation of class D amplifier output stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    Straightforward simulation of amplifier distortion involves transient simulation of operation on a sine wave input signal, and a subsequent FFT of the output voltage. This approach is very slow on class D amplifiers, since the switching behavior forces simulation time steps that are many orders...... of magnitude smaller than the duration of one period of an audio sine wave. This work presents a method of simulating the amplifier transfer characteristic using a minimum amount of simulation time, and then deriving THD from the results....

  5. Steam injection for heavy oil recovery: Modeling of wellbore heat efficiency and analysis of steam injection performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hao; Cheng, Linsong; Huang, Shijun; Li, Bokai; Shen, Fei; Fang, Wenchao; Hu, Changhao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive mathematical model was established to estimate wellbore heat efficiency of steam injection wells. • A simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores was proposed. • High wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality can improve wellbore heat efficiency. • High wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean good performance of heavy oil recovery. • Using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels. - Abstract: The aims of this work are to present a comprehensive mathematical model for estimating wellbore heat efficiency and to analyze performance of steam injection for heavy oil recovery. In this paper, we firstly introduce steam injection process briefly. Secondly, a simplified approach of predicting steam pressure in wellbores is presented and a complete expression for steam quality is derived. More importantly, both direct and indirect methods are adopted to determine the wellbore heat efficiency. Then, the mathematical model is solved using an iterative technique. After the model is validated with measured field data, we study the effects of wellhead injection rate and wellhead steam quality on steam injection performance reflected in wellbores. Next, taking cyclic steam stimulation as an example, we analyze steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs with numerical reservoir simulation method. Finally, the significant role of improving wellbore heat efficiency in saving water and fuels is discussed in detail. The results indicate that we can improve the wellbore heat efficiency by enhancing wellhead injection rate or steam quality. However, high wellbore heat efficiency does not necessarily mean satisfactory steam injection performance reflected in reservoirs or good performance of heavy oil recovery. Moreover, the paper shows that using excellent insulation materials is a good way to save water and fuels due to enhancement of wellbore heat efficiency

  6. Performance of healthcare organizations: contributing variables to efficiency and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Isabel Garcia da Fonseca e Faro de

    2018-01-01

    The transition from volume-based healthcare to value-based healthcare has been the major challenge of National Health Systems. Nevertheless, some variables that might contribute to bring together healthcare professionals and healthcare challenges have been overlooked. Study A, the first of three studies, conducted in a primary healthcare setting, revealed that perceived and objective organizational performance is predicted by sense of community, which simultaneously mediates the relationship ...

  7. Performance indicators for the efficiency analysis of urban drainage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artina, S; Becciu, G; Maglionico, M; Paoletti, A; Sanfilippo, U

    2005-01-01

    Performance indicators implemented in a decision support system (DSS) for the technical, managerial and economic evaluation of urban drainage systems (UDS), called MOMA FD, are presented. Several kinds of information are collected and processed by MOMA FD to evaluate both present situation and future scenarios of development and enhancement. Particular interest is focused on the evaluation of the environmental impact, which is considered a very relevant factor in the decision making process to identify the priorities for UDS improvements.

  8. Resources on work zone safety and mobility performance monitoring and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Work zone performance measures are metrics that help quantify how work zones impact travelers, residents, businesses, and workers. Some performance measures describe how an individual work zone impacts these audiences; other performance measures desc...

  9. Nexus Between Working Capital Management and Sectoral Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Talreja

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impact of aggressive working capital factors/policies on firms’ performance to improve the financial health. Random and Fixed Effect models estimated by taking annual data of two major sectors: automobile and food sectors from 2006 to 2016. According to the findings, aggressive investment factor/policy (AIF has a negative impact on gross operating income (GOI in both sectors while aggressive financing factor/policy (AFF has an adverse effect on GOI in the food sector and positive impact on GOI in the automobile sector. The results of this study should be of great importance to investors, creditors, and financial analysts, especially after the global financial crisis and the collapses of giant organizations worldwide.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.7075

  10. Assessing Energy Efficiency of Compression Heat Pumps in Drying Processes when Zeotropic Hydrocarbon Mixtures are Used as Working Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurayts Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of studies of innovative materials in the field of renewable energy.The paper proposes a design and a formula for assessing energy efficiency of the heat pump air dryer, which uses zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons as a working agent and applies the principle of a counter-current heat exchanger with a variable temperature of both the working and the drying agents. Energy efficiency of the heat pump is achieved by means of obtaining a greater part of heat from renewable energy sources, in this case by cooling the air and condensing the water vapors in the heat pump. A conducted analysis identified correlations in establishing the marginal real coefficient of performance of the compression heat pump dryer running on zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures and operating a cycle with variable temperatures of both the working and the drying agent in the evaporator and the condenser of the heat pump. According to the established correlations, the marginal real coefficient of performance of the compression heat pump dryers running on zeotropic hydrocarbon mixtures of 40 mol% of R600a and 60 mol% of R601 is 1.92 times higher than that of the same dryers running on only R600 (n-butane.

  11. The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

  12. EFFICIENCY AND STOCK PERFORMANCE OF BANKS IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES: IS THERE A RELATIONSHIP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülin Vardar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the link between the cost and profit efficiency scores of the banks in the Central and Eastern European Countries as well as Turkey along with their stock price performance to determine whether the efficiency scores are priced accordingly in bank stocks. Changes in efficiency scores of banks, obtained from Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA model, are regressed against their stock price performance by applying fixed effects panel regression technique. Empirical results indicate that changes in profit efficiency estimates have a positive and significant impact on stock returns; however, a significant but negative relationship is found between changes in cost efficiency and stock returns.

  13. The Influences of Quantum Coherence on the Positive Work and the Efficiency of Quantum Heat Engine with Working Substance of Two-Qubit Heisenberg XXX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei

    2018-03-01

    We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.

  14. The Influences of Quantum Coherence on the Positive Work and the Efficiency of Quantum Heat Engine with Working Substance of Two-Qubit Heisenberg XXX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hu-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa; Yu, Min; Zou, Hong-Mei

    2018-06-01

    We study the influences of quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of quantum heat engine (QHE) based on working substance of two-qubit Heisenberg model under a constant external magnetic field. By using analytical and numerical solution, we give the relation expressions for both the positive work and the efficiency with quantum coherence, and in detail discuss the effects of the quantum coherence on the positive work and the efficiency of QHE in the absence or presence of external magnetic field, respectively.

  15. 3rd symposium on high-efficiency boiler technology: potential, performance, shortcomings of natural gas fuelled high-efficiency boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The brochure contains abstracts of the papers presented at the symposium. The potential, performance and marketing problems of natural gas high-efficiency boiler systems are outlined, and new ideas are presented for gas utilities, producers of appliances, fitters, and chimneysweeps. 13 papers are available as separate regards in this database. (HW) [de

  16. Effects of Sleep Deprivation on the Cognitive Performance of Nurses Working in Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliyaperumal, Deepalakshmi; Elango, Yaal; Alagesan, Murali; Santhanakrishanan, Iswarya

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation and altered circadian rhythm affects the cognitive performance of an individual. Quality of sleep is compromised in those who are frequently involved in extended working hours and shift work which is found to be more common among nurses. Cognitive impairment leads to fatigability, decline in attention and efficiency in their workplace which puts their health and patients' health at risk. To find out the prevalence of sleep deprivation and its impact on cognition among shift working nurses. Sleep deprivation among 97 female and three male healthy nurses of age 20-50 years was assessed by Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS). Cognition was assessed by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) questionnaire. Mobile applications were used to test their vigilance, reaction time, photographic memory and numerical cognition. The above said parameters were assessed during end of day shift and 3-4 days after start of night shift. Poor sleep quality was observed among 69% of shift working nurses according to ESS scores. The cognitive performance was analysed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The MoCA score was found to be lesser among 66% of nurses during night (25.72) than day (26.81). During the night, 32% made more mathematical errors. It was also found that, 71%, 83% and 68% of the nurses scored lesser during night in the Stroop's colour test, vigilance test and memory tests respectively. Thus, impairment in cognitive performance was statistically significant (pworking nurses. Cognitive performance was found to be impaired among shift working nurses, due to poor sleep quality and decreased alertness during wake state. Thus, shift work poses significant cognitive risks in work performance of nurses.

  17. Airports’ Operational Performance and Efficiency Evaluation Based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Jardim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport benchmarking depends on airports’ operational performance and efficiency indicators, which are important for business agents, operational managers, regulatory agencies, airlines and passengers. There are several sets of single and complex indicators to evaluate airports’ performance and efficiency as well as several techniques to benchmark such infrastructures. The general aim of this work is twofold: to balance the data envelopment analysis (DEA and multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA tools and to show that airport benchmarking is also possible using a multicriteria decision analysis tool called Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH. Whilst DEA measures the relative performance in the presence of multiple inputs and outputs, MCDA/ MACBETH uses performance and efficiency indicators to support benchmark results, being useful for evaluating the real importance and weight of the selected indicators. The work is structured as follows: first, a state-of-the-art review concerning either airport benchmarking and performance indicators or DEA and MCDA tool techniques; second, an overview of the impacts on airports’ operational performance and efficiency of emergent operational factors (sudden meteorological/natural phenomena; third, two case studies on a set of worldwide airports and Madeira (FNC Airport; and fourth, some insights into and challenges for future research that are still under development.

  18. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  19. Embryo-transfer twinning and performance efficiency in beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Martinez, P; Dickerson, G E; Anderson, G B; Green, R D

    1990-12-01

    Effects of twinning on efficiency of beef production were estimated from results of bilateral transfer of two Angus x Hereford (AxH) embryos into each of 241 heifers and 84 cows (H, A, HxA or Holstein x H) over 4 yr. Calves were weaned at 180 d and fed either 220 d in a feedlot (1977) or 170 d on forage and 140 d in a feedlot (1978 to 1980). Effects of parity, twinning and sex of calf were estimated as covariates within year-breed of dam. Pregnancy at 45 to 60 d of gestation was 68% in heifers (H) and 74% in cows (C), with 40% single (S) and 60% twin (T) births. Dystocia was 28% in H vs 10% in C (P less than .05), and tended to be less (P greater than .05) for T than S in H. More placentas were retained (P less than .05) for T than for S in both H (35 vs 12%) and C (24 vs 4%). Twin gestations averaged 3 d shorter and subsequent calving intervals 13 d longer (P less than .05), but total calf mortality was slightly higher (P greater than .05). Abortions were 4% in H only. Twinning females lost maternal weight during late gestation (P less than .05) when crowding limited voluntary feed intake, while fetal requirements were 60% higher (P less than .01). Twins increased milk output 25% (P less than .05), but 11% higher feed intake maintained cow weight during lactation. Twinning reduced birth weight 13% and weaning weight 17% (P less than .05), but 400-d feedlot weight only 9% because of compensating feedlot gain. Twins gained 18% faster than S during postweaning 170-d forage feeding, but 5% slower in feedlot to 8% lighter 490-d weight (P less than .05). Assuming 40% higher veterinary and labor costs for twins, estimated integrated herd costs per unit of age-constant output value would be lower for T than for S production by about 24% for marketing either at weaning or at 400 d.

  20. Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Capdevila, Lluis

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (M age  = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once. They were seated in front of a computer. During the intervention period, some oil diffusers were switched on and were in operation throughout the session with petitgrain essential oil for AG sessions and a neutral oil (almond) for CG sessions. At the same time, participants completed a computer task on a specific Web site typing on their keyboard until they had finished it. The single times were different for all participants and were recorded on the Web site as "performance time." Before and after the intervention, participants completed anxiety and mood state questionnaires (the Stait-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI] and the Profile of Mood States [POMS]). Heart-rate variability (HRV) was measured before (PRE), during (20-25 min), and after (POS) the intervention to analyze autonomic nervous system regulation. The AG performed the Web site task 2.28 min faster than the CG (p = 0.05). The two groups showed differences in the following HRV parameters: low frequency (p = 0.05), high frequency (p = 0.02), standard deviation of all RR intervals (p = 0.05), and root mean square of differences (p = 0.02). All participants in all groups showed a decrease from PRE to POST for STAI (p Aromatherapy (inhaling petitgrain essential oil) can improve performance in the workplace. These results could be explained by an autonomic balance on the sympathetic/parasympathetic system through a combined action of the petitgrain main components (linalyl acetate, linalool, and myrcene). The final

  1. Advanced non-destructive methods for an efficient service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Clossen-von Lanken Schulz, M.; Oberlin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the power generation industry's desire to decrease outage time and extend inspection intervals for highly stressed turbine parts, advanced and reliable Non-destructive methods were developed by Siemens Non-destructive laboratory. Effective outage performance requires the optimized planning of all outage activities as well as modern Non-destructive examination methods, in order to examine the highly stressed components (turbine rotor, casings, valves, generator rotor) reliably and in short periods of access. This paper describes the experience of Siemens Energy with an ultrasonic Phased Array inspection technique for the inspection of radial entry pinned turbine blade roots. The developed inspection technique allows the ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine blades without blade removal. Furthermore advanced Non-destructive examination methods for joint bolts will be described, which offer a significant reduction of outage duration in comparison to conventional inspection techniques. (authors)

  2. Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Performance of Heated Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammulamadaka, Hari Swarup

    The study about the evaluation of the performance of the heated windows was funded by the WVU Research Office as a technical assistance award at the 2014 TransTech Energy Business Development Conference to the Green Heated Glass company/project owned by Frank Dlubak. The award supports a WVU researcher to conduct a project important for commercialization. This project was awarded to the WVU Industrial Assessment Center in 2015. The current study attempted to evaluate the performance of the heated windows by developing an experimental setup to test the window at various temperatures by varying the current input to the window. The heated double pane window was installed in an insulated box. A temperature gradient was developed across the window by cooling one side of the window using gel based ice packs. The other face of the window was heated by passing current at different wattages through the window. The temperature of the inside and outside panes, current and voltage input, room and box temperature were recorded, and used to calculate the apparent R-value of the window when not being heated vs when being heated. It has been concluded from the study that the heated double pane window is more effective in reducing heat losses by as much as 50% than a non-heated double pane window, if the window temperature is maintained close to the room temperature. If the temperature of the window is much higher than the room temperature, the losses through the window appear to increase beyond that of a non-heated counterpart. The issues encountered during the current round of experiments are noted, and recommendations provided for future studies.

  3. Activities of the work efficiency institute`s department of forestry; Tyoetehoseuran metsaeosaston toiminta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelae, J

    1997-12-31

    In accordance with the demarcation of tasks among Finnish forest-engineering research institutions, the Work Efficiency Institute`s Department of Forestry is the only one specialising in research and development focusing on forestry work involving low capital investments and done by landowners on their own estate or on a part-time basis outside their estates. This activity also includes the small-scale utilisation of wood and peat in heating. This bulletin presents a review of our recent research and development work. A significant stepping up of the utilisation of bioenerqy is one of the objectives of the Finnish Government. This has been noted in the Work Efficiency Institute`s Department of Forestry`s work programme in recent years by increasing the role of research and development promoting the consumption of bioenergy. As one of the participants in the National Bioenergy research programme (1993-1998), we are looking into the harvesting of small-diameter wood and wood residues, technology employed in the production of wood chips and fuelwood, cost calculations in fuelwood harvesting, energy entrepreneurship, and the development of fireplaces. Other recent topics of research engaged in by the Department of Forestry include possibilities in the mechanisation of tending of young stands, excavator-loaders in timber harvesting, and promoting self-reliance among landowners in carrying out of forestry work. On-going studies include comparison of pruning methods, a survey of co-operation among landowners at the local community level, and a study looking into the quality of wood produced for delivery sales. (orig.)

  4. Some think of all rises on efficiency and performance for antisubmarine weapon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Qian

    2003-01-01

    The integrated antisubmarine weapon system is new antisubmarine weapon system studied by our country. The efficiency and performance of the system was not put into fullplay in the trying on. The reason for thus is much, such as: personnel, training, management, use, arm system and son on. The author presented some think of all rises on efficiency and performance for integrated antisubmarine weapon

  5. Insights into the Influence of Work Functions of Cathodes on Efficiencies of Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shizhong; Lu, Shudi; Ren, Kuankuan; Liu, Kong; Azam, Muhammad; Cao, Dawei; Wang, Zhijie; Lei, Yong; Qu, Shengchun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2017-05-01

    Though various efforts on modification of electrodes are still undertaken to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells, attributing to the large scope of these methods, it is of significance to unveil the working principle systematically. Herein, inverted perovskite solar cells based on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS)/CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 /phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 61 BM)/buffer metal/Al are constructed. Through the choice of different buffer metals to tune work function of the cathode, the contact nature of the active layer with the cathode could be manipulated well. In comparison with the device using Au/Al as the electrode that shows an unfavorable band bending for conducting the excited electrons to the cathode, the one with Ca/Al presents a dramatically improved efficiency over 17.1%, ascribed to the favorable band bending at the interface of the cathode with the active layer. Details for tuning the band bending and the corresponding charge transfer mechanism are given in a systematic manner. Thus, a general guideline for constructing perovskite photovoltaic devices efficiently is provided. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Dithiocarbamate Self-Assembled Monolayers as Efficient Surface Modifiers for Low Work Function Noble Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Dominik; Schäfer, Tobias; Schulz, Philip; Jung, Sebastian; Rittich, Julia; Mokros, Daniel; Segger, Ingolf; Maercks, Franziska; Effertz, Christian; Mazzarello, Riccardo; Wuttig, Matthias

    2016-09-06

    Tuning the work function of the electrode is one of the crucial steps to improve charge extraction in organic electronic devices. Here, we show that N,N-dialkyl dithiocarbamates (DTC) can be effectively employed to produce low work function noble metal electrodes. Work functions between 3.1 and 3.5 eV are observed for all metals investigated (Cu, Ag, and Au). Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) reveals a maximum decrease in work function by 2.1 eV as compared to the bare metal surface. Electronic structure calculations elucidate how the complex interplay between intrinsic dipoles and dipoles induced by bond formation generates such large work function shifts. Subsequently, we quantify the improvement in contact resistance of organic thin film transistor devices with DTC coated source and drain electrodes. These findings demonstrate that DTC molecules can be employed as universal surface modifiers to produce stable electrodes for electron injection in high performance hybrid organic optoelectronics.

  7. Anticipatory alpha phase influences visual working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Chadick, James Z; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-15

    Alpha band (8-12 Hz) phase dynamics in the visual cortex are thought to reflect fluctuations in cortical excitability that influences perceptual processing. As such, visual stimuli are better detected when their onset is concurrent with specific phases of the alpha cycle. However, it is unclear whether alpha phase differentially influences cognitive performance at specific times relative to stimulus onset (i.e., is the influence of phase maximal before, at, or after stimulus onset?). To address this, participants performed a delayed-recognition, working memory (WM) task for visual motion direction during two separate visits. The first visit utilized functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging to identify neural regions associated with task performance. Replicating previous studies, fMRI data showed engagement of visual cortical area V5, as well as a prefrontal cortical region, the inferior frontal junction (IFJ). During the second visit, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied separately to both the right IFJ and right V5 (with the vertex as a control region) while electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded. During each trial, a single pulse of TMS (spTMS) was applied at one of six time points (-200, -100, -50, 0, 80, 160 ms) relative to the encoded stimulus onset. Results demonstrated a relationship between the phase of the posterior alpha signal prior to stimulus encoding and subsequent response times to the memory probe two seconds later. Specifically, spTMS to V5, and not the IFJ or vertex, yielded faster response times, indicating improved WM performance, when delivered during the peak, compared to the trough, of the alpha cycle, but only when spTMS was applied 100 ms prior to stimulus onset. These faster responses to the probe correlated with decreased early event related potential (ERP) amplitudes (i.e., P1) to the probe stimuli. Moreover, participants that were least affected by spTMS exhibited greater functional connectivity

  8. Energy Efficient and Performance Analysis of Multihop Wireless Communication Over Nakagami-m Fading Channel

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2015-06-01

    The concept of multihop communications (where the source communicates with the destination via many intermediate nodes) has been revisited and adapted to mitigate wireless channel impairments and ensure broader coverage. It has been shown in the literature that, in addition to extending coverage, overcoming shadowing and reducing the transmit power, multihop communications can increase the capacity of the network at a low additional cost. On the other hand, the problem of energy efficiency is one of the current biggest challenges towards green radio communications. Morevover, electromagnetic radiation is at its limit in many contexts, while for battery-powered devices, transmit and circuit energy consumption has to be minimized for better battery lifetime and performance. In this work, the performance of multihop communication over Nakagami-m fading is investigated for both cases without and with diversity combining. Closed form expressions of the average ergodic capacity are derived for each of these cases. Then, an expression of the outage probability is obtained using the inverse of Laplace transform and the average bit error rate is bounded using the Moment-Generating-Function approach. The energy efficiency is analyzed using the "consumption factor" as a metric, and it is derived in closed-form. And based on the obtained expressions, we propose a power allocation strategy maximizing this consumption factor.

  9. Analysis of indicators of an efficiency estimation of work of the employee and the business model of the organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury G. Odegov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of increasing competition, the problems of efficiency increase of activity of the company are significantly actualized, which directly depends on efficiency of labour activity of every employee and the implemented business model of the organization. On this basis the aim of the research is to analyze existing indicators of performance evaluation of the labour activities of both the employee and the business model of the organization.The theoretical basis of the study consists of principles of the economic theory, the works of native and foreign experts in the field of job evaluation. The information base of the research consists of economic and legal literature dealing with problems of this study, the data published in periodicals, materials of Russian scientific conferences, seminars, and Internet resources.In this article I have used and found the application of scientific methods of data collection, methods of research and methods of assessing their credibility: quantitative, comparative, logical analysis and synthesis.The modern business concern about the accumulation of wealth of shareholders, giving the company stability, growth and efficiency inevitably leads to necessity of creation and development of technologies aimed at improving the productivity of employees. The paper presents a comparative analysis of different approaches to assessing the labour effectiveness.The performance of the work is the ratio of the four essential parameters that determine the measure of efficiency of persons’ activity: the quantity and quality of result of work (a service, material product or technology in relation to spend time and cost on its production. The use of employees («performance» should be in the following way that they could achieve the planned results in the workplace. The authors have noted that to develop of technologies for the measurement of productivity it is very important to use the procedures and indicators that are

  10. Energy performance of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning integrated systems working with natural refrigerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchinato, Luca; Corradi, Marco; Minetto, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The current trends in commercial refrigeration aim at reducing the synthetic refrigerant charge, either by minimising the internal volume of the circuit or by utilising natural refrigerants, and at energy saving. The energy efficiency of supermarkets can be improved by optimising components design, recovering thermal and refrigerating energy, adopting innovative technology solutions, integrating the HVAC system with medium temperature and low temperature refrigeration plants and, finally, reducing thermal loads on refrigerated cases. This study aims at investigating the performance of different lay-out and technological solutions where only natural refrigerants are used and at finding the potential for improving energy efficiency over the traditional systems in different climates. In the analysis, chillers and heat pumps working with ammonia or propane, medium temperature systems working with ammonia or propane and carbon dioxide as heat transfer fluid or with carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and low temperature systems working with carbon dioxide are considered and benchmarked with a state-of-the-art HFCs based plant. The most efficient investigated solution enables an annual energy saving higher than 15% with respect to the baseline solution for all the considered climates. - Highlights: ► Different natural refrigerants supermarket HVAC and R integrated systems are analysed. ► Some of the proposed solutions offer a significant benefit over the baseline one. ► Up to 18.7% energy saving is achieved in the considered climates. ► The refrigeration unit condensation by the AC chiller offers the poorest results.

  11. Performance indices and evaluation of algorithms in building energy efficient design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si, Binghui; Tian, Zhichao; Jin, Xing; Zhou, Xin; Tang, Peng; Shi, Xing

    2016-01-01

    Building energy efficient design optimization is an emerging technique that is increasingly being used to design buildings with better overall performance and a particular emphasis on energy efficiency. To achieve building energy efficient design optimization, algorithms are vital to generate new designs and thus drive the design optimization process. Therefore, the performance of algorithms is crucial to achieving effective energy efficient design techniques. This study evaluates algorithms used for building energy efficient design optimization. A set of performance indices, namely, stability, robustness, validity, speed, coverage, and locality, is proposed to evaluate the overall performance of algorithms. A benchmark building and a design optimization problem are also developed. Hooke–Jeeves algorithm, Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm II, and Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm are evaluated by using the proposed performance indices and benchmark design problem. Results indicate that no algorithm performs best in all six areas. Therefore, when facing an energy efficient design problem, the algorithm must be carefully selected based on the nature of the problem and the performance indices that matter the most. - Highlights: • Six indices of algorithm performance in building energy optimization are developed. • For each index, its concept is defined and the calculation formulas are proposed. • A benchmark building and benchmark energy efficient design problem are proposed. • The performance of three selected algorithms are evaluated.

  12. The performance of a quantum heat engine working with spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jincan; Lin Bihong; Hua Ben

    2002-01-01

    It is considered that the cycle of a quantum heat engine working with many non-interacting spin-1/2 systems is composed of two isothermal and two isomagnetic field processes. The performance of the cycle is investigated, based on the quantum master equation and semi-group approach. The general expressions of the efficiency and power output are given. The regenerative losses in two isomagnetic field processes are calculated. The influence of non-perfect regeneration is analysed. Some interesting cases are discussed in detail. The results obtained are further generalized, so that they may be directly used to describe the performance of the quantum heat engine using spin-J systems as the working substance. (author)

  13. Fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for determination of organic matter removal efficiency at water treatment works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Bieroza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic matter (OM in drinking water treatment is a common impediment responsible for increased coagulant and disinfectant dosages, formation of carcinogenic disinfection-by products, and microbial re-growth in distribution system. The inherent heterogeneity of OM implies the utilization of advanced analytical techniques for its characterization and assessment of removal efficiency. Here, the application of simple fluorescence excitation-emission technique to OM characterization in drinking water treatment is presented. The fluorescence data of raw and clarified water was obtained from 16 drinking water treatment works. The reduction in fulvic-like fluorescence was found to significantly correlate with OM removal measured with total organic carbon (TOC. Fluorescence properties, fulvic- and tryptophan-like regions, were found to discriminate OM fractions of different removal efficiencies. The results obtained in the study show that fluorescence spectroscopy provides a rapid and accurate characterization and quantification of OM fractions and indication of their treatability in conventional water treatment.

  14. Profiles of mental health care professionals based on work role performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-12-01

    The worldwide burden of mental disorders is considerable, and on the rise, putting pressure on health care systems. Current reforms aim to improve the efficiency of mental health care systems by increasing service integration in communities and strengthening primary mental health care. In this context, mental health care professionals (MHPs) are increasingly required to work on interdisciplinary teams in a variety of settings. Little is known, however, about the profiles of MHPs in relation to their perceived work role performance. MHPs in Quebec (N = 315) from four local service networks completed a self-administered questionnaire eliciting information on individual and team characteristics, as well as team processes and states. Profiles of MHPs were created using a two-step cluster analysis. Five profiles were generated. MHPs belonging to profiles labelled senior medical outpatient specialized care MHPs and senior psychosocial outpatient specialized care MHPs perceived themselves as more performing than MHPs in other profiles. The profile labelled low-collaborators was significantly less performing than all other groups. Two other profiles were identified, positioned between the aforementioned groups in terms of the perceived performance of MHPs: the junior primary care MHPs and the diversified specialized care MHPs. Seniority within the team, delivering specialized type of care, and positive team processes were all features associated with profiles where perceived work performance was high. Overall, this study supports the case for initiatives aimed at improving stability and interdisciplinary collaboration in health teams, especially in primary care.

  15. EFFECT OF STRESS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL OVERLOAD AT WORK ON PERFORMANCE OF EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREK ŠOLC

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The workload represents a factor which acts burdensome on human organism and, depending on its level affects well-being, or leads to disease or injury. As a result, there is a distortion in optimal working relationship in the system man – machine – environment, which may be reflected in the reduction of productivity and efficiency throughout the system. The contribution deals with the issue of the effects of stress and psychological overload at work, which affects significantly the performance of employees. The article describes the basic legislation regarding the workload in conditions of the Slovak Republic, it describes the types of loads, different causes, manifestations and consequences of load. According to theoretical knowledge about stress and loads, the questionnaire method was applied for assessment of mental workload in terms of working conditions level in the unnamed service organization.

  16. Working memory capacity predicts conflict-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of cognitive control in response to conflict. Participants performed a Simon task in which congruent and incongruent trials were equiprobable, but in which the proportion of congruency repetitions (congruent trials followed by congruent trials or incongruent trials followed by incongruent trials) and thus the need for trial-by-trial adjustments in cognitive control varied by block. The overall Simon effect did not depend on WMC capacity. However, for the low-WMC participants the Simon effect decreased as the proportion of congruency repetitions decreased, whereas for the high- and average-WMC participants it was relatively constant across conditions. Distribution analysis of the Simon effect showed more evidence for the inhibition of stimulus location in the low- than in the high-WMC participants, especially when the proportion of congruency repetitions was low. We hypothesize that low-WMC individuals exhibit more interference from task-irrelevant information due to weaker preparatory control prior to stimulus presentation and, thus, stronger reliance on reactive recruitment of cognitive control.

  17. The Work Performed within Special Legal Labour Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Răzvan Popescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Prior Work Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. Results An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contr act so different from other contracts. Value We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by this types of labour performed in different legal labour relations.

  18. Active workstation allows office workers to work efficiently while sitting and exercising moderately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koren, Katja; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan

    2016-05-01

    To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity active workstation on time and error during simulated office work. The aim of the study was to analyse simultaneous work and exercise for non-sedentary office workers. We monitored oxygen uptake, heart rate, sweating stains area, self-perceived effort, typing test time with typing error count and cognitive performance during 30 min of exercise with no cycling or cycling at 40 and 80 W. Compared baseline, we found increased physiological responses at 40 and 80 W, which corresponds to moderate physical activity (PA). Typing time significantly increased by 7.3% (p = 0.002) in C40W and also by 8.9% (p = 0.011) in C80W. Typing error count and cognitive performance were unchanged. Although moderate intensity exercise performed on cycling workstation during simulated office tasks increases working task execution time with, it has moderate effect size; however, it does not increase the error rate. Participants confirmed that such a working design is suitable for achieving the minimum standards for daily PA during work hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing the working efficiency of core lifter in a sectional turbobit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhmaev, Z M; Kutepov, A I; Ganiev, G M

    1969-01-01

    Reasons for decreases of core recovery and decreases of drilling efficiency in core drilling are presented. One of the main faults with the turbobit is breakage of core lifter. As the length of the core lifter was increased, its strength was reduced. Use of ordinary tubing is not satisfactory with core lifters equipped with turbobits of 170 and 235 mm diam. The construction of lightweight alloy tubing (73 mm diam) for use with 235 mm turbobits is described. Tests showed that the lightweight core lifter assembly works satisfactorily. Schematic diagrams and descriptions of lightweight core lifters are supplied.

  20. Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies.

  1. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  2. Experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of the high performance cooling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.nemec@fstroj.uniza.sk; Malcho, Milan, E-mail: milan.malcho@fstroj.uniza.sk [University of Žilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Žilina (Slovakia)

    2016-06-30

    This work deal with experimental evaluation of cooling efficiency of cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. The work contain description of cooling device, working principle of cooling device, construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method of device cooling efficiency evaluation. The work results are presented in graphic visualization of temperature dependence of the contact area surface between cooling device evaporator and electronic components on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W and temperature dependence of the loop thermosiphon condenser surface on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 740 W.

  3. Guided synthesis of accumulative solutions for the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez Cabrales, Alexis; Gaskins Espinosa, Benjamín Gabriel; Pérez Rodríguez, Roberto; Simeón Monet, Rolando Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design is closely related to a product functional structure and the search of solution principles for its definition. This work exposes an accumulative method for the traceability of the functional structure that implements the guided conceptual synthesis of solutions in the preliminary analysis of this designing process stage. The method constitutes a contribution to Pahls and Beitzs classic design model. In it, the functional information system is manipulated, providing the designer with a help so that he can examine the different solutions that are obtained, giving him the possibility of selecting the most convenient one. The guided analysis of the accumulative solutions synthesis is illustrated by means of the conceptual design of an efficient stove working with biomass. (author)

  4. 48 CFR 852.236-72 - Performance of work by the contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance of work by the....236-72 Performance of work by the contractor. As prescribed in 836.501, insert the following clause: Performance of Work by the Contractor (JUL 2002) The clause entitled “Performance of Work by the Contractor...

  5. How phonological awareness mediates the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop-van Campen, Carolien A N; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the relation between working memory, phonological awareness, and word reading efficiency in fourth-grade children with dyslexia. To test whether the relation between phonological awareness and word reading efficiency differed for children with dyslexia versus typically developing children, we assessed phonological awareness and word reading efficiency in 50 children with dyslexia (aged 9;10, 35 boys) and 613 typically developing children (aged 9;5, 279 boys). Phonological awareness was found to be associated with word reading efficiency, similar for children with dyslexia and typically developing children. To find out whether the relation between working memory and word reading efficiency in the group with dyslexia could be explained by phonological awareness, the children with dyslexia were also tested on working memory. Results of a mediation analysis showed a significant indirect effect of working memory on word reading efficiency via phonological awareness. Working memory predicted reading efficiency, via its relation with phonological awareness in children with dyslexia. This indicates that working memory is necessary for word reading efficiency via its impact on phonological awareness and that phonological awareness continues to be important for word reading efficiency in older children with dyslexia. © 2018 The Authors Dyslexia Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Methadone disrupts performance on the working memory version of the Morris water task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepner, Ilana J; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan J

    2002-05-01

    The aim of the study was to examine if administration of the mu-opiate agonist methadone hydrochloride resulted in deficits in performance on the Morris water tank task, a widely used test of spatial cognition. To this end, after initial training on the task, Long-Evans rats were administered saline or methadone at either 1.25, 2.5 or 5 mg/kg ip 15 min prior to testing. The performance of the highest-dose methadone group was inferior to that of the controls on the working memory version of the Morris task. There were also differences between the groups on the reference memory version of the task, but this result cannot be considered reliable. These data show that methadone has its most profound effect on cognition in rats when efficient performance on the task requires attention to and retention of new information, in this case, the relationship between platform location and the extramaze cues.

  7. Energy Efficiency and Performance Limiting Effects in Thermo-Osmotic Energy Conversion from Low-Grade Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Anthony P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-11-07

    Low-grade heat energy from sources below 100 °C is available in massive quantities around the world, but cannot be converted to electricity effectively using existing technologies due to variability in the heat output and the small temperature difference between the source and environment. The recently developed thermo-osmotic energy conversion (TOEC) process has the potential to harvest energy from low-grade heat sources by using a temperature difference to create a pressurized liquid flux across a membrane, which can be converted to mechanical work via a turbine. In this study, we perform the first analysis of energy efficiency and the expected performance of the TOEC technology, focusing on systems utilizing hydrophobic porous vapor-gap membranes and water as a working fluid. We begin by developing a framework to analyze realistic mass and heat transport in the process, probing the impact of various membrane parameters and system operating conditions. Our analysis reveals that an optimized system can achieve heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiencies up to 4.1% (34% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and an operating pressure of 5 MPa (50 bar). Lower energy efficiencies, however, will occur in systems operating with high power densities (>5 W/m 2 ) and with finite-sized heat exchangers. We identify that the most important membrane properties for achieving high performance are an asymmetric pore structure, high pressure resistance, a high porosity, and a thickness of 30 to 100 μm. We also quantify the benefits in performance from utilizing deaerated water streams, strong hydrodynamic mixing in the membrane module, and high heat exchanger efficiencies. Overall, our study demonstrates the promise of full-scale TOEC systems to extract energy from low-grade heat and identifies key factors for performance optimization moving forward.

  8. Flagellum motion in 2-D: Work rate and efficiency of the non-sinusoidal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Nuraini, Nuning; Stephanie, Monica; Rifqi, Ainur; Christina, Dina; Thania, Elsa; Sihite, Erland

    2018-03-01

    Today microorganisms have been widely used to support human life. Some examples include foodstuffs (Spirulina.sp), to help with medical needs, for mining purposes and more. On the other hand, the development of technology is also very big influence on human life. The combination of technology and health science will be very useful if we can develop it. One is the cancer treatment by utilizing the movement of the flagella to be made a nanorobot used as a carrier of cancer drugs. Movement of flagella that resembles the shape of the arc and straight line can be searched formulation and then applied to the manufacture of nanorobot tail. Then the nanorobot will carry a cancer drug that leads directly to the cancer cells. So hopefully with this nanorobot, can minimize the death of healthy cells around cancer cells. From the results of research and analysis of the movement of flagella, it can be concluded that the smaller the mass of the flagella, the greater the efficiency will be or will be more efficient. So, the energy needed nanorobot will be smaller. Model with non-sinusoidal approach (Brokaw, 1965) is discussed in this work and formulation to get the energy efficiency is proposed and analyzed. Unfortunately, there is a negative value in the formulation.

  9. Action plan for energy efficiency 2003-2006. A Working Group Proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    The updating of the Action Plan for Energy Efficiency is closely related to the need to further intensify measures for promoting energy conservation that was highlighted in the debate in Parliament on the National Climate Strategy and building of a new nuclear power plant. The Working Group with responsibility for the preparation of the updating has made an assessment of the implementation and impact of the previous Action Plan for Energy Efficiency and sought to come up with new measures and ways of increasing the effect of the actions in the previous action plan. The main instruments presented in the updated action plan are developing new technologies, economic instruments, energy conservation agreements, laws and regulations and information and training. The action plan comprises proposals for increasing the budget for energy subsidies for companies and bodies and finding new formulas for the funding of energy saving investments. Further, the aid for the renovation of buildings is proposed to be enhanced. More effort is also needed as concerns disseminating information on energy saving. The development of new technologies requires that the funding from the National Technology Agency (Tekes) for energy efficiency is kept at least at the level of 1999. An implementation of the measures proposed would require a contribution from the state amounting to about E 80 million per year. The system of Energy Conservation Agreements is proposed to be further extended and developed. The agreements could to a larger extent than before cover research and product development processes and processes for purchasing of goods and services. The Working Group proposes further examination of the possibility of imposing binding targets and applying sanctions. Energy taxation is proposed to be developed further in order to promote energy saving and co- generation with the impact of the future Directive on emission allowance trading in mind. New research and development projects are

  10. Performance-based contracting in home-care work in The Netherlands: professionalism under pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomkens, Rosanne; Hoogenboom, Marcel; Knijn, Trudie

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to improve the understanding of the relationships between performance-based contracting, management supportiveness and professionalism in home care. Using path analysis, this article explores the relationships between home-care workers' perceptions of management support, implementation of performance-based contracting (i.e. use of strict time registration rules and cost-efficiency measures) and autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction. We hypothesised that: use of strict time registration rules and cost-efficiency measures relates to lower levels of autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction (H1); there is an indirect relationship between use of strict time registration rules and use of cost-efficiency measures and intrinsic job satisfaction via autonomy (H2); higher levels of management support relate to the use of looser time registration rules and less use of cost-efficiency measures (H3); and higher levels of management support relate to higher levels of autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction (H4). We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 of a sample of Dutch home-care workers (N = 156, response rate = 34%). Overall, our study suggests that the consequences of performance-based contracting for professionalism are ambiguous. More specifically, using strict time registration rules is related to lower levels of autonomy, whereas using cost-efficiency measures does not seem to affect autonomy (H1). Performance-based contracting has no consequences for the level of fulfilment home-care workers find in their job, as neither of the two contracting dimensions measured was directly or indirectly related to intrinsic job satisfaction (H1, H2). The role of managers must be taken into account when studying performance-based contracting, because perceived higher management support is related to managers' less frequent use of both strict time registration rules and of cost-efficiency measures (H3). The insight we gained into the importance of

  11. Job anxiety, work-related psychological illness and workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses matched employee-employer data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2004 to examine the determinants of employee job anxiety and work-related psychological illness. Job anxiety is found to be strongly related to the demands of the job as measured by factors such as occupation, education and hours of work. Average levels of employee job anxiety, in turn, are positively associated with work-related psychological illness among the workforce as reported by...

  12. Performance tests and efficiency analysis of Solar Invictus 53S - A parabolic dish solar collector for direct steam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Umer; Ali, Wajahat

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on Solar Invictus 53S `system'; an economically effective solar steam generation solution designed and developed by ZED Solar Ltd. The system consists of a dual axis tracking parabolic solar dish and bespoke cavity type receiver, which works as a Once Through Solar Steam Generator `OTSSG' mounted at the focal point of the dish. The overall performance and efficiency of the system depends primarily on the optical efficiency of the solar dish and thermal efficiency of the OTSSG. Optical testing performed include `on sun' tests using CCD camera images and `burn plate' testing to evaluate the sunspot for size and quality. The intercept factor was calculated using a colour look-back method to determine the percentage of solar rays focused into the receiver. Solar dish tracking stability tests were carried out at different times of day to account for varying dish elevation angles and positions, movement of the sunspot centroid was recorded and logged using a CCD camera. Finally the overall performance and net solar to steam efficiency of the system was calculated by experimentally measuring the output steam parameters at varying Direct Normal Insolation (DNI) levels at ZED Solar's test facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Thermal losses from OTSSG were calculated using the known optical efficiency and measured changes in output steam enthalpy.

  13. An energy-efficient high-performance processor with reconfigurable data-paths using RSFQ circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Naofumi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An idea of a high-performance computer using RSFQ circuits is shown. ► An outline of processor with reconfigurable data-paths (RDPs) is shown. ► Architectural details of an SFQ-RDP are described. -- Abstract: We show recent progress in our research on an energy-efficient high-performance processor with reconfigurable data-paths (RDPs) using rapid single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) circuits. We mainly describe the architectural details of an RDP implemented using RSFQ circuits. An RDP consists of a lot of floating-point units (FPUs) and operand routing networks (ORNs) which connect the FPUs. We reconfigure the RDP to fit a computation, i.e., a group of floating-point operations, appearing in a ‘for’ loop of programs for numerical computations by setting the route in ORNs before the execution of the loop. In the RDP, a lot of FPUs work in parallel with pipelined fashion, and hence, very high-performance computation is achieved

  14. MONITORING OF THE PERFORMANCE EFFICIENCY OF THE EQUIPMENT AT THE ENTERPRISES OF AVIATION INSTRUMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr P. Dobrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article elaborates the proposals to improve the systems for monitoring performance of the equipment at the enterprises of aviation instrument. The relevance of the study due to the fact that the aviation instrument-making industry of the Russian Federation can play a role as a key factor in enhancing the competitiveness of the national economy. Currently, the global aviation market is fairly saturated, it competition is not between individual companies and between the aviation powers. The role of an efficient industrial production is largely dependent on the amount, structure, technical condition and the level of utilization of fixed assets. Specificity of high-tech high-tech production presupposes the existence of a specific fleet of expensive and unique equipment; a high degree of novelty products, single or small-scale type of production that determines the high cost of production of a unit of production; high demands on the staff . The paper noted that the production capacity is an essential tool for production planning process, which allows to determine the optimal work shifts Park main technological equipment and production program to justify the enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument. On the basis of the modification of OEE method, a stochastic model is proposed, which allows to display the efficiency of the productive capacity of the high-tech enterprises of sphere of aviation instrument in the form of multi-dimensional size and much more accurately identify the relationship between its elements.

  15. Work zone performance monitoring application development, research summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In 2004, the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) updated the work zone regulations to encourage the collection and use of work zone safety and mobility data (23 CFR 630 Subpart J). The new rule essentially requires agencies to use data to generate ...

  16. Enhanced performance of solar cells with optimized surface recombination and efficient photon capturing via anisotropic-etching of black silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H. Y.; Peng, Y.; Hong, M.; Zhang, Y. B.; Cai, Bin; Zhu, Y. M.; Yuan, G. D.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Z. Q.; Wang, J. X.; Li, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report an enhanced conversion efficiency of femtosecond-laser treated silicon solar cells by surface modification of anisotropic-etching. The etching improves minority carrier lifetime inside modified black silicon area substantially; moreover, after the etching, an inverted pyramids/upright pyramids mixed texture surface is obtained, which shows better photon capturing capability than that of conventional pyramid texture. Combing of these two merits, the reformed solar cells show higher conversion efficiency than that of conventional pyramid textured cells. This work presents a way for fabricating high performance silicon solar cells, which can be easily applied to mass-production

  17. Metabolic rate and gross efficiency at high work rates in world class and national level sprint skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Leirdal, Stig; Ettema, Gertjan

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated metabolic rate (MR) and gross efficiency (GE) at moderate and high work rates, and the relationships to gross kinematics and physical characteristics in elite cross-country skiers. Eight world class (WC) and eight national level (NL) male sprint cross-country skiers performed three 5-min stages using the skating G3 technique, whilst roller skiing on a treadmill. GE was calculated by dividing work rate by MR. Work rate was calculated as the sum of power against gravity and frictional rolling forces. MR was calculated using gas exchange and blood lactate values. Gross kinematics, i.e. cycle length (CL) and cycle rate (CR) were measured by video analysis. Furthermore, the skiers were tested for time to exhaustion (TTE), peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), and maximal speed (V(max)) on the treadmill, and maximal strength in the laboratory. Individual performance level in sprint skating was determined by FIS points. WC skiers did not differ in aerobic MR, but showed lower anaerobic MR and higher GE than NL skiers at a given speed (all P higher V(max) and TTE (all P better technique and to technique-specific power.

  18. European Bank Efficiency and Performance : The effects of supranational versus national bank supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galema, R.J.; Koetter, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores European bank efficiency and performance. First, the authors provide an overview of the key estimation methods for efficiency and discuss selected applications to the European banking sector. Second, they apply stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the extent to which the

  19. Performance analysis of an organic Rankine cycle with internal heat exchanger having zeotropic working fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranis Deethayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performance of a 50 kW organic Rankine cycle (ORC with internal heat exchanger (IHE having R245fa/R152a zeotropic refrigerant with various compositions was investigated. The IHE could reduce heat rate at the ORC evaporator and better cycle efficiency could be obtained. The zeotropic mixture could reduce the irreversibilities during the heat exchanges at the ORC evaporator and the ORC condenser due to its gliding temperature; thus the cycle working temperatures came closer to the temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink. In this paper, effects of evaporating temperature, mass fraction of R152a and effectiveness of internal heat exchanger on the ORC performances for the first law and the second law of thermodynamics were considered. The simulated results showed that reduction of R245fa composition could reduce the irreversibilities at the evaporator and the condenser. The suitable composition of R245fa was around 80% mass fraction and below this the irreversibilities were nearly steady. Higher evaporating temperature and higher internal heat exchanger effectiveness also increased the first law and second law efficiencies. A set of correlations to estimate the first and the second law efficiencies with the mass fraction of R245fa, the internal heat exchanger effectiveness and the evaporating temperature were also developed.

  20. Effects of heat transfer, friction and variable specific heats of working fluid on performance of an irreversible dual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Ge Yanlin; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic performance of an air standard dual cycle with heat transfer loss, friction like term loss and variable specific heats of working fluid is analyzed. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycle, are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects of variable specific heats of the working fluid and the friction like term loss on the irreversible cycle performance are analyzed. The results show that the effects of variable specific heats of working fluid and friction like term loss on the cycle performance are obvious, and they should be considered in practical cycle analysis. The results obtained in this paper may provide guidance for the design of practical internal combustion engines

  1. Performance of an Atkinson cycle with heat transfer, friction and variable specific-heats of the working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Yanlin; Chen Lingen; Sun, Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2006-01-01

    The performance of an air standard Atkinson cycle with heat-transfer loss, friction-like term loss and variable specific-heats of the working fluid is analyzed using finite-time thermodynamics. The relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, as well as the optimal relation between the power output and the efficiency of the cycle are derived by detailed numerical examples. Moreover, the effects of variable specific-heats of the working fluid and the friction-like term loss on the irreversible cycle performance are analyzed. The results show that the effects of variable specific-heats of working fluid and friction-like term loss on the irreversible cycle performance should be considered in cycle analysis. The results obtained in this paper provide guidance for the design of Atkinson engines

  2. Comparison of working efficiency of terrestrial laser scanner in day and night conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, A. E.; Kalkan, K.

    2013-10-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning is a popular and widely used technique to scan existing objects, document historical sites and items, and remodel them if and when needed. Their ability to collect thousands of point data per second makes them an invaluable tool in many areas from engineering to historical reconstruction. There are many scanners in the market with different technical specifications. One main technical specification of laser scanners is range and illumination. In this study, it is tested to be determined the optimal working times of a laser scanner and the scanners consistency with its specifications sheet. In order to conduct this work, series of GNSS measurements in Istanbul Technical University have been carried out, connected to the national reference network, to determine precise positions of target points and the scanner, which makes possible to define a precise distance between the scanner and targets. Those ground surveys has been used for calibration and registration purposes. Two different scan campaigns conducted at 12 am and 11 pm to compare working efficiency of laser scanner in different illumination conditions and targets are measured with a handheld spectro-radiometer in order to determine their reflective characteristics. The obtained results are compared and their accuracies have been analysed.

  3. Performance investigation of a cogeneration plant with the efficient and compact heat recovery system

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Aung; Thu, Kyaw; Kim, Young-Deuk; Choon, Ng Kim

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the performance investigation of a cogeneration plant equipped with an efficient waste heat recovery system. The proposed cogeneration system produces four types of useful energy namely: (i) electricity, (ii) steam, (iii) cooling

  4. The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of SAP in improving the HR performance case study: Masdar ... administrative and strategic levels, as well as identifying the contribution of ... Keywords: SAP, human resources management, Masdar Building Materials Company ...

  5. In Pursuit of Energy Efficiency in India's Agriculture: Fighting 'Free Power' or Working with it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Ashwini; Charnoz, Olivier

    2012-08-01

    While about 70% of Indian electricity is carbon-based, a quarter of the nation's consumption goes into agriculture, to extract groundwater for irrigation. Improving the energy efficiency of Indian agriculture is thus a critical issue for the world at large, from both a climate change and energy security perspective. Yet, the picture is made immensely complex given the entrenched policy of providing 'free power' to farmers since the Green Revolution of the 1970's. Over the past two decades, a neo-liberal discourse shared by many Indian and international technocrats has emerged that frames 'free power' as a unilateral problem that leads to economic inefficiencies affecting utilities, the state governments but also the farmers themselves through the unfair allocation of subsidies. The solution that is hence most advocated is to revise and increase tariffs and to improve the technical efficiency of India's 23 million pumps. Key international donors have promoted this line of thinking, making higher tariffs and universal metering a precondition for financing power-sector reforms. Through qualitative data gathered in interviews and fieldwork in four Indian states (Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and West Bengal), this work challenges this perspective. It contends that the raising of electricity prices would deeply and unavoidably aggravate rural poverty as well as endanger food security. Whether one likes it or not, moreover, electricity subsidies have become a cornerstone of rural politics in India, as the Congress Party hegemony was challenged by regional parties with strong support among the peasantry. Both pragmatism and effectiveness now call for looking at 'free power' as a constraint to work with, rather than a problem to work against. At the same time, concentrating solely on technically improving the efficiency of pumps might further aggravate the speed at which water tables are depleted. There is thus a need to first optimise water demand in agriculture

  6. Age-related differences in working memory performance in a 2-back task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele eWild-Wall

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus-response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage and retrieval of information in working memory.

  7. Age-Related Differences in Working Memory Performance in A 2-Back Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus–response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage, and retrieval of information in working memory. PMID:21909328

  8. 48 CFR 52.236-1 - Performance of Work by the Contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance of Work by the....236-1 Performance of Work by the Contractor. As prescribed in 36.501(b), insert the following clause... the work and customary or necessary specialty subcontracting (see 36.501(a)).] Performance of Work by...

  9. 48 CFR 36.501 - Performance of work by the contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance of work by the... Performance of work by the contractor. (a) To assure adequate interest in and supervision of all work involved... contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-1, Performance of Work by the Contractor, in...

  10. Potential performance improvement using a reacting gas (nitrogin tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an analysis to estimate the performance that could be obtained by using a chemically reacting gas (nitrogen tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle are presented. Compared with data for helium as the working fluid, these results indicate efficiency improvements from 4 to 90 percent, depending on turbine inlet temperature, pressures, and gas residence time in heat transfer equipment.

  11. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chi-Ming A.; Stanford, Arielle D.; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Schroeder, Charles E.; Kegeles, Lawrence S.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance ...

  12. Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chris Bothma

    2012-09-01

    Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others of task performance and turnover intention. Research design: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales. Main findings: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. Practical/managerial implications: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed. Contribution/value-add: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research.

  13. Yeast cell surface display: An efficient strategy for improvement of bioethanol fermentation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianzhong

    2017-03-04

    The cell surface serves as a functional interface between the inside and the outside of the cell. Within the past 20 y the ability of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to display heterologous proteins on the cell surface has been demonstrated. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae has been both developed and applied in expression of various proteins on the cell surface. Using this novel and useful strategy, proteins and peptides of various kinds can be displayed on the yeast cell surface by fusing the protein of interest with the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchoring system. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) using S. cerevisiae represents a promising technology for bioethanol production. However, further work is needed to improve the fermentation performance. There is some excellent previous research regarding construction of yeast biocatalyst using the surface display system to decrease cost, increase efficiency of ethanol production and directly utilize starch or biomass for fuel production. In this commentary, we reviewed the yeast surface display system and highlighted recent work. Additionally, the strategy for decrease of phytate phosphate content in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) by display of phytase on the yeast cell surface is discussed.

  14. Lithium bromide high-temperature absorption heat pump: coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (ES). Inst. de Optica; Aroca, S [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Valladolid (ES). Catedratico de Ingenieria Termica

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical study of a lithium bromide absorption heat pump, used as a machine type I and aimed to produce heat at 120{sup 0}C via waste heat sources at 60{sup 0}C, is given. Real performance conditions are stated for each component of the machine. By means of thermodynamic diagrams (p, t, x) and (h, x), the required data are obtained for calculation of the heat recovered in the evaporator Q{sub e}, the heat delivered to the absorber Q{sub a} and to the condenser Q{sub c}, and the heat supplied to the generator Q{sub g}. The heat delivered by the hot solution to the cold solution in the heat recovered Q{sub r}, and the work W{sub p} done by the solution pump are calculated. The probable COP is calculated as close to 1.4 and the working temperature in the generator ranges from 178 to 200{sup 0}C. The heat produced by the heat pump is 22% cheaper than that obtained from a cogeneration system comprising a natural gas internal combustion engine and high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression. Compared with a high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression, the heat produced by the absorption heat pump is 31% cheaper. From (h, x) and (s, x) diagrams, exergy losses for each component can be determined leading to an exergetic efficiency of 75% which provides the quality index of the absorption cycle. (author).

  15. Searching while loaded: Visual working memory does not interfere with hybrid search efficiency but hybrid search uses working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-02-01

    In "hybrid search" tasks, such as finding items on a grocery list, one must search the scene for targets while also searching the list in memory. How is the representation of a visual item compared with the representations of items in the memory set? Predominant theories would propose a role for visual working memory (VWM) either as the site of the comparison or as a conduit between visual and memory systems. In seven experiments, we loaded VWM in different ways and found little or no effect on hybrid search performance. However, the presence of a hybrid search task did reduce the measured capacity of VWM by a constant amount regardless of the size of the memory or visual sets. These data are broadly consistent with an account in which VWM must dedicate a fixed amount of its capacity to passing visual representations to long-term memory for comparison to the items in the memory set. The data cast doubt on models in which the search template resides in VWM or where memory set item representations are moved from LTM through VWM to earlier areas for comparison to visual items.

  16. 13 CFR 126.700 - What are the performance of work requirements for HUBZone contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the performance of work... ADMINISTRATION HUBZONE PROGRAM Contract Performance Requirements § 126.700 What are the performance of work... meet the performance of work requirements set forth in § 125.6(c) of this chapter. (b) In addition to...

  17. Work efficiency improvement of >90% after implementation of an annual inpatient blood products administration consent form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Holly; Bhar, Saleh; Bonifant, Challice; Sartain, Sarah; Whittle, Sarah B; Lee-Kim, Youngna; Shah, Mona D

    2018-01-01

    Paediatric haematology, oncology and bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients frequently require transfusion of blood products. Our institution required a new transfusion consent be obtained every admission. The objectives of this project were to: revise inpatient blood products consent form to be valid for 1 year, decrease provider time spent consenting from 15 to improve provider frustration with the consent process. Over 6 months, we determined the average number of hospitalisations requiring transfusions in a random sampling of haematology/oncology/BMT inpatients. We surveyed nurses and providers regarding frustration levels and contact required regarding consents. Four and 12 months after implementation of the annual consent, providers and nurses were resurveyed, and new inpatient cohorts were assessed. Comparison of preintervention and postintervention time data allowed calculation of provider time reduction, a surrogate measure of improved work efficiency. Prior to the annual consent, >33 hours were spent over 6 months obtaining consent on 40 patients, with >19 hours spent obtaining consent when no transfusions were administered during admission. Twelve months after annual consent implementation, 97.5% (39/40) of analysed patients had a completed annual blood products transfusion consent and provider work efficiency had improved by 94.6% (>30 hours). Although several surveyed variables improved following annual consent implementation, provider frustration with consent process remained 6 out of a max score of 10, the same level as prior to the intervention. Development of an annual inpatient blood products consent form decreased provider time from 15 to 90%.

  18. Study on optimal performance and working temperatures of endoreversible forward and reverse Carnot cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.Z.; Sun, F.R.; Cheng, S.M.; Chen, L.G. [Huazhong Univ. of Sceince and Technology, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Power Engineering

    1995-12-01

    The connection between the expressions of optimization performances of Carnot heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps, which operate subject to irreversible heat flow, is studied. We consider the endoreversible forward and reverse. Carnot cycles and analyse the expressions which relate efficiency, refrigeration and heating coefficients to power, refrigeration and heating rates, respectively. It is found and proved that when one of the optimal relations is derived the others are also determined, and give the unified formulation of the related optimal working temperatures of the forward and reverse Carnot cycles by isentropic temperature ratio exponent. Finally, several new optimal performance relations are derived for forward and reverse Carnot cycles under nonlinear heat transfer, and some major results in the references are easily deduced and unified in this paper. (author)

  19. Manufacturing Advantage: Why High-Performance Work Systems Pay Off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Eileen; Bailey, Thomas; Berg, Peter; Kalleberg, Arne L.

    A study examined the relationship between high-performance workplace practices and the performance of plants in the following manufacturing industries: steel, apparel, and medical electronic instruments and imaging. The multilevel research methodology combined the following data collection activities: (1) site visits; (2) collection of plant…

  20. Effects of a Flexibility/Support Intervention on Work Performance: Evidence From the Work, Family, and Health Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Hinde, Jesse M; Kaiser, David J; Mills, Michael J; Karuntzos, Georgia T; Genadek, Katie R; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen E; Hurtado, David A

    2018-05-01

    To estimate the effects of a workplace initiative to reduce work-family conflict on employee performance. A group-randomized multisite controlled experimental study with longitudinal follow-up. An information technology firm. Employees randomized to the intervention (n = 348) and control condition (n = 345). An intervention, "Start. Transform. Achieve. Results." to enhance employees' control over their work time, to increase supervisors' support for this change, and to increase employees' and supervisors' focus on results. We estimated the effect of the intervention on 9 self-reported employee performance measures using a difference-in-differences approach with generalized linear mixed models. Performance measures included actual and expected hours worked, absenteeism, and presenteeism. This study found little evidence that an intervention targeting work-family conflict affected employee performance. The only significant effect of the intervention was an approximately 1-hour reduction in expected work hours. After Bonferroni correction, the intervention effect is marginally insignificant at 6 months and marginally significant at 12 and 18 months. The intervention reduced expected working time by 1 hour per week; effects on most other employee self-reported performance measures were statistically insignificant. When coupled with the other positive wellness and firm outcomes, this intervention may be useful for improving employee perceptions of increased access to personal time or personal wellness without sacrificing performance. The null effects on performance provide countervailing evidence to recent negative press on work-family and flex work initiatives.

  1. The advent of canine performance science: offering a sustainable future for working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Mia; Branson, Nick; McGreevy, Paul; Lill, Alan; Bennett, Pauleen

    2015-01-01

    Working and sporting dogs provide an essential contribution to many industries worldwide. The common development, maintenance and disposal of working and sporting dogs can be considered in the same way as other animal production systems. The process of 'production' involves genetic selection, puppy rearing, recruitment and assessment, training, housing and handling, handler education, health and working life end-point management. At present, inefficiencies throughout the production process result in a high failure rate of dogs attaining operational status. This level of wastage would be condemned in other animal production industries for economic reasons and has significant implications for dog welfare, as well as public perceptions of dog-based industries. Standards of acceptable animal use are changing and some historically common uses of animals are no longer publicly acceptable, especially where harm is caused for purposes deemed trivial, or where alternatives exist. Public scrutiny of animal use appears likely to increase and extend to all roles of animals, including working and sporting dogs. Production system processes therefore need to be transparent, traceable and ethically acceptable for animal use to be sustainable into the future. Evidence-based approaches already inform best practice in fields as diverse as agriculture and human athletic performance. This article introduces the nascent discipline of canine performance science, which aims to facilitate optimal product quality and production efficiency, while also assuring evidence-based increments in dog welfare through a process of research and development. Our thesis is that the model of canine performance science offers an objective, transparent and traceable opportunity for industry development in line with community expectations and underpins a sustainable future for working dogs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Canine Behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the Eco-Efficiency of High Performance Computing Clusters Using EECluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cocaña-Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As data and supercomputing centres increase their performance to improve service quality and target more ambitious challenges every day, their carbon footprint also continues to grow, and has already reached the magnitude of the aviation industry. Also, high power consumptions are building up to a remarkable bottleneck for the expansion of these infrastructures in economic terms due to the unavailability of sufficient energy sources. A substantial part of the problem is caused by current energy consumptions of High Performance Computing (HPC clusters. To alleviate this situation, we present in this work EECluster, a tool that integrates with multiple open-source Resource Management Systems to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of clusters by improving their energy efficiency. EECluster implements a dynamic power management mechanism based on Computational Intelligence techniques by learning a set of rules through multi-criteria evolutionary algorithms. This approach enables cluster operators to find the optimal balance between a reduction in the cluster energy consumptions, service quality, and number of reconfigurations. Experimental studies using both synthetic and actual workloads from a real world cluster support the adoption of this tool to reduce the carbon footprint of HPC clusters.

  3. Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chris Bothma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work-based identity, used as a reference to the self, is the answer to the question ’Who am I at work?’ Work-related identities, derived from different social foci through identity formation processes, have as behavioural guides a significant influence on employee behaviour, which, in turn has an impact on work outcomes. Engagement, presented in different conceptualisations, is viewed by practitioners and academic researchers as an important antecedent of employee behaviour.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others of task performance and turnover intention.Research design: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales.Main findings: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. Practical/managerial implications: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed.Contribution/value-add: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research.

  4. Final report on work performed, January 15--September 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, M.

    1998-01-01

    During the period, consultant work focused on providing support to DOE by: (1) serving as the US Executive Secretary for the US-Russian Independent Scientific Commission on Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium; (2) serving as the US representative to an IAEA working group on management of plutonium, convened in preparation for a global symposium on the future of the nuclear fuel cycle, and making an invited presentation to that symposium; and (3) drafting a comprehensive analysis of the nonproliferation implications of different options for management of aluminum-based research reactor fuels at the Savannah River Site

  5. Optimum performance analysis of an irreversible Diesel heat engine affected by variable heat capacities of working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yingru; Chen, Jincan

    2007-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of the Diesel heat engine is established in which the temperature dependent heat capacities of the working fluid, the irreversibilities resulting from non-isentropic compression and expansion processes and heat leak losses through the cylinder wall are taken into account. The adiabatic equation of ideal gases with temperature dependent heat capacity is strictly deduced without using the additional approximation condition in the relevant literature and is used to analyze the performance of the Diesel heat engine. Expressions for the work output and efficiency of the cycle are derived by introducing the pressure ratio and the compression and expansion efficiencies. The performance characteristic curves of the Diesel heat engine are presented for a set of given parameters. The optimum criteria of some important parameters such as the work output, efficiency, pressure ratio and temperatures of the working fluid are obtained. Moreover, the influence of the compression and expansion efficiencies, variable heat capacities, heat leak and other parameters on the performance of the cycle is discussed in detail. The results obtained may provide a theoretical basis for both optimal design and operation of real Diesel heat engines

  6. Work-zone traffic performance measures : tech transfer summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) 2004 Work Zone Safety and Mobility Rule applies to all state and local government agencies that receive federal-aid highway funding after October 12, 2007. This rule was an update to the former regulation (23...

  7. Cultural diversity and work-group performance : Detecting the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girndt, T.

    2000-01-01

    With greater levels of international cooperation, work-groups are increasingly composed of members from different cultures. These groups often suffer from communication problems; however, research suggests that they also benefit from their members cultural diversity and generate higher ranges of

  8. Do Men and Women Perform Academic Work Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…

  9. Work Reviews Can Reduce Turnover and Improve Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Michael A.

    1975-01-01

    Establishing realistic expectations about the company and the job should be the duty of management. It would appear that in today's social-cultural climate the work sample preview is a good tool for management to "tell it like it is" to the prospective employee. (Author)

  10. Working memory capacity predicts conflict-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie

    The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of

  11. Flexitime under Scrutiny: Research on Work Adjustment and Organizational Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Cary B.

    1980-01-01

    Reports on an in-house study of flexible working hours conducted by the Social Security Administration. On the basis of the study, management agreed that flextime could be implemented throughout the agency wherever feasible and where employee interest was sufficiently high. (Author/IRT)

  12. The Future of Dance and/as Work: Performing Precarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Annelies

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how and to what extent precarity is intertwined with a contemporary dance artist's labour, life and art in the neoliberal society. Throughout this investigation my arguments are supported by insights from an on-going qualitative study that uses in-depth interviews and observations of working processes within the Brussels…

  13. Modelling efficient innovative work: integration of economic and social psychological approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babanova Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the relevance of integration of economic and social psychological approaches to the solution of enhancing the efficiency of innovation management. The content, features and specifics of the modelling methods within each of approaches are unfolded and options of integration are considered. The economic approach lies in the generation of the integrated matrix concept of management of innovative development of an enterprise in line with the stages of innovative work and the use of the integrated vector method for the evaluation of the innovative enterprise development level. The social psychological approach lies in the development of a system of psychodiagnostic indexes of activity resources within the scope of psychological innovative audit of enterprise management and development of modelling methods for the balance of activity trends. Modelling the activity resources is based on the system of equations accounting for the interaction type of psychodiagnostic indexes. Integration of two approaches includes a methodological level, a level of empirical studies and modelling methods. There are suggested options of integrating the economic and psychological approaches to analyze available material and non-material resources of the enterprises’ innovative work and to forecast an optimal option of development based on the implemented modelling methods.

  14. The Relationships between Work Team Strategic Intent and Work Team Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edison, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    ...) executive level, six- week program management class in six different locations. The study not only underscores the significance of team focus on performance but also highlights how team characteristics affect team focus and performance...

  15. Working hard and working smart: Motivation and ability during typical and maximum performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Anderson, N.

    2007-01-01

    The distinction between what people can do (maximum performance) and what they will do (typical performance) has received considerable theoretical but scant empirical attention in industrial-organizational psychology. This study of 138 participants performing an Internet-search task offers an

  16. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  17. Schools of young efficiency experts and inventors in the gas industry and associations (organization and work experience)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shubin, Ya V

    1981-01-01

    The data of accounting materials of the sector associations are used to analyze the basic work indicators of schools of young efficiency experts and inventors which is one of the basic forms for involving young workers and specialists in active efficiency expert and inventor creativity.

  18. The influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain on work performance and work ability in Swedish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegård, A; Larsman, P; Hadzibajramovic, E; Ahlborg, G

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal ache/pain, separately and in combination, at baseline, on self-rated work ability and work performance at two-year follow-up. Survey data were collected with a 2-year interval. Health care workers participating at both waves were included. Inclusion criteria were good self-reported work ability and unchanged self-rated work performance at baseline, resulting in 770 participants; 617 women and 153 men. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed using the question "How often do you experience pain in joints and muscles, including the neck and low back?", perceived stress with a modified version of a single item from the QPS-Nordic questionnaire, work performance by the question "Have your work performance changed during the preceding 12 months?" and work ability by a single item from the work ability index. Associations between baseline data and the two outcomes at follow-up were analysed by means of the log binomial model and expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A combination of frequent musculoskeletal pain and perceived stress constituted the highest risk for reporting decreased work performance (RR 1.7; CI 1.28-2.32) and reduced work ability (RR 1.7; CI 1.27-2.30) at follow-up. Separately, frequent pain, but not stress, was clearly associated with both outcomes. The results imply that proactive workplace interventions in order to maintain high work performance and good work ability should include measures to promote musculoskeletal well-being for the employees and measures, both individual and organizational, to minimize the risk of persistent stress reactions.

  19. Linking Working Capital Policy Towards Financial Performance of Small Medium Enterprise (SME in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binti Mohamad Nor Edi Azhar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that working capital management (WCM is vital to businesses of any size that operated in developed and emerging countries, WCM is of particular importance to the small business firms operating in emerging markets. The importance of WCM to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs stems from the limited financial resources available and heavily reliance of SMEs on WCM as a main source of finance. This study aims to provide empirical evidence on the effects of working capital investment policy on firm’s financial performance for a sample of 103 small and medium-sized firms listed with the SME Corporation of Malaysia. Data for the period from 2008 to 2013 are analysed to examine if investment policy improves firms’ return on total asset. By using correlation and pooled ordinary least square regression, the result provides a significant relationship between the level of aggressiveness of investment policy and SME’s financial performance. The findings of this study not only contribute to the scant WCM literature in Malaysia but throw light on the importance of efficient WCM to the policy makers and regulators in motivating and encouraging relevant parties to pay more attention on working capital through improving investors’ awareness and improving transparency.

  20. Efficiencies and coefficients of performance of heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps with friction: a universal limiting behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, João P S; Rodrigues, Paulo

    2012-11-01

    For work-producing heat engines, or work-consuming refrigerators and heat pumps, the percentage decrease caused by friction in their efficiencies, or coefficients of performance (COP's), is approximately given by the ratio W(fric)/W between the work spent against friction forces and the work performed by, or delivered to, the working fluid. This universal scaling, which applies in the limit of small friction (W(fric)/W heat-engine efficiencies), allows a simple and quick estimate of the impact that friction losses can have on the FOM's of thermal engines and plants, or of the level of those losses from the observed and predicted FOM's. In the case of refrigerators and heat pumps, if W(fric)/W heat engines), the COP percentage decrease due to friction approaches asymptotically (W(fric)/W)/(1+W(fric)/W) instead of W(fric)/W. Estimates for the level of frictional losses using the Carnot (or, for heat engines and power plants only, the Curzon-Ahlborn) predictions and observed FOM's of real power plants, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps show that they usually operate in domains where these behaviors are valid.

  1. The inner workings of performance management in danish job centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Thingvad, Signe

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses how a central Performance Management system in the Danish job centers affects the employees’ perception of accountability, autonomy, common goals and dialogue. Dysfunctional behavioral effects are explored in qualitative analyses based on 4 case studies. Results indicate...... that the expected positive effects of performance management do not materialize at the Danish job centers because focus in the implementation process gradually shifts from results to process goals. This is related to a series of dysfunctional behavioral effects which instead of creating commitment frustrate...

  2. How Does Work-Life Balance Influence Expatriates’ Working Performance? : The Case of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zahar, Nur Yuha Zulaikha

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the important factors that play significant parts in the life of expatriates as they attempt to gain work-life balance. If reaching work-life balance is important for an employee, it is even far more important for expatriates as they face a lot of challenges living thousands of miles away from their family members and friends whom they always seek support from. Understanding the true meaning of work-life balance is essential as it mirrors how the expatriate’s performanc...

  3. Novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar Rankine cycles: Performance assessment and multi-criteria selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrou, Paschalia; Papadopoulos, Athanasios I.; Stijepovic, Mirko Z.; Seferlis, Panos; Linke, Patrick; Voutetakis, Spyros

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of working fluid mixtures for use in solar ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle systems) with heat storage employing FPC (Flat Plate Collectors). Several mixtures are considered including conventional choices often utilized in ORC as well as novel mixtures previously designed using advanced computer aided molecular design methods (Papadopoulos et al., 2013). The impact of heat source variability on the ORC performance is assessed for different working fluid mixtures. Solar radiation is represented in detail through actual, hourly averaged data for an entire year. A multi-criteria mixture selection methodology unveils important trade-offs among several important system operating parameters and efficiently highlights optimum operating ranges. Such parameters include the ORC thermal efficiency, the net generated power, the volume ratio across the turbine, the mass flow rate of the ORC working fluid, the evaporator temperature glide, the temperature drop in the storage tank, the ORC total yearly operating duration, the required collector aperture area to generate 1 kW of power and the irreversibility. A mixture of neopentane – 2-fluoromethoxy-2-methylpropane at 70% neopentane is found to be the most efficient in all the considered criteria simultaneously. - Highlights: • Investigation of novel and conventional working fluid mixtures for solar ORCs. • Systematic, multi-criteria assessment methodology for mixture selection. • Simultaneous consideration of multiple important mixture performance criteria. • Effects of year-round solar variability in a solar ORC with heat storage tank

  4. Managerial performance and cost efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals: a latent class stochastic frontier model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besstremyannaya, Galina

    2011-09-01

    The paper explores the link between managerial performance and cost efficiency of 617 Japanese general local public hospitals in 1999-2007. Treating managerial performance as unobservable heterogeneity, the paper employs a panel data stochastic cost frontier model with latent classes. Financial parameters associated with better managerial performance are found to be positively significant in explaining the probability of belonging to the more efficient latent class. The analysis of latent class membership was consistent with the conjecture that unobservable technological heterogeneity reflected in the existence of the latent classes is related to managerial performance. The findings may support the cause for raising efficiency of Japanese local public hospitals by enhancing the quality of management. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Acts of Fabrication in the Performance Management of Teachers' Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Sham

    2012-01-01

    "Performativity," it is argued, is a new mode of state regulation which makes it possible to govern in an "advanced liberal" way. It requires individual [teachers] to organize themselves as a response to targets, indicators and evaluations. To set aside personal beliefs and commitments and live an existence of calculation. The…

  6. Leader-member exchange, work engagement and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; van den Heuvel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the process through which leader-member exchange (LMX) is related to followers’ job performance. Integrating the literature on LMX theory and resource theories, the authors hypothesized that the positive relationship between LMX and employee job

  7. Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A. B.; Demerouti, E.; Van den Heuvel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the process through which leader-member exchange (LMX) is related to followers’ job performance. Integrating the literature on LMX theory and resource theories, the authors hypothesized that the positive relationship between LMX and employee job

  8. Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breevaart, K.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; van den Heuvel, M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the process through which leader-member exchange (LMX) is related to followers’ job performance. Integrating the literature on LMX theory and resource theories, the authors hypothesized that the positive relationship between LMX and employee job

  9. Performance Management and Sourcing Team Behaviour - Working Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Peder Lysholm

    The purpose of this development paper is to outline the main ideas of a Ph.d.-project research proposal,which deals with the influence of Performance Management on the behaviour and decisions of Sourcing Category Team members. The background for the project is described, as well as the main theory...

  10. Long-Term Orientation and Educational Performance. Working Paper 174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figlio, David; Giuliano, Paola; Özek, Umut; Sapienza, Paola

    2017-01-01

    We use remarkable population-level administrative education and birth records from Florida to study the role of Long-Term Orientation on the educational attainment of immigrant students living in the US. Controlling for the quality of schools and individual characteristics, students from countries with long-term oriented attitudes perform better…

  11. The use of polybenzimidazole membranes in vanadium redox flow batteries leading to increased coulombic efficiency and cycling performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.L.; Zhao, T.S.; An, L.; Wei, L.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    An issue with conventional vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) with Nafion membranes is the crossover of vanadium ions, resulting in low coulombic efficiency and rapid decay in capacity. In this work, a VRFB with a polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane is tested and compared with the Nafion system. Results show that the PBI-based VRFB exhibits a substantially higher coulombic efficiency of up to 99% at current densities ranging from 20 mA cm −2 to 80 mA cm −2 . More importantly, it is demonstrated that the PBI-based VRFB has a capacity decay rate of as low as 0.3% per cycle, which is four times lower than that of the Nafion system (1.3% per cycle). The improved coulombic efficiency and cycling performance are attributed to the low crossover of vanadium ions through the PBI membrane

  12. Emotions experienced in association with agricultural work performed in childhood--in opinions of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowski, Stanisław; Lachowska, Bogusława

    2014-01-01

    Performance of work is related with experiencing various emotions, from positive - indicating full satisfaction with work, to negative - describing failures, and even harm caused by work. Such emotions are also experienced by children engaged in work on family farms. The objective of the study is the determination of emotions experienced in association with performing agricultural work in childhood, and indication of the factors conditioning the occurrence of positive and negative emotions. The study was conducted by the method of a diagnostic survey using a questionnaire technique, and covered a group of 482 adults from agricultural families. In childhood, positive emotions related with the performance of work are more often experienced than negative emotions. The occurrence of positive emotions is positively related with willingness to perform work activities, working time, respondent's age, age at which a child started to perform work, and age at which a child discontinued helping on a farm. The occurrence of negative emotions is positively related with unwillingness to perform work, performing work activities beyond the physical capabilities of a child, neglecting school duties, missing classes at school due to work, and with working time. With work performed in childhood are associated positive and negative emotions experienced in childhood and adulthood. The performance of work in childhood shapes emotions experienced by an adult which may affect his/her quality of life and functioning in adulthood.

  13. Description of work (performed over the last three years)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Luis, Teofilo O.L. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the University of Santo Tomas, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, I give scheduled lectures to 3rd and 4th year medical students in Nuclear Medicine (NM) and Thyroidology; attend grand rounds and conferences; and participate in planning other academic work like post-graduate courses and scientific meetings. In the University Hospital I read out NM imaging procedures (scans) and supervise assay work by the technical staff. I also supervise the training of NM residents and coordinating research works involving in-vivo and in-vitro procedures done by our residents and fellows. I see patients (both private and service/teaching) and administer radioactive therapy as indicated. As Assistant Medical Director for Development (1998-2001) I sit in the Executive Management Committee and direct the strategic planning and development particularly of the medical infrastructure and instrumentation of the hospital, and manage the publication of the hospital newsletter. In the St. Luke's Medical Carter, Department of Nuclear Medicine (starting September 2000) I exercise general administrative supervision and control over all imaging and non-imaging procedures, other diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radionuclides in patient care and research. I review clinical reports, conduct conferences for medical and technical staff, and supervise the NM training program (initially for residents, later for fellows) which I initiated and is now being implemented starting January 2001. As the Department is establishing a PET and Cyclotron facility (the first of its kind in the Philippines), we have had some discussions on the infrastructural, organizational and operational aspects, including the human resource development of the medical and technical staff. (author)

  14. 14 CFR 151.45 - Performance of construction work: General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: General... § 151.45 Performance of construction work: General requirements. (a) All construction work under a... work under a project until— (1) The sponsor has furnished three conformed copies of the contract to the...

  15. 38 CFR 1.929 - Reduction of debt through performance of work-study services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... performance of work-study services. 1.929 Section 1.929 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... performance of work-study services. (a) Scope. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section VA may allow an... becomes entitled by performance of work-study services under 38 U.S.C. 3485 and 3537 when the debt arose...

  16. 29 CFR 553.23 - Agreement or understanding prior to performance of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agreement or understanding prior to performance of work... understanding prior to performance of work. (a) General. (1) As a condition for use of compensatory time in lieu... reached prior to the performance of work. This can be accomplished pursuant to a collective bargaining...

  17. 48 CFR 836.501 - Performance of work by the contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance of work by the... Performance of work by the contractor. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-72, Performance of work by the contractor, in solicitations and contracts for construction that contain the FAR...

  18. 14 CFR 151.53 - Performance of construction work: Labor requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Labor... § 151.53 Performance of construction work: Labor requirements. A sponsor who is required to include in a... during the performance of work under the contract, to the extent necessary to determine whether the...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 17 - Performance of work resulting from damage sustained while undergoing repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... made a part of and place on each job order issued for the performance of work discussed in this section... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance of work resulting from damage sustained... SHIPPING AUTHORITY MASTER LUMP SUM REPAIR CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 17 Performance of work resulting...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.18 - Jobs performed under similar working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs performed under similar working conditions. 1620.18... THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.18 Jobs performed under similar working conditions. (a) In general. In order for the equal pay standard to apply, the jobs are required to be performed under similar working...

  1. EFFICIENCY OF RAW MATERIAL INVENTORIES IN IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE of CV. FIVA FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artadi Nugraha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The production and number of processed food industries have slightly increased; as a result, the companies must compete to maximize their profits by conducting their efficient production process. CV. Fiva Food is one of the companies in the field of processed foods, especially in processed meat that has implemented supply chain management. It is necessary for the company to take measurements of its performance and efficiency for the entire supply chain such as procurement of raw materials. The purposes of this study were to analyze the performance of the company's supply chain and determine the most efficient  method of procurement for its raw materials as well as and to provide recommendations for the company to improve its performance of entire supply chain. This study used SCOR in analyzing the performance of supply chain and EOQ and POQ method to be compared with the method that the company uses to determine which method of procurement for raw materials is the most efficient one. The result showed that based on the matrix, the company's performance is unfavorable when it was compared to the benchmark performance of inventory days of supply. In addition, this study showed that the POQ method produces the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp6.647.015 for raw materials of MDM whereas EOQ method produced the lowest total inventory cost with savings of Rp222.153,78 for raw materials of FQ85CL. Keywords: performance suppy chain, SCOR, fiva food, EOQ, POQ

  2. Human Capital Efficiency and Firm Performance: An Empirical Study on Malaysian Technology Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Azlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between human capital efficiency and firm’s performance in Malaysian technology industry. Using accounting data, this study reviewed annual reports of all technology companies listed under Main Market and Ace Market of Bursa Malaysia in year 2009. The study applied Value Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAICTM methodology developed by Ante Pulic to measure human capital efficiency. The results showed that there was not much difference in terms of human capital efficiency between the Main Market and Ace Market. Results from correlation analysis indicate that human capital efficiency has significant and positive relation with firm’s performance. Findings from this study may be useful to companies’ managers to make better decision pertaining to the proper deployment of their strategic asset, namely human capital.

  3. Corporate Reputation: How it Works for Company’s Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pressures of society, consumers, investors and employees on companies to behave more ethical and socially responsible can be easily noticed every day. Under such circumstances, the businesses find that the corporate reputation is more important than ever. This paper focuses on analysis of the corporate reputation and its effects on company’s performance in the new conditions imposed by the stakeholders. First, the analysis emphasizes the contribution Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR might have on Corporate Reputation (CR by communicating the good causes of CSR. Then, the results the corporate reputation has and also the role of Cause Related Marketing (CRM in enhancing corporate reputation on company’s performance are revealed in a detailed way.

  4. Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module using fuzzyfied genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sonveer; Agrawal, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal modeling of novel dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal hybrid module. • Efficiency maximization and performance evaluation of dual channel photovoltaic thermal module. • Annual performance has been evaluated for Srinagar, Jodhpur, Bangalore and New Delhi (India). • There are improvements in results for optimized system as compared to un-optimized system. - Abstract: The work has been carried out in two steps; firstly the parameters of hybrid dual channel semitransparent photovoltaic thermal module has been optimized using a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. During the course of optimization, overall exergy efficiency is considered as an objective function and different design parameters of the proposed module have been optimized. Fuzzy controller is used to improve the performance of genetic algorithms and the approach is called as a fuzzyfied genetic algorithm. In the second step, the performance of the module has been analyzed for four cities of India such as Srinagar, Bangalore, Jodhpur and New Delhi. The performance of the module has been evaluated for daytime 08:00 AM to 05:00 PM and annually from January to December. It is to be noted that, an average improvement occurs in electrical efficiency of the optimized module, simultaneously there is also a reduction in solar cell temperature as compared to un-optimized module.

  5. Certifying Industrial Energy Efficiency Performance: AligningManagement, Measurement, and Practice to Create Market Value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Williams, Robert

    2007-07-01

    More than fifteen years after the launch of programs in theU.K. and U.S., industry still offers one of the largest opportunities forenergy savings worldwide. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimatesthe savings potential from cost-optimization of industrial motor-drivensystems alone at 7 percent of global electricity use. The U.S. Departmentof Energy (USDOE) Industrial Technologies Program estimates 7 percentsavings potential in total US industrial energy use through theapplication of proven best practice. Simple paybacks for these types ofprojects are frequently two years or less. The technology required toachieve these savings is widely available; the technical skills requiredto identify energy saving opportunities are known and transferable.Although programs like USDOE's Best Practices have been highlysuccessful, most plants, as supported by 2002 MECS data, remain eitherunaware or unmotivated to improve their energy efficiency--as evidencedby the 98 percent of US industrial facilities reporting to MECS say thatthey lack a full-time energy manager. With the renewed interest in energyefficiency worldwide and the emergence of carbon trading and newfinancial instruments such as white certificates1, there is a need tointroduce greater transparency into the way that industrial facilitiesidentify, develop, and document energy efficiency projects. Historically,industrial energy efficiency projects have been developed by plantengineers, frequently with assistance from consultants and/or supplierswith highly specialized technical skills. Under this scenario,implementation of energy efficiency improvements is dependent onindividuals. These individuals typically include "champions" within anindustrial facility or corporation, working in cooperation withconsultants or suppliers who have substantial knowledge based on years ofexperience. This approach is not easily understood by others without thisspecialized technical knowledge, penetrates the market fairly slowly

  6. Energy Efficiency Evaluation and Benchmarking of AFRL’s Condor High Performance Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    PlayStation 3 nodes executing the HPL benchmark. When idle, the two PS3s consume 188.49 W on average. At peak HPL performance, the nodes draw an average of...AUG 2011 2. REPORT TYPE CONFERENCE PAPER (Post Print) 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JAN 2011 – JUN 2011 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE ENERGY EFFICIENCY...the High Performance LINPACK (HPL) benchmark while also measuring the energy consumed to achieve such performance. Supercomputers are ranked by

  7. Effect of condensation temperature glide on the performance of organic Rankine cycles with zeotropic mixture working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Duan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A condensation pressure determination method for ORC with zeotropic mixture is given. • The effects of condensation temperature glide on the ORC performance are analyzed. • Mixture mole fractions for the maximum power output of a geothermal ORC are identified. • The biomass ORC performance with part of the latent heat transferred in the IHE is analyzed. - Abstract: The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has been widely used to convert low-grade ( 2 M) selected as working fluids for the cogenerative ORC driven by the biomass energy. Two optimal working fluid mole fractions maximize the cycle efficiency, exergy efficiency and net power output for cooling water temperature increases less than the maximum condensation temperature glide, while the highest net power output appears at the higher mole fraction of the more volatile component for the geothermal ORC when the condensation temperature glide of the working fluid mixture matches the cooling water temperature increase. Higher condensation temperature glides result in large thermal loss to the heat sink and exergy destruction in the condenser. There is only one optimal working fluid mole fraction that maximizes the thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency and net power output when the cooling water temperature increase is greater than the condensation temperature glide

  8. Estimate of Technical Potential for Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards in 13 Major World Economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letschert, Virginie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ke, Jing [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McNeil, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to estimate the foreseeable impacts of aggressive minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) programs in the world’s major economies, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a scenario to analyze the technical potential of MEPS in 13 major economies around the world1 . The “best available technology” (BAT) scenario seeks to determine the maximum potential savings that would result from diffusion of the most efficient available technologies in these major economies.

  9. The impact of ICT on educational performance and its efficiency in selected EU and OECD countries

    OpenAIRE

    Aristovnik, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to review some previous researches examining ICT efficiency and the impact of ICT on educational output/outcome as well as different conceptual and methodological issues related to performance measurement. Moreover, a definition, measurements and the empirical application of a model measuring the efficiency of ICT use and its impact at national levels will be considered. For this purpose, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique is presented and then applied t...

  10. Addressing Microaggressions to Facilitate High-Performing Work Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Clarke, J.

    2016-12-01

    Microaggressions can be described as verbal, behavioral or environmental insults, whether intentional or unintentional, that communicates hostile, derogatory, or negative messages toward individuals based on one's race, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, intersectionality, thisABILITIES, language, socioeconomic and/or citizenship status. This interactive workshop will engage participants to examine and identifying microaggressions, then work collaboratively to develop strategies and tools to confront and remove them from the environment. At the end of this session, participants will be more aware of their own personal biases and stereotypes, and the influence it can have on the organizational climate: Learn how to detect microaggressions Learn how to react to microaggressions Learn how to sustain a microaggression-free environment

  11. Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Work-Rest Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    BHP Program Element Goal: Identify, characterize, and prevent or reduce behavioral health and performance risks associated with space travel, exploration and return to terrestrial life. BHP Requirements: a) Characterize and assess risks (e.g., likelihood and consequences). b) Develop tools and technologies to prevent, monitor, and treat adverse outcomes. c) Inform standards. d) Develop technologies to: 1) reduce risks and human systems resource requirements (e.g., crew time, mass, volume, power) and 2) ensure effective human-system integration across exploration mission.

  12. Do Work Placements Improve Final Year Academic Performance or Do High-Calibre Students Choose to Do Work Placements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. M.; Green, J. P.; Higson, H. E.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates whether the completion of an optional sandwich work placement enhances student performance in final year examinations. Using Propensity Score Matching, our analysis departs from the literature by controlling for self-selection. Previous studies may have overestimated the impact of sandwich work placements on performance…

  13. Longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J.M.; Bernaards, Claire M.; Steijn, Wouter M. P.; Hildebrandt, Vincent H.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. METHODS: At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the

  14. Work function and quantum efficiency study of metal oxide thin films on Ag(100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, V.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Harrison, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing the quantum efficiency (QE) of metal photocathodes is in the design and development of photocathodes for free-electron laser applications. The growth of metal oxide thin films on certain metal surfaces has previously been shown to reduce the work function (WF). Using a photoemission model B. Camino et al. [Comput. Mater. Sci. 122, 331 (2016), 10.1016/j.commatsci.2016.05.025] based on the three-step model combined with density functional theory calculations we predict that the growth of a finite number of MgO(100) or BaO(100) layers on the Ag(100) surface increases significantly the QE compared with the clean Ag(100) surface for a photon energy of 4.7 eV. Different mechanisms for affecting the QE are identified for the different metal oxide thin films. The addition of MgO(100) increases the QE due to the reduction of the WF and the direct excitation of electrons from the Ag surface to the MgO conduction band. For BaO(100) thin films, an additional mechanism is in operation as the oxide film also photoemits at this energy. We also note that a significant increase in the QE for photons with an energy of a few eV above the WF is achieved due to an increase in the inelastic mean-free path of the electrons.

  15. Draft Statement of Work / Performance Work Statement SOL-R3-13-00006: Region 3 - National Remedial Action Contracts / Multiple Award Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Region 3 - EPA is performing market research to determine if industry has the capability and capacity to perform the work, on a national level, as described in the attached draft Statement of Work /Performance Work Statement(SOW/PWS).

  16. Wavy channel thin film transistor architecture for area efficient, high performance and low power displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2013-12-23

    We demonstrate a new thin film transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using continuous fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.5× increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, ~100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers an interesting opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-06-01

    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.4x increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, similar to 100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers a pragmatic opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications without any limitation any TFT materials.

  18. CAD: How it works, how to use it, performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regge, Daniele; Halligan, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are software algorithms designed to assist radiologists (or other practitioners) in solving a diagnostic problem by using a visual prompt (or “CAD mark”) to direct the observer towards potential pathology. CT colonography is a recent arrival to CAD, but could represent one of its most fruitful applications in the future. In contrast to other organs, where a variety of different pathologies are equally represented, significant colorectal pathologies other than polyps and cancer are relatively uncommon. As we shall see, this simplifies the diagnostic task for artificial intelligence developers and also for radiologists who, ultimately, must make the final decision. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art for CAD applied to CT colonography. A brief overview of the technical essentials and of the diagnostic performance of CAD in isolation, is followed by an explanation of how CAD is used in day-to-day practice. The last section will deal with the most controversial issues affecting CAD performance in clinical practice, with a focus on the interaction between human and artificial intelligence

  19. CAD: How it works, how to use it, performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regge, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.regge@ircc.it [Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo-Torino (Italy); Halligan, Steve, E-mail: s.halligan@ucl.ac.uk [University College Hospital London, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are software algorithms designed to assist radiologists (or other practitioners) in solving a diagnostic problem by using a visual prompt (or “CAD mark”) to direct the observer towards potential pathology. CT colonography is a recent arrival to CAD, but could represent one of its most fruitful applications in the future. In contrast to other organs, where a variety of different pathologies are equally represented, significant colorectal pathologies other than polyps and cancer are relatively uncommon. As we shall see, this simplifies the diagnostic task for artificial intelligence developers and also for radiologists who, ultimately, must make the final decision. This review aims to present the current state-of-the-art for CAD applied to CT colonography. A brief overview of the technical essentials and of the diagnostic performance of CAD in isolation, is followed by an explanation of how CAD is used in day-to-day practice. The last section will deal with the most controversial issues affecting CAD performance in clinical practice, with a focus on the interaction between human and artificial intelligence.

  20. Relationship between spatial working memory performance and diet specialization in two sympatric nectar bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Henry

    Full Text Available Behavioural ecologists increasingly recognise spatial memory as one the most influential cognitive traits involved in evolutionary processes. In particular, spatial working memory (SWM, i.e. the ability of animals to store temporarily useful information for current foraging tasks, determines the foraging efficiency of individuals. As a consequence, SWM also has the potential to influence competitive abilities and to affect patterns of sympatric occurrence among closely related species. The present study aims at comparing the efficiency of SWM between generalist (Glossophaga soricina and specialist (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae nectarivorous bats at flowering patches. The two species differ in diet--the generalist diet including seasonally fruits and insects with nectar and pollen while the specialist diet is dominated by nectar and pollen yearlong--and in some morphological traits--the specialist being heavier and with proportionally longer rostrum than the generalist. These bats are found sympatrically within part of their range in the Neotropics. We habituated captive individuals to feed on artificial flower patches and we used infrared video recordings to monitor their ability to remember and avoid the spatial location of flowers they emptied in previous visits in the course of 15-min foraging sequences. Experiments revealed that both species rely on SWM as their foraging success attained significantly greater values than random expectations. However, the nectar specialist L. yerbabuenae was significantly more efficient at extracting nectar (+28% in foraging success, and sustained longer foraging bouts (+27% in length of efficient foraging sequences than the generalist G. soricina. These contrasting SWM performances are discussed in relation to diet specialization and other life history traits.

  1. Comparative study on efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hong; Wu, Junjie; Zeng, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Continually rising energy prices in global markets highlights a serious concern about the need to improve energy efficiency and the efficiency in energy sector in many countries. China, as one of the fastest growing countries in the world and the largest coal producer, has high coal consumption but a low recovery rate of coal utilization. Coal efficiency and the efficiency in coal industry have therefore attracted a great deal of attention from Chinese policy makers, coal firms and academics. This study attempts to compare the relative technical efficiency performance of listed coal mining companies in China and the US using CCR and BCC models in the advanced DEA linear programming. The results show that the level of relative efficiency in Chinese coal mining enterprises, regardless of total technical efficiency or decomposed pure technical and scale efficiency, is much lower than in American coal firms. The study also highlights the input resources that cause the inefficiency of Chinese coal mining companies. Furthermore, in-depth discussion and analysis of how the institutional environments of the two countries could cause the differences are provided. (author)

  2. Effects of frequency on gross efficiency and performance in roller ski skating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leirdal, S; Sandbakk, O; Ettema, G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of frequency on efficiency and performance during G3 roller ski skating. Eight well-trained male cross-country skiers performed three submaximal 5-min speeds (10, 13, and 16 km/h) and a time-to-exhaustion (TTE) performance (at 20 km/h) using the G3 skating technique using freely chosen, high, and low frequency at all four speeds. All tests were done using roller skis on a large treadmill at 5% incline. Gross efficiency (GE) was calculated as power divided by metabolic rate. Power was calculated as the sum of power against frictional forces and power against gravity. Metabolic rate was calculated from oxygen consumption and blood lactate concentration. Freely chosen frequency increased from 60 to 70 strokes/min as speed increased from 10 to 20 km/h. GE increased with power. At high power (20 km/h performance test), both efficiency and performance were significantly reduced by high frequency. In regard to choice of frequency during G3 roller ski skating, cross-country skiers seems to be self-optimized both in relation to energy saving (efficiency) and performance (TTE). © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Performance of conversion efficiency of a crystalline silicon solar cell with base doping density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Sahin

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate theoretically the electrical parameters of a crystalline silicon solar cell in steady state. Based on a one-dimensional modeling of the cell, the short circuit current density, the open circuit voltage, the shunt and series resistances and the conversion efficiency are calculated, taking into account the base doping density. Either the I-V characteristic, series resistance, shunt resistance and conversion efficiency are determined and studied versus base doping density. The effects applied of base doping density on these parameters have been studied. The aim of this work is to show how short circuit current density, open circuit voltage and parasitic resistances are related to the base doping density and to exhibit the role played by those parasitic resistances on the conversion efficiency of the crystalline silicon solar. Keywords: Crystalline silicon solar cell, Base doping density, Series resistance, Shunt resistance, Conversion efficiency

  4. Comparative performance analysis of low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) using pure and zeotropic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghahosseini, S.; Dincer, I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis of the low-grade heat source Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is conducted and the cycle performance is analyzed and compared for different pure and zeotropic-mixture working fluids. The comparative performance evaluation of the cycle using a combined energy and exergy analysis is carried out by sensitivity assessment of the cycle certain operating parameters such as efficiency, flow rate, irreversibility, and heat input requirement at various temperatures and pressures. The environmental characteristics of the working fluids such as toxicity, flammability, ODP and GWP are studied and the cycle CO 2 emission is compared with different fuel combustion systems. R123, R245fa, R600a, R134a, R407c, and R404a are considered as the potential working fluids. Results from this analysis provide valuable insight into selection of the most suitable working fluids for power generating application at different operating conditions with a minimal environmental impact. -- Highlights: ► Combined energy and exergy analysis is conducted for Organic Rankine Cycle. ► Comparative assessment is performed for different pure and zeotropic working fluids. ► Exergy and energy efficiency, cycle irreversibility, and required external heat are analyzed. ► Toxicity, flammability, ODP and GWP of considered working fluids are studied. ► Environmental benefits of the renewable/waste heat-based ORC are investigated

  5. The impact of interface bonding efficiency on high-burnup spent nuclear fuel dynamic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao, E-mail: jiangh@ornl.gov; Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • To investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on its dynamic performance. • Flexural rigidity, EI = M/κ, estimated from FEA results were benchmarked with SNF dynamic experimental results, and used to evaluate interface bonding efficiency. • Interface bonding efficiency can significantly dictate the SNF system rigidity and the associated dynamic performance. • With consideration of interface bonding efficiency and fuel cracking, HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with SNF static and dynamic experimental data. - Abstract: Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the impact of interfacial bonding efficiency at pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces of high-burnup (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) on system dynamic performance. Bending moments M were applied to FEA model to evaluate the system responses. From bending curvature, κ, flexural rigidity EI can be estimated as EI = M/κ. The FEA simulation results were benchmarked with experimental results from cyclic integrated reversal bending fatigue test (CIRFT) of HBR fuel rods. The consequence of interface debonding between fuel pellets and cladding is a redistribution of the loads carried by the fuel pellets to the clad, which results in a reduction in composite rod system flexural rigidity. Therefore, the interface bonding efficiency at the pellet-pellet and pellet-clad interfaces can significantly dictate the SNF system dynamic performance. With the consideration of interface bonding efficiency, the HBU SNF fuel property was estimated with CIRFT test data.

  6. Stimulation of Efficient Employee Performance through Human Resource Management Practices: A Study on the Health Care Sector of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatema Nusrat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the world is becoming more competitive and unstable than ever before; health care sector, especially in a developing country like Bangladesh, is seeking to gain competitive advantage through the performance of its employees and is turning to be more innovative in this perspective through human resource management (HRM practices. Experts view HRM practices as a set of internally consistent policies and practices designed and implemented to ensure that the human capital of the organization contributes to the achievement of its objectives. This paper examined the effects of human resource management (HRM practices on stimulating or enhancing efficient employee performance in the health care sector of Bangladesh. Ten dimensions and 43 item statements of human resource management (HRM practices and efficient employee performance have been adopted to undertake this study. Data have been gathered following a quantitative survey by a structured questionnaire conducted among a diverse group of employees (N = 240 working in 20 different health care service providing organizations of Bangladesh following simple random sampling method. Several statistical techniques consisting of descriptive analysis, Pearson correlations, ANOVA, Coefficient and regression analysis have been applied using SPSS software to analyze the collected data for taking decisions regarding the hypotheses. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that human resource management (HRM practices positively stimulates efficient employee performance. This study therefore recommends among others: enhancement of motivation among employees, improvement in the reward system, establishment of strong organizational culture, training and re-training of employees,  and employees participation in decision making.

  7. Variability in visual working memory ability limits the efficiency of perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F; Ho, Tiffany C; Brown, Scott D; Serences, John T

    2014-04-02

    The ability to make rapid and accurate decisions based on limited sensory information is a critical component of visual cognition. Available evidence suggests that simple perceptual discriminations are based on the accumulation and integration of sensory evidence over time. However, the memory system(s) mediating this accumulation are unclear. One candidate system is working memory (WM), which enables the temporary maintenance of information in a readily accessible state. Here, we show that individual variability in WM capacity is strongly correlated with the speed of evidence accumulation in speeded two-alternative forced choice tasks. This relationship generalized across different decision-making tasks, and could not be easily explained by variability in general arousal or vigilance. Moreover, we show that performing a difficult discrimination task while maintaining a concurrent memory load has a deleterious effect on the latter, suggesting that WM storage and decision making are directly linked.

  8. 29 CFR 785.12 - Work performed away from the premises or job site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work performed away from the premises or job site. 785.12... of Principles Employees âsuffered Or Permittedâ to Work § 785.12 Work performed away from the premises or job site. The rule is also applicable to work performed away from the premises or the job site...

  9. Performance Study of Solar Heat Pipe with Different Working Fluids and Fill Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikrishnan, S. S.; Kotebavi, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    This paper elaborates on the testing of solar heat pipes using different working fluids, fill ratios and tilt angles. Methanol, Acetone and water are used as working fluids, with fill ratios 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Experiments were carried out at 600 and 350 inclinations. Heat pipe condenser section is placed inside a water basin containing 200ml of water. The evaporator section is exposed to sunlight where the working fluid gets heated and it becomes vapour and moves towards the condenser section. In the condenser section the heat is given to the water in the basin and the vapour becomes liquid and comes back to the evaporator section due to gravitational force. Two modes of experiments are carried out: 1) using a parabolic collector and 2) using heat pipe with evacuated tubes. On comparative study, optimum fill ratio is been found to be 25% in every case and acetone exhibited slightly more efficiency than methanol and water. As far as the heat pipe orientation is concerned, 600 inclination of the heat pipe showed better performance than 350

  10. Trust-Based Working Time and Organizational Performance: Evidence from German Establishment-Level Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Beckmann; Istvàn Hegedüs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of trust-based working time on firm performance using panel data from German establishments. Trust-based working time is a human resource management practice that involves a high degree of worker autonomy in terms of scheduling individual working time. From the theoretical viewpoint, trust-based working time may affect worker motivation positively as well as negatively. Therefore, at the establishment level the performance effects of trust-based work...

  11. Investigating User Perception of High-Performance Schools about Factors Associated with Building Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Najib Mohd Salleh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy demand in buildings can be reduced by improving energy efficiency. MS1525 has recommended that energy efficiency for Non-Residential Buildings in Malaysia to be not more than 135kWh/m²/year. A school building is a non-residential building and has major social responsibilities. Based on the theory of building energy-efficiency, energy efficiency can be achieved through three main factors: a design of buildings; b design of services; and c user behavior. This study aims to investigate the user perceptions in High-Performance Schools. The questionnaire viewed three main perceptions of users: perception of user behavior, the perception of building design and perception of services design.

  12. Efficiency measurement of the banking sector in the presence of non-performing loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nurhayati; Ramli, Noor Asiah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2017-01-01

    Bank industry plays a vital role in a country's economic development. In the banking industry, the non-performing loans which are acknowledged as being undesirable outputs and usually ignored in most of the analysis should be taken into account since they are undesirable by-products of producing loans and may lead to the bank inefficiency. Modelling the efficiency measurement without undesirable outputs can provide misleading results and unfair assessment. The Directional Distance Function (DDF) approach which extended from the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework is one of the enhancement efficiency approaches to handle a situation when there is a joint production of the desirable and undesirable outputs. The comparison of both results between the domestic and foreign banks shows that the DEA technical efficiency score for domestic banks is marginally higher than the Malaysian foreign banks. However, when incorporating the undesirable output, the DDF technical efficiency for foreign banks is slightly higher than domestic banks.

  13. Nano-hydroxyapatite as an Efficient Polysulfide Absorbent for High-performance Li-S Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Naiqiang; Ai, Fei; Wang, Weikun; Shao, Hongyuan; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Anbang; Xu, Zhichuan J.; Huang, Yaqin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Nano-HA has been demonstrated as an efficient polysulfide absorbent. • The shuttle effect of polysulfide in Li-S battery has been confined by the nano-HA. • Nano-HA used as additive improved electrochemical performance of Li-S battery. - Abstract: Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is regarded as one of the most promising candidates for developing advanced energy storage system, but the polysulfide shuttle effect remains the biggest obstacle for its practical application. In this work, nano-hydroxyapatite (Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH)) was used as an additive in the sulfur cathode and carbon-coated separator to prevent the polysulfide shuttle effect and thus to achieve the high performance. The sulfur cathode with nano-hydroxyapatite exhibited a higher reversible capacity and a more stable cycling performance than that of the pristine sulfur cathode. The improved capacity retention from 58% (100th) to 73% (200th) after introducing nano-hydroxyapatite into the sulfur cathode confirmed its strong polysulfide absorption ability. Furthermore, a nano-hydroxyapatite modified separator was developed to suppress the polysulfide shuttle effect and to facilitate the reutilization of sulfur species. The nano-hydroxyapatite particles served as polysulfide absorbents to bind polysulfides and suppress their diffusion to the anode. The batteries assembled with this separator exhibited a high reversible capacity of 886 mAhg −1 at 0.1C and 718 mAh g −1 at 0.5C after 200 cycles, with a low capacity fading of ∼0.10-0.11% per-cycle. At the highest sulfur loading of 4.5 mg cm −2 used for practical applications, the reversible areal capacity was much higher than the areal capacity (4 mAh cm −2 ) of commercial lithium-ion batteries. Therefore, the strategy using nano-hydroxyapatite as polysulfide absorbent shows great potential for solving the polysulfide shuttle problem and developing high performance Li-S batteries.

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program High-Performance Test Homes - Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    This project represents the third phase of a multi-year effort to develop and bring to market a High Performance Manufactured Home (HPMH). In this project, the Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Housing Program worked with Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction and Bonneville Power Administration to help four factory homebuilders build prototype zero energy ready manufactured homes, resulting in what is expected to be a 30% savings relative to the Building America Benchmark. (The actual % savings varies depending on choice of heating equipment and climate zone). Previous phases of this project created a HPMH specification and prototyped individual measures from the package to obtain engineering approvals and develop preliminary factory construction processes. This case study describes the project team's work during 2014 to build prototype homes to the HPMH specifications and to monitor the homes for energy performance and durability. Monitoring is expected to continue into 2016.

  15. Assessing measures of energy efficiency performance and their application in industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.

    2008-02-15

    This paper explores different measures of energy efficiency performance (hereafter referred to as 'MEEP'): absolute energy consumption, energy intensity, diffusion of specific energy-saving technology and thermal efficiency. It discusses their advantages and disadvantages and their roles within policy frameworks. MEEP may be necessary at several stages during policy design: in a developing regulatory framework; during the actual application; and in evaluation after policy implementation. Policy makers should consider the suitability of MEEP at each of these stages, based on criteria such as reliability, feasibility and verifiability. The paper considers the importance of so-called boundary definitions when measuring energy performance, and how these affect the appropriateness of country comparisons to guide policy decisions. The paper also addresses the limitations of both energy intensity and technology diffusion indicators as measures of energy efficiency performance. A case study on Japan's iron and steel industry illustrates the critical role of proper boundary definitions for a meaningful assessment of energy efficiency in industry. Depending on the boundaries set for the analysis, the energy consumption per ton of crude steel ranges from 16 to 21 GJ. Both a proper understanding of various methods to assess energy efficiency and the linkage with policy objectives and frameworks are important. Using the diffusion rates of specific energy-efficient processes is a technology-oriented approach which seeks to encourage the retrofitting or replacement of less efficient equipment. There are fewer boundary problems using diffusion rates than by calculating energy consumption. 42 refs., 15 figs., 4 tabs., 1 app.

  16. The Impact of Corporate Governance on the Efficiency Performance of the Thai Non-Life Insurance Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Yen Hsu; Pongpitch Petchsakulwong

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the relation between corporate governance and efficiency performance of public non-life insurance companies in Thailand over the period 2000–2007. Data envelopment analysis is used to compute an insurer's efficiency performance including technical, allocative, cost, and revenue efficiency. We then employ truncated bootstrapped regression to test the relation between efficiency performance and corporate governance. The results show that the characteristics of corporate gove...

  17. Factors influencing the performance and efficiency of solar water pumping systems:  a review

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, Rupert; Lukhwareni, Thendo

    2012-01-01

    The world is having an energy crisis and currently there is a strong drive towards renewable energy. A renewable energy option is solar energy, where by means of photovoltaic (PV) modules electrical energy can be produced. A residential as well as industrial application for these PV modules is solar water pumping systems. Disadvantages of solar water pumping systems are low performance and low energy efficiency. This paper provides a review on the factors that influence the performance and ef...

  18. The Impact of capital structure on the performance efficiency of Baltic listed companies

    OpenAIRE

    Norvaišienė, Rasa

    2012-01-01

    The capital structure can influence the behavior of the company as well as its performance results and its value. However, the effect can be quite different. The financial indicators of Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian listed companies published in their annual reports have been used in order to investigate the impact of capital structure on performance efficiency of the companies. The research included data of only non-financial companies, because the capital structure of financial instituti...

  19. Longitudinal Relationship Between Sitting Time on a Working Day and Vitality, Work Performance, Presenteeism, and Sickness Absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Bernaards, Claire M; Steijn, Wouter M P; Hildebrandt, Vincent H

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the longitudinal relationship between sitting time on a working day and vitality, work performance, presenteeism, and sickness absence. At the start and end of a five-month intervention program at the workplace, as well as 10 months after the intervention, sitting time and work-related outcomes were measured using a standardized self-administered questionnaire and company records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the longitudinal relationship between sitting time and work-related outcomes, and possible interaction effects over time. A significant and sustainable decrease in sitting time on a working day was observed. Sitting less was significantly related to higher vitality scores, but this effect was marginal (b = -0.0006, P = 0.000). Our finding of significant though marginal associations between sitting time and important work-related outcomes justifies further research.

  20. 14 CFR 151.47 - Performance of construction work: Letting of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Development Projects § 151.47 Performance of construction work: Letting of contracts. (a) Advertising required... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Letting... project, each contract for construction work on a project in the amount of more than $2,000 must be...

  1. 14 CFR 151.51 - Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Sponsor... Development Projects § 151.51 Performance of construction work: Sponsor force account. (a) Before undertaking any force account construction work, the sponsor (or any public agency acting as agent for the sponsor...

  2. 32 CFR 644.462 - Performance of restoration work by district engineer-extension of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Performance of restoration work by district... Leasehold Improvements § 644.462 Performance of restoration work by district engineer—extension of time. Where the lessor will not accept a cash settlement in lieu of restoration, or desires the work to be...

  3. 14 CFR 151.49 - Performance of construction work: Contract requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance of construction work: Contract... § 151.49 Performance of construction work: Contract requirements. (a) Contract provisions. In addition to any other provisions necessary to ensure completion of the work in accordance with the grant...

  4. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  5. Labour productivity in Europe: allocative efficiency of labour or performance of firms?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Berthou.; C. Sandoz.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of allocative efficiency of labour in firms and of individual firm performance on labour productivity at the sector level for several European countries. It uses data recently collected by the Competitiveness Research Network (CompNet).

  6. THE RELATION OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE WORK SYSTEMS WITH EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal AFSAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of high performance work systems is to enable employees to exercise decision making, leading to flexibility, innovation, improvement and skill sharing. By facilitating the development of high performance work systems we help organizations make continuous improvement a way of life.The notion of a high-performance work system (HPWS constitutes a claim that there exists a system of work practices for core workers in an organisation that leads in some way to superior performance. This article will discuss the relation that HPWS has with the improvement of firms’ performance and high involvement of the employees.

  7. Teaching and Working With Millennial Trainees: Impact on Radiological Education and Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenco, Ana P; Cronan, John J

    2017-01-01

    Many feel that the generational differences encountered with Millennial trainees are novel; the reality is that prior generations have always bemoaned generational differences. This is not a new problem; some of the same things may even have been said about us during our own training! There are a variety of myths and misconceptions about the Millennial generation (also known as Generation Y). In this article we review some of the differences frequently encountered as we educate and work alongside our Millennial colleagues, dispelling some of the myths and misconceptions. With increased understanding of this talented group of individuals, we hope to be more effective teachers and have more successful professional relationships. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Work-Related Mental Health and Job Performance: Can Mindfulness Help?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gordon, W; Shonin, E; Zangeneh, M; Griffiths, MD

    2014-01-01

    Work-related mental health issues such as work-related stress and addiction to work impose a significant health and economic burden to the employee, the employing organization, and the country of work more generally. Interventions that can be empirically shown to improve levels of work-related mental health – especially those with the potential to concurrently improve employee levels of work performance – are of particular interest to occupational stakeholders. One such broad-application inte...

  9. Energy management in production: A novel method to develop key performance indicators for improving energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, Gökan; Barletta, Ilaria; Stahl, Bojan; Taisch, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a 7-step methodology to develop firm-tailored energy-related KPIs (e-KPIs). • We provide a practical guide for companies to identify their most important e-KPIs. • e-KPIs support identification of energy efficiency improvement areas in production. • The method employs an action plan for achieving energy saving targets. • The paper strengthens theoretical base for energy-based decision making in manufacturing. - Abstract: Measuring energy efficiency performance of equipments, processes and factories is the first step to effective energy management in production. Thus, enabled energy-related information allows the assessment of the progress of manufacturing companies toward their energy efficiency goals. In that respect, the study addresses this challenge where current industrial approaches lack the means and appropriate performance indicators to compare energy-use profiles of machines and processes, and for the comparison of their energy efficiency performance to that of competitors’. Focusing on this challenge, the main objective of the paper is to present a method which supports manufacturing companies in the development of energy-based performance indicators. For this purpose, we provide a 7-step method to develop production-tailored and energy-related key performance indicators (e-KPIs). These indicators allow the interpretation of cause-effect relationships and therefore support companies in their operative decision-making process. Consequently, the proposed method supports the identification of weaknesses and areas for energy efficiency improvements related to the management of production and operations. The study therefore aims to strengthen the theoretical base necessary to support energy-based decision making in manufacturing industries

  10. Performance characteristics and parametric choices of a solar thermophotovoltaic cell at the maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Qingchun; Liao, Tianjun; Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Xiaohang; Chen, Jincan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. - Highlights: • A new model of the irreversible solar thermophotovoltaic system is proposed. • The material and structure parameters of the system are considered. • The performance characteristics at the maximum efficiency are revealed. • The optimal values of key parameters are determined. • The system can obtain a large efficiency under a relative low concentration ratio. - Abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. The power output and efficiency of the cell are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the STPVC at the maximum efficiency are revealed. The optimum values of several important parameters, such as the voltage output of the PV cell, the area ratio of the absorber to the emitter, and the band-gap of the semiconductor material, are determined. It is found that under the condition of a relative low concentration ratio, the optimally designed STPVC can obtain a relative large efficiency.

  11. Performance analyses of geothermal organic Rankine cycles with selected hydrocarbon working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiang; Duan, Yuanyuan; Yang, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    ORC (organic Rankine cycles) are promising systems for conversion of low temperature geothermal energy to electricity. The thermodynamic performance of the ORC with a wet cooling system is analyzed here using hydrocarbon working fluids driven by geothermal water from 100 °C to 150 °C and reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C. The hydrocarbon working fluids are butane (R600), isobutane (R600a), pentane (R601), isopentane (R601a) and hexane. For each fluid, the ORC net power output first increases and then decreases with increasing turbine inlet temperature. The turbine inlet parameters are then optimized for the maximum power output. The ORC net power output increases as the condensation temperature decreases but the circulating pump power consumption increases especially for lower condensation temperatures at higher cooling water flow rates. The optimal condensation temperatures for the maximum plant power output are 29.45–29.75 °C for a cooling water inlet temperature of 20 °C and a pinch point temperature difference of 5 °C in the condenser. The maximum power is produced by an ORC using R600a at geothermal water inlet temperatures higher than 120 °C, followed by R245fa and R600 for reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C. R600a also has the highest plant exergetic efficiency with the lowest turbine size factor. - Highlights: • ORC (organic Rankine cycles) using geothermal water from 100 to 150 °C and reinjection temperatures not less than 70 °C are analyzed. • Condensation temperatures optimized to maximize the plant power output. • An IHE (internal heat exchanger) gives higher plant power at low geothermal water temperatures and high reinjection temperatures. • ORC performance optimized considering the condensation and reinjection temperature. • R600a gives the best performance at the optimal turbine operating parameters

  12. Self-employed individuals performing different types of work have different occupational safety and health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Han, Boyoung; Kim, Yangho

    2018-05-22

    We assessed the occupational safety and health (OSH) issues of self-employed individuals in Korea. The working conditions and OSH issues in three groups were analyzed using the Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2014. Among self-employed individuals, "Physical work" was more common among males, whereas "Emotional work" was more common among females. Self-employed individuals performing "Mental work" had more education, higher incomes, and the lowest exposure to physical/chemical and ergonomic hazards in the workplace. In contrast, those performing "Physical work" were older, had less education, lower incomes, greater exposure to physical/chemical and ergonomic hazards in the workplace, and more health problems. Individuals performing "Physical work" were most vulnerable to OSH problems. The self-employed are a heterogeneous group of individuals. We suggest development of specific strategies that focus on workers performing "Physical work" to improve the health and safety of self-employed workers in Korea. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Profiling high performance dense linear algebra algorithms on multicore architectures for power and energy efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Ltaief, Hatem

    2011-08-31

    This paper presents the power profile of two high performance dense linear algebra libraries i.e., LAPACK and PLASMA. The former is based on block algorithms that use the fork-join paradigm to achieve parallel performance. The latter uses fine-grained task parallelism that recasts the computation to operate on submatrices called tiles. In this way tile algorithms are formed. We show results from the power profiling of the most common routines, which permits us to clearly identify the different phases of the computations. This allows us to isolate the bottlenecks in terms of energy efficiency. Our results show that PLASMA surpasses LAPACK not only in terms of performance but also in terms of energy efficiency. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Superior eco-efficiency performance in industry: hidden risks and value potential for strategic investors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittaker, M.; Kiernan, M.J. [Innovest Strategic Value Advisors Inc., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2000-07-01

    It is now widely recognized that high eco-efficiency and competitiveness and financial performance go hand in hand. Innovest assessed more than 60 facets of business development, management and environmental risks in global companies representing the petroleum, chemicals, forest products, electrical utilities and other industries. It did not matter whether return on investment (ROI), return on equity (ROE) or total stock market return was considered as a basis for evaluation. Those companies that ranked at the top on environmental performance outperformed their rivals in the same sector by 17 per cent annually. In addition, the authors noticed variances as large as 500 per cent in the environmental risk profiles of companies whose credit and investment risks were deemed identical. The eco-efficiency helped generate competitive advantage and financial performance by enhancing: (1) cost containment and liability reduction, (2) sales and market share growth, (3) franchise and brand value, (4) stakeholder satisfaction and (5) innovation capacity. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Effect of working fluids on the performance of a novel direct vapor generation solar organic Rankine cycle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Alvi, Jahan Zeb; Pei, Gang; Ji, Jie; Li, Pengcheng; Fu, Huide

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, flexible direct vapor generation solar ORC is proposed. • Technical feasibility of the system is discussed. • Fluid effect on collector efficiency is explored. • The system is more efficient than solar ORC with HTF. - Abstract: A novel solar organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with direct vapor generation (DVG) is proposed. A heat storage unit is embedded in the ORC to guarantee the stability of power generation. Compared with conventional solar ORCs, the proposed system avoids the secondary heat transfer intermediate and shows good reaction to the fluctuation of solar radiation. The technical feasibility of the system is discussed. Performance is analyzed by using 17 dry and isentropic working fluids. Fluid effects on the efficiencies of ORC, collectors and the whole system are studied. The results indicate that the collector efficiency generally decreases while the ORC and system efficiencies increase with the increment in fluid critical temperature. At evaporation temperature of 120 °C and solar radiation of 800 Wm −2 , the ORC, collector and overall thermal efficiencies of R236fa are 10.59, 56.14 and 5.08% while their values for Benzene are 12.5, 52.58 and 6.57% respectively. The difference between collector efficiencies using R236fa and Benzene gets larger at lower solar radiation. The heat collection is strongly correlated with latent and sensible heat of the working fluid. Among the fluids, R123 exhibits the highest overall performance and seems to be suitable for the proposed system in the short term.

  16. ITC SOLUTIONS TO ACHIEVE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY OF HEALTH SERVICES: ONLINE VIRTUAL CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina BĂLAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital era modified the way people work, how the information and the informational resources are defined and organized. The organization which holds, uses and correctly reproduces the piece of information, the knowledge, the intellectual capital, becomes a leader in the proper field of activity. Following the actual tendencies in the digital era connected to the exchange of professional information, I can say that the exchange and sharing of digital information in a global multitude of interconnected computers are essential instruments that can contribute to the development and consolidation of the intellectual potential of the organization. This is why, the access of the individuals to information is an actual requirement of the development of the Romanian society in the context of globalization and world implication o contemporary processes and phenomena. The Digital integration eliminates the barriers that traditionally suppress the circuit of the medical information, lets the goods and services circulate to and from Romania by promoting efficiency as final purpose. Performance is needed in the health system, the transformation of the system of medical services by bringing the benefits of the medical science and technology to all individuals from every community. In order to accomplish these expectations it is needed that all the components that form the health system look at it as a whole and subscribe to modern solutions for improvement so that the quality of health should raise to an unprecedented level. Even if health systems differ from country to country from the organizational and financial point of view, they face the same challenges and problems, respectively the supply of medical care of better quality and keeping under control the health expenses. The use of information and communication technology in the field of medical assistance in order to stock, share, transmit and analyze clinical data and knowledge is more necessary

  17. Making the link between work-life balance practices and organizational performance

    OpenAIRE

    T. Alexandra Beauregard; Lesley C. Henry

    2009-01-01

    The business case for work-life balance practices, as espoused by many organizations, rests on attracting better applicants and reducing work-life conflict among existing employees in order to enhance organizational performance. This review of the literature provides some evidence for the claim regarding recruitment, but there is insufficient evidence to support the notion that work-life practices enhance performance by means of reduced work-life conflict. We suggest that the business case ma...

  18. Working-memory performance is related to spatial breadth of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2015-11-01

    Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.

  19. Family supportive supervisor behaviors and organizational culture: Effects on work engagement and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofcanin, Yasin; Las Heras, Mireia; Bakker, Arnold B

    2017-04-01

    Informed by social information processing (SIP) theory, in this study, we assessed the associations among family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSBs) as perceived by subordinates, subordinate work engagement, and supervisor-rated work performance. Moreover, we explored the role of family supportive organizational culture as a contextual variable influencing our proposed associations. Our findings using matched supervisor-subordinate data collected from a financial credit company in Mexico (654 subordinates; 134 supervisors) showed that FSSBs influenced work performance through subordinate work engagement. Moreover, the positive association between subordinates' perceptions of FSSBs and work engagement was moderated by family supportive organizational culture. Our results contribute to emerging theories on flexible work arrangements, particularly on family supportive work policies. Moreover, our findings carry practical implications for improving employee work engagement and work performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Confronting Regulatory Cost and Quality Expectations. An Exploration of Technical Change in Minimum Efficiency Performance Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Margaret [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Spurlock, C. Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-21

    The dual purpose of this project was to contribute to basic knowledge about the interaction between regulation and innovation and to inform the cost and benefit expectations related to technical change which are embedded in the rulemaking process of an important area of national regulation. The area of regulation focused on here is minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) for appliances and other energy-using products. Relevant both to U.S. climate policy and energy policy for buildings, MEPS remove certain product models from the market that do not meet specified efficiency thresholds.

  1. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  2. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Women's participation in high performance work practices: a comparative analysis of Portugal and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Pedro; Porto, Nelida; Portela, Marta

    2010-01-01

    High-performance work systems (HPWS) can be seen as a set of new forms of work organization combined with flexible human resources (HR) practices that enhance organizational performance through employee involvement and empowerment. Although in the past two decades much research has been conducted on the effects that high-performance work practices can have on organizations, there is still much to know about the ideal conditions for the adoption of such practices. According to some research, t...

  4. Work support, psychological well-being and safety performance among nurses in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kenchi C K

    2018-02-06

    This study investigated the mediating role of psychological well-being between work support and safety performance of 314 Hong Kong nurses, using self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that psychological well-being mediated the effects of work support on safety performance. The findings illustrate that work support was an important element to improve psychological well-being. This could generate better safety performance of the nurses. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  5. Study on the relationship between Islamic leadership style, work ethics, job satisfaction, and employee performance

    OpenAIRE

    FEBRIANI RIZKI; THOYIB ARMANU; SURACHMAN S.; ROFIATY R.

    2017-01-01

    There are many studies to examine the relationship of Leadership Style, Work Ethic, Satisfaction and Employee Performance. However, these research more emphasis on study of non-Muslims. In addition, there is no study has comprehensively discussed the Leadership Style, Work Ethic, Satisfaction and Employee Performance. Therefore, this study will examine theoretically the relationship between Leadership Style, Work Ethic, Satisfaction and Employee Performance comprehensively and within Islamic ...

  6. Effectiveness of a combined social and physical environmental intervention on presenteeism, absenteeism, work performance, and work engagement in office employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M; Duijts, Saskia F A; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; Boot, Cécile R L

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a combined social and physical environmental intervention as well as the effectiveness of both separate interventions. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, 412 office employees were allocated to the combined social and physical environmental intervention, to the social environmental intervention only, to the physical environmental intervention only, or were part of the control group. Data on presenteeism, absenteeism, work performance, and work engagement were obtained with questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Multilevel analyses were performed. The combined intervention showed a decrease in contextual performance and dedication. The social environmental intervention showed an improvement in task performance. The physical environmental intervention revealed an improvement in absorption. Although the study showed some promising results, it is not recommended to implement the current interventions.

  7. World energy outlook. Energy efficiency policies in the World: what works and what does not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Long considered simply as an 'option' in the OECD countries, energy efficiency is spreading, with notable progress in all major regions of the world. The experience gained by the OECD countries benefits so-called emerging countries, as demonstrated by the study of energy efficiency in the world conducted by ADEME for the World Energy Council. A relative international consensus is emerging. It sees energy efficiency as a beneficial strategy for each stakeholder: reducing dependence on energy imports, reducing emissions of greenhouse gas emissions related to energy, preserving the competitiveness of companies and household purchasing power, etc. This good news appears to be an illusion, however, with a general decrease in energy efficiency over the recent years. Regional disparities remain and new solutions must be found to take the reality of each country into account and thus move to the next level

  8. Combating Climate Change with Energy Efficiency - How to Make It Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2016-01-01

    COP21 agreement raised the awareness of the widest international community on an urgent need to act and deliver results that would mitigate adverse consequences of climate change. Energy efficiency is once again declared as the most readily available, rapid and cost-effective way to achieve desired greenhouse gases reductions. However, although significant efforts are made worldwide to put sound energy efficiency policies in place, the desired results in terms of saved kWh, and consequently in terms of reduced tonnes of CO2 emitted, are missing. The paper investigates and explains the reasons behind this energy efficiency policy failure, known as energy efficiency gap, by using examples from current energy efficiency and other policies in Croatia. The first reason is in the lack of understanding of energy efficiency market, the analysis of which needs to be a starting point in policy making. Selection of policy instruments needs to be based on feedback from those that are actually intended to implement them, i.e. participatory approach needs to be mainstreamed in policy making as it will reveal the reality of the implementing environment (existing attitudes, experienced brakes and desired levers). Secondly, there is generally insufficient knowledge about policy instruments impacts (both potential and achieved). Evaluation of expected impacts of a certain policy instrument needs to be realistic taking into account time needed for target group to fully adopt the instrument and utilise it to the highest level envisaged by the policy. And the last, reason for energy efficiency policy failure is to be found in continuously neglecting benefits of improved energy efficiency beyond energy savings. Energy efficiency requires genuine not declarative commitment that will integrate it in all other policy spheres. It is essential to start treating energy efficiency not as an end (i.e. as a policy for itself), but as a means to achieve multiple social, economic and environmental

  9. Verbal working memory performance correlates with regional white matter structures in the frontoparietal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-10-01

    Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working memory performance has been suggested based on the analysis of individuals with varying pathologies. This study aimed to identify correlations between white matter and individual differences in verbal working memory performance in normal young subjects. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses using T1-weighted structural images as well as voxel-based analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA) using diffusion tensor imaging. Using the letter span task, we measured verbal working memory performance in normal young adult men and women (mean age, 21.7 years, SD=1.44; 42 men and 13 women). We observed positive correlations between working memory performance and regional white matter volume (rWMV) in the frontoparietal regions. In addition, FA was found to be positively correlated with verbal working memory performance in a white matter region adjacent to the right precuneus. These regions are consistently recruited by working memory. Our findings suggest that, among normal young subjects, verbal working memory performance is associated with various regions that are recruited during working memory tasks, and this association is not limited to specific parts of the working memory network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic relationships between feed efficiency in growing males and beef cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J J; Evans, R D; Mc Hugh, N; Kenny, D A; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Berry, D P

    2011-11-01

    Most studies on feed efficiency in beef cattle have focused on performance in young animals despite the contribution of the cow herd to overall profitability of beef production systems. The objective of this study was to quantify, using a large data set, the genetic covariances between feed efficiency in growing animals measured in a performance-test station, and beef cow performance including fertility, survival, calving traits, BW, maternal weaning weight, cow price, and cull cow carcass characteristics in commercial herds. Feed efficiency data were available on 2,605 purebred bulls from 1 test station. Records on cow performance were available on up to 94,936 crossbred beef cows. Genetic covariances were estimated using animal and animal-dam linear mixed models. Results showed that selection for feed efficiency, defined as feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual BW gain (RG), improved maternal weaning weight as evidenced by the respective genetic correlations of -0.61 and 0.57. Despite residual feed intake (RFI) being phenotypically independent of BW, a negative genetic correlation existed between RFI and cow BW (-0.23; although the SE of 0.31 was large). None of the feed efficiency traits were correlated with fertility, calving difficulty, or perinatal mortality. However, genetic correlations estimated between age at first calving and FCR (-0.55 ± 0.14), Kleiber ratio (0.33 ± 0.15), RFI (-0.29 ± 0.14), residual BW gain (0.36 ± 0.15), and relative growth rate (0.37 ± 0.15) all suggest that selection for improved efficiency may delay the age at first calving, and we speculate, using information from other studies, that this may be due to a delay in the onset of puberty. Results from this study, based on the estimated genetic correlations, suggest that selection for improved feed efficiency will have no deleterious effect on cow performance traits with the exception of delaying the age at first calving.

  11. A longitudinal investigation of work environment stressors on the performance and wellbeing of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, S; Kwok, K C S

    2016-01-01

    This study uses a longitudinal within-subjects design to investigate the effects of inadequate Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) on work performance and wellbeing in a sample of 114 office workers over a period of 8 months. Participants completed a total of 2261 online surveys measuring perceived thermal comfort, lighting comfort and noise annoyance, measures of work performance, and individual state factors underlying performance and wellbeing. Characterising inadequate aspects of IEQ as environmental stressors, these stress factors can significantly reduce self-reported work performance and objectively measured cognitive performance by between 2.4% and 5.8% in most situations, and by up to 14.8% in rare cases. Environmental stressors act indirectly on work performance by reducing state variables, motivation, tiredness, and distractibility, which support high-functioning work performance. Exposure to environmental stress appears to erode individuals' resilience, or ability to cope with additional task demands. These results indicate that environmental stress reduces not only the cognitive capacity for work, but the rate of work (i.e. by reducing motivation). Increasing the number of individual stress factors is associated with a near linear reduction in work performance indicating that environmental stress factors are additive, not multiplicative. Environmental stressors reduce occupant wellbeing (mood, headaches, and feeling 'off') causing indirect reductions in work performance. Improving IEQ will likely produce small but pervasive increases in productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  13. The increasing efficiency of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurnja Dar'ja Vladimirovna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the review of the existing problems in the field of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs. Determination of the limit prices of purchases is revealed as the most important problem of the increasing efficiency of financial resources management at implementation of goods’ purchase, works, services for the state and municipal needs. The range of problems of determination of the limit prices of purchases is systematized.

  14. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  15. The efficiency and quality dilemma: What drives South African call centre management performance indicators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Banks

    2011-03-01

    Research purpose: This study explored the key performance indicators that drive management practices in the South African call centre industry in the context of the dilemma between efficiency and quality. Motivation for the study: The South African government has identified call centres as a method of creating jobs and foreign investment. Management practices affect centres’ performance. Understanding these practices will help to achieve these aims. Research design: The researchers used a web-based questionnaire in a survey with South African call centre managers in more than 44 different organisations that represented nine industry sectors. Main findings: This study indicated that the dilemma between efficiency and quality is prevalent in South African call centres and that efficiency key performance indicators drive management practices. Practical/managerial implications: The inconsistencies the study reported mean that South African organisations should assess the alignment between their organisational visions, the strategic intentions of their call centres and the performance measures they use to assess their call centre managers. Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the relatively small amount of empirical research available on the call centre industry in South Africa. It contributes to the industry’s attempt to position itself favourably for local and international outsourcing opportunities.

  16. Integration and the performance of healthcare networks: do integration strategies enhance efficiency, profitability, and image?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas T.H. Wan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the integration effects on efficiency and financial viability of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs in the United States. Theory: A contingency- strategic theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. Methods: The lists of the top 100 IHNs ranked in two years, 1998 and 1999, by the SMG Marketing Group were merged to create a database for the study. Multiple indicators were used to examine the relationship between IHNs' characteristics and their performance in efficiency and financial viability. A path analytical model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' images, represented by attaining ranking among the top 100 in two consecutive years, were analysed. Results and conclusion: No positive associations were found between integration and network performance in efficiency or profits. Longitudinal data are needed to investigate the effect of integration on healthcare networks' financial performance.

  17. Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eSala-Llonch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

  18. Conference on performance measures for transportation and livable communities : summary of work performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Livability is primarily concerned with issues such as transportation choices, neighborhood character : and access to destinations, affordability, and maintaining cohesive rural, urban and suburban : communities. As transportation agencies work toward...

  19. Effect of the number of two-wheeled containers at a gathering point on energetic workload and work efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. Paul F M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Van Dieën, Jaap H.; Visser, Bart

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the number of two-wheeled containers at a gathering point on the energetic workload and the work efficiency in refuse collecting was studied. The results showed that the size of the gathering point had no effect on the energetic workload. However, the size of the gathering point had an

  20. Socioanalytic Theory and Work Behavior: Roles of Work Values and Political Skill in Job Performance and Promotability Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickle, Gerhard; Frohlich, Julia K.; Ehlert, Sandra; Pirner, Katharina; Dietl, Erik; Hanes, T. Johnston; Ferris, Gerald R.

    2011-01-01

    Socioanalytic theory postulates that job performance ratings are predicted by basic social motives moderated by social competency. The two motives are the motive to get along with others and the motive to achieve status and power. The present two-study investigation assessed these motives as work values and collected supervisors' job performance…