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CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES  

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Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3). Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus) assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

Ma?gorzata Ziarno; Ewa S?kul; Alvaro Aguado Lafraya

2007-01-01

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Antagonism between yoghurt bacteria and probiotic bacteria isolated from commercial starter cultures, commercial yoghurts and a probiotic capsule  

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Antagonism between yoghurt bacteria and probiotic bacteria isolated from four commercial starter cultures, three commercial yoghurts and a probiotic capsule was studied. Streptococcus thermophilus (7 strains), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (5 strains), Lactobacillus acidophilus (8 stra...

Joseph, PJ; Dave, RI; Shah, NP

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Effect of the addition of pulse ingredients to milk on acid production by probiotic and yoghurt starter cultures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pulses contain carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins which are essential requirements in the human diet and which could also serve as growth nutrients for probiotic and yogurt starter cultures. In this study, milk supplementation with pulse ingredients is examined as a means to increase the nutritional properties of yogurt and probiotic type beverages. The acid production rate of two yogurt starters (A and B) and two probiotic cultures (Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus) was followed in milk supplemented with the following soy and pulse ingredients: pea protein, chickpea flour, lentil flour, pea fibre, soy protein concentrate and soy flour. The pulse ingredients had no negative effect on the acidification trends of the fermented milks. On the contrary, with yogurt culture B, pea fibre, pea protein and lentil flour significantly enhanced the acidification rate. All ingredients used for supplementation improved the acidification rate of probiotic cultures, and the highest effects were obtained with lentil and soy flour. Lentil flour had the lowest pH after 12 h which was significantly lower than the product enriched with the same quantity of skim milk powder. The effect of ingredient supplementation on the microbial composition (ratio of cocci to bacilli) of the yoghurt products was also examined. The ratio of cocci to bacilli was between 1.8 and 2.5 for all supplemented yogurt samples obtained with culture A, and these variations were not judged to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). With yogurt products obtained from culture B, however, there was a higher proportional level of lactobacilli in all supplemented samples, as compared to the milk control; the enhanced growth of the lactobacilli was particularly noted when lentil flour was added to milk.

Zare F; Champagne CP; Simpson BK; Orsat V; Boye JI

2012-03-01

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STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????  

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Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

Zavezenova I. V.; Ryabtseva S. A.; Abakumova E. A.

2013-01-01

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Wine starters cultures  

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Full Text Available This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.

Débora Santos; Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski

2008-01-01

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Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in yoghurt and in commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To assess the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in yoghurt and commercial fermented milk products containing probiotic strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole and skimmed UHT milk artificially inoculated with MAP were used to manufacture yoghurt, using two different yoghurt starter cultures. Five commercial fermented milk products were inoculated with MAP. Two different MAP strains were studied. The survival of MAP in all products was monitored by culture over a 6-week storage period at 6°C. In yoghurt, MAP counts did not change appreciably during the storage period. Fat content and type of yoghurt starter culture had no consistent effect on the survival of MAP. In the fermented milk products, survival patterns varied but resulted in a 1·5 to ?3·8 log reduction for the Niebüll strain and a 1·2-2·2 log reduction for the NIZO strain after 6 weeks, depending on the probiotic starters present in the product. CONCLUSIONS: MAP easily survived in yoghurt but MAP numbers decreased in fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results contribute to the lack of knowledge on the behaviour of MAP in yoghurt and fermented milk products containing probiotic cultures. This knowledge is valuable in the context of the risk of MAP transmission to humans via yoghurt and the possible contribution of probiotic fermented milk products to the elimination of MAP.

Van Brandt L; Coudijzer K; Herman L; Michiels C; Hendrickx M; Vlaemynck G

2011-05-01

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The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria  

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Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R) of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 109 : 109 (1 : 1), 109 : 2x109 (1 : 2) and 2x109 : 109 (2 : 1), and second factor was percentage (S) of starter, with were 1, 2, 3 and 4 percent. Each treatment has three replicated. Variabels measured ware lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt after 12 hours fermented. Lactic acid content was determined by titration and lactose content by spectrofotometry. Result showed that number of Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and percentage of starter, including ther interaction, have very hight significant (P<0,01) affect on lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt. For resulted the yoghurt with the best quality (midle of lactic acid and lower lactose content) recommended to used Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 1 : 2 with 4 percent starter addition. (Animal Production 8(2): 131-136 (2006) Key Words : Streptococus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, starter, yoghurt, lactic acid, lactose

Prayitno

2006-01-01

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Starter cultures and method for biomethanation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Starter cultures for the anaerobic biomethanation of a lactose-containing substrate, such as whey, contain live, reproducible cells of Leuconstoc mesenteroides, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Methanosar cinabarkeri, and Methanobacterium formicicum. The starter cultures can be either a defined starter culture consisting essentially of a mixture of substantially pure cultures of the organisms or an adapted sludge starter culture prepared by culturing a sewage digestor sludge containing the organisms on the substrate until the microorganisms have adapted to the environment of the substrate.

Chartrain Michel; Zeikus Joseph Gregory

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Development of made?in?transit set culture yoghurt: effect of increasing the concentration of reconstituted skim milk as the milk base  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The fermentation time, yoghurt acidity expressed as lactic acid, starter culture growth, viscosity and firmness of made?in?transit (MIT) set culture yoghurt produced using different concentrations of reconstituted skim milk powder (SMP) from 12% to 20% (w/v) as the milk base were investigated. All milk base formulations were ultra?high temperature sterilised at 138?°C for 6?s. The results revealed that increasing the SMP concentration increased the viscosity and firmness of MIT set culture yoghurt. At 20% SMP, viscosity and firmness were 4650.8 cP and 1.266?N, respectively. Fermentation of MIT set culture yoghurt with 20% SMP was observed to be faster than with the other conditions. The fermentation time for a medium containing from 14% to 20% SMP could be extended to 168?h, reaching a final pH of 4.50–4.37 and at the same time improving the texture of the MIT set culture yoghurt. The SMP concentration had no influence on the total viable counts of starter bacteria in the yoghurt. The texture of MIT set culture yoghurt may be improved by increasing the concentration of SMP.

Nor?Khaizura M; Flint SH; McCarthy OJ; Palmer JS; Golding M; Jaworska A

2012-03-01

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Yoghurt Production Using Soyamilk  

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Soyamilk was extracted from soaked dehulled crushed soyabeans by mixing with water and then filtering using a muslim cloth to separate the milk from residue. The filtered soyamilk was then pasteurised to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and undesirable enzymes. The extracted soyamilk had a lower acidity (0.03%) and fat content (1.0%) than cows milk (0.14 and 3.5% acidity and fat content respectively). Organoleptic (sensory) evaluation was carried by a panel and the results were analysed using the Anova an mean separation by using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Quality attributes of soyamilk that were significant (P > 0.05) affected were consistency and flavour. A 75:25 (cow milk:soyamilk) was not significantly different from 100% cow milk. The 25:75 cow milk:soyamilk and 100% soyamilk were not acceptable because of poor consistency and objectionable flavour. The fermented soyamilk yoghurt had a higher acceptability rating than fresh soyamilk. The sensory evaluation results showed that the 75:25 and 50:50 ( cow to soyamilk) yoghurt were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control (100% cow yoghurt). The 25:75 and 0:100 (cow milk:soyamilk yoghurt) had low rating and categorised as poor. By increasing the sugar content and amount of emulsifier (gelatin), the acceptability of 25:75 and 0:100 soyamilk yoghurt was improved. Fermentation using yoghurt starter culture improved the flavour and taste

1999-01-01

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Investigation on ropiness development by isolates of the genera Lactobacillus, Alcaligenes and Feta cheese starter cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lactobacillus pseudoplantarum and Alcaligenes spp. were isolated from ropy brine and milk, respectively, and their ability to develop ropiness was investigated. Vigorous ropiness was developed by L. pseudoplantarum in whey with 7% NaCl, after 21 days of incubation at 15C?. Alcaligenes spp. developed ropy colonies on PCA, containing up to 2% NaCl at incubation temperature of 4C? and 15C?. Also reconstituted skim milk inoculated with Alcaligenes spp. became ropy after 5-13 days of incubation only at 4C?. Ropiness was not noticed when NaCl was added to the skim milk. In order to investigate the ropiness development in Feta cheese brine, a commercial yoghurt culture was used to make Feta cheese in combination with the two bacteria isolates and a ropy yoghurt culture. The results revealed that only the ropy yoghurt culture and not the normal one, developed very high ropiness in brine during ripening at 15C?. The results also showed that Alcaligenes spp. and L. pseudoplantarum intensified ropiness of brine. To avoid ropiness, it is recommended that yoghurt starter cultures used for Feta should be selected and bacterial contaminants that could cause ropiness in brine should be eliminated.

Samaras FI; Kehagias C; Arkoudelos JS; Bocaris MI

2003-10-01

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PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50?C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

Elok Zubaedah1); Joni Kusnadi1); Ima Andriastuti2)

2003-01-01

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Interactions between EPS-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strains in mixed yoghurt cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mixed cultures of different EPS-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strains in combination with a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain with negligible EPS-production were used for yoghurt production. The yoghurt texture was characterised with respect to sensory, rheological and microstructural properties and the EPS-concentrations were determined. The cultures resulted in yoghurts with highly different texture properties, and positive interactions between certain Streptococcus thermophilus strains were observed. The underlying properties of yoghurt texture are multidimensional, but a number of microstructural characteristics were apparent in the yoghurts with the highest mouth thickness, creaminess and viscosity. A strong protein network, not too dense and with medium size pores containing EPS, seems associated with these properties. The presence of capsular polysaccharides (CPS) also appeared to be beneficial as did a combination of EPS types, which were distributed differently in the protein network (in serum pores, respectively in association with protein). Obviously, a certain concentration of EPS must be present to provide for these effects on yoghurt texture, but other factors than concentration per se seem more important. PMID:16834816

Folkenberg, Ditte M; Dejmek, Petr; Skriver, Anne; Ipsen, Richard

2006-07-12

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Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid to quality of raw material for yoghurt manufacture. The quality of raw milk for yoghurt production was high. Average relative density was 1,030. Acidity varied from 6.11 to 6.64oSH, with mean value of 6.28oSH. Evaporating of milk and addition of skim milk dry powder were used for dry solids adjustment required for good quality yoghurtmanufacture. Milk for yoghurt manufacture, had relative density from 1.035 to 1.036 with average value of 1.035. Acidity ranged from 7.07 to 7.59oSH. Average acidity was 7.30oSH. Fat content was in range from 1.94 to 2.00% and 1.98% in average. Yoghurt starter culture showed high acidic activity, as indicated in its acidity value before inoculation of yoghurt milk. Mean value of acidity of starter culture was 40.36oSH with variations from 38.05 to 42.64oSH. The acidity of final product varied from 37.36 to 38.81oSH or 38.26oSH in average. The acidity of yoghurt in Dairy Industry Zenica was adjusted to be somewhat lower than usual in order to keep high quality of products during distribution and consuming chain.

Sonja Bijeljac; Hajrudin Skender; Zlatan Sari?

2004-01-01

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In vitro evaluation of yoghurt starter lactobacilli and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG adhesion to saliva-coated surfaces.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the adhesion of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG to saliva-coated surfaces in vitro. METHODS: Fifteen radiolabeled dairy L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains and L. rhamnosus GG were tested for their ability to adhere to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads and polystyrene microtiter plates and the radioactivity was measured by liquid scintillation counter. The effects of lysozyme on the adhesion of lactobacilli and of pretreatment with lactobacilli on the adhesion of Streptococcus sanguinis were also assessed. RESULTS: All strains tested adhered to saliva-coated surfaces but with significantly different binding frequencies. The adhesion of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strains remained lower in comparison to L. rhamnosus strain GG. One L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain showed binding frequency comparable to S. sanguinis. Lysozyme pretreatment of the samples significantly increased lactobacillus adhesion to saliva-coated surfaces. CONCLUSION: The present results showed significant variations in the adhesion capacity of the Lactobacillus strains studied. Adhesion to oral surfaces is of primary importance for bacterial colonization in the mouth. Only one of the L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus dairy starter culture strains investigated had a high adhesion percentage. This strain might then be considered for further investigations in the oral environment.

Stamatova I; Kari K; Vladimirov S; Meurman JH

2009-06-01

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Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

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LACTIC ACID BACTERIAL STARTER CULTURES AND COMPOSITIONS THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods of enhancing the growth rate and/or controlling the metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria and of improving the shelf life and/or the quality of an edible product using lactic acid bacterial organisms which are defective in their pyruvate metabolism. There is also provided starter culture compositions comprising such defective lactic acid bacteria as helper organisms and lactic acid bacterial starter culture strains. Useful helper organisms are Lactococcus strains which are defective with respect to pyruvate formate lyase (Pfl) and/or lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) activity. The helper organisms may overexpress a gene coding for an NADH regenerating enzyme such as NADH oxidase encoded by nox gene.

KRINGELUM BOERGE WINDEL; NILSSON DAN; SOERENSEN KIM IB

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Isolation and Identification of Thermophilic Lactobacilli from Traditional Yoghurts of Tribes of Kazerun  

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Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify thermophilic lactobacilli isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city, Fars province, Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 99 thermophilic Lactobacilli were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed Lactobacillus helveticus 25 (25.25%), Lactobacillus fermentum 20 (20.20%) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus 54 (54.55%). So, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were found to be the more dominant species. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of thermophilic lactobacilli starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of yoghurt. However, in the future can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

P. Azadnia; M.H. Zamani; Shah Ahmad Ghasemi; A. Khalegh Babaki; M. Karimi Jashni; N. Taarof

2011-01-01

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YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion) by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with control yoghurt (P<0.05) in every week interval of storage period. In control yoghurt at 21 days of storage, lactobacillus survived four log units and bifidobacterium survived six log units. Extrusion method of encapsulation using alginate (2.0 % w/v) +gelatin (2.0 % w/v) +starch (0.5 w/v) as wall materials provides maximum viability (9 log units) for probiotics in yoghurt throughout the storage period of 21 days.

V.Jayalalitha; R.Palani Dorai; B.Dhanalakshmi; A.Elango; C.Naresh kumar

2011-01-01

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Antimicrobial Effects of Bacteriocin Like Substance Produced by L. acidophilus from Traditional Yoghurt on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus  

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Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) commonly used in food as starter cultures are known to produce antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins and have great potential as food bio-preservatives. Six L. acidophilus isolated from traditional yoghurt, were screened for the production of antimicrobial s...

A.M. Mobarez; R. Hosseini Doust; M. Sattari; N. Mantheghi

 
 
 
 
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Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Jihad M. Quasem; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

2011-01-01

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EFFECT OF MAIZE VARIETY AND BACTERIA STARTER CULTURE ON MAIZE FERMENTATION PROCESS  

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The effect of different maize variety and bacteria starter culture on maize fermentation process was evaluated. Eleven varieties of maize were subjected to fermentation both naturally and in the presence of bacteria starter culture (bactocell). One variety was further fermented with differe...

Felix Oghenemaro Enwa; Jane Beal; Matthew Ikhuoria Arhewoh

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PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE) SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU [Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake) as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food  

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Full Text Available The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%), starch (16,66%), fat (11,56%), ash (7.73%), dry matter (87.57%), dietary fibre (33.35%) and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%). The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml) as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

Indratininingsih1); Widodo1); Siti Isrima Oktavia Salasia2); Endang Wahyuni1)

2004-01-01

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Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits  

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Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms are incorporated to make them more valuable. This article provides an overview of the different starter cultures and health benefits of fer-mented dairy products, which can be derived by the consumers through their regular intake.

Parmjit S. Panesar

2011-01-01

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Influence of starter cultures on the antioxidant activity of kombucha beverage  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper investigates the influence of starter cultures, obtained from kombucha isolates, on the antioxidant activity of kombucha beverages. Three starter cultures were used as follows: (1) mixed culture of acetic bacteria and Zygosaccharomyces sp. (SC1); (2) mixed culture of acetic bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC2); as well as (3) native local kombucha. The starter cultures were added to black and green tea sweetened with 7% of sucrose. Fermentation was carried out at 28°C for 10days. Antioxidant activity to hydroxyl and DPPH radicals was monitored. Kombucha beverage on black tea has shown the highest antioxidant activity to both types of radicals with starter SC1, while the green tea beverage has shown the highest activity with native kombucha. The main reason for the different antioxidant activities, beside tea composition, was ascribed to differing production of both vitamin C and total organic acids in the investigated systems.

Malbaša RV; Lon?ar ES; Vitas JS; ?anadanovi?-Brunet JM

2011-08-01

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Genomic analysis of dairy starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5461.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used as a starter culture for the production of dairy products. Whole-genome sequencing is expected to utilize the genetic basis behind the metabolic functioning of lactic acid bacterium (LAB), for development of their use in biotechnological and probiotic applications. We sequenced the whole genome of Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5461, the strain isolated from a curd source, by 454 GS-FLX titanium and Ion Torrent PGM. We performed comparative genome analysis using the local BLAST and RDP for 16S rDNA comparison and by the RAST server for functional comparison against the published genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ 1066. The whole genome size of S. thermophilus MTCC 5461 is of 1.73Mb size with a GC content of 39.3%. Streptococcal virulence-related genes are either inactivated or absent in the strain. The genome possesses coding sequences for features important for a probiotic organism such as adhesion, acid tolerance, bacteriocin production, and lactose utilization, which was found to be conserved among the strains MTCC 5461 and CNRZ 1066. Biochemical analysis revealed the utilization of 17 sugars by the bacterium, where the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in metabolism for 16 of these 17 sugars were confirmed in the genome. This study supports the facts that the strain MTCC 5461 is nonpathogenic and harbors essential features that can be exploited for its probiotic potential. PMID:23568199

Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Senan, Suja; Joshi, Chaitanya G

2013-04-01

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The effect of starter cultures on proteolytic changes and amino acid content in fermented sausages  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main objective of this work was to examine the effects of using five types of commercial starter cultures in fermented sausages. During the fermentation stage, changes in proteolytic characteristics were observed in fermented sausages. Proteolytic activity was high in Lsb + Sc:(Lactobacillus sakei + Staphylococcus carnosus) and Pp + Sx:(Pediococcus pentosaceus + Staphylococcus xylosus) starter-inoculated sausages during processing. Moreover, a slight increase in proteolytic activity was detected during storage in both these sausages. Sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were also affected by this starter culture addition, during the fermentation, ripening and intense proteolysis were observed in both the fermented sausages. The content of free amino acids was similar at the beginning of the fermentation stage for all the studied batches. However, the high differences in the content of free amino acids at the end of the process could be attributed to the starter culture activity.

Aro Aro JuanMarcos; Nyam-Osor Purevdorj; Tsuji Kayoko; Shimada Ken-ichiro; Fukushima Michihiro; Sekikawa Mitsuo

2010-03-01

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A yoghurt drink  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A packaged yoghurt drink comprises a mixture of muesli in yoghurt packaged in a container having a removable seal, which yoghurt is formed by a process using a bacterial culture, preferably ABT4, selected to produce a drinkable consistency, and which mixture includes a fungicidal preservative which inhibits excessive growth of fungus or other organisms present in the mixture, thereby to provide a refrigerated shelf-life of at least fourteen days after container sealing. The preservative is preferably potassium sorbate and the drink may also comprise fruit. Preferably, the drink is formulated to give a shelf-life of about 30 days after packaging and once the drink is opened it takes longer than 2 days to turn sour.

HAND JEREMY

29

Effects of starter cultures and nitrite levels on formation of biogenic amines in sucuk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of starter cultures, starter A (Lactobacillus sakei+Staphylococcus carnosus) and starter B (Pediococcus acidilactici+Staphylococcus xylosus+Lactobacillus curvatus), nitrite levels (0, 75, and 150ppm) and ripening period on biogenic amine production were investigated in sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage) production. Changes in biogenic amines, pH, water activity, moisture, non-protein nitrogen, nitrite and counts of lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and moulds-yeasts were determined. Ripening period had a very significant effect (P<0.01) on the all biogenic amines. Sausages produced by fermentation with starter cultures, as compared to natural fermentation (control), had lower amounts of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (P<0.05). Starter cultures A and B were found to have almost the same effect on the formation of biogenic amines. Use of nitrite in sucuk production affected the formation of biogenic amines except for spermidine and spermine (P<0.01). Lactic acid bacteria counts in the control group were lower than that of starter culture groups. Lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, and moulds-yeasts counts increased during ripening period while levels of species of Enterobacteriaceae decreased, which was also found to be under the detectable level (<100cfug(-1)), by day 3 of ripening.

Gençcelep H; Kaban G; Kaya M

2007-11-01

30

Effects of starter cultures and nitrite levels on formation of biogenic amines in sucuk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of starter cultures, starter A (Lactobacillus sakei+Staphylococcus carnosus) and starter B (Pediococcus acidilactici+Staphylococcus xylosus+Lactobacillus curvatus), nitrite levels (0, 75, and 150ppm) and ripening period on biogenic amine production were investigated in sucuk (Turkish dry-fermented sausage) production. Changes in biogenic amines, pH, water activity, moisture, non-protein nitrogen, nitrite and counts of lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, Enterobacteriaceae, and moulds-yeasts were determined. Ripening period had a very significant effect (P<0.01) on the all biogenic amines. Sausages produced by fermentation with starter cultures, as compared to natural fermentation (control), had lower amounts of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (P<0.05). Starter cultures A and B were found to have almost the same effect on the formation of biogenic amines. Use of nitrite in sucuk production affected the formation of biogenic amines except for spermidine and spermine (P<0.01). Lactic acid bacteria counts in the control group were lower than that of starter culture groups. Lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, and moulds-yeasts counts increased during ripening period while levels of species of Enterobacteriaceae decreased, which was also found to be under the detectable level (<100cfug(-1)), by day 3 of ripening. PMID:22061796

Gençcelep, Hüseyin; Kaban, Güzin; Kaya, Mükerrem

2007-04-29

31

Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase). Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract) were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

A. de Moreno de LeBlanc; G. Perdigón

2005-01-01

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Use of autochthonous Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus vitulus starter cultures in the production of "chorizo" in 2 different traditional industries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The present study determined how the different ripening conditions affected the growth and development of 3 autochthonous starter cultures, and the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of chorizo. Each of 3 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici (MC184, MS198, and MS200) and one of Staphylococcus vitulus (RS34) were associated to prepare the starter cultures, P184S34, P198S34, and P200S34. Then, chorizo was prepared following 2 manufacturing procedures. The autochthonous starter cultures were able to compete and colonize the sausages in both ripening procedures. The use of the starter cultures showed evident differences by the texture analysis, with the control batches being generally tougher than the starter culture batches. Also, the highest biogenic amine (BA) levels were found in control batches and the lowest in P200S34 batches. While the use of these starter cultures does not change the sensory characteristics of these traditional fermented sausages, it improves their homogeneity and safety, except for P184S34 batch in which more BAs are detected in industry 2. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The 3 autochthonous starter cultures selected could be used in traditional industries because they are able to compete well and colonize the dry fermented sausages "chorizo." The use of these starter cultures improves the texture and homogeneity of traditional fermented sausages. Biogenic amines decreased in the starter cultures batches improving the safety.

Casquete R; Benito MJ; Martín A; Ruiz-Moyano S; Aranda E; Córdoba MG

2012-01-01

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The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey.

Campbell RE; Miracle RE; Drake MA

2011-03-01

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The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey. PMID:21338784

Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

2011-03-01

35

Applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 as a starter culture to control vegetable fermentations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fermentation of vegetables and fruits is a traditional preservation technique, e.g. in Eastern Europe. Although usually spontaneous fermentation processes are applied, the addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures could accelerate processing and improve the consistency and quality of the end-products. RESULTS: The application of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 as a starter culture strain for cauliflower and mixed vegetable fermentations resulted in accelerated acidification as compared with the spontaneous fermentations. The strain dominated the background microbiota throughout the process, whereas the spontaneous fermentations were characterised by widely variable species diversity. During the spontaneous fermentations, almost all carbohydrates were converted into lactic acid, ethanol, mannitol and acetic acid, indicating the participation of both heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB species. During the starter culture-added fermentations, residual carbohydrates were found and lactic acid and ethanol were the main end-metabolites. Vegetable-associated aromas, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate were produced during all fermentations. The high concentration of ethanol and the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate suggested the involvement of yeasts during all fermentations. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 was an adequate starter culture strain for vegetable fermentations, prevailing over endogenous LAB communities. Further optimisation of the starter culture formulation is necessary to avoid yeast growth. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

Wouters D; Grosu-Tudor S; Zamfir M; De Vuyst L

2013-10-01

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Biogenic amines in dry sausages as affected by starter culture and contaminant amine-positive Lactobacillus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of an amine-negative starter culture, containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus, on the growth and amine formation of an amine-positive contaminant lactic acid bacterium (G 106) was studied in dry sausages. Levels of biogenic amines, precursor amino acids, pH, water activity and microbial counts were measured. Levels of phenylethylamine and tyramine increased in the sausages inoculated with the amine-positive strain. The starter culture did not prevent growth of G 106 or its amine formation capability. However, levels of histamine remained low although G 106 could produce histamine in vitro.

Eerola S; Maijala R; Sagues AXR; Salminen M; Hirvi T

1996-12-01

37

Chemical and sensory properties of sauerkraut produced with Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures of differing malolactic phenotypes  

Science.gov (United States)

Research was conducted to determine whether Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures with (MDC+) and without (MDC-) malolactic activity influenced sensory and chemical properties of sauerkraut. No sensory differences were found between MDC+ and MDC- sauerkraut (p less than/equal to 0.05). In add...

38

Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

Gullo M; Giudici P

2008-06-01

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Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the survival of some strains, as pasteurized yogurts had no effect on their survival. In particular, the inhibitory effect exerted by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus on L. acidophilus NCFM was highly pronounced than by S. thermophilus, nevertheless, the same effect was not observed on SBT2062. The inhibition against stationary-phase NCFM cells might be caused by the elevated level of hydrogen peroxide produced by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Delineating factors driving the differences in survival trait among probiotic strains will lead to a more efficacious delivery of health benefits in fermented dairy products through targeted technological interventions.

Ng EW; Yeung M; Tong PS

2011-01-01

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Interaction of Bifidobacterium and Yoghurt Mixed Culture with Salmonella During Associated Cultures Growth  

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The antimicrobial activity of four strains of Bifidobacterium toward Salmonella ssp. during associated cultures growth was investigated in skim milk medium. All strains showed different degrees of antagonistic action toward the indicator strain. The highest degree of inhibition (96%) ...

A. Cheikhyoussef; N. Pogori; F.W. Tian; W. Chen; H. Zhang

 
 
 
 
41

Interaction of Bifidobacterium and Yoghurt Mixed Culture with Salmonella During Associated Cultures Growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of four strains of Bifidobacterium toward Salmonella ssp. during associated cultures growth was investigated in skim milk medium. All strains showed different degrees of antagonistic action toward the indicator strain. The highest degree of inhibition (96%) was obtained with Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium longum (92%). The combination effect of yogurt mixed culture with bifidobacterial strains (di-associated culture) toward Salmonella ssp. resulted in an enhancement of the antagonistic action for Bifidobacterium strains as a result of their production of organic acids, in particular lactic acid, which has a strong inhibitory effect against Gram-negative bacteria. The di-associated cultures all resulted in similar pH values but the degree of inhibition were different with B. infantis and B. longum; meaning that organic acids are not the sole inhibitory factors present in these cultures, but it could be another compounds which may contribute in this inhibitory effects. The combination between Bifidobacterium and YMC strains could has a great value in industrial application in resolving some problems in dairy products and pharmaceutical formulas.

A. Cheikhyoussef; N. Pogori; F.W. Tian; W. Chen; H. Zhang

2008-01-01

42

Biochemical Properties of Some Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains from Traditional Fermented Milk Relevant to Their Technological Performance as Starter Culture  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented milk and to study some of their important technological properties. Five isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditionally raw cow’s fermented milk were identified using phenotypic criteria and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell proteins. Four isolates named 2, 8, 13 and 20 FM were identified as Streptococcus thermophilus while isolate 285 N was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. All these strains exhibited good acidification activity although two strains of Sc. thermophilus (2FM, 20FM) and Lb. bulgaricus (285N) presented the best acidification rates. In addition to their fast acid production, strains 20FM and 285N produced exopolysaccharides. Based on these characteristics, strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N were selected and used as pure or mixed cultures in the manufacture of fermented milk. In mixed cultures, the Sc. thermophilus/Lb. bulgaricus association was positive for all combination tested. The combination of strain 285N with strain 2FM or 20FM had a significant effect on acid production by Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain (285N). These bacterial associations also affected the rheological properties of fermented milk samples. Strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N presented interesting biotechnological profiles and may influence the quality of fermented milk if they are used in association as starters in yoghurt manufacture.

Zambou Ngoufack Francois; Nour El Hoda; Fonteh A Florence; Moundipa Fewou Paul; Tchouanguep Mbiapo Felicite; Morsi El Soda

2007-01-01

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Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Drinking Yoghurt in Khartoum State, Sudan  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the technological characteristics of lactic acid bacteria used as lactic acid starter in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products and which are suitable to local conditions. Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), isolated from drinking yoghurt in different areas in Khartoum state, Sudan. The purification of isolates was done by transferring Gram +ve rods and cocci shaped bacteria to the plates of selective media MRS and M-17, respectively. These isolates were further sub cultured until pure isolates were obtained. From 18 drinking yoghurt samples a total of 303 LAB positives were determined, in which 47 (17.38%) and 256 (82.62%) were identified as lactic acid cocci and lactic acid bacilli, respectively. Additionally, our biochemical tests showed the occurrence of 22 (44.44%) Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and 25 (55.56%) Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris among lactic acid cocci. While, in the case of lactic acid bacilli, Lactobacillus helveticus 35 (15.3%); Lactobacillus plantarum 74 (22.3%); Lactobacillus brevis 17 (21%); Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 36 (15.5%) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 94 (25.9%) was found. Among lactic acid cocci and bacilli, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were found to be the more dominant species, respectively. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional drinking yoghurt. However, in the future we can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains and assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

Asmahan Azhari Ali

2011-01-01

44

Effects of selected factors on rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of inulin (1 %), combination of inulin (1 %) and acacia honey (4 %), heat treatment of milk, and storage time on the rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt. Rheological properties were assessed trough viscosity, syneresis and texture (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity). Yoghurt was prepared from milk (1,5 % fat) with added inulin (1%) before heat treatment at 85 °C for 20 min or 95 °C for 10 min. After cooling to 55 °C honey (4 %) was added. Samples were inoculated using probiotic starter culture (70 % w/w Streptococcus thermophilus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 % w/w Bifidobacterium ssp.). Yoghurt samples were held on +5 °C during 21 days. Measurements of pH value, lactic acid, viscosity, syneresis, and textural properties were done after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The results of this study show that honey addition significantly decreased fermentation time compared to fermentation time of control samples or samples containing inulin. Furthermore, addition of honey and inulin to milk caused significant lower syneresis (p<0,05) during storage time, while there was no significant influence on viscosity and texture of final product. The applied heat treatment of milk had no significant influence on rheological properties of probiotic yoghurt.

Milka Stijepi?; Spasenija Milanovi?; Jovana Glušac; Vladimir Vuki?; Katarina Kanuri?; Dragica ?ur?evi?-Miloševi?; Marjan Ranogajec

2011-01-01

45

Effect of Some Selected Processing Routes on the Nutritional Value of Soy Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The processing methods of soymilk were investigated with major focus on their effects on the nutritional values of soy yoghurt. Various chemicals such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and deionized water were used for treating different samples of soybeans. Soy yoghurt was prepared from the soymilk obtained from all the samples using a mixed starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The yoghurt produced from the soymilk formed from soybeans sample treated with sodium carbonate solution recorded the highest mineral content (potassium-136.6 ppm, calcium-179.7 ppm, magnesium-652.2 ppm, sodium-495.0 ppm). Samples A and D with additional nutrient recorded pH value of 4.76 and 3.90 after 2 h of fermentation, respectively. This observation was due to the rapid increase in acid formation in the course of product formation. Sensory test evaluation revealed that soy yoghurt produced from soybeans sample treated with sodium hydroxide solution had the highest ratings in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability.

O.A. Adetunji; E. Betiku; A. Ojo; B.O. Solomon

2006-01-01

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Classification of Swiss cheese starter and adjunct cultures using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acceptability of Swiss cheese largely depends on the flavor profile, and strain variations of cheese cultures will affect the final quality. Conventional biochemical methods to identify the cultures at the strain level are time-consuming and expensive, and require skilled labor. Our objective was to develop rapid classification methods of starter cultures at the strain level by using a combination of hydrophobic grid membrane filters and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Forty-four pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-verified strains of starter and nonstarter cultures including Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. were analyzed. The strains were grown on their respective agar media, transferred to broth media, and incubated. Then, cultures were centrifuged and the pellets were resuspended in saline solution (10 ?L). Aliquots (2 ?L) of the suspended bacterial solution were placed onto a grid of the hydrophobic grid membrane filters, having 6 grids per each strain analyzed. The dried filters were read by FTIR microspectroscopy fitted with an attenuated total reflectance probe. Collected spectra were statistically analyzed by a soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) for pattern recognition. Classification models were developed for Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. strains. The models showed major discrimination in the spectral region from 1,200 to 900 cm(-1) associated with signals from phosphate-containing compounds and various polysaccharides in the cell wall. The developed method allowed for rapid classification of several Swiss cheese starter and nonstarter cultures at the strain level. This information provides a detailed overview of microbiological status, which would enable corrective measures to be taken early in the cheese making process, limiting production of inferior quality cheese and minimizing defects. This method could be an effective tool to identify and monitor activity of cheese and other dairy starter cultures. PMID:21854910

Prabhakar, V; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N; Harper, J; Rodriguez-Saona, L

2011-09-01

47

Classification of Swiss cheese starter and adjunct cultures using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acceptability of Swiss cheese largely depends on the flavor profile, and strain variations of cheese cultures will affect the final quality. Conventional biochemical methods to identify the cultures at the strain level are time-consuming and expensive, and require skilled labor. Our objective was to develop rapid classification methods of starter cultures at the strain level by using a combination of hydrophobic grid membrane filters and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Forty-four pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-verified strains of starter and nonstarter cultures including Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. were analyzed. The strains were grown on their respective agar media, transferred to broth media, and incubated. Then, cultures were centrifuged and the pellets were resuspended in saline solution (10 ?L). Aliquots (2 ?L) of the suspended bacterial solution were placed onto a grid of the hydrophobic grid membrane filters, having 6 grids per each strain analyzed. The dried filters were read by FTIR microspectroscopy fitted with an attenuated total reflectance probe. Collected spectra were statistically analyzed by a soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) for pattern recognition. Classification models were developed for Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. strains. The models showed major discrimination in the spectral region from 1,200 to 900 cm(-1) associated with signals from phosphate-containing compounds and various polysaccharides in the cell wall. The developed method allowed for rapid classification of several Swiss cheese starter and nonstarter cultures at the strain level. This information provides a detailed overview of microbiological status, which would enable corrective measures to be taken early in the cheese making process, limiting production of inferior quality cheese and minimizing defects. This method could be an effective tool to identify and monitor activity of cheese and other dairy starter cultures.

Prabhakar V; Kocaoglu-Vurma N; Harper J; Rodriguez-Saona L

2011-09-01

48

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei LS25, a Commercial Starter Culture Strain for Fermented Sausage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium associated primarily with fermented meat and fish. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of L. sakei subsp. sakei strain LS25, a commercial starter culture strain for fermented sausage.

McLeod A; Brede DA; Rud I; Axelsson L

2013-01-01

49

Optimizing the selection process of yeast starter cultures by preselecting strains dominating spontaneous fermentations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We propose an efficient and time-saving strategy for starter culture selection. Our approach is based on the accomplishment of 3 phases: (i) the selection of yeast strains dominating spontaneous fermentations, (ii) the selection among the dominant strains of those showing the best technological characteristics, and (iii) the final selection among good technological strains of those showing the desired qualitative traits. We applied this approach to wine fermentations, even though the same strategy has the potential to be employed for the selection of any type of starter culture. We isolated and identified yeast strains at the mid- and final stages of 6 spontaneous fermentations carried out in 3 different Spanish wineries. We identified all strains as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, and subsequently distinguished each strain by analyzing the polymorphism of the inter-delta regions. Strains that were detected both at the mid- and final stages of the fermentation were considered dominant. Four dominant strains were finally selected and tested in pilot-scale fermentation, and their performance was compared with that of a commercial wine strain. All dominant strains showed good fitness and resulted suitable to be employed as starter cultures. One of the dominant strains isolated in this study is currently commercialized.

Pulvirenti A; Rainieri S; Boveri S; Giudici P

2009-03-01

50

Optimizing the selection process of yeast starter cultures by preselecting strains dominating spontaneous fermentations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose an efficient and time-saving strategy for starter culture selection. Our approach is based on the accomplishment of 3 phases: (i) the selection of yeast strains dominating spontaneous fermentations, (ii) the selection among the dominant strains of those showing the best technological characteristics, and (iii) the final selection among good technological strains of those showing the desired qualitative traits. We applied this approach to wine fermentations, even though the same strategy has the potential to be employed for the selection of any type of starter culture. We isolated and identified yeast strains at the mid- and final stages of 6 spontaneous fermentations carried out in 3 different Spanish wineries. We identified all strains as Saccharomyces cerevisiae by restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, and subsequently distinguished each strain by analyzing the polymorphism of the inter-delta regions. Strains that were detected both at the mid- and final stages of the fermentation were considered dominant. Four dominant strains were finally selected and tested in pilot-scale fermentation, and their performance was compared with that of a commercial wine strain. All dominant strains showed good fitness and resulted suitable to be employed as starter cultures. One of the dominant strains isolated in this study is currently commercialized. PMID:19370076

Pulvirenti, Andrea; Rainieri, Sandra; Boveri, Silvio; Giudici, Paolo

2009-03-01

51

Distribution of aminogenic activity among potential autochthonous starter cultures for dry fermented sausages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Any bacterial strain to be used as starter culture should have suitable characteristics, including a lack of amino acid decarboxylase activity. In this study, the decarboxylase activity of 76 bacterial strains, including lactic acid bacteria and gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci, was investigated. These strains were previously isolated from European traditional fermented sausages to develop autochthonous starter cultures. Of all the strains tested, 48% of the lactic acid bacteria strains and 13% of gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci decarboxylated one or more amino acids. Aminogenic potential was strain dependent, although some species had a higher proportion of aminogenic strains than did others. Thus, all Lactobacillus curvatus strains and 70% of Lactobacillus brevis strains had the capacity to produce tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine. Some strains also produced other aromatic amines, such as tryptamine and the diamines putrescine and cadaverine. All the enterococcal strains tested were decarboxylase positive, producing high amounts of tyramine and considerable amounts of beta-phenylethylamine. None of the staphylococcal strains had tyrosine-decarboxylase activity, but some produced other amines. From the aminogenic point of view, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Staphylococcus xylosus strains would be the most suitable for use as autochthonous starter cultures for traditional fermented sausages.

Latorre-Moratalla ML; Bover-Cid S; Talon R; Aymerich T; Garriga M; Zanardi E; Ianieri A; Fraqueza MJ; Elias M; Drosinos EH; Lauková A; Vidal-Carou MC

2010-03-01

52

Distribution of aminogenic activity among potential autochthonous starter cultures for dry fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

Any bacterial strain to be used as starter culture should have suitable characteristics, including a lack of amino acid decarboxylase activity. In this study, the decarboxylase activity of 76 bacterial strains, including lactic acid bacteria and gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci, was investigated. These strains were previously isolated from European traditional fermented sausages to develop autochthonous starter cultures. Of all the strains tested, 48% of the lactic acid bacteria strains and 13% of gram-positive, catalase-positive cocci decarboxylated one or more amino acids. Aminogenic potential was strain dependent, although some species had a higher proportion of aminogenic strains than did others. Thus, all Lactobacillus curvatus strains and 70% of Lactobacillus brevis strains had the capacity to produce tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine. Some strains also produced other aromatic amines, such as tryptamine and the diamines putrescine and cadaverine. All the enterococcal strains tested were decarboxylase positive, producing high amounts of tyramine and considerable amounts of beta-phenylethylamine. None of the staphylococcal strains had tyrosine-decarboxylase activity, but some produced other amines. From the aminogenic point of view, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, and Staphylococcus xylosus strains would be the most suitable for use as autochthonous starter cultures for traditional fermented sausages. PMID:20202339

Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Talon, R; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M; Zanardi, E; Ianieri, A; Fraqueza, M J; Elias, M; Drosinos, E H; Lauková, A; Vidal-Carou, M C

2010-03-01

53

Utilização de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos/ Use of different starter cultures in processing of goat meat fermented sausages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O trabalho verifica o efeito de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado elaborado com carne de caprinos, avaliando pH, atividade de água e produção de ácido lático além de determinar a aceitação sensorial e a segurança dos produtos finais obtidos. Foram testadas culturas comerciais contendo 1. Staphylococcus xylosus e Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. mistura 50:50 de duas cepas de Pediococcus sp. e 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcu (more) s xylosus e Staphylococcus carnosus. Os embutidos fermentados contendo as diferentes culturas, apresentaram durante o processamento comportamentos distintos (p0,05) entre os atributos estudados. A segurança do processo avaliada por cálculo de graus hora indicou que todas as culturas forneceram produtos seguros, em relação ao microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Concluiu-se que todas as culturas podem ser utilizadas para o processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos. Abstract in english The effect of different starter cultures in the processing of goat meat fermented sausages was evaluated by using pH, water activity and lactic acid production besides sensory acceptance and safety of final products were determined. Commercial starter cultures containing 1. Staphylococcus xylosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. a mixture (50:50) of two strains of Pediococcus sp 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were tested. Du (more) ring processing, fermented sausages containing the different starter cultures showed distinct behaviour in relation to pH, water activity and lactic acid production, although sensory acceptance did not present significative differences. The safety of products evaluated by calculation of hours-degree in obtaining the products indicated that all tested cultures resulted in safe products in relation to Staphylococcus aureus growth. Results showed that all tested cultures can be used for processing of goat meat fermented sausages.

Nassu, Renata Tieko; Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo; Beserra, Frederico José

2002-12-01

54

Utilização de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos Use of different starter cultures in processing of goat meat fermented sausages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho verifica o efeito de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado elaborado com carne de caprinos, avaliando pH, atividade de água e produção de ácido lático além de determinar a aceitação sensorial e a segurança dos produtos finais obtidos. Foram testadas culturas comerciais contendo 1. Staphylococcus xylosus e Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. mistura 50:50 de duas cepas de Pediococcus sp. e 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus e Staphylococcus carnosus. Os embutidos fermentados contendo as diferentes culturas, apresentaram durante o processamento comportamentos distintos (p0,05) entre os atributos estudados. A segurança do processo avaliada por cálculo de graus hora indicou que todas as culturas forneceram produtos seguros, em relação ao microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Concluiu-se que todas as culturas podem ser utilizadas para o processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos.The effect of different starter cultures in the processing of goat meat fermented sausages was evaluated by using pH, water activity and lactic acid production besides sensory acceptance and safety of final products were determined. Commercial starter cultures containing 1. Staphylococcus xylosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. a mixture (50:50) of two strains of Pediococcus sp 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were tested. During processing, fermented sausages containing the different starter cultures showed distinct behaviour in relation to pH, water activity and lactic acid production, although sensory acceptance did not present significative differences. The safety of products evaluated by calculation of hours-degree in obtaining the products indicated that all tested cultures resulted in safe products in relation to Staphylococcus aureus growth. Results showed that all tested cultures can be used for processing of goat meat fermented sausages.

Renata Tieko Nassu; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves; Frederico José Beserra

2002-01-01

55

Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS.

Galle S; Schwab C; Arendt E; Gänzle M

2010-05-01

56

Effect of the fungal protease EPg222 on the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausage "salchichón" ripened with commercial starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the addition of the fungal protease EPg222 on the sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausage "salchichón" ripened with commercial starter cultures was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Lactobacillus sakei as starter cultures, ripened for 145 days and compared with a control batch only inoculated with the starter cultures. Dry fermented sausages ripened with EPg222 and starter cultures showed higher amount of NPN and volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism, than control ripened only with starter cultures. Several branched aldehydes, acids and alcohols such as 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid and 2-methylpropanol were detected only in enzyme treated samples. Sensory analysis reflected higher values for aroma intensity of sausages treated with EPg222 and lower values of hardness than control. The effect of EPg222 may be of great interest to improve sensory characteristics of dry fermented sausages ripened with starter cultures. PMID:22061525

Benito, María J; Rodríguez, Mar; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Córdoba, Juan J

2004-07-01

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Avaliação sensorial de pães de fermentação natural a partir de culturas starters inovadoras/ Sensory evaluation of natural fermentation breads with innovative starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A fermentação sourdough para a produção de pães é fortemente motivada por seus efeitos benéficos quanto ao sabor, textura, vida de prateleira e pelas propriedades nutricionais dos produtos obtidos. Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a aplicação dos micro-organismos Kluyveromyces marxianus, Dekkera bruxellensis e Lactobacillus plantarum como culturas starters alternativas na produção de pães. A partir de sete ensaios resultantes de um delineamento de mistura simplex-ce (more) ntroide, foram realizadas nos pães análises sensorial e instrumental. Observou-se que pães produzidos com L. plantarum apresentaram menor volume específico, enquanto que a mistura entre K. marxianus e L. plantarum exerceu influência positiva, possibilitando obter produtos de maior volume específico. A análise sensorial demonstrou a boa aceitabilidade para os pães produzidos com a mistura entre D. bruxellensis e K. marxianus e para a mistura entre os três micro-organismos. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram a possibilidade do uso de culturas starters definidas para a fermentação sourdough, que é tradicionalmente obtida sem controle de processo. Abstract in english The sourdough fermentation in bread making is strongly motivated due to its beneficial aspects on flavor, texture, shelf life, and the nutritional properties of the obtained products. In this research, the yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Dekkera bruxellensis, and the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum were used as alternative starter cultures in bread making. Experimental designs generated from simplex-centroid mixture were used in the sensorial analyses of breads. Resu (more) lts have shown that bread obtained with pure cultures of L. plantarum presented the smallest specific volume, while the mixture of K. marxianus and L. plantarum positively influenced the formation of good specific volume of products. Sensorial analysis showed good acceptability for breads obtained with D. bruxellensis and K. marxianus mixture, as well as for the mixture of the three microorganisms. The results obtained in this research suggest the possibility of using defined starter cultures for sourdough fermentation, which is traditionally carried out without any process controls.

Martinbianco, Fernanda; Martins, André Rosa; Rech, Rosane; Flôres, Simone Hickmann; Ayub, Marco Antônio Záchia

2013-09-01

58

Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacteria from frozen storage in MRS broth into cucumber juice and commercial jars of kosher dill cucumbers so that a selected strain of lactic acid bacteria can be kosher certified for commercial fermentations in processing plants that operate under kosher certification. The strain of L. plantarum used in these experiments grew to maximum cell numbers in 4 d at 20 to 25 °C and then maintained viable cell numbers for 2 wk at >10(8) CFU/mL so the culture was suitable for inoculation of fermentation tanks. Refrigeration of jars of culture after they grow to maximum numbers minimizes die-off of cells sufficiently so that a pure culture can be maintained by aseptically transferring brine containing viable bacteria to a new pH-adjusted jar only once every 4 mo. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This report describes a method to prepare a lactic acid bacteria starter culture suitable for kosher vegetable fermentations.

Pérez-Díaz IM; McFeeters RF

2011-03-01

59

Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and a-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the processDesenvolvimento e avaliação sensorial de iogurte de soja. Foram elaborados iogurtes através da fermentação de leite de soja, usando uma cultura mista de Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. O leite de soja com 9(0) Brix foi homogeinizado sob pressão (17 MPa) e fermentado com e sem adição de sacarose (2,0 e 2,5 g por 100 g) por 4, 5, 6 e 7 horas. Os iogurtes obtidos foram analisados em relação as características sensoriais, pH, acidez titulável, fitatos e oligossacarídeos. Foi obtido um iogurte com ótimas qualidades sensoriais, a partir do leite de soja homogeinizado, com adição de 2% de sacarose e fermentado por 6 h. Os microrganismos utilizados não produziram fitases e a-galactosidases e, consequentemente, os teores de a-galactosídeos e de fitatos não foram alterados pelo processamento

C . S Fávaro Trindade; S. C Terzi; L.C Trugo; R. C Della Modesta; S Couri

2001-01-01

60

Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Desenvolvimento e avaliação sensorial de iogurte de soja. Foram elaborados iogurtes através da fermentação de leite de soja, usando uma cultura mista de Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. O leite de soja com 9(0) Brix foi homogeinizado sob pressão (17 MPa) e fermentado com e sem adição de sacarose (2,0 e 2,5 g por 100 g) por 4, 5, 6 e 7 horas. Os iogurtes obtidos foram analisados em relação as características sensoriais, pH, acidez tituláve (more) l, fitatos e oligossacarídeos. Foi obtido um iogurte com ótimas qualidades sensoriais, a partir do leite de soja homogeinizado, com adição de 2% de sacarose e fermentado por 6 h. Os microrganismos utilizados não produziram fitases e a-galactosidases e, consequentemente, os teores de a-galactosídeos e de fitatos não foram alterados pelo processamento Abstract in english Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtai (more) ned using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and a-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the process

Fávaro Trindade, C . S; Terzi, S. C; Trugo, L.C; Della Modesta, R. C; Couri, S

2001-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Microbial ecology studies of spontaneous fermentation: starter culture selection for prickly pear wine production.  

Science.gov (United States)

A procedure for designing starter cultures for fermentation is illustrated for prickly pear wine production. The illustration includes kinetic studies on inoculated and spontaneous fermentation, microorganism identification studies based on molecular biology tools, and microbial ecology studies, which led to the selection of strains that are capable of synthesizing alcohol and desirable volatile compounds. Results show that a mixed starter inoculum containing?Pichia fermentans?and?Saccharomyces cerevisiae?leads to a fermented product that contains 8.37% alcohol (v/v). The gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows the presence of 9 major volatile compounds (Isobutanol, Isopentanol, Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl octanoate, Ethyl decanoate, Ethyl 9-decanoate, ?-Phenylethyl acetate, and Phenylethyl alcohol) that have ethereal, fruity, aromatic notes that are considered to be essential for a fine wine flavor. These compounds harmonically synergize with the alcohol to produce a fermented product with a unique flavor and taste. Several assays using the mixed culture show that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. Moreover, the results show that a mixed culture leads to a broader range of aromatic products than that produced by a single, pure culture. Therefore, we conclude that combinations of?Saccharomyces?strains and?non-Saccharomyces?strains can be used to obtain high-quality fermented beverages from prickly pear juice. PMID:22417507

Rodríguez-Lerma, G K; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Cárdenas-Manríquez, M; Botello-Álvarez, E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R; Navarrete-Bolaños, J L

2011-06-02

62

Microbial ecology studies of spontaneous fermentation: starter culture selection for prickly pear wine production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A procedure for designing starter cultures for fermentation is illustrated for prickly pear wine production. The illustration includes kinetic studies on inoculated and spontaneous fermentation, microorganism identification studies based on molecular biology tools, and microbial ecology studies, which led to the selection of strains that are capable of synthesizing alcohol and desirable volatile compounds. Results show that a mixed starter inoculum containing?Pichia fermentans?and?Saccharomyces cerevisiae?leads to a fermented product that contains 8.37% alcohol (v/v). The gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows the presence of 9 major volatile compounds (Isobutanol, Isopentanol, Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl octanoate, Ethyl decanoate, Ethyl 9-decanoate, ?-Phenylethyl acetate, and Phenylethyl alcohol) that have ethereal, fruity, aromatic notes that are considered to be essential for a fine wine flavor. These compounds harmonically synergize with the alcohol to produce a fermented product with a unique flavor and taste. Several assays using the mixed culture show that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. Moreover, the results show that a mixed culture leads to a broader range of aromatic products than that produced by a single, pure culture. Therefore, we conclude that combinations of?Saccharomyces?strains and?non-Saccharomyces?strains can be used to obtain high-quality fermented beverages from prickly pear juice.

Rodríguez-Lerma GK; Gutiérrez-Moreno K; Cárdenas-Manríquez M; Botello-Álvarez E; Jiménez-Islas H; Rico-Martínez R; Navarrete-Bolaños JL

2011-08-01

63

Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

Blaženka Kos; Jasna Beganovi?; Lina Juraši?; Martina Šva?umovi?; Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Ksenija Uroi?; Jagoda Šuškovi?

2011-01-01

64

Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0% to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and nonbiodegradable NaCl. The objective was to determine whether addition of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture to reduced-salt cabbage fermentations would yield sauerkraut with reproducible and acceptable chemical composition and sensory qualities. Shredded cabbage was salted with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% NaCl (wt/wt) at 2 starter culture levels, none or L. mesenteroides strain LA 81, ATCC 8293 (10(6) CFU/g). Fermentation products were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pH was measured during the initial stages of fermentation and after 10 mo storage at 18 degrees C. A trained descriptive sensory panel used category scales to rate the flavor and texture of selected sauerkrauts. A modified Kramer shear test was used to measure firmness. Cabbage fermented with L. mesenteroides consistently resulted in sauerkraut with firm texture and reduced off-flavors across all salt levels (P < 0.05). Conversely, sauerkraut quality was highly variable, with softening and off-flavors occurring as salt concentrations were decreased in natural fermentations (P < 0.05). Fermentations were rapid, with a more uniform decline in pH when starter culture was added. L. mesenteroides addition to cabbage fermentations ensured that texture and flavor quality were retained, while allowing 50% NaCl reduction. Application of this technology to commercial sauerkraut production could improve the uniformity of fermentations and substantially reduce generation of nonbiodegradable chloride waste.

Johanningsmeier S; McFeeters RF; Fleming HP; Thompson RL

2007-06-01

65

Growth and activity of Bulgarian yogurt starter culture in iron-fortified milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bulgarian yogurts were manufactured and fortified with 8, 15 and 27 mg of iron kg(-1) of yogurt. The growth and acidifying activity of the starter culture bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus 13a and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11 were monitored during milk fermentation and over 15 days of yogurt storage at 4 degrees C. Fortifying milk with iron did not affect significantly the growth of the starter culture during manufacture and storage of yogurt. Counts of yogurt bacteria at the end of fermentation of iron-fortified milks were between 2.1 x 10(10) and 4.6 x 10(10) CFU ml(-1), which were not significantly different from numbers in unfortified yogurts. In all batches of yogurt, the viable cell counts of S. thermophilus 13a were approximately three times higher than those of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Greater decrease in viable cell count over 15 days of storage was observed for S. thermophilus 13a compared to L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2-11. Intensive accumulation of lactic acid was observed during incubation of milk and all batches reached pH 4.5 +/- 0.1 after 3.0 h. At the end of fermentation process, lactic acid concentrations in iron-fortified yogurts were between 6.9 +/- 0.4 and 7.3 +/- 0.5 g l(-1). The acidifying activity of starter culture bacteria in the control and iron-fortified milks was similar. There was no increase in oxidized, metallic and bitter off-flavors in iron-fortified yogurts compared to the control. Iron-fortified yogurts did not differ significantly in their sensorial, chemical and microbiological characteristics with unfortified yogurt, suggesting that yogurt is a suitable vehicle for iron fortification and that the ferrous lactate is an appropriate iron source for yogurt fortification. PMID:18604576

Simova, Emilina; Ivanov, Galin; Simov, Zhelyazko

2008-07-05

66

Pangenomics--an avenue to improved industrial starter cultures and probiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the dramatic reductions in the cost and time involved in DNA sequencing, a new approach to characterisation of bacteria is emerging. It is based on a comparison of complete genome sequences of a number of members of the same species (pangenomics). Pangenomics opens an array of new opportunities for understanding and improving industrial starter cultures and probiotics. These include understanding the formation of texture and flavour in dairy products, understanding the functionality of probiotics as well as providing information that can be used for strain screening, strain improvement, safety assessments and process improvements.

Garrigues C; Johansen E; Crittenden R

2013-04-01

67

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO47H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO47H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar. PMID:24031230

Fachin, Luciano; Moryia, Juliana; Neves Gândara, Ana Lourdes; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada

2008-06-01

68

Microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation: comparison of carbon transformation parameters, species composition, and starter culture performance in continuous culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in lactose concentration and feed rate altered bacterial growth and population levels in a whey-processing chemostat. The bacterial population and methane production levels increased in relation to increased lactose concentrations comparable to those in raw whey (6%) and converted over 96% of the substrate to methane, carbon dioxide, and cells. Sequential increases in the chemostat dilution rate demonstrated excellent biomethanation performance at retention times as low as 25 h. Retention times shorter than 25 h caused prevalent bacterial populations and methane production to decrease, and intermediary carbon metabolites accumulated in the following order: acetate, butyrate, propionate, lactate, ethanol, and lactose. Bacterial species dominated in the chemostat as a function of their enhanced substrate uptake and growth kinetic properties. The substrate uptake kinetic properties displayed by the mixed chemostat population were equivalent to those of individual species measured in pure culture, whereas the growth kinetic properties of species in mixed culture were better than those measured in pure culture. A designed starter culture consisting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Methanosarcina barkeri, and Methanobacterium formicicum displayed biomethanation performance, which was similar to that of a diverse adapted mixed-culture inoculum, in a continuous contact digestor system to which 10 g of dry whey per liter was added. Preserved starter cultures were developed and used as inocula for the start-up of a continuous anaerobic digestion process that was effective for biomethanation of raw whey at a retention time of 100 h. PMID:16347341

Chartrain, M; Bhatnagar, L; Zeikus, J G

1987-05-01

69

Microbial ecophysiology of whey biomethanation: comparison of carbon transformation parameters, species composition, and starter culture performance in continuous culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Changes in lactose concentration and feed rate altered bacterial growth and population levels in a whey-processing chemostat. The bacterial population and methane production levels increased in relation to increased lactose concentrations comparable to those in raw whey (6%) and converted over 96% of the substrate to methane, carbon dioxide, and cells. Sequential increases in the chemostat dilution rate demonstrated excellent biomethanation performance at retention times as low as 25 h. Retention times shorter than 25 h caused prevalent bacterial populations and methane production to decrease, and intermediary carbon metabolites accumulated in the following order: acetate, butyrate, propionate, lactate, ethanol, and lactose. Bacterial species dominated in the chemostat as a function of their enhanced substrate uptake and growth kinetic properties. The substrate uptake kinetic properties displayed by the mixed chemostat population were equivalent to those of individual species measured in pure culture, whereas the growth kinetic properties of species in mixed culture were better than those measured in pure culture. A designed starter culture consisting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Methanosarcina barkeri, and Methanobacterium formicicum displayed biomethanation performance, which was similar to that of a diverse adapted mixed-culture inoculum, in a continuous contact digestor system to which 10 g of dry whey per liter was added. Preserved starter cultures were developed and used as inocula for the start-up of a continuous anaerobic digestion process that was effective for biomethanation of raw whey at a retention time of 100 h.

Chartrain M; Bhatnagar L; Zeikus JG

1987-05-01

70

Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum) preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum) concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC).

Uduak G. AKPAN; Abdullahi D. MOHAMMED; Ibrahim AMINU

2007-01-01

71

Optimization of the rheological properties of probiotic yoghurts supplemented with milk proteins  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to optimize the rheological properties of probiotic yoghurts supplemented with skimmed milk powder (SMP), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (Na-Cn) by using an experimental design type simplex-centroid for mixture modeling. It included seven batches/trials: three were supplemented with each type of the dairy protein used, three corresponding to the binary mixtures and one to the ternary one in order to increase protein concentration in 1 g 100 g?1 of final product. A control experiment was prepared without supplementing the milk base. Processed milk bases were fermented at 42 °C until pH 4.5 by using a starter culture blend that consisted of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The kinetics of acidification was followed during the fermentation period as well the physico-chemical analyses, enumeration of viable bacteria and rheological characteristics of the yoghurts. Models were adjusted to the results (kinetic responses, counts of viable bacteria and rheological parameters) through three regression models (linear, quadratic and cubic special) applied to mixtures. The results showed that the addition of milk proteins affected slightly acidification profile and counts of S. thermophilus and B. animalis subsp. lactis, but it was significant for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Partially-replacing SMP (45 g/100 g) with WPC or Na-Cn simultaneously enhanced the rheological properties of probiotic yoghurts taking into account the kinetics of acidification and enumeration of viable bacteria.

Marafon AP; Sumi A; Alcântara MR; Tamime AY; Oliveira MNd

2011-03-01

72

Antibiotic resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with food and used in starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance of 330 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) associated with food or used in starter cultures and belonging to the species Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus, against 21 antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method. The incidence and number of resistances was found to be species and source of isolation dependent. Most strains of S. equorum (63%), S. succinus (90%) and S. xylosus (95%) exhibited resistances against up to seven antibiotics, whereas only few strains of S. carnosus (12%) and S. piscifermentans (27%) were antibiotic resistant. Resistances to lincomycin, penicillin, fusidic acid, oxacillin, ampicillin and tetracycline were predominant. Among strains of S. xylosus, the incidence of resistance ranged from 22% for tetracycline up to 69% for penicillin. Concerning the source of isolation, resistances were often determined in strains of S. equorum, S. succinus and S. xylosus isolated from cheese (87%) and sausage (83%), and strains of S. xylosus obtained from meat starter cultures (93%). Remarkably, all CNS were sensitive to the clinically important antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin, cotrimoxazol, gentamicin, kanamycin, linezolid, neomycin, streptomycin, synercid and vancomycin. The phenotypic resistances to beta-lactam antibiotics, lincomycin and tetracycline were verified by PCR amplification and could be traced back to the genes blaZ, lnuA and tetK, respectively. This study permitted a comprehensive insight into the incidence of antibiotic resistances in food-associated CNS. PMID:18625535

Resch, Marion; Nagel, Verena; Hertel, Christian

2008-06-18

73

Antibiotic resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with food and used in starter cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The resistance of 330 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) associated with food or used in starter cultures and belonging to the species Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus, against 21 antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method. The incidence and number of resistances was found to be species and source of isolation dependent. Most strains of S. equorum (63%), S. succinus (90%) and S. xylosus (95%) exhibited resistances against up to seven antibiotics, whereas only few strains of S. carnosus (12%) and S. piscifermentans (27%) were antibiotic resistant. Resistances to lincomycin, penicillin, fusidic acid, oxacillin, ampicillin and tetracycline were predominant. Among strains of S. xylosus, the incidence of resistance ranged from 22% for tetracycline up to 69% for penicillin. Concerning the source of isolation, resistances were often determined in strains of S. equorum, S. succinus and S. xylosus isolated from cheese (87%) and sausage (83%), and strains of S. xylosus obtained from meat starter cultures (93%). Remarkably, all CNS were sensitive to the clinically important antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin, cotrimoxazol, gentamicin, kanamycin, linezolid, neomycin, streptomycin, synercid and vancomycin. The phenotypic resistances to beta-lactam antibiotics, lincomycin and tetracycline were verified by PCR amplification and could be traced back to the genes blaZ, lnuA and tetK, respectively. This study permitted a comprehensive insight into the incidence of antibiotic resistances in food-associated CNS.

Resch M; Nagel V; Hertel C

2008-09-01

74

[Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in milk fermented with a starter culture for making yogurt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this research was to determine the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in sterile skim milk during the fermentation with a yogurt starter culture and during storage at refrigeration temperature. Sterile skim milk was inoculated with 10(3), 10(5) and 10(7) cfu/ml of L. monocytogenes and with 10(6) cfu of lactic acid bacteria. Inoculated milks were fermented for 8 h at 42 degrees C, followed by refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Samples were taken at 2 h intervals during fermentation and at 2 days intervals during storage. Acidity and pH were measured, as well as viable count of lactic acid bacteria and pathogen. L. monocytogenes survived 8h, 10 days and 32 days in the fermented milk, when the inocula were 10(3), 10(5) and 10(7) cfu/ml, respectively. Inhibition of the pathogen was associated with a decrease of pH below 4.0 and increase in acidity. It was demonstrated that this pathogen is able to survive several weeks in milk fermented with a starter culture, contrary to the general belief which considered it very difficult due to the low pH. Therefore fermented milks may play an important role in the transmission of these bacteria.

Zúñiga-Estrada A; López-Merino A; de la Garza LM

1995-07-01

75

Technological and sensorial evaluation of Lactobacillus strains as starter cultures in fermented sausages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of several lactobacilli strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages as starter cultures was evaluated. Microbiological, physical and chemical changes, in addition to sensorial aspects were studied. From the 12 different strains tested, 10 were capable of leading the fermentation in every batch throughout the process. The monitoring of the inoculated strains was easily carried out by plasmid profiles and by checking the pH rate drop of the sausages, which was slower for the non-inoculated lots. Treatment using natural fermentation resulted in a product where hydrogen sulphide odours, which could be related to the higher content of Enterobacteriaceae throughout the ripening process, diminished its overall acceptability. The lots seeded with different L. sake strains were found to be low in acid in sensory evaluation, correlating with a low lactic acid content. In contrast, the L. plantarum lot gave rise to an overacidified product related to having the highest amount of lactic acid at the end of the process. As a general rule lactobacilli strains isolated from meat origins are good candidates as starter cultures in the manufacture of dry-fermented sausages and produce satisfactory products depending on the specific strains used more than on the species.

Garriga M; Hugas M; Gou P; Aymerich MT; Arnau J; Monfort JM

1996-09-01

76

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

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Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany), to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay) identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

Barbara Turchi; Roberta Nuvoloni; Filippo Fratini; Francesca Pedonese; Valentina V. Ebani; Domenico Cerri

2011-01-01

77

Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization. PMID:23546829

Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

2013-04-02

78

Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

Bravo-Ferrada BM; Hollmann A; Delfederico L; Valdés La Hens D; Caballero A; Semorile L

2013-09-01

79

Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo.

Mohan MS; Anand S; Kalscheur KF; Hassan AN; Hippen AR

2013-04-01

80

Development of food grade media for the preparation of Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on MRS medium, two types of food grade (FG) culture media (FG medium I and FG medium II) for the preparation of a concentrated starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0380 to manufacture a new type of instant Chinese noodle, the fermented instant Chinese noodle, were developed using FG materials. FG medium I, which is for normal static culture, contains table sugar (sucrose), Yeast peptone standard type F, Sunsoft Q-17S (emulsifier), sodium acetate, trisodium citrate and MnSO(4).4-5H(2)O. FG medium II was designed to be used for the pH-controlled jar fermentor culture conditions. Therefore, sodium acetate and trisodium citrate as a buffer to prevent acidification of medium were omitted from FG medium I. When L. plantarum NRIC 0380 was cultured under the pH-controlled jar fermentor culture conditions, the kinetics of growth, sugar consumption and lactic acid production in FG medium II were quite similar to those observed in the Difco Lactobacilli MRS Broth. Furthermore, growths of many lactobacilli strains isolated from various fermented foods in FG medium I were also quite similar to those observed in MRS medium. Therefore, simple and practical FG media for the culture of lactobacilli were successfully established. PMID:17325448

Sawatari, Yuki; Hirano, Tomomi; Yokota, Atsushi

2006-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of kaolin and copper based products and of starter cultures on green table olive fermentation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study table olives treated in field with kaolin and copper based products against "olive-fruit fly" were fermented using two selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The fermentation process was monitored up to 260 days from brining through physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses. Results showed a dominance of LAB and yeasts and low level of Enterobacteriaceae counts throughout the whole process both in un-treated and treated samples. When investigating the effect of the single treatments on microbial dynamics, ANOVA results highlighted that copper based products affected significantly the control sample, while the sample inoculated with LAB starters maintained high level throughout the process, guaranteeing the fermentation process. Different behavior was revealed by yeasts population, which was partially influenced by copper treatment at the beginning of the fermentation. The polyphasic approach used in the present study, which combined sensory evaluation to microbial counts and physico-chemical characteristics, let to the conclusion on the importance of starter cultures in fermentation of table olives especially those treated with "non-conventional" pesticide, which could be used to prevent olive fly damage.

Randazzo CL; Fava G; Tomaselli F; Romeo FV; Pennino G; Vitello E; Caggia C

2011-08-01

82

Effect of kaolin and copper based products and of starter cultures on green table olive fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study table olives treated in field with kaolin and copper based products against "olive-fruit fly" were fermented using two selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The fermentation process was monitored up to 260 days from brining through physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses. Results showed a dominance of LAB and yeasts and low level of Enterobacteriaceae counts throughout the whole process both in un-treated and treated samples. When investigating the effect of the single treatments on microbial dynamics, ANOVA results highlighted that copper based products affected significantly the control sample, while the sample inoculated with LAB starters maintained high level throughout the process, guaranteeing the fermentation process. Different behavior was revealed by yeasts population, which was partially influenced by copper treatment at the beginning of the fermentation. The polyphasic approach used in the present study, which combined sensory evaluation to microbial counts and physico-chemical characteristics, let to the conclusion on the importance of starter cultures in fermentation of table olives especially those treated with "non-conventional" pesticide, which could be used to prevent olive fly damage.

Randazzo CL; Fava G; Tomaselli F; Romeo FV; Pennino G; Vitello E; Caggia C

2011-08-01

83

Scale-up of thermally dried kefir production as starter culture for hard-type cheese making: an economic evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper concerns the effect of thermal-drying methodology on the investment cost for dried kefir cells production in order to be used as starter culture in cheese manufacturing. Kefir cells were produced at pilot plant scale using a 250-L bioreactor and whey as the main substrate. Kefir cells were subsequently dried in a thermal dryer at 38 degrees C and used as a starter culture in industrial-scale production of hard-type cheeses. The use of thermally dried kefir as starter culture accelerated ripening of cheeses by increasing both lipolysis and fermentation rate as indicated by the ethanol, lactic acid, and glycerol formation. Additionally, it reduced coliforms and enterobacteria as ripening proceeded. This constituted the basis of developing an economic study in which industrial-scale production of thermally dried kefir starter culture is discussed. The industrial design involved a three-step process using three bioreactors of 100, 3,000, and 30,000 L for a plant capacity of 300 kg of thermally dried kefir culture per day. The cost of investment was estimated at 238,000 euro, which is the 46% of the corresponding cost using freeze-drying methodology. Production cost was estimated at 4.9 euro/kg of kefir biomass for a 300-kg/day plant capacity, which is the same as with the corresponding cost of freeze-dried cells. However, the estimated added value is up to 10.8 x 10(9) euro within the European Union.

Koutinas AA; Bekatorou A; Katechaki E; Dimitrellou D; Kopsahelis N; Papapostolou H; Panas P; Sideris K; Kallis M; Bosnea LA; Koliopoulos D; Sotiropoulos P; Panteli A; Kourkoutas Y; Kanellaki M; Soupioni M

2010-03-01

84

The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence and was deposited in the ARS culture collection as NRRL B-59839. This strain produced at least two ?-D-glucans from sucrose. One was a water-soluble dextran, consisting of predominantly ?-(1???6)-linked D-glucose units, and the other was a water-insoluble glucan containing both ?-(1???6)-linked and ?-(1???3)-linked D-glucose units. The culture fluid was found to contain glucansucrases responsible for the two glucans, and no significant level of fructansucrase was detected. Glucansucrase activity was not present in the culture fluid when the bacteria were grown on glucose, fructose, or raffinose as the carbon source. Although the water-soluble glucans produced by cell-free enzyme and by cell suspensions were essentially identical, the same was not true for the water-insoluble glucans. The water-insoluble glucan produced by cell-free culture fluid contained a higher proportion of ?-(1???3)-linked D-glucose units than the water-insoluble glucan produced by cell suspensions.

Côté GL; Skory CD; Unser SM; Rich JO

2013-08-01

85

Characterization of toxin production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from food and starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study a comprehensive analysis of toxin production of food associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was investigated. The strains belong to the following staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus succinus, and Staphylococcus xylosus, which were isolated from fermented food and starter cultures. A collection of 330 strains were analyzed with respect to their hemolytic activity. 59% of the strains exhibited weak to moderate hemolytic activity with human blood and 34% with sheep blood after 48 h incubation. A selection of 35 strains were tested by immunoblot analysis for their ability to produce toxins, such as the most common staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), and the exfoliative toxin A (ETA). 18 of the 35 strains produced at least one of the toxins with the SED and SEH being the most common. These indicate that the use of CNS in food production demands a safety evaluation. PMID:18752861

Zell, Christiane; Resch, Marion; Rosenstein, Ralf; Albrecht, Till; Hertel, Christian; Götz, Friedrich

2008-07-22

86

Characterization of toxin production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from food and starter cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study a comprehensive analysis of toxin production of food associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was investigated. The strains belong to the following staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus succinus, and Staphylococcus xylosus, which were isolated from fermented food and starter cultures. A collection of 330 strains were analyzed with respect to their hemolytic activity. 59% of the strains exhibited weak to moderate hemolytic activity with human blood and 34% with sheep blood after 48 h incubation. A selection of 35 strains were tested by immunoblot analysis for their ability to produce toxins, such as the most common staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), and the exfoliative toxin A (ETA). 18 of the 35 strains produced at least one of the toxins with the SED and SEH being the most common. These indicate that the use of CNS in food production demands a safety evaluation.

Zell C; Resch M; Rosenstein R; Albrecht T; Hertel C; Götz F

2008-10-01

87

BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

2004-01-01

88

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof.

Lefeber T; Papalexandratou Z; Gobert W; Camu N; De Vuyst L

2012-06-01

89

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-12-29

90

Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The coffee fermentation is characterized by the presence of different microorganisms belonging to the groups of bacteria, fungi and yeast. The objectives of this work were to select pectinolytic microorganisms isolated from coffee fermentations and evaluate their performance on coffee pulp culture medium. The yeasts and bacteria isolates were evaluated for their activity of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) and metabolites production. Among 127 yeasts isolates and 189 bacterial isolates, 15 were pre-selected based on their ability to produce PL and organic compounds. These isolates were strains identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia caribbica, Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultivated in Coffee peel and pulp media in single culture or two by two mixed inocula, different behavior concerning to PME, PL and PG were found. The two principal components PC1 and PC2 accounted for 45.27 and 32.02 % of the total variance. UFLA CN727 and UFLA CN731 strains were grouped in the positive part of PC1 being characterized by 1,2-propanediol, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, nonanoic acid and ethyl acetate. The UFLA CN448 and UFLA CN724 strains were grouped in the negative part of PC1 and were mainly characterized by guaiacol, butyric acid and citronellol. S. cerevisiae UFLACN727, P. guilliermondii UFLACN731 and C. parapsilosis UFLACN448 isolates are promising candidates to be tested in future studies as coffee starter cultures.

Silva CF; Vilela DM; de Souza Cordeiro C; Duarte WF; Dias DR; Schwan RF

2013-02-01

91

Production of natural folates by lactic acid bacteria starter cultures isolated from artisanal Argentinean yogurts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Folate is a B-group vitamin that cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained exogenously. Although some species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce folates, little is known about the production of this vitamin by yogurt starter cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were isolated from artisanal Argentinean yogurts and were grown in folate-free culture medium (FACM) and nonfat milk after which intracellular and extracellular folate production were evaluated. From the initial 92 isolated LAB strains, 4 L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and 32 S. thermophilus were able to grow in the absence of folate. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 863 and S. thermophilus CRL 415 and CRL 803 produced the highest extracellular folate levels (from 22.3 to 135 µg/L) in FACM. In nonfat milk, these strains were able to increase the initial folate concentrations by almost 190%. This is the first report where native strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were shown to produce natural folate. The LAB strains identified in this study could be used in developing novel fermented products bio-enriched in natural folates that could in turn be used as an alternative to fortification with the controversial synthetic chemical folic acid.

Laiño JE; Leblanc JG; Savoy de Giori G

2012-05-01

92

Production of natural folates by lactic acid bacteria starter cultures isolated from artisanal Argentinean yogurts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Folate is a B-group vitamin that cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained exogenously. Although some species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce folates, little is known about the production of this vitamin by yogurt starter cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains were isolated from artisanal Argentinean yogurts and were grown in folate-free culture medium (FACM) and nonfat milk after which intracellular and extracellular folate production were evaluated. From the initial 92 isolated LAB strains, 4 L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and 32 S. thermophilus were able to grow in the absence of folate. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CRL 863 and S. thermophilus CRL 415 and CRL 803 produced the highest extracellular folate levels (from 22.3 to 135 µg/L) in FACM. In nonfat milk, these strains were able to increase the initial folate concentrations by almost 190%. This is the first report where native strains of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were shown to produce natural folate. The LAB strains identified in this study could be used in developing novel fermented products bio-enriched in natural folates that could in turn be used as an alternative to fortification with the controversial synthetic chemical folic acid. PMID:22502809

Laiño, Jonathan Emiliano; Leblanc, Jean Guy; Savoy de Giori, Graciela

2012-04-13

93

Scale-up of thermally dried kefir production as starter culture for hard-type cheese making: an economic evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper concerns the effect of thermal-drying methodology on the investment cost for dried kefir cells production in order to be used as starter culture in cheese manufacturing. Kefir cells were produced at pilot plant scale using a 250-L bioreactor and whey as the main substrate. Kefir cells were subsequently dried in a thermal dryer at 38 degrees C and used as a starter culture in industrial-scale production of hard-type cheeses. The use of thermally dried kefir as starter culture accelerated ripening of cheeses by increasing both lipolysis and fermentation rate as indicated by the ethanol, lactic acid, and glycerol formation. Additionally, it reduced coliforms and enterobacteria as ripening proceeded. This constituted the basis of developing an economic study in which industrial-scale production of thermally dried kefir starter culture is discussed. The industrial design involved a three-step process using three bioreactors of 100, 3,000, and 30,000 L for a plant capacity of 300 kg of thermally dried kefir culture per day. The cost of investment was estimated at 238,000 euro, which is the 46% of the corresponding cost using freeze-drying methodology. Production cost was estimated at 4.9 euro/kg of kefir biomass for a 300-kg/day plant capacity, which is the same as with the corresponding cost of freeze-dried cells. However, the estimated added value is up to 10.8 x 10(9) euro within the European Union. PMID:19449152

Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papapostolou, Harris; Panas, Panayiotis; Sideris, Kostas; Kallis, Mihalis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Sotiropoulos, Panayiotis; Panteli, Ageliki; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kanellaki, Maria; Soupioni, Magdalini

2009-05-17

94

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames/ Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penici (more) llium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo. Abstract in english The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Pen (more) icillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

CASTRO, Luís César; LUCHESE, Rosa Helena; MARTINS, José Francisco P.

2000-04-01

95

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo.The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

Luís César CASTRO; Rosa Helena LUCHESE; José Francisco P. MARTINS

2000-01-01

96

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in liquid broth medium and during processing of fermented sausage using autochthonous starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial effect of two autochthonous starter cultures of Lactobacillus sakei was evaluated in vitro (in liquid broth medium) and in situ assays. The inactivation of foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes (serotype 4ab No 10) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43888 was investigated during the production of fermented sausage according to a typical Greek recipe using L. sakei strains as starter cultures. The inactivation kinetics were modeled using GInaFiT, a freeware tool to assess microbial survival curves. By the end of the ripening period, the inhibition of L. monocytogenes was significant in treatments with L. sakei 8416 and L. sakei 4413 compared to the control treatment. A 2.2-log reduction of the population of E. coli O157:H7 resulted from the autochthonous starter culture L. sakei 4413 during sausage processing. The use of the autochthonous starter cultures constitutes an additional improvement to the microbial safety by reducing foodborne pathogens. PMID:23793080

Pragalaki, T; Bloukas, J G; Kotzekidou, P

2013-05-28

97

Application' and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is one of Belgium's most important outdoor vegetables, mainly cultivated for its white shaft. Fermentation of leek offers opportunities in view of biomass valorization and product diversification. This study deals with the implementation and validation of starter cultures to perform controlled leek fermentations and to ensure a high quality of the end-products. Therefore, a thorough study of the fermentation microbiology and the influence of three starter culture strains (Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788, Lactobacillus sakei IMDO 1358, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IMDO 1347) on the metabolite kinetics of leek fermentation and antioxidant properties of leek was performed. Overall, the application of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures resulted in a fast prevalence of the species involved, coupled to an accelerated acidification. Of the three starter cultures tested, the mixed starter culture of L. plantarum IMDO 788 and L. mesenteroides IMDO 1347 was most promising, as its application resulted in fermented leek of good microbiological quality and in a more extensive carbohydrate consumption, whereby diverse end-metabolites were produced. However, high residual fructose concentrations allowed yeast outgrowth, resulting in increased ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and indicated the lack of a prevailing strictly heterofermentative LAB species. The antioxidant capacity of fermented leek samples, as measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, increased when starter cultures were used, whereas with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, only leek fermented with L. sakei IMDO 1358 scored higher than spontaneously fermented leek. The total phenolic content was not influenced by the use of starter cultures, while the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides content decreased strongly. A preliminary sensory analysis revealed that the spontaneously fermented leek and the one obtained with the mixed starter culture were preferred by consumers, emphasizing again the importance of microbial successions in vegetable fermentations. PMID:23728429

Wouters, D; Bernaert, N; Anno, N; Van Droogenbroeck, B; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; De Vuyst, L

2013-04-28

98

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were (more) prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

2012-09-01

99

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores Rall; Margarida Júri Saeki; Ary Fernandes Júnior

2012-01-01

100

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Moritz CM; Rall VL; Saeki MJ; Júnior AF

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Influence of starter culture ratios and warm room treatment on free fatty acid and amino acid in Swiss cheese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Quantification of water-soluble volatile free fatty acids (FFA) and free amino acids (FAA) was performed as a ripening index and an indirect measure of flavor development in Swiss-type cheeses. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of warm room treatment (WRT) and usage ratio of starter cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus vs. propionibacteria, on the concentration of FFA and FAA in pilot plant-scale Swiss cheese. A capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used for the analysis of FFA in Swiss cheese. Free amino acids were analyzed by the Cd-ninhydrin method. Starter culture ratios did not affect development of FAA during the cheese ripening. However, duration of WRT had an effect on the concentration of FAA in the Swiss cheese. Free amino acids increased considerably during WRT. A continuous increase in FAA was shown during 70-d ripening time after WRT. The concentrations of C2:0 and C3:0 fatty acids were affected by starter culture ratios after 2-wk WRT, but these differences had mostly disappeared after 3-wk WRT. Similar concentrations of FFA and FAA reported in previous studies were developed in Swiss cheese with a 3-wk WRT and a 0.33:1 ratio of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus to propionibacteria.

Ji T; Alvarez VB; Harper WJ

2004-07-01

102

Influence of starter culture ratios and warm room treatment on free fatty acid and amino acid in Swiss cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantification of water-soluble volatile free fatty acids (FFA) and free amino acids (FAA) was performed as a ripening index and an indirect measure of flavor development in Swiss-type cheeses. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of warm room treatment (WRT) and usage ratio of starter cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus vs. propionibacteria, on the concentration of FFA and FAA in pilot plant-scale Swiss cheese. A capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used for the analysis of FFA in Swiss cheese. Free amino acids were analyzed by the Cd-ninhydrin method. Starter culture ratios did not affect development of FAA during the cheese ripening. However, duration of WRT had an effect on the concentration of FAA in the Swiss cheese. Free amino acids increased considerably during WRT. A continuous increase in FAA was shown during 70-d ripening time after WRT. The concentrations of C2:0 and C3:0 fatty acids were affected by starter culture ratios after 2-wk WRT, but these differences had mostly disappeared after 3-wk WRT. Similar concentrations of FFA and FAA reported in previous studies were developed in Swiss cheese with a 3-wk WRT and a 0.33:1 ratio of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus to propionibacteria. PMID:15328209

Ji, T; Alvarez, V B; Harper, W J

2004-07-01

103

Impact of pre-selected autochthonous starter cultures on the flavor quality of Iberian dry-fermented "salchichon" sausage with different ripening processes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on flavor quality of 2 autochthonous starter cultures in the manufacture of Iberian dry-fermented "sálchichón." A total of 2 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici (MS200 and MS198) were combined individually with a strain of Staphylococcus vitulus (RS34) to obtain 2 starter cultures: P200S34 and P198S34. The ability of both starter cultures to implant during 2 different manufacturing procedures of "salchichón" was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Changes due to starter culture inoculations on volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the impact on flavor quality evaluated by sensorial analysis. The implantation of starter cultures was adequate and did not significantly modify the flavor of the traditional Iberian dry-fermented "salchichón," while modulating the volatile compound profile with respect to that found in sausages with wild microbial populations. The influence of the starter cultures studied was more evident in the shorter sausage processing time. P198S34 was related with the increase in some volatile compounds deriving from lipid degradation. P200S34 contributed to the formation of several volatile compounds arising from lipid degradation, amino acid catabolism, and microbial esterase activity. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: P200S34 and P198S34 are autochthonous starter cultures for specific use in the processing of Iberian dry-fermented sausages. The application of these starters allows obtaining Iberian dry-fermented sausages with sensorial characteristics standardized. It is greatly interesting for processing and marketing industry of these high-quality meat products.

Casquete R; Martín A; Benito MJ; Ruiz-Moyano S; Nevado FP; Córdoba Mde G

2011-11-01

104

Determination of The Effects of Different Amino Acids, Sodium Formate and Their Combinations on Some Growth Characteristics of Mixed and Single Cell Cultures of Yoghurt Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, different amino acids, sodium formate and their combinations were added into the milk for determining their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on some growth characteristics of mixed and single cell cultures of yoghurt bacteria. Among the added individual amino acids (each of them 100 ppm), cystein was the most stimulant agent for mixed and single cell cultures of the S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus for their acetaldehyde and volatile fatty acid contents. Histidine and glutamic acid were also stimulatory for mentioned parameters. But for the samples, inoculated with single cell culture of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, glutamic acid, cysteine and methionine were to be the most stimulatory for volatile fatty acid contents. Sodium formate added into the milk (500 ppm), as a growth factor aspecially for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, showed more stimulant effect on the growth characteristics of this single culture of this bacteria. According to different compounds and culture groups added into the milk, statistically important (p<0.01) differences were determined among the investigated parameters.

S. Kurultay; O. Oksuz; B. Kaptan

2005-01-01

105

Effect of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on lipid profiles in pregnant women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Due to enhanced fat storage primarily during the mid-pregnancy period, pregnancy is associated with elevated levels of lipid profiles. To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of probiotic yoghurt consumption on serum lipid profiles in pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on lipid profiles of Iranian pregnant women. METHODS: This randomized single-blinded controlled clinical trial was performed among 70 pregnant women, primigravida, aged 18-30 years old who were carrying singleton pregnancy at their third trimester. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 200 g/d of conventional (n=33) or the probiotic group (n=37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was a commercially available product prepared with the starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, enriched with probiotic culture of two strains of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis BB12) with a total of min 1 × 10(7) colony-forming units. The conventional yoghurt contained the starter cultures of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9-weeks intervention to measure serum lipid profiles. RESULTS: Although consumption of probiotic yogurt for 9 weeks had been resulted in a significant reduction in serum total- (-53.7 mg/dL, p=0.001), LDL- (-35.2 mg/dL, p=0.006) and HDL-cholesterol levels (-9.8 mg/dL, p=0.002) as well as serum triglyceride concentrations (-42.8 mg/dL, p=0.029), no significant differences were found comparing probiotic and conventional yogurts in terms of their effect on serum lipid profiles. Within-Group differences in conventional yogurt group revealed a significant reduction in HDL-cholesterol levels (-8.4 mg/dL, p=0.005) and borderline significant reduction in serum total cholesterol concentrations (-21.6 mg/dL, p=0.08). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women could not affect serum lipid profiles as compared to the conventional yogurt.

Asemi Z; Samimi M; Tabasi Z; Talebian P; Azarbad Z; Hydarzadeh Z; Esmaillzadeh A

2012-09-01

106

Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR-DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 26S rDNA and ITS regions (fungi). DGGE of DNA extracted from Daqu was used to complement the culture-dependent method in order to include non-culturable microbes. Both approaches revealed that Bacillus licheniformis was an abundant bacterial species, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Pichia kudriavzevii were the most common yeasts encountered in Fen-Daqu. Six genera of moulds (Absidia, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Penicillium) were found. The potential function of these microorganisms in starters for alcoholic fermentation is discussed. In general the culture-based findings overlapped with those obtained by DGGE by a large extent. However, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus lactis, and Bacillus megaterium were only revealed by DGGE. PMID:22608236

Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Han, Bei-Zhong; Zwietering, Marcel H; Samson, Robert A; Boekhout, Teun; Robert Nout, M J

2012-03-23

107

Complex microbiota of a Chinese “Fen” liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR–DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 26S rDNA and ITS regions (fungi). DGGE of DNA extracted from Daqu was used to complement the culture-dependent method in order to include non-culturable microbes. Both approaches revealed that Bacillus licheniformis was an abundant bacterial species, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Pichia kudriavzevii were the most common yeasts encountered in Fen-Daqu. Six genera of moulds (Absidia, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Penicillium) were found. The potential function of these microorganisms in starters for alcoholic fermentation is discussed. In general the culture-based findings overlapped with those obtained by DGGE by a large extent. However, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus lactis, and Bacillus megaterium were only revealed by DGGE.

Zheng XW; Yan Z; Han BZ; Zwietering MH; Samson RA; Boekhout T; Robert Nout MJ

2012-09-01

108

Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR-DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 26S rDNA and ITS regions (fungi). DGGE of DNA extracted from Daqu was used to complement the culture-dependent method in order to include non-culturable microbes. Both approaches revealed that Bacillus licheniformis was an abundant bacterial species, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Pichia kudriavzevii were the most common yeasts encountered in Fen-Daqu. Six genera of moulds (Absidia, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Penicillium) were found. The potential function of these microorganisms in starters for alcoholic fermentation is discussed. In general the culture-based findings overlapped with those obtained by DGGE by a large extent. However, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus lactis, and Bacillus megaterium were only revealed by DGGE.

Zheng XW; Yan Z; Han BZ; Zwietering MH; Samson RA; Boekhout T; Robert Nout MJ

2012-09-01

109

Role of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the sensory and safety properties of a traditional Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichón".  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of dry-fermented sausage ''salchichon" was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as starter culture (P200S34), separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared with a control batch. Dry-fermented sausages ripened with EPg222 and starter culture showed higher amounts of AN and volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism than the control, especially in samples in which was added the association of enzyme and starter culture (P200S34+EPg222). There were clear differences shown by the texture analysis, with the P200S34+EPg222 batch being less hard. Especially important was the result found in biogenic amines, since the association P200S34+EPg222 reduced their accumulation compared to the EPg222 batch. The use of EPg222 may be of great interest to improve the sensory characteristics of dry-fermented sausages, but its association with the selected starter culture with low decarboxylase activity is necessary to guarantee healthiness and homogeneity. PMID:21925025

Casquete, Rocío; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

2011-07-26

110

Role of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the sensory and safety properties of a traditional Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichon".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of dry-fermented sausage ''salchichon" was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as starter culture (P200S34), separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared with a control batch. Dry-fermented sausages ripened with EPg222 and starter culture showed higher amounts of AN and volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism than the control, especially in samples in which was added the association of enzyme and starter culture (P200S34+EPg222). There were clear differences shown by the texture analysis, with the P200S34+EPg222 batch being less hard. Especially important was the result found in biogenic amines, since the association P200S34+EPg222 reduced their accumulation compared to the EPg222 batch. The use of EPg222 may be of great interest to improve the sensory characteristics of dry-fermented sausages, but its association with the selected starter culture with low decarboxylase activity is necessary to guarantee healthiness and homogeneity.

Casquete R; Benito MJ; Martín A; Ruiz-Moyano S; Córdoba JJ; Córdoba MG

2011-12-01

111

Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results were obtained using the nutritive media as a culture carrier rather than the freeze-dried starter.En este trabajo se empleo el inóculo Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 liofilizado y en caldo nutritivo para preparación de aceitunas "Azeiteira" tipo verde, estilo sevillano. En las salmueras inoculadas se observó una acidificación más rápida y reducción del periodo de supervivencia de las Enterobacteriaceae, especialmente cuando se aplicó el inóculo en caldo nutritivo.

Pintado, Cristina; Brito, Dulce; Catulo, Luis; Peres, Cidália

2008-01-01

112

Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS) starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degradation kinetics of pesticides is first order, the rate constant of degradation and the half live period of the pesticides were calculated. The results indicated that degradation of the pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing were enhanced by one or both starters, except for malathion, and the two commercial DVS starters had different influences on the degradation kinetics of the pesticides.

LI-YING BO; YING-HUA ZHANG; XIN-HUAI ZHAO

2011-01-01

113

The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages. PMID:23567124

Holko, I; Hrab?, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

2013-03-16

114

Comparative metabolic profiling to investigate the contribution of O. oeni MLF starter cultures to red wine composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research work we investigated changes in volatile aroma composition associated with four commercial Oenococcus oeni malolactic fermentation (MLF) starter cultures in South African Shiraz and Pinotage red wines. A control wine in which MLF was suppressed was included. The MLF progress was monitored by use of infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatographic analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to evaluate the volatile aroma composition and organic acid profiles, respectively. Significant strain-specific variations were observed in the degradation of citric acid and production of lactic acid during MLF. Subsequently, compounds directly and indirectly resulting from citric acid metabolism, namely diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and ethyl lactate, were also affected depending on the bacterial strain used for MLF. Bacterial metabolic activity increased concentrations of the higher alcohols, fatty acids, and total esters, with a larger increase in ethyl esters than in acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl propionate concentrations were increased by MLF. In contrast, levels of hexyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl acetate were reduced or remained unchanged, depending on the strain and cultivar evaluated. Formation of ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-methylbutryate, and ethyl isovalerate was related to specific bacterial strains used, indicating possible differences in esterase activity. A strain-specific tendency to reduce total aldehyde concentrations was found at the completion of MLF, although further investigation is needed in this regard. This study provided insight into metabolism in O. oeni starter cultures during MLF in red wine. PMID:22120647

Malherbe, Sulette; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; du Toit, Maret

2011-11-26

115

Comparative metabolic profiling to investigate the contribution of O. oeni MLF starter cultures to red wine composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this research work we investigated changes in volatile aroma composition associated with four commercial Oenococcus oeni malolactic fermentation (MLF) starter cultures in South African Shiraz and Pinotage red wines. A control wine in which MLF was suppressed was included. The MLF progress was monitored by use of infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatographic analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to evaluate the volatile aroma composition and organic acid profiles, respectively. Significant strain-specific variations were observed in the degradation of citric acid and production of lactic acid during MLF. Subsequently, compounds directly and indirectly resulting from citric acid metabolism, namely diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and ethyl lactate, were also affected depending on the bacterial strain used for MLF. Bacterial metabolic activity increased concentrations of the higher alcohols, fatty acids, and total esters, with a larger increase in ethyl esters than in acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl propionate concentrations were increased by MLF. In contrast, levels of hexyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl acetate were reduced or remained unchanged, depending on the strain and cultivar evaluated. Formation of ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-methylbutryate, and ethyl isovalerate was related to specific bacterial strains used, indicating possible differences in esterase activity. A strain-specific tendency to reduce total aldehyde concentrations was found at the completion of MLF, although further investigation is needed in this regard. This study provided insight into metabolism in O. oeni starter cultures during MLF in red wine.

Malherbe S; Tredoux AG; Nieuwoudt HH; du Toit M

2012-03-01

116

The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages.

Holko I; Hrab? J; Šalaková A; Rada V

2013-07-01

117

Effect of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on insulin resistance in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Owing to excess body weight and increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines primarily during the third trimester, pregnancy is associated with elevated insulin resistance. To our knowledge, no report is available indicating the effects of probiotic yoghurt consumption on serum insulin levels in pregnant women. This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on insulin resistance and serum insulin levels of Iranian pregnant women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 70 primigravida pregnant women with singleton pregnancy at their third trimester were participated. We randomly assigned participants to consume 200?g per day of conventional (n=33) or the probiotic group (n=37) for 9 weeks. The probiotic yoghurt was a commercially available product prepared with the starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus, enriched with probiotic culture of two strains of lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA5) and bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis BB12) with a total of min 1 × 10? colony-forming units. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 9-week intervention to measure fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate insulin resistance score. RESULTS: Although consumption of probiotic yogurt for 9 weeks did not affect serum insulin levels and HOMA-IR score, significant differences were found comparing changes in these variables between probiotic and conventional yogurts (changes from baseline in serum insulin levels: +1.2±1.2 vs +5.0±1.1??IU/ml, respectively, P=0.02; and in HOMA-IR score: -0.2±0.3 vs 0.7±0.2, respectively, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that in contrast to conventional yogurt, daily consumption of probiotic yogurt for 9 weeks maintains serum insulin levels and might help pregnant women prevent developing insulin resistance.

Asemi Z; Samimi M; Tabassi Z; Naghibi Rad M; Rahimi Foroushani A; Khorammian H; Esmaillzadeh A

2013-01-01

118

Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture).

DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

2011-01-01

119

Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico/ Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faeci (more) um FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390). Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos. Abstract in english In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures (more) . Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390). Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Moreno, Izildinha; Kuaye, Arnaldo Yoshiteru

2009-03-01

120

Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ?10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. PMID:21807435

Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

2011-07-21

 
 
 
 
121

Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ?10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h.

Ashraf R; Shah NP

2011-10-01

122

Use of a Genetically Enhanced, Pediocin-Producing Starter Culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, To Control Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar Cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1. About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca. 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca. 106 CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes...

Buyong, Nurliza; Kok, Jan; Luchansky, John B.

123

The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malolactic fermentation (MLF), mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni (O. oeni) starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines. These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. CONCLUSION: Although the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures to wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of a MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles.

Malherbe S; Menichelli E; du Toit M; Tredoux A; Muller N; Naes T; Nieuwoudt H

2013-02-01

124

Evaluation of yanyanku processing, an additive used as starter culture to produce fermented food condiments in benin  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Yanyanku is an additive produced by natural fermentation of Hibiscus sabdariffa beans. Three variants of yanyanku processing have been identified: the Yanyanku var. 1 (pH?=?9.95?±?0.06) involved adding of potash to the beans before cooking, two steps of 72?h and 24?h of fermentation and one step of sun drying; the Yanyanku var. 2 (pH?=?8.23?±?0.04) required adding of ash solution after cooking the beans, one step of 72?h of fermentation, and two steps of pounding and sun drying; the Yanyanku var. 3 (pH?=?10.14?±?0.02) involved adding of potash before cooking the beans and one step of 7 days of fermentation. Bacillus spores dominated in the three variants. Spore concentrations (log10cfu/g) were 8.95, 8.22 and 9.55 in Yanyanku var. 1, Yanyanku var. 2 and Yanyanku var. 3, respectively. Lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents decreased particularly in Yanyanku var. 1 and Yanyanku var. 3. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Yanyanku is used as inoculum enrichment or a starter culture?like additive for the fermentation of African locust bean seeds (Parkia biglobosa) to produce sonru, which is one of the most important food condiments consumed by the rural poor as well as high?income urban families in Benin. The production of sonru has increased significantly in recent years, requiring an increase in the daily production of yanyanku, which is also produced commercially by traditional processors. Yanyanku is a product with potential for scaling up and industrialization; it could be an alternative to standard starter culture utilization. The product is traditionally processed at the household level and has a long shelf life (about 10 years). This study has evaluated the yanyanku processing, with a view to upgrade the processing technology and to improve the product quality in future investigations.

AZOKPOTA P; HOUNDENOUKON MSE; HOUNHOUIGAN JD; NAGO MC; JAKOBSEN M

2011-12-01

125

STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOUGHURT [Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

Suryono1); Adi Sudono2); Mirnawati Sudarwanto3); Anton Apriyantono4)

2005-01-01

126

Combined effect of starter culture and temperature on phenolic compounds during fermentation of Taggiasca black olives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of two operative parameters on the fermentation process of table olives from Taggiasca cultivar were investigated. Laboratory scale fermentations were performed using Lactobacillus plantarum as the only starter and in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at three different temperatures (23, 30 and 37°C). Control tests used for each trial were fermented only by indigenous microflora. pH and phenolic compounds were monitored in the brine and olive flesh during the fermentation. Higher temperatures (37°C) enhanced notably the release of phenolic compounds in the brine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of brines evidenced the complete hydrolysis of oleuropein after 100 days of fermentation at 37°C for all treatments. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their polyphenol contents. The results confirmed the efficiency of treatments compared with the control tests for debittering process of table black olives. Phenolic compounds in the brines can be then extracted and used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Pistarino E; Aliakbarian B; Casazza AA; Paini M; Cosulich ME; Perego P

2013-06-01

127

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

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Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA) from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.; Ikpoh, I. S

2010-01-01

128

Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of the 32 a total of 16 strains were finally selected for the development as starter cultures for Gari production. PMID:17188771

Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

2006-12-26

129

Quality Evaluation of Market Yoghurt /Dahi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate and compare the quality of market yoghurt and dahi. Different samples of plant made yoghurt and dahi available in local markets of Islamabad and Rawalpindi were randomly collected and analyzed for physico- chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. Physico-chemical analysis revealed that plant made yoghurt samples were consistent and hardly showed any variation as compared to dahi. Microbiological examination showed that total viable count in yoghurt brands was less than dahi. The coliform count was nil or ignorable in yoghurt brands but dahi contained large number of coliform bacteria. Organoleptically, plant made yoghurt was found more suitable as compared to dahi.

Shahid Younus; Tariq Masud; Tariq Aziz

2002-01-01

130

Comparison of the effects of a commercial and an autochthonous Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus vitulus starter culture on the sensory and safety properties of a traditional Iberian dry?fermented sausage “salchichon”  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and commercial starter culture on the physico?chemical and sensory characteristics of the dry?fermented sausage ‘salchichon’ was investigated. Sausages were prepared with a mixture of Pediococcus acidilactici MC184 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the autochthonous starter culture (P184S34), ripened for 86?days, and compared with a commercial starter batch (CS1). Strains of acid lactic bacteria and Staphylococcus were identified in the samples along the ripening process which demonstrated that the inoculation of sausages assures their implantation during the ripening process. However, P184S34 starter culture showed a higher inhibitory effect on enterobacteria and coliform flora than the CS1 batches, guaranteeing a better quality hygienic sausages. Dry?fermented sausages ripened with P184S34 showed higher amounts of NPN and volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism than the CS1 batches. Especially important was the result found in biogenic amines, since the P184S34 reduced their accumulation compared to the commercial starter batch. The inoculation of a decarboxylase?negative autochthonous starter culture P184S34 reduced the biogenic amine accumulation guaranteeing safety and homogeneity of the products without producing a negative effect on the sensory characteristics of the traditional fermented sausages.

Casquete R; Benito MJ; Martín A; Ruiz?Moyano S; Pérez?Nevado F; Córdoba MG

2012-05-01

131

Combined effect of starter culture and temperature on phenolic compounds during fermentation of Taggiasca black olives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of two operative parameters on the fermentation process of table olives from Taggiasca cultivar were investigated. Laboratory scale fermentations were performed using Lactobacillus plantarum as the only starter and in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at three different temperatures (23, 30 and 37°C). Control tests used for each trial were fermented only by indigenous microflora. pH and phenolic compounds were monitored in the brine and olive flesh during the fermentation. Higher temperatures (37°C) enhanced notably the release of phenolic compounds in the brine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of brines evidenced the complete hydrolysis of oleuropein after 100 days of fermentation at 37°C for all treatments. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their polyphenol contents. The results confirmed the efficiency of treatments compared with the control tests for debittering process of table black olives. Phenolic compounds in the brines can be then extracted and used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23411341

Pistarino, Erika; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro A; Paini, Marco; Cosulich, Maria E; Perego, Patrizia

2012-11-15

132

Determination the number of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the combination of traditional yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Yoghurt is a milky, fermented andsemi-solid production that is produced by Microorganism starters.These microorganisms are known as lactic acid bacteria, which areresponsible for the formation of the tissue, scent and flavor of yoghurt.Their presence in digestive system makes people healthy. The aim ofthis study was determination of the number of Lactic Acid Bacteriaand Yeasts in the combination of traditional yoghurts of villages ofEast-Azerbaijan- province.Material and Methods: In this study, we gathered 90 samples oftraditional yoghurt from the villages of East- Azerbaijan province andtransferred, in a standard condition, to the laboratory ofpharmaceutical-applied research center of Tabriz medical scienceuniversity. We used 10-6dilution to measure the number of lactobacilliin MRS Agar medium and 10-3 dilution to count the Yeasts inSaborodextros Agar medium. Then, the grown colony has beenenumerated and the kind of bacteria was specified via biochemistrytests.Results: The mean number of lactobacilli in 1 ml of traditionalyoghurts is about 62 × 106 CFU/mL and the number of Yeasts 41×104CFU/mL. Delbrueckii and plantarum are the most commonLactobacilli, and Saccharomyces is with the highest frequency.Conclusion: According to findings of this research, there isconsiderable amount of microorganisms such as useful bacteria, in thetraditional yoghurts of villages of East- Azerbaijan province. Theyhave been used as a starter and probiotic in Dairy and milk factories toproduce good production in the future.Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, East-Azerbaijan, Yoghurt, Yeasts

Bonyadi M

2012-01-01

133

Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Starter Cultures on the Soaking Time and Quality of “Ofada” Rice  

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Full Text Available Freshly harvested paddy rice was randomly obtained from three different farms in “Ofada” town, Ogun State, Nigeria and processed according to the traditional parboiling method. The rice was inoculated singly with cultures of Lactobacillus amylophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae which were isolated from the soak-water. In order to assess the effect of starter cultures on the soaking time of the rice, the pH and titratable acidity were determined at 12 h interval. The chemical composition and the sensory quality of the rice were also determined at the end of the soaking period while uninoculated rice served as control. The chemical composition of the rice as well as the pH and TTA of the soak-water were significantly (p < 0.05) different from the control while the processing time was shortened to 48 h. The rice inoculated with Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisae had the highest protein content and best sensory attributes.

Oluwafunmilayo Adeniran; Olusegun Atanda; Mojisola Edema; Olusola Oyewol

2012-01-01

134

Enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed.

Ratanaburee A; Kantachote D; Charernjiratrakul W; Sukhoom A

2013-09-01

135

Determining the impact of varying levels of cherry powder and starter culture on quality and sensory attributes of indirectly cured, emulsified cooked sausages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Indirect curing is a process that utilizes ingredients high in naturally occurring nitrate and a nitrate reducing bacterial starter culture (SC) to provide quality and sensory attributes similar to nitrite-added cured meats. The objective of this study was to determine the effects varying concentrations of starter culture and the addition of cherry powder (CP) had on improving quality and sensory attributes of indirectly cured sausages. Four treatments (TRTs) (TRT 1: low SC+no CP; TRT 2: low SC+CP; TRT 3: high SC+no CP; and TRT 4: high SC+CP) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 ppm) control were investigated. Residual nitrite levels throughout storage declined most rapidly in TRTs 2 and 4 (P<0.05). Few differences existed between TRTs and C for pH, objective color, or cured pigment concentrations. Consumer sensory panel scores revealed all treatment combinations were comparable (P>0.05) to the C for all sensory attributes.

Terns MJ; Milkowski AL; Rankin SA; Sindelar JJ

2011-06-01

136

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria/ Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Tem-se dado muita atenção à utilização de Bifidobacterium sp. em iogurtes devido às suas excelentes propriedades terapêuticas e nutricionais. Entretanto, é recomendado que, baseado em testes in vitro e em humanos, cada produto comercial indique qual a quantidade mínima diária recomendada de ingestão para que se obtenha os benefícios desejados à saúde. Além da inerente dificuldade do crescimento de Bifidobacterium sp em leite, há uma necessidade de padroniz (more) ação de um método de contagem confiável de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das bactérias do iogurte. Este trabalho avaliou o uso dos meios M-MRS, MRS-NNLP e RCPB pH5, visando a contagem do número de células de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 na presença de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus após a fermentação do iogurte. O meio M-MRS não foi seletivo, apresentando crescimento de L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O meio MRS-NNLP apresentou boa seletividade para B. animalis Bb12, apesar de uma leve redução no número de células ter sido verificada quando comparado ao meio padrão MRS em cultura pura. O meio MRS-NNLP foi considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de B. animalis Bb12 porque a diferença encontrada entre as contagens em cultura pura foi bastante pequena. O meio RCPB pH5 apresentou crescimento diferencial de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 em relação às bactérias do iogurte e uma recuperação de células igual ao meio padrão MRS, sendo considerado o melhor meio de cultura deste estudo para a contagem de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das culturas do iogurte. Abstract in english Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer health benefit(s) based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidob (more) acterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the use of the media M-MRS, MRS-NNLP and RCPB pH5 aimed at counting the number of Bifidobacterium animalis subesp. lactis in the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus after yoghurt fermentation. The M-MRS medium was not selective, allowing for the growth of L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. MRS-NNLP medium presented a good selectivity for B. animalis Bb12 with a slight reduction in the cell count of this microrganism when compared it to the standard MRS medium in pure culture. MRS-NNLP medium was considered a good option to enumerate B. animalis Bb12 although the reduction found in pure culture due to the low difference between the counts. The medium RCPB pH5 presented differentiated growth of B. animalis Bb12 in relation to the yoghurt bacteria and a cell recovery equal to that of the standard MRS, being considered the best option to enumerate Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria.

Moriya, Juliana; Fachin, Luciano; Gândara, Ana Lourdes Neves; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada

2006-12-01

137

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer health benefit(s) based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the use of the media M-MRS, MRS-NNLP and RCPB pH5 aimed at counting the number of Bifidobacterium animalis subesp. lactis in the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus after yoghurt fermentation. The M-MRS medium was not selective, allowing for the growth of L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. MRS-NNLP medium presented a good selectivity for B. animalis Bb12 with a slight reduction in the cell count of this microrganism when compared it to the standard MRS medium in pure culture. MRS-NNLP medium was considered a good option to enumerate B. animalis Bb12 although the reduction found in pure culture due to the low difference between the counts. The medium RCPB pH5 presented differentiated growth of B. animalis Bb12 in relation to the yoghurt bacteria and a cell recovery equal to that of the standard MRS, being considered the best option to enumerate Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria.Tem-se dado muita atenção à utilização de Bifidobacterium sp. em iogurtes devido às suas excelentes propriedades terapêuticas e nutricionais. Entretanto, é recomendado que, baseado em testes in vitro e em humanos, cada produto comercial indique qual a quantidade mínima diária recomendada de ingestão para que se obtenha os benefícios desejados à saúde. Além da inerente dificuldade do crescimento de Bifidobacterium sp em leite, há uma necessidade de padronização de um método de contagem confiável de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das bactérias do iogurte. Este trabalho avaliou o uso dos meios M-MRS, MRS-NNLP e RCPB pH5, visando a contagem do número de células de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 na presença de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus após a fermentação do iogurte. O meio M-MRS não foi seletivo, apresentando crescimento de L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O meio MRS-NNLP apresentou boa seletividade para B. animalis Bb12, apesar de uma leve redução no número de células ter sido verificada quando comparado ao meio padrão MRS em cultura pura. O meio MRS-NNLP foi considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de B. animalis Bb12 porque a diferença encontrada entre as contagens em cultura pura foi bastante pequena. O meio RCPB pH5 apresentou crescimento diferencial de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 em relação às bactérias do iogurte e uma recuperação de células igual ao meio padrão MRS, sendo considerado o melhor meio de cultura deste estudo para a contagem de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das culturas do iogurte.

Juliana Moriya; Luciano Fachin; Ana Lourdes Neves Gândara; Walkiria Hanada Viotto

2006-01-01

138

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced. METHODS AND RESULTS: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. CONCLUSIONS: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties. They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga.

Compaoré CS; Nielsen DS; Sawadogo-Lingani H; Berner TS; Nielsen KF; Adimpong DB; Diawara B; Ouédraogo GA; Jakobsen M; Thorsen L

2013-07-01

139

Genetic diversity in Swiss cheese starter cultures assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and arbitrarily primed PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To assess intraspecific genetic heterogeneity among commercial Swiss cheese starter culture strains of Lactobacillus helveticus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii and to compare the efficacy of two genetic typing methods. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two genetic typing methods, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR), were used. Nine Strep. thermophilus strains revealed eight PFGE and five AP-PCR genotypes. Seventeen Lactobacillus strains yielded 16 and five genotypes by PFGE and AP-PCR, respectively. Eleven Propionibacterium strains yielded 10 PFGE genotypes. Cluster analysis of PFGE profiles generated similarity coefficients for Strep. thermophilus, Lact. helveticus and Prop. freudenreichii strains of 29.5%, 60.3%, and 30.5%, respectively. Milk acidification rates for Strep. thermophilus and Lact. helveticus were determined. CONCLUSIONS: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis is more discriminatory than AP-PCR. The Lact. helveticus group is more homogeneous than the other species examined. Strains with > 87% similarity by PFGE consistently had the same acidification rate and AP-PCR profile. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Bacterial strains sold for Swiss cheese manufacture in the United States are genetically diverse. Clustering of genetically related bacteria may be useful in identifying new strains with industrially relevant traits.

Jenkins JK; Harper WJ; Courtney PD

2002-01-01

140

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced. Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. Conclusions: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broadspectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties. They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga.

Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol, 1-propanol, isopentyl alcohol and 1-hexanol were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography and GC-FID. The results showed that kefir grains were able to utilise lactose in 60 h from ML and 72 h from CW and DCW and produce similar amounts of ethanol (?12 g L?¹), lactic acid (?6 g L?¹) and acetic acid (?1.5 g L?¹) to those obtained during milk fermentation. Based on the chemical characteristics and acceptance in the sensory analysis, the kefir grains showed potential to be used for developing cheese whey-based beverages.

Magalhães KT; Dias DR; de Melo Pereira GV; Oliveira JM; Domingues L; Teixeira JA; de Almeida e Silva JB; Schwan RF

2011-04-01

142

Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was carried out to study the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus amylovorus) starter on traditional fermentation of sorghum flour (variety dabar). Results obtained indicated that fermentation time was redu...

Asmahan A. Ali; Muna M. Mustafa

143

Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

2009-01-01

144

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como ácido lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos.Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira HAULY

1999-01-01

145

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product "probiotic table olives".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

Sisto A; Lavermicocca P

2012-01-01

146

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product "probiotic table olives".  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life. PMID:22586426

Sisto, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

2012-05-08

147

Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy)  

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Full Text Available This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum) were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amounts and pH values; acidifying ability; metabolism (arginin deamination, esculin hydrolysis, acetoin production); survival at low pH and in presence of bile salts; hydrophobic properties; antibiotic resistance. After laboratory assays and strain selection through a multivariate analyses, it was highlighted that B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis represent a good compromise as potential functional starter cultures, as B. animalis subp. lactis showed a high growth index at pH 5 and good values at 25?C and 30?C, as well as the minimal viability loss at pH 2.5. B. longum subsp. infantis DSMZ 20088 was the best microorganism for its growth index in presence of 6.5% of salt added and at 25?C and 30?C.

Antonio Bevilacqua; Maria Teresa Cagnazzo; Cataldo Caldarola; Emanuela Ciuffreda; Anna Rita Dragano; Stefania Franchino; Rossana Lauriola; Angela Pacifico; Maria Rosaria Corbo; Milena Sinigaglia

2012-01-01

148

CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE  

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Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

Yousef I. Hassan; Lloyd B. Bullerman

2013-01-01

149

Modelling the survival of starter lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium bifidum in single and simultaneous cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inactivation kinetics at 4 degrees C of Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, cultured alone or consociated in a laboratory medium (modified MRS broth), were modelled through the Weibull model and a second-order polynomial equation. The initial cell number of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was approximately 6-7log (CFU/ml); the viability loss after 30 days of storage was 2.87 and 1.99log (CFU/l) for L. delbruckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, cultured alone, respectively; whereas the consociation of lactobacilli and streptococci with bifidobacteria reduced viability loss during storage (0.28 and 0.54log CFU/l for lactobacilli and streptococci, respectively). Finally, the consociation of lactobacilli and streptococci with B. bifidum improved their oxygen uptake. PMID:18541173

Altieri, Clelia; Bevilacqua, Antonio; D'Amato, Daniela; Nobile, Matteo Alessandro Del; Sinigaglia, Milena

2008-04-01

150

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24hour intervals during 120h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed.

Crafack M; Mikkelsen MB; Saerens S; Knudsen M; Blennow A; Lowor S; Takrama J; Swiegers JH; Petersen GB; Heimdal H; Nielsen DS

2013-07-01

151

Evaluation of the thermally dried immobilized cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on apple pieces as a potent starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of thermal drying of immobilized Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on apple pieces on the use of the derived biocatalyst in whey fermentation. The thermally dried immobilized biocatalyst was compared to wet and freeze-dried immobilized cells, in respect to maintenance of cell viability and fermentation efficiency. The thermal drying process appeared to be more efficient on survival rate as an 84% of the cells used for immobilization survived the process, while the freeze-drying process led to a 78% rate. The thermally dried immobilized biocatalyst was used in 12 repeated batch fermentations of synthetic lactose medium and whey at 37, 45, and 50 degrees C in order to evaluate its metabolic activity. The high number of repeated batch fermentations showed a tendency for high operational stability. Fermentations continued for up to 2 months without any significant loss of metabolic activity. SPME GC/MS analysis of aroma-related compounds revealed the distinctive character of fermented whey produced by the thermally dried immobilized bacterium cells. The effect of storage at 4-6 degrees C for up to 165 days of the biocatalyst, held directly after drying and after repeated batch fermentations, on fermentation activity was also studied. After storage, reactivation in whey was immediate, and the immobilized biocatalyst was able to produce up to 51.7 g/L lactic acid at 37 degrees C. The potential of thermally dried immobilized L. delbrueckii as a starter culture for food production was subsequently evaluated. PMID:17985843

Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Panas, Panayiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2007-11-07

152

Selection of Starter Culture for Yogurt Preparation and its Antibacterial Activity  

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Full Text Available Studies on the symbiotic relationship of six combinations of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus for the preparation of yogurt in relation to its anti-microbial activity were carried out. The ratio 2:1 of L. bulgaricus: S. thermophillus in the inoculum was found best for the preparation of prime quality yogurt with maximum antibacterial activity. The ratio of the two cultures in the final product was 1:1. The yogurt samples were evaluated for curdling time, acidity, diacetyl acetoin contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the best product was comparable in 200 mcg/ml with 100 mcg/ml of Kanamycin and Ampiclox

Mujeeb ur Rahman; Shereen Gul; Wasim A. Farooqi

1999-01-01

153

Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food  

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Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus amylovorus) starter on traditional fermentation of sorghum flour (variety dabar). Results obtained indicated that fermentation time was reduced from 19-6 h albeit the final pH was reduced to 3.47. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the previous starter further reduced sorghum fermentation time to only 4 h and the final pH was 3.75.

Asmahan A. Ali; Muna M. Mustafa

2009-01-01

154

The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk  

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Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determined lead to prevent or inhibit the growth of all pathogens. These factors clearly showed the inhibition effect of lactic acid bacteria against pathogens. The count of all pathogenic organisms decreased sharply with fermentation time until it disappeared completely after 3 days. This shows the importance of the consumption of fermented milks. Cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria shows clearly an inhibitory activity against all pathogenic organisms used. But, non-boiled extract was highly active than those of boiled ones. This means that, lactic acid bacteria produced thermolabile substances inhibit or prevent the growth of pathogens. Finally all these observations show the hygienic and nutritional importance of the consumption of fermented milks.

Shady, T. S. M; H. Ashour Eman; E.E.Y. El-Badrawy

1999-01-01

155

Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria.

Canibe N; Miquel N; Miettinen H; Jensen BB

2001-01-01

156

Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality.

Choi H; Kim YW; Hwang I; Kim J; Yoon S

2012-10-01

157

Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amylase production. An antimicrobial activity was detected for 33.3%, 31.8%, 22.7% and 15.9% of the isolates towards Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A producer, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A and B producer, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. A similarity was found between the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus fermentum ferments dolo and pito wort by lowering the pH and providing organic acids, EPSs and antimicrobial compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Strains with a rapid rate of acidification, an antimicrobial activity and producing EPSs are suggested to have potential for starter cultures.

Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.

2008-01-01

158

Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amylase production. An antimicrobial activity was detected for 33.3%, 31.8%, 22.7% and 15.9% of the isolates towards Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A producer, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A and B producer, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. A similarity was found between the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus fermentum ferments dolo and pito wort by lowering the pH and providing organic acids, EPSs and antimicrobial compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Strains with a rapid rate of acidification, an antimicrobial activity and producing EPSs are suggested to have potential for starter cultures.

Sawadogo-Lingani H; Diawara B; Traoré AS; Jakobsen M

2008-03-01

159

Viability and activity of bifidobacteria during refrigerated storage of yoghurt containing Mangifera pajang fibrous polysaccharides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: The viability and activity of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4, B. longum BB 536 and yoghurt cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied in yoghurt containing 0.75% Mangefira pajang fibrous polysaccharides (MPFP) and inulin. Growth of probiotic organisms, their proteolytic activities, the production of short chain fatty acids (lactic, acetic and propionic) and the pH of the yoghurt samples were determined during refrigerated storage at 4 °C for 28 d. B. pseudocatenulatum G4 and B. longum BB 536 showed better growth and activity in the presence of MPFP and inulin, which significantly increased the production of short chain fatty acids as well as the proteolytic activity of these organisms. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This is the first study reported on produce synbiotic yoghurt as a functional food for specified health uses contains bifidobacteria and M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides. M. pajang fibrous polysaccharides can be used as a prebiotic particularly in dairy products to increase the viability and activity of bifidobacteria which can be used as probiotic to exert health benefit to the human by yoghurt that is considered common use in society; thus, the benefits of synbiotic yoghurt are readily accessible to the member of society.

Al-Sheraji SH; Ismail A; Manap MY; Mustafa S; Yusof RM

2012-11-01

160

Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture  

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Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei) and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA) release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

Ufuk Eren-Vapur; Tulay Ozcan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir/ Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores (more) de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syner (more) esis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

2012-12-01

162

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

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Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas.

Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

2012-01-01

163

Starter for solar systems. Starter fuer Solaranlagen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is practicable to control the temperature differences in the individual circuits of a solar collector system with several consumer stations. For this reason 3-way-valves or circulating often are used. Such a system must be controlled when solar heat is obtained. The invention proposed the design of a starter-system. The pressure in the collector system increases when the collector absorbes solar radiation. The heater pressure switches the starter. When the pressure decreases the starter will be switched off and stops the collector circuit. A contact manometer can work as an impulse generator like a pressure switch.

Maile, H.

1981-04-30

164

Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Changes Induced by Bacillus subtilis (SDA3) During Starter Culture Fermentation of Soybean into Condiment (Soy-Daddawa)  

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Full Text Available In an attempt to upgrade the traditional fermentation technology of soybean into daddawa, the effect of fermentation temperature on the biochemical and organoleptic properties of soy-daddawa produced by starter culture was studied. Bacillus subtilis SDA3 previously selected as a good starter for soy-daddawa production was used to ferment sterile dehulled cooked soybeans at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for 72 h. The viable cell counts of B.subtilis SDA3 increased throughout the 72 h fermentation process at 25 to 35°C while the counts decreased after the 24th h at 40°C fermentation. pH value increased throughout the fermentation with a rather low increase in the fermentation at 25°C. Relative proteolytic activity increased with fermentation, attained a peak at 48 h and then dropped in fermentations at 30-40°C. Proteolytic activity which was not detected by the 12th h increased thereafter till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Free amino acid content increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 30-40°C while an initial drop was observed in the first 12 h with subsequent increase till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Alpha amylase activity increased, attained a peak at the 48 h and then dropped in 30 and 35°C fermentations. Alpha amylase activity increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 25°C while at 40°C, the activity attained a peak at the 24th h and then dropped. Fermentation at 35°C gave the highest levels of proteolytic and alpha amylase activities, pH and free amino acids in soybean inoculated with B. subtilis SDA3. Organoleptically, soybean fermented by B. subtilis SDA3 at 35°C produced the best quality soy-daddawa as judged by a panel of regular soy-daddawa consumers. Fermentation at 35°C was therefore chosen as the optimised temperature for the production of soy-daddawa by B. subtilis SDA3 starter culture.

B.O. Omafuvbe

2008-01-01

165

The Production of Yoghurt with Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Infants in Jordan  

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Full Text Available Cultures of presumptive lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated from eight infants living in Amman, Jordan. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, three promising isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium infantis. These strains were employed to make yoghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time, a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus providing the rapid acidification. Yoghurts containing counts of > 1.0 x 108 cfu ml-1 of the individual probiotics and high counts of the traditional species from yoghurt were produced, and storage trials at 4oC showed that the viability of the probiotic cultures was retained over 15 days.

M.S.Y. Haddadin; S.S. Awaisheh; R.K. Robinson

2004-01-01

166

Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of small-scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2012-05-25

167

Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of small-scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes.

Pereira GV; Miguel MG; Ramos CL; Schwan RF

2012-08-01

168

Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.

Shilpa Vij; Subrota Hati; Deepika Yadav

2011-01-01

169

DETERMINATION OF PROTEINS IN YOGHURT  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to introduce method for detection of protein content in yoghurts. The analysis was focused on determination of major milk proteins which include caseins and lower amounts of whey proteins, in particular ?-lactalbumin a ?-lactoglobulin. 10 samples from the market were analyzed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatograph Alliance 2695 with PDA detector 2996 was used. The separation was performed on C18 column X Bridge TM, 150 x 3.0 mm, 3.5 ?m. Mobile phase contained water, acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid. Average value of determined proteins were: ?S-CN 47.1 ± 2.6 %, ?-CN 44.0 ± 3.8 %, ?-CN 9.0 ± 5.2 %, 96.7 ± 8.4 % LA and LG 14.7 ± 15.3%.

Lenka Ruprichová; Michaela Dra?ková; Ivana Borkovcová; Lenka Vorlová

2012-01-01

170

Combined pH and high hydrostatic pressure effects on Lactococcus starter cultures and Candida spoilage yeasts in a fermented milk test system during cold storage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The combined effects of high pressure processing (HPP) and pH on the glycolytic and proteolytic activities of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a commonly used cheese starter culture and the outgrowth of spoilage yeasts of Candida species were investigated in a fermented milk test system. To prepare the test system, L. lactis subsp. lactis C10 was grown in UHT skim milk to a final pH of 4.30 and then additional samples for treatment were prepared by dilution of fermented milk with UHT skim milk to pH levels of 5.20 and 6.50. These milk samples (pH 4.30, 5.20 and 6.50) with or without an added mixture of two yeast cultures, Candida zeylanoides and Candida lipolytica (10(5) CFU mL(-1) of each species), were treated at 300 and 600 MPa (?20°C, 5 min) and stored at 4°C for up to 8 weeks. Continuing acidification by starter cultures, as monitored during storage, was substantially reduced in the milk pressurised at pH 5.20 where the initial titratable acidity (TA) of 0.40% increased by only 0.05% (600 MPa) and 0.10% (300 MPa) at week 8, compared to an increase of 0.30% in untreated controls. No substantial differences were observed in pH or TA between pressure-treated and untreated milk samples at pH 4.30 or 6.50. The rate of proteolysis in milk samples at pH values of 5.20 and 6.50 during storage was significantly reduced by treatment at 600 MPa. Treatment at 600 MPa also reduced the viable counts of both Candida yeast species to below the detection limit (1 CFU mL(-1)) at all pH levels for the entire storage period. However, samples treated at 300 MPa showed recovery of C. lipolytica from week 3 onwards, reaching 10(6)-10(7) CFU mL(-1) by week 8. In contrast, C. zeylanoides did not show any recovery in any of the pressure-treated samples during storage.

Daryaei H; Coventry J; Versteeg C; Sherkat F

2010-12-01

171

Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans  

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Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA) was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4) and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2).Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

Ebrahimi H.; Pourshahidi S.; Amanat D.; Khaleghi V.; Andisheh Tadbir A.

2012-01-01

172

Production and Evaluation of Yoghurt Ice Cream  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt ice cream was prepared from buffalo milk using conventional ice cream-making technique. A total of three trials (six batches in each) were conducted and analyzed for chemical characteristics and sensory attributes. Total Solids (TS) content of yoghurt ice cream averaged 32.790.64%, protein content 5.180.16%, fat content 4.840.10% and ash content 1.060.08%. The overall mean score rated by panelists for appearance/color was 3.680.08, for taste/flavor 39.630.71, for body/texture 25.500.42 and for melting quality 3.560.13 from a total score of 5, 45, 30 and 5, respectively. The overall average meltdown rate of yoghurt ice cream for 10 min was 15.761.48%, for 20 min 40.492.03%, for 30 min 65.721.95%, for 40 min 83.121.42% and for 50 min 93.191.26%. Sensory characteristics of yoghurt ice cream were gradually improved after 1 month and 3 months storage period and perceived the better score among sensory space map. Stored (3 months) yoghurt ice cream comparatively perceived the highest score for appearance/color (4.450.08), taste/flavor (44.110.18), body/texture (28.780.16) and melting quality (4.610.13) followed by one month stored (4.380.10, 43.670.22, 28.000.28 and 4.550.14, respectively) and fresh yoghurt ice cream (3.680.08, 39.630.71, 25.550.42 and 3.560.13, respectively) from a total score of 5, 45, 30 and 5, respectively. Sensory properties of yoghurt ice cream discriminated the product with attractable appearance/color, acceptable/palatable flavor and better body/texture.

A.S. Mangsi; A.H. Soomro; M.H. Baloch; M. Khaskheli; A.H. Nizamani; G.B. Khaskheli

2011-01-01

173

Production of yoghurt with mild taste by a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutant with altered proteolytic properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this communication, we describe the isolation of a Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 92063 mutant strain named pH-P11, which differed from the parent strain by low proteolytic activity and altered regulation of expression of lacZ in the presence of glucose or lactose. In the presence of lactose, beta-galactosidase activity was approximately twice as high in pH-P11 than in the wild type. pH-P11 exhibited protosymbiosis together with Streptococcus thermophilus. Yoghurt produced with pH-P11 was characterized by low acidity and little post-acidification during storage. The organoleptic properties (absence of bitterness and other off-flavors, weak sourness, and clear yoghurt taste) were those of a typical "yoghurt mild". This mild flavor was achieved at rather high cell counts of lactobacilli even at the end of shelf-life. High cell counts in conjunction with high beta-galactosidase activity make pH-P11 an interesting strain for application in yoghurt especially designed for consumers with lactose malabsorption. In contrast to "yoghurt mild", which is predominantly produced with Lactobacillus acidophilus together with Streptococcus thermophilus, the product obtained by fermentation with pH-P11 and Streptococcus thermophilus concurs with international standards for yoghurt. During frequent sub-culturing, strain pH-P11, which is supposed to differ from the wild type by one or a few so-far-not-characterized mutations, showed sufficient stability for application in industrial production. PMID:17260332

Möller, Claudia; Bockelmann, Wilhelm; Ammann, Andreas; Heller, Knut J

2007-04-01

174

Verbesserung des mikrobiellen Abbaus und der Lumineszenzanalytik von Erdoelprodukten im Boden. Teilprojekt 1: Einfluss von Starterkulturen und Tensiden auf den Oelabbau im Boden. Schlussbericht. (Improvement of the microbial degradation and the luminescence analysis of mineral oil in soil. Subproject 1: Effect of starter cultures and surfactants on the oil degradation in soil. Final report).  

Science.gov (United States)

With respect to a hydrocarbon contamination of soil with a special PAH-containing model oil, the effect of starter cultures and of microbially or chemically synthesized surfactants on the degradation was studied in luminescence analysis of polycyclic arom...

F. Wagner R. Mueller-Hurtig K. Czeschka A. Haberz A. Haeusler

1996-01-01

175

Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production  

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The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added t...

Maha E.A. Khalifa; A.E. Elgasim; A.H. Zaghloul; M.B. Mahfouz

176

Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production  

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Full Text Available The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added to yoghurt with ratio of 4 and 6%. Chemical compositions such as pH value, titratable acidity, wheying off, ash, protein, lactose, total carbohydrate, total solid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl of the tested yoghurt with and without stabilizers were carried out using the official methods. The data concluded that the pH values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and decreased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. On the other hand, Titratable acidity values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and increased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. The Wheying off of the set yoghurt was significantly lower in the yoghurt containing inulin at 4, 6% and mucilage at 0.2% compared with control yoghurt. The reduction percentages in the wheying-off were 30, 58 and 50%, respectively compared to control. None of the stabilizers used in (p = 0.05) affect on the ash content of yoghurt However, a decrease in lactose content was observed with the increase in the storage period. There was a substantial decrease in lactose content from 2 to 0.78% on the 10th day of storage. The protein content of yoghurt treated with inulin 6%, mucilage 0.2% and control were significantly different (p = 0.05) and gave value of 4.56, 4.37 and 4.19%, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, mucilage and inulin are potential stabilizers to be used in yoghurt processing.

Maha E.A. Khalifa; A.E. Elgasim; A.H. Zaghloul; M.B. Mahfouz

2011-01-01

177

Effects of fructooligosaccharide and whey protein concentrate on the viability of starter culture in reduced-fat probiotic yogurt during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viability of yogurt starter cultures and Bifidobacterium animalis was assessed during 28 d storage in reduced-fat yogurts containing 1.5% milk fat supplemented with 1.5% fructooligosaccharide or whey protein concentrate. These properties were examined in comparison with control yogurts containing 1.5% and 3% milk fat and no supplement. Although fructooligosaccharide improved the viability of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium animalis, the highest growth was obtained when milk was supplemented with whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt (P < 0.05). Supplementation with 1.5% whey protein concentrate in reduced-fat yogurt increased the viable counts of S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus, and B. animalis by 1 log cycle in the 1st week of storage when compared to control sample. Similar improvement in the growth of both yogurt bacteria and B. animalis was also obtained in the full-fat yogurt containing 3% milk fat and no supplement. Addition of whey protein concentrate also resulted in the highest content of lactic and acetic acids (P < 0.05). A gradual increase was obtained in organic acid contents during the storage. PMID:17995644

Akalin, A S; Gönç, S; Unal, G; Fenderya, S

2007-09-01

178

Effect of Different Additives from Local Source on the Quality of Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt is the most popular fermented milk product in the most parts of world. It involves use of specific symbiotic culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Yoghurt consists of valuable nutrients as in milk but it seems to have more than milk. In the present study different food additives from local source are used as additives and the effect is estimated for possible influence on the quality of yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using different stabilizers like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), guar gum, gelatin, cornstarch and their combinations like CMC-gelatin, gelatin-cornstarch and CMC-cornstarch at different levels i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% at 0, 7, 14 and 21 day of storage interval. Guar gum at 0.1% gives best result for low acidity and low pH where as total solid free fatty acid, acetaldehyde contents comes best with the cornstarch. Food additives have influence on pH, acidity, total solid and acetaldehyde contents. During the storage of 21 days with increasing amounts of food additives, there was an increase in acidity, free fatty acids, total solid and acetaldehyde contents but decrease in pH.

Syed Tariq Mehmood; Tariq Masud; Talat Mahmood; S. Maqsud

2008-01-01

179

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage/ Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogu (more) rte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementação do meio RCPB pH5 com extrato de fígado desidratado e com os sais KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O, visando melhorar a diferenciação de Bifidobacterium em iogurte durante a estocagem refrigerada e também avaliou a contagem seletiva de Bifidobacterium em iogurte usando o meio MRS-LP. O meio MRS-LP apresentou a mesma recuperação de células que o meio RCPB pH5, usado como padrão, após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada do iogurte, sendo considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurtes durante a estocagem refrigerada. O meio RCPB pH5 fortificado também apresentou a mesma recuperação de células de Bifidobacterium que o meio padrão RCPB pH5; entretanto, a adição de extrato de fígado desidratado aumentou consideravelmente o diâmetro das colônias de Bifidobacterium, tornando a diferenciação destas bastante fácil e confiável quando comparadas à sua diferenciação no meio RCPB pH5 sem a fortificação. A adição dos sais (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O) não exerceu influência no desempenho do meio RCPB pH5. Abstract in english The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH (more) 5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.

Fachin, Luciano; Moryia, Juliana; Gândara, Ana Lourdes Neves; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada

2008-06-01

180

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogurte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementação do meio RCPB pH5 com extrato de fígado desidratado e com os sais KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O, visando melhorar a diferenciação de Bifidobacterium em iogurte durante a estocagem refrigerada e também avaliou a contagem seletiva de Bifidobacterium em iogurte usando o meio MRS-LP. O meio MRS-LP apresentou a mesma recuperação de células que o meio RCPB pH5, usado como padrão, após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada do iogurte, sendo considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurtes durante a estocagem refrigerada. O meio RCPB pH5 fortificado também apresentou a mesma recuperação de células de Bifidobacterium que o meio padrão RCPB pH5; entretanto, a adição de extrato de fígado desidratado aumentou consideravelmente o diâmetro das colônias de Bifidobacterium, tornando a diferenciação destas bastante fácil e confiável quando comparadas à sua diferenciação no meio RCPB pH5 sem a fortificação. A adição dos sais (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O) não exerceu influência no desempenho do meio RCPB pH5.

Luciano Fachin; Juliana Moryia; Ana Lourdes Neves Gândara; Walkiria Hanada Viotto

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Instant Sublime Text starter  

CERN Document Server

A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

Haughee, Eric

2013-01-01

182

Instant Prezi starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

Ladores, Minerva M

2013-01-01

183

Instant Sinatra starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

Yates, Joe

2013-01-01

184

Instant Apache Maven starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

Turatti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

185

Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL) in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

Maja Benkovi?; Blaženka Kos; Katarina Tonkovi?; Andreja Leboš; Jagoda Šuškovi?; Ljerka Gregurek

2008-01-01

186

Instant OSGi starter  

CERN Multimedia

Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

Goodyear, Jamie

2013-01-01

187

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products/ Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade par (more) a aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados. Abstract in english Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, neg (more) ative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'Anna, Ernani S.

2009-03-01

188

Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures/ Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produç (more) ão do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas. Abstract in english In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - l (more) actic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.

Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

2009-06-01

189

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani S. Sant'Anna

2009-01-01

190

An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The largest recorded outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United Kingdom occurred in June 1989. A total of 27 patients was affected; one patient died. Twenty-five of the patients had eaten one brand of hazelnut yoghurt in the week before the onset of symptoms. This yoghurt contained hazelnut conser...

O'Mahony, M.; Mitchell, E.; Gilbert, R. J.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Begg, N. T.; Rodhouse, J. C.; Morris, J. E.

191

FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system). A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A) and 30 mg/L (B) solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C). All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h) as compared to control yoghurt (3h). The titratable acidity (% lactic acid) of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05) were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

Aijaz H. Soomro; Sarfaraz A. Brohi; Muhammad Khaskheli; A. H. Nizamani

2012-01-01

192

Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12%) on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat). Series I was produced with TGase act...

Milanovi? Spasenija D.; Cari? Marijana ?.; ?uri? Mirjana S.; Ili?i? Mirela D.; Durakovi? Katarina G.

193

Instant Gimp starter  

CERN Multimedia

A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

Amreen, Fazreil

2013-01-01

194

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.

Ramakrishna Chetana; Sunki Reddy Yella Reddy; Pradeep Singh Negi

2013-01-01

195

Carrot Yoghurt : Sensory, Chemical, Microbiological Properties and Consumer Acceptance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from cow`s milk obtained from Fayoum district, Egypt. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice before fermentation. The sensory, rheological, chemical, and microbiological quality of yoghurt samples were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4?C for three weeks. The Sensory scores increased especially for yoghurt samples with 15% carrot juice. Chemical analysis revealed an increase in acidity, decrease soluble nitrogen /total nitrogen ratio and curd tension with increasing carrot juice. On the other hand, high carrot juice suppressed the growth of mold and yeast, Coliform organisms while Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected. Yoghurt with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in aflatoxin M1 respectively. The results of the study showed that carrot had significant effect on the acceptability of yoghurt during shelf life. The economic and public health importance of carrot in yoghurt was discussed.

Salwa A. Aly; E.A. Galal; Neimat A. Elewa

2004-01-01

196

Species-specific quantification of probiotic lactobacilli in yoghurt by quantitative real time PCR.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Lactobacilli strains with probiotic effects have been widely used in dairy products such as yoghurts as well as in food additives and pharmaceuticals. Despite their successful commercial application the current species identification and quantification methods of the genus Lactobacillus are time-consuming and labor-intensive. METHODS & RESULTS: In order to fulfill requirements of a robust quality management we have developed a quantitative real time PCR assay based on the heat shock protein 60 gene (hsp60) for accurate identification and quantification of five commercially important Lactobacillus species. The developed assay allows an unambiguous species-specific detection of the species L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. helveticus and L. reuteri from bacterial cultures as well as directly from dairy products for instance yoghurt. CONCLUSIONS: With the assay we were able to specifically detect lactobacilli strains down to 10(5) cfu ml(-1) directly from yoghurt, which is a sufficient detection limit as commercial products usually containing 10(6) to 10(12) cfu ml(-1) of probiotic strains. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The real time PCR assay developed here might become a convenient tool enabling an accurate, fast and sensitive detection of probiotic lactobacilli commercially used in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Herbel SR; Lauzat B; von Nickisch-Rosenegk M; Kuhn M; Murugaiyan J; Wieler LH; Guenther S

2013-09-01

197

Instant Metasploit starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

Ranganath, Karthik

2013-01-01

198

Instant Spring security starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

Jagielski, Piotr

2013-01-01

199

Microbiological evaluation of yoghurt products in Qena city, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To examined Large and small scale yoghurts for presence of microorganisms of sanitary importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 random samples from various dairy shops, street vendors and supermarkets located in Qena city were collected within 2008 - 2010. Results: The recorded results show that (92%) and (70%) of the examined small and large scale yoghurt samples had Psychrotrophic count with an average of 3.9 x 104 and 6.8 x103 respectively. It was found that Enterococci were detected in (58%) and (40%) with an average count of 1.72 x104 and 2.0 x 103 for the examined small and large scale yoghourt samples. S.aureus were detected in (72%) and (36%) with an average of 8.5 x 103 and 9.41 x102 for both small and large scale yoghurt samples. Regarding yeast and moulds they were found in (94%) and (40%) with an average counts of 1.4 x 104 for small scale and 3.9 x 102 of large scale yoghurt samples. Most probable number (MPN) technique showed that [(38), (20)], [(35), (17)] and [(30), (6)] out of the total examined small and large scale yoghurt samples were contaminated with coliform, Fecal coliform and E. coli respectively. The incidence of E. coli biotype I and II for examined small scale yoghurt samples were (63.4%) and (36.6%), while for the examined large scale yoghurt samples were (16.7) and (83.3) respectively. Conclusions: Yoghurt samples obtained from Qena city markets constitute a high risk hazard to consumers. So suggestive hygienic measures to safeguard the consumer health. As well as, the recommended sanitary practices for improving quality of small and large scale yoghurt must be applied. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000): 400-404

L. M. El-Malt; K. G. AbdelHameed; A. S. Mohammed

2013-01-01

200

Changes in the concentration of yeast-derived volatile compounds of red wine during malolactic fermentation with four commercial starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the concentration of volatile compounds released by yeasts during the production of red wine were investigated by inoculation with four commercial starters of Oenococcus oeni. Volatile compounds in wine at the end of MLF were extracted, analyzed by GC-MS and GC, and compared with those extracted form a noninoculated reference sample. Several esters known to play a role in the aroma profile of red wine, such as C4-C8 ethyl fatty acid esters and 3-methylbutyl acetate, were found to increase with MLF, and their final concentration was dependent on the bacterial starter employed for the induction of MLF. The overall increase of ethyl fatty acid esters was generally larger than the one observed for acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, 3-hydroxybutanoate, 2-phenylethanol, methionol, and gamma-butyrolactone were also increased by bacterial metabolism. The impact of MLF on other volatiles or red wine, including several higher alcohols, fatty acids, and nitrogen compounds, was generally negligible. PMID:16366706

Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

2005-12-28

 
 
 
 
201

Dying in yoghurt: the number of living bacteria in probiotic yoghurt decreases under exposure to room temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: While probiotic bacteria are successfully used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, the effect of commercially available probiotic products is still controversial. Here, we study whether the number of living probiotic bacteria in yoghurts is altered by an interruption of the cold chain. METHODS: Three commonly available probiotic yoghurts were kept at 4°C or put at room temperature (RT) for 6 h or 24 h. An aliquot of each yoghurt was applied on Man-Rogosa-Sharpe agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted by microscopy. RESULTS: The first yoghurt, containing Lactobacillus johnsonii, showed a significant decrease in CFU after 6 h of storage at RT, which was further pronounced after 24 h. The number of CFU of the second yoghurt, containing Lactobacillus GG, was also decreased after 6 h and further diminished after 24 h at RT. From the third yoghurt, containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, only 53.8% of the CFU remained after 6 h at RT; after 24 h, only about one fourth of the CFU were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that the number of living probiotic bacteria in yoghurt products decreases dramatically after exposure to RT. This represents an important information for consumers of such products.

Scharl M; Geisel S; Vavricka SR; Rogler G

2011-01-01

202

Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt in preventing erythromycin associated diarrhoea was studied. Sixteen healthy volunteers were given erythromycin acistrate 400 mg t.i.d for a week. The volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups taking twice daily 125 ml of either Lactobacillus GG fermented yoghurt or pasteurized regular yoghurt as placebo during the drug treatment. Subjects receiving Lactobacillus GG yoghurt with erythromycin had less diarrhoea than those taking pasteurized yoghurt. Other side effects of erythromycin, such as abdominal distress, stomach pain and flatulence, were less common in the GG yoghurt group than in the placebo yoghurt group. The subjects receiving Lactobacillus GG yoghurt were colonized with these bacteria even during erythromycin treatment as measured by faecal counts of total Lactobacillus GG. No Lactobacillus GG was found in the faecal samples of volunteers in the group taking pasteurized yoghurt.

Siitonen S; Vapaatalo H; Salminen S; Gordin A; Saxelin M; Wikberg R; Kirkkola AL

1990-02-01

203

Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt) Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15%) of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape). Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of fruit juice. Yoghurts fortified with 10% orange juice was the best in quality among the others. The smell and taste, body and consistency and color and texture of the fruit yoghurts were equally acceptable. 10 and 15% strawberry fruit yoghurt contain more acid and its texture was cracked down in refrigeration temperature. The moisture and acidity content of fruit yoghurts were increased than plain yoghurt because of high content of these in the fruits. The fat, protein, carbohydrates and ash content of strawberry and orange fruit yoghurt were decreased than normal plain yoghurt. But the carbohydrates content of grape yoghurt were increased because grape contains more sugar than milk and other two fruits. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 10% orange juice was more acceptable than others comparing all quality characteristics. The microbiological quality of the fruit yoghurts was also acceptable because of acid content of the fruits. In case of strawberry yoghurt, fruit juice concentration more than 5% was not suitable for fruit yoghurt because that are highly acidic and curd was cracked down at refrigerated condition. The findings of this research may give an overall idea about manufacturing of fruit yoghurt incorporating different level of fruit juice and appropriate technology of fruit yoghurt preparation.

Md. Nur Hossain; Md. Fakruddin; Md. Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

204

Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were ...

Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

205

Disabled starter from Norne; Havarert starter fra Norne  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An evaluation of an electric starter breakdown at the Norne oil platform. Breaker contacts were degraded over time, and a strong heat evolved resulting in a degradation and breakdown of the contacts. Proposed measures are included

Foerster, Horst

2007-03-15

206

Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626. PMID:21296446

Savard, Patricia; Lamarche, Benoît; Paradis, Marie-Eve; Thiboutot, Hélène; Laurin, Émilie; Roy, Denis

2011-01-15

207

Impact of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5-containing yoghurt, on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, parallel dose-response study investigated the impact of 4-week commercial yoghurt consumption supplemented with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BB-12) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA-5) on fecal bacterial counts of healthy adults. Fifty-eight volunteers were randomly assigned to three different groups: 1. placebo (no probiotic, no starter and no green tea extract); 2. Yoptimal (10(9)cfu/100g of BB-12 and LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract) and 3. Yoptimal-10 (10(10)cfu/100g of BB-12, 10(9)cfu/100g of LA-5 and 40mg of green tea extract). These yoghurt products also contained Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (10(7)cfu/100g) and Streptococcus thermophilus (10(10)cfu/100g). The quantitative PCR (qPCR) results showed that there were significant increases (P=0.02) in bifidobacteria counts with the Yoptimal treatment as compared to baseline. The fecal numbers of B. animalis subsp. lactis and LA-5 significantly increased in the two probiotic treatments compared to the placebo treatment. Viable counts of fecal lactobacilli were significantly higher (P=0.05) and those of enterococci were significantly lower (P=0.04) after the intervention when compared to placebo. No significant difference was observed between treatments in volunteers' weight, waist girth, blood pressure, fasting plasma triglyceride and HDL-C concentrations, as well as cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio. However, a significant increase in plasma cholesterol levels was observed in the placebo group (P=0.0018) but the levels remained stable in the two probiotic yoghurt groups. These results show that probiotic strains supplemented in the form of yoghurt remain active during gut transit and are associated with an increase in beneficial bacteria and a reduction in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00730626.

Savard P; Lamarche B; Paradis ME; Thiboutot H; Laurin É; Roy D

2011-09-01

208

Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF) contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts) were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

Ma?gorzata Jasi?ska; Izabela Dmytrów; Anna Mituniewicz-Ma?ek; Krystian W?sik

2010-01-01

209

Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Drinking Yoghurt in Khartoum State, Sudan  

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The present study was conducted to evaluate the technological characteristics of lactic acid bacteria used as lactic acid starter in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products and which are suitable to local conditions. Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were e...

Asmahan Azhari Ali

210

Polyphasic screening, homopolysaccharide composition, and viscoelastic behavior of wheat Sourdough from a Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus curvatus exopolysaccharide-producing starter culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After isolation from different doughs and sourdoughs, 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened at the phenotypic level for exopolysaccharide production on media containing different carbohydrate sources. Two exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A) were selected through quantitative analysis on solid media containing sucrose and yeast extract. The PCR detection of homopolysaccharide (gtf and lev) and heteropolysaccharide (epsA, epsB, epsD and epsE, and epsEFG) genes showed different distributions within species and strains of the lactic acid bacteria studied. Moreover, in some strains both homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide genes were detected. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggest that Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A produced the same exopolysaccharide, which was constituted by a single repeating glucopyranosyl unit linked by an ?-(1?6) glycosidic bond in a dextran-type carbohydrate. Microbial growth, acidification, and viscoelastic properties of sourdoughs obtained by exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing lactic acid bacterial strains were evaluated. Sourdough obtained after 15 h at 30°C with exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria reached higher total titratable acidity as well as elastic and dissipative modulus curves with respect to the starter not producing exopolysaccharide, but they showed similar levels of pH and microbial growth. On increasing the fermentation time, no difference in the viscoelastic properties of exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing samples was observed. This study suggests that dextran-producing Leuconostoc lactis 95A and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 can be employed to prepare sourdough, and this would be particularly useful to improve the quality of baked goods while avoiding the use of commercially available hydrocolloids as texturizing additives.

Palomba S; Cavella S; Torrieri E; Piccolo A; Mazzei P; Blaiotta G; Ventorino V; Pepe O

2012-04-01

211

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata) USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade.In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira CARIONI; Anna Cláudia Simas PORTO; José Carlos Fiad PADILHA; Ernani Sebastião SANT'ANNA

2001-01-01

212

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata)/ USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente rela (more) cionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade. Abstract in english In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter (more) cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

CARIONI, Felipe Oliveira; PORTO, Anna Cláudia Simas; PADILHA, José Carlos Fiad; SANT'ANNA, Ernani Sebastião

2001-12-01

213

Food product based on yoghurt and vegetables is made from salted pasteurised yoghurt with added vegetables prepared by lacto-fermentation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The product is made from homogenised and pasteurised yoghurt with added salt and vegetables, selected from beetroot, red cabbage, carrot, sauerkraut, horseradish, celery, and a vegetable mixture made from cabbage, carrot, celery, horseradish, peppers and leeks, prepared by lacto- fermentation. The drained vegetables are added to the prepared yoghurt at a rate of 10 - 15 per cent by weight, with added salt comprising 0.1 1 per cent. The vegetable yoghurt will keep for up to 21 days.

CADOR MARC; GUITTON DIDIER

214

The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 40C and 200C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 200C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 40C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

2008-01-01

215

The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

2008-07-15

216

Instant CloudFlare starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

Dickey, Jeff

2013-01-01

217

Instant PrimeFaces starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

Hlavats, Ian

2013-01-01

218

Instant Spring for Android starter  

CERN Document Server

Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

Dahanne, Anthony

2013-01-01

219

Incorporation of soybean by-product okara and inulin in a probiotic soy yoghurt: texture profile and sensory acceptance.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effect of inulin and okara flour on textural and sensory properties of probiotic soy yoghurt (SY) throughout 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Employing a 2(2) design, four formulations of SY produced from soymilk and fermented with an ABT-4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied: SY-C (control); SY-I (with inulin); SY-O (with okara); SY-IO (with inulin + okara). RESULTS: The addition of okara and the refrigerated storage led to significant differences in the instrumental texture parameters of SY (P 0.05), but there was a tendency for higher scores in the presence of inulin. On the other hand, the storage period, particularly at 21 days, was unfavourable regarding the acceptance of the different SY. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the addition of okara flour and the storage were significant factors to increase firmness of the soy yoghurts. SY acceptability was not affected by the incorporation of inulin or okara. These results suggest that okara, discarded as industrial waste, may be used in probiotic soy yoghurt, helping to increase the nutritional and functional properties without altering its acceptability. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23649523

Bedani, Raquel; Campos, Marina Ms; Castro, Inar A; Rossi, Elizeu A; Saad, Susana Mi

2013-05-01

220

Incorporation of soybean by-product okara and inulin in a probiotic soy yoghurt: texture profile and sensory acceptance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effect of inulin and okara flour on textural and sensory properties of probiotic soy yoghurt (SY) throughout 28 days of storage at 4°C. Employing a 2(2) design, four formulations of SY produced from soymilk and fermented with an ABT-4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5, Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12, and Streptococcus thermophilus) were studied: SY-C (control); SY-I (with inulin); SY-O (with okara); SY-IO (with inulin + okara). RESULTS: The addition of okara and the refrigerated storage led to significant differences in the instrumental texture parameters of SY (P < 0.05). Inulin and okara did not affect SY sensory acceptability (P > 0.05), but there was a tendency for higher scores in the presence of inulin. On the other hand, the storage period, particularly at 21 days, was unfavourable regarding the acceptance of the different SY. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the addition of okara flour and the storage were significant factors to increase firmness of the soy yoghurts. SY acceptability was not affected by the incorporation of inulin or okara. These results suggest that okara, discarded as industrial waste, may be used in probiotic soy yoghurt, helping to increase the nutritional and functional properties without altering its acceptability.

Bedani R; Campos MM; Castro IA; Rossi EA; Saad SM

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
221

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultra filtration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30, 10 and 3 kDa. The peptides in these fractions were identified by LC–MS/MS. The identified peptides comprised a few Nterminal fragments of as1-, as2-, and j-casein, and several fragments from b-casein. Almost all the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained a considerable amount of free amino acids such as His, Tyr, Thr and Lys, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties. Thus, our findings confirm that the antioxidant effects of the peptide fractions from yoghurt are due to the presence of certain peptides and free amino acids with recognised antioxidant activity in these fractions.

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

222

Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1 wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus, pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil-enriched emulsion was responsible for the remarkably high oxidative stability and was able to protect the n-3 PUFA against oxidative deterioration. It should be considered that this strong antioxidative effect of yoghurt might mask potential antioxidative effects of the other ingredients in the drinking yoghurt.

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna

2009-01-01

223

The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results showed that using a mixed culture of L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides could greatly reduce contamination of non-lactic acid bacteria, retaining low amount of reducing sugar, rapidly producing lactic acid and consequently decreasing pH value of the pickle, as well as giving better sensory score. After 12 d of fermentation, sample of pickle inoculated with mixed culture showed the following characters: total lactic acid content 0.5%, total lactic acid bacteria 8.46 log10 CFU mL-1, total non-lactic acid bacteria 1 log10 CFU mL-1, total reducing sugar 0.84 g L-1, texture 64.92 mm 50 g-1 s-1, and hedonic sensory score for both taste and aroma 4 (like) in a scale of 5. These results indicated the potential ability of the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria to improve the quality of the pickle fermented spontaneously.

NETI YULIANA; SITI NURDJANAH; MIKA MARGARETA

2013-01-01

224

Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy-yoghurt with Different Colours and Fruit Flavours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different flavouring/colouring agents and fruits on the quality and acceptability of stirred soy-yoghurt were studied. Soy-yoghurts flavoured with strawberry, vanilla, orange, orange fruit, pineapple fruit and pawpaw fruit were compared for protein, pH, percentage lactic acid, soluble solids, percentage syneresis, total solids and microbial count with plain soy-yoghurt. Sensory evaluation was conducted in order to determine the acceptability of the samples. The pH and percent lactic acid ranged from 4.4-4.7 and 0.9-1.08%, respectively on the first day of storage while the values were 4.1-4.3 and 1.44-1.71%, respectively on the eighth day of storage at 6°C. Soluble solids of yoghurt samples ranged from 18.4-27.9% on the first day and were between 18.4-25.4% on the eight day of storage. The average percent syneresis of flavoured and fruit soy-yoghurts were 42.03 and 46.3%, respectively. The values increased with increasing storage days. The average protein content of fruit Soy-yoghurts was 5.01% while the average for flavoured soy-yoghurts was 3.93%. The total solids of plain yoghurt was 14.5%, flavoured soy-yoghurt was 13.5% and fruit soy-yoghurts was 12.5%. Microbiological examination revealed that the samples were within the acceptable minimum standards. The sensory evaluation showed that there was no significant difference in taste among all the samples. However, there were significant difference in the colour, aroma, consistency and overall acceptability of soy-yoghurts samples. The sensory evaluation revealed that there was preference for strawberry, vanilla, plain, orange flavoured, pineapple fruit flavoured yoghurts relative to pawpaw and orange fruit flavoured-yoghurts.

O.F. Osundahunsi; D. Amosu; B.O.T. Ifesan

2007-01-01

225

Concentration changes of aroma components in plain and probiotic yoghurt during storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two types of yoghurt, plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt purchased from Croatian and Slovenian market, were stored for up to 25 days at two different temperatures (+4 ºC, +20 ºC). Samples were analyzed every 5 days and changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and diacetyl content were determined. At the same time sensory evaluation was carried out. The aim of this study to show changes in concentrations of some flavor compounds and sensory quality in both yoghurt types during storage as a function of storage time and temperature. The results indicate that the equal changes in aroma compounds in both yoghurt types were result of the same microorganisms present in both yoghurt types (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus which have the greatest influence on the aroma, while the addition of other microorganisms has mostly probiotic effect.

Mirjana Hruškar; Marina Krpan; Nada Vah?i?; Ivana Bucak

2005-01-01

226

Instant MinGW starter  

CERN Document Server

This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

Shpigor, Ilya

2013-01-01

227

Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

Turner, W.C.

1987-02-01

228

PHYSICO – CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF YOGHURT MANUFACTURED WITH COW MILK AND GOAT MILK  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The proximate composition, microbilogical and sensory properties of yoghurt produced from cow milk and goat milk blend was investigated. Proximate composition of yoghurt samples with goat milk(100%.75%,50%,and 25%) substitution blend with cow milk revealed that goat milk yoghurt samples (100%) had the highest protein content (4.2%),Fat content(4.27%) and caproic(C6),caprylic(C8,), Capric(C10) and total solids(16.22%). 25% goat milk sample had the least protein content(3.75%),while 50% and 75% goat milk yoghurt samples had (3.49% and 3.29%) respectively.However,there were low carbohydrate content with 100% goat milk yoghurt samples(7.20%) andmoisture content(83.78%) than the 25% goat milk yoghurt with 9.20%carbohydrate,85.14% moisture content 14.86% total solids respectively. Three (3) days microbiological analysis showed 6.67%logCfu/g in25% sample and 8.63logCfu/g in 100% sample of bacteria colony count. Lactic acid bacteria count was also determinedand average result showed 6.89 and 6.62 for 25% and 100% goat milk yoghurt samples respectively. All the yoghurt samples showed zero result for coli form count. However, yeast and mould count results ranged from 2.59logCfu/g and 2.75Cfu/g for 25% and 100% yoghurt samples respectively. Sensory result of 100% goat milk samples was rated highest for taste and 25% goat milk samples was rated least(p0.05) for mouth feel and colour of yoghurt samples. Generally, goat milk yoghurt samples (100%),(75%),(50%) were mostly significantly preferred to 25% goat milk yoghurt sample at (p>0.05).

F.N. Ehirim; E.N. Onyeneke

2013-01-01

229

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle). A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR), °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control). Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars (RS), °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

Larissa Dias de Avila; Carlos Eugenio Daudt

1997-01-01

230

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos/ Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal aval (more) iar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle). A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR), °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado. Abstract in english Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic cu (more) lture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control). Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars (RS), °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

Avila, Larissa Dias de; Daudt, Carlos Eugenio

1997-06-01

231

Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v). Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing ?-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with little or no whey at the top, respectively. Yoghurt containing the other five stabilizers (High methoxy pectin, Propylene glycole alginate, Carboxy methyl cellulose, Xanthan gum and Guar gum) all formed weak gels with little or excessive whey at the top. The yoghurt containing gelatin had higher sensory scores for all the three sensory attributes (Appearance, texture and overall acceptability) as compared to the other stabilizers assessed in this study. Therefore, gelatin was found to be the most appropriate stabilizer compatible to a peanut milk based yoghurt system.

Joel Isanga; Guo-Nong Zhang

2008-01-01

232

Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Material and methods. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability). Results. Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Conclusion. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt) led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid). Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

Michal Magala; Zlatica Kohajdová; Jolana Karovi?ová

2013-01-01

233

Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

Khan, Joseph

2013-01-01

234

SPSS for Starters, Part 2  

CERN Document Server

The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

Cleophas, Ton J

2012-01-01

235

Microbiological safety of traditional and starter-mediated processes for the manufacture of Italian dry sausage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Microbiological changes occurring during the commercial manufacture of Italian dry sausages (Genoa and salametti) were studied in two urban Canadian centres over a 5 month period. A comparison was made between 6 plants which used bacterial starter cultures and 4 plants where more traditional processes (without starters) were used. A total of 600 samples of raw, fermented and finished products were tested for the presence of coliforms, salmonellae, staphylococci, streptococci, the rate of pH reduction and final water activity (aW). Numbers of total bacteria peaked earlier and were significantly higher in sausages at the fermentation stage produced with starter cultures than in those traditionally manufactured. This corresponded with a more rapid drop in pH of the starter-inoculated products. Staphylococci and streptococci were significantly higher in starter-fermented Genoa sausages at the fermentation stage, but no significant differences were seen in the microbiological content or aW of mature finished sausages manufactured by the two different techniques. Of 128 randomly chosen isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci, 34.4% were enterotoxin producers and 80% of these produced type A toxin. Enterotoxigenic staphylococci were found in 2 different samples of finished salametti and one sample of finished Genoa made with starter cultures and in one sample of finished Genoa made without added culture. Total numbers of staphylococci in these samples were not greater than 500/g. No correlation between the method of manufacture and presence of enterotoxigenic staphylococci could be made. Five subsamples from one lot of raw Genoa were the only samples positive for Salmonella during this study. Results indicated that low temperature traditional fermentations can yield products which are as safe as those produced by the higher temperature starter-controlled process. One of the most important elements in the traditional process was believed to be the selection and use of raw materials of the highest possible quality.

Holley RA; Lammerding AM; Tittiger F

1988-08-01

236

Microbiological safety of traditional and starter-mediated processes for the manufacture of Italian dry sausage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological changes occurring during the commercial manufacture of Italian dry sausages (Genoa and salametti) were studied in two urban Canadian centres over a 5 month period. A comparison was made between 6 plants which used bacterial starter cultures and 4 plants where more traditional processes (without starters) were used. A total of 600 samples of raw, fermented and finished products were tested for the presence of coliforms, salmonellae, staphylococci, streptococci, the rate of pH reduction and final water activity (aW). Numbers of total bacteria peaked earlier and were significantly higher in sausages at the fermentation stage produced with starter cultures than in those traditionally manufactured. This corresponded with a more rapid drop in pH of the starter-inoculated products. Staphylococci and streptococci were significantly higher in starter-fermented Genoa sausages at the fermentation stage, but no significant differences were seen in the microbiological content or aW of mature finished sausages manufactured by the two different techniques. Of 128 randomly chosen isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci, 34.4% were enterotoxin producers and 80% of these produced type A toxin. Enterotoxigenic staphylococci were found in 2 different samples of finished salametti and one sample of finished Genoa made with starter cultures and in one sample of finished Genoa made without added culture. Total numbers of staphylococci in these samples were not greater than 500/g. No correlation between the method of manufacture and presence of enterotoxigenic staphylococci could be made. Five subsamples from one lot of raw Genoa were the only samples positive for Salmonella during this study. Results indicated that low temperature traditional fermentations can yield products which are as safe as those produced by the higher temperature starter-controlled process. One of the most important elements in the traditional process was believed to be the selection and use of raw materials of the highest possible quality. PMID:3275310

Holley, R A; Lammerding, A M; Tittiger, F

1988-08-01

237

Solid fermentation starter having improved storage stability  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention is to provide a starter to be used for producing fermented foods and fermented beverages with a simple means, as a fermentation starter excellent in storage properties and stability. A fermentation starter excellent in storage properties and stability is produced by treating the surface of a solid starter comprising cereal starch materials such as oats and the like containing fermentation microorganisms with dry-heat treatment such as roasting for a short time. According to the method, microorganisms on the surface are sterilized by forming a layer treated with dry-heat treatment such as roasting on the surface of a solid fermentation starter, and the invasion of external microorganisms is prevented with the layer, and further, internal yeast and other bacilli can be stored with maintaining their activity by being protected by the treated layer.

ISHIDA HIDETO

238

Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus) growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%).

Peši?-Mikulec Dragana; Niketi? Gordana B.

2009-01-01

239

Yoghurt and dairy snacks presented for sale to an Australian consumer: are they becoming less healthy?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutrient profile of yoghurts and dairy desserts. DESIGN: Nutrition information panels and product labels on yoghurts and dairy desserts offered for sale were surveyed in 2005 and 2008 and nutrients analysed by two nutrient profiling systems. SETTING: A large supermarket in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. RESULTS: In total, 248 and 140 dairy snacks (yoghurt, fromage frais or dairy desserts) were surveyed in 2005 and 2008, respectively. Over this time, median packet size rose significantly (P < or = 0.001). In yoghurts, median energy and total fat content also increased while protein decreased (all P < 0.05). The proportion of 'full-fat' products rose from 36 % to 46%. Because of the addition of sugar, most 'reduced-fat' yoghurts had energy content similar to many 'full-fat' yoghurts. Overall, the proportion of yoghurts and dairy desserts that were 'less healthy' (i.e. displaying one or more 'red traffic lights' for high fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar content) rose from 12% in 2005 to 23% in 2008. Only 1-2% could be deemed 'healthy' by the most stringent criterion (displaying four 'green traffic lights'), while 21% (2005) or 28% (2008) were 'healthy' by a nutrient profiling system that included a score for protein. Sucrose, the most common sweetener, was found in levels up to 29 g/100 g. Claims on packaging mainly related to Ca, fat or protein content. Few labels referred to sugar content. CONCLUSIONS: The deterioration in nutrient quality of yoghurts needs to be redressed.

Walker KZ; Woods J; Ross J; Hechtman R

2010-07-01

240

Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein. PMID:16361184

Ann Bartoo, Shelly; Badrie, Neela

2005-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Probiotics Bacteria from Egyptian Infants cause Cholesterol Removal in Media and Survive in Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most significant groups of probiotic organisms are the lactic acid bacteria, commonly used in fermented dairy products. In this study, cultures were isolated from two infants. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, four promising isolates were identified as two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (P106, P110), strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (P164) and Lactobacillus. pentosus (P191)which were tested for capability to remove cholesterol and to deconjugate sodium taurocholate from the culture medium. Results showed that a considerable variation existed among cultures in their growth viability in the presence of bile salt, deconjugation of sodium tauro-cholate and assimilation of cholesterol from the medium. All tested strains removed less cholesterol from the broth (ranged from 4.02-24.32%) compared to those grown in broth supplemented with 0.2% bile salts (from 29.02 to 45.3). Lactobacillus acidophilus P106 appeared to be more active in bile salt hydrolase compared to the other strains, and therefore, is regarded as a suitable candidate probiotic and adjunct culture.These strains were employed to make yo-ghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time; a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with Streptococ-cus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus providing the rapid acidification. Storage trials at 4o C showed that the viability of the probiotic cultures was retained over 15 days.

Hoda Mahrous

2011-01-01

242

Development of buckwheat and teff sourdoughs with the use of commercial starters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study we investigated the suitability of commercial starters for the production of gluten free sourdoughs. For this purpose, four different laboratory scale sourdoughs were developed from the flours buckwheat or teff. Two different starters (SA, SB) were used to start the fermentations, which were carried out under two technological conditions. Sourdoughs were propagated by back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable sourdoughs was investigated by culture dependent techniques and the development of the dominant biota was monitored by PCR-DGGE. Unique and complex LAB and yeasts communities were detected in each sourdough, comprising strains which originated from the flours. The competitiveness of the starter LAB varied according to the substrate and the fermentation conditions applied. Among the LAB present in both SA and SB, L. helveticus and L. paracasei strains did not persist in buckwheat or teff sourdoughs. Lc. argentinum was competitive only in buckwheat sourdoughs, whereas L. reuteri persisted only in teff sourdough. L. fermentum and L. helveticus present in both starters dominated only the sourdoughs fermented at the higher temperature. Remarkably, the starter yeasts were outcompeted by spontaneous yeast strains, i.e. Kazachstania barnetti and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in teff sourdoughs, whereas no yeasts were isolated from buckwheat sourdoughs. The isolation of autochthonous LAB and yeasts from the stable teff and buckwheat sourdoughs indicates that both flours represent an important reservoir for the isolation of novel and competitive starters for the production of gluten free sourdough bread.

Moroni AV; Arendt EK; Morrissey JP; Dal Bello F

2010-08-01

243

On the importance of adequately choosing the ingredients of yoghurt and enriched milk for their antioxidant activity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxidant activity of several dairy products, yoghurt enriched with green tea and lemon, fermented milk, yoghurt with strawberry pulp, 'low-calorie' yoghurt with inulin and milk enriched with vitamin E and their ingredients were analysed. Yoghurt enriched with green tea and lemon showed the best lipidic antioxidant capacity. All the dairy products analysed were very good OH· radical scavengers. The dairy products analysed were unable to scavenge H?O? except green tea. The antioxidant activity of these samples resisted high temperatures in the Rancimat test; of the ingredients analysed, the best antioxidant activity was found for vitamin E followed by green tea, pectin, Lactobacillus acidophilus, lemon pulp and cornstarch. Antioxidant activity did not suffer variations during storage at an unfavourable temperature (40 °C), as demonstrated by the linoleic acid assay. Yoghurt enriched with green tea and lemon, yoghurt with strawberry pulp and low-calorie yoghurt with inulin produced the best results in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay.

Jiménez AntoniaM; Murcia MariaAntonia; Parras Pilar; Martínez-Tomé Magdalena

2008-08-01

244

PFP supply fan motor starters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake

1995-01-01

245

PFP supply fan motor starters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake.

Keck, R.D.

1995-05-31

246

Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

2000-06-13

247

Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P<0.01) between yoghurts with 15% and 20% nectar. The overall sensory quality of these yoghurts was rated very good to excellent. There were significant (P>0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein.

Ann Bartoo S; Badrie N

2005-09-01

248

Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of 0 to 50% renneted skim milk (RSM) as a fat mimetic upon the physico-chemical, physical, rheological and sensory characteristics of nonfat yoghurt in comparison to control samples (full fat and skim yoghurt). By increasing RSM content, the chemical characteristics (titratable acidity, pH as well as the content of fat and total protein) of yoghurts did not alter except decrease of total solid in sample with 50% RSM. The yoghurts with more content of RSM exhibited higher b*and a* values, while the highest L* value, viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC), firmness and lowest syneresis were found in sample containing 30% RSM. It seems that new interaction in gel network of yoghurts containing RSM, exhibited greater ability to bind water than control skim yoghurt. In addition, probably new bridges between milk proteins (interacting partially hydrolyzed casein with casein) can increase the number of bounds between protein particles leading to lower syneresis. However, excessive RSM content (higher than 30%) did not increase the L* value, viscosity and WHC of samples probably because of too much aggregation of casein. Sensory results revealed that sample containing 30% RSM was exactly alike to full fat yoghurt in terms of overall sensory attributes. New formulation of palatable skim yoghurt was developed using 3% RSM successfully.

Marjan Nouri; Hamid Ezzatpanah; Soleiman Abbasi

2011-01-01

249

Impulse noise generated by starter pistols.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study describes signals generated by .22 and .32 caliber starter pistols in the context of noise-induced hearing loss risk for sports officials and athletes. DESIGN: Acoustic comparison of impulses generated from typical .22 and .32 caliber starter pistols firing blanks were made to impulses generated from comparable firearms firing both blanks and live rounds. Acoustic characteristics are described in terms of directionality and distance from the shooter in a simulated outdoor running track. Metrics include peak sound pressure levels (SPL), A-weighted equivalent 8-hour level (L(eqA8)), and maximum permissible number of individual shots, or maximum permissible exposures (MPE) for the unprotected ear. RESULTS: Starter pistols produce peak SPLs above 140 dB. The numbers of MPEs are as few as five for the .22-caliber starter pistol, and somewhat higher (? 25) for the .32-caliber pistol. CONCLUSION: The impulsive sounds produced by starter pistols correspond to MPE numbers that are unacceptably small for unprotected officials and others in the immediate vicinity of the shooter. At the distances included in this study, the risk to athletes appears to be low (when referencing exposure criteria for adults), but the sound associated with the starter pistol will contribute to the athlete's overall noise exposure.

Meinke DK; Finan DS; Soendergaard J; Flamme GA; Murphy WJ; Lankford JE; Stewart M

2013-02-01

250

Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p < 0.05) in cow's milk (0.60 mg/100 g) than in goat and buffalo's milk (6.55 and 7.32 mg/100 g, respectively). No significant differences in taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few.

Manzi P; Pizzoferrato L

2013-02-01

251

KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

2009-01-01

252

The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the growth of thermophilic lactic starter and acid gelation of UHT milk  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of H?O? pre-treatment (10-250 mg L?¹) of ultra-high temperature treated (UHT) milk devoid of lactoperoxidase activity on the growth of thermophilic starter in the process of yoghurt production was studied using isothermal batch microcalorimetry and dynamic rheological measurements. Typical dual-peak power-time curves of diauxic growth of starter bacteria in milk were registered. Even the lowest concentrations of H?O? added into milk 1 h before inoculation hindered the growth of thermophilic bacteria, retarded the onset of milk gelation, and resulted in formation of weaker gels. UHT milk samples treated with H?O? and subsequently with catalase showed certain bacteriostatic influence of H?O? pre-treatment on the second exponential growth phase. However, hardly any difference in gelation and no changes in rheological characteristics of mature gels in milk free of residual H?O? due to catalase treatment prior to inoculation in comparison with H?O?-free control samples were observed.

Kriš?iunaite T; Stulova I; Kabanova N; Laht TM; Vilu R

2011-04-01

253

Effect of transglutaminase-treated milk powders on the properties of skim milk yoghurt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A novel method of transglutaminase (TGase) treatment for skim milk yoghurt production was investigated. In contrast to previous studies, TGase pre-treated skim milk powder (SMP) was used as protein fortification for yoghurt making, instead of treating the entire yoghurt milk. When the TGase concentration for powder production was increased from 0 to 10 U g?¹ protein, the viscosity of stirred skim milk yoghurt produced with addition of TGase-treated SMP increased from 247 to 453 mPas and the serum loss assessed using a centrifugation method decreased from 57.1% to 52.6%. Furthermore, by using enzyme-modified SMP, only half of the protein addition was required to obtain an equivalent viscosity compared to the control. The study showed that crosslinking the caseins by TGase only in the added SMP yields the desired positive effects while allowing for a complete elimination of the residual enzyme activity.

Guyot C; Kulozik U

2011-09-01

254

The effects of carob juice concentrates on the properties of yoghurt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plain and fruit-flavoured yoghurts were made by adding 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 mL carob juice concentrate (CJC) portions to 100 mL milk. The titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, whey separation, yoghurt organisms and sensory properties were determined weekly over a period of 4 weeks. Addition of CJC caused an increase in the fermentation time and reduced viscosity and viable organisms, while increasing the pH and whey separation of the yoghurts (P < 0.05). A lack of sweetness was the main criticism of the yoghurts with 2.5 and 5.0 mL CJC, while those with 7.5 or 10.0 mL were mostly preferred by sensory panellists.

ATASOY AHMETFERIT

2009-05-01

255

Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporat...

M. Rasdhari; T. Parekh; N. Dave; V. Patel; R. Subhash

256

Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt). Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia) was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeli?i?; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božani?

2011-01-01

257

Physico-chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Market Yoghurt in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the quality of some yoghurts made and sold in the Nigerian market. Nine commercially available brands of yoghurt drinks which represent seven different manufacturers were randomly selected. The samples included seven plain yoghurt and two fruit yoghurt samples. All yoghurt samples were analyzed for chemical properties (moisture%, ash %, total solids, SNF, fat, pH and titratable acidity) and the organoleptic tests (color, thickness, appearance, body, texture, taste, smell, flavor and over all acceptability). The results of the study showed that the physico-chemical composition of the manufactured yogurts was different. The pH values of the samples ranged between 3.70-4.33 which were reasonably suitable for yoghurt marketed in tropical areas. No direct relationship was observed between pH values and titratable acidity. There was marked variation in the % fat content of the products. The results of the sensory evaluation revealed that flavor with respect to taste and smell had significant influence (p<0.05) on overall acceptability of yogurt product. So, the yogurt manufacturers need to improve on the sensory properties in particular flavor and taste for better consumer acceptability. Also, they may improve on packaging by labeling to specifications that precisely represent the content and type.

Joseph A.O. Olugbuyiro; Joy E. Oseh

2011-01-01

258

Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion of viable cells of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in all fermented samples was comparable 40 : 33 : 27, respectively. During the storage viable count of streptococci and bifidobacteria have not decreased. In supplemented samples viable counts of bifidobacteria were increased and during 28th day of storage were higher for 0.6 logarithms compared to the non supplemented samples. Surviving of lactobacilli was poorer in fermented goat's milk than in fermented cow's milk during storage. The addition of inulin improved the firmness of fermented goat’s and cow’s milks products. Inulin addition partly masked the goat’s flavour of produced yoghurt. During storage the fermented goat's samples were scored better in comparison with cow's samples. Goat’s milk fermented with probiotic bacteria and fortified with inulin complies with the requirements of functional food.

Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj; Ljubica Tratnik

2002-01-01

259

Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg) showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

Ogueke, C. C.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.; Ahaotu, I.

2013-01-01

260

INHIBITION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND / OR BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS DURING MILK FERMENTATION AND STORAGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Survival and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture (Sterptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrukii subsp. bulgaricus) and/ or probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis during milk fermentation to yoghurt and storage up to 12 days was studied....

Khalaf S. Al-Delaimy; Yaser M. Hamamdeh

 
 
 
 
261

Characterization of new exopolysaccharides produced by coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with yoghurt strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This project was designed to study the coculturing affect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strains Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (L.k) ZW3, with non EPS producing strains L. bulgaricus (L.b) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S.t) in three different combinations: L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, and L.k+L.b+S.t. FTIR analysis revealed presence of strong stretch in regions of 3400, 2900 and 1647cm(-1) which is characteristic of a typical polysaccharide. Co-cultured EPSs were composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose; and their sugar compositions were different from ZW3 polysaccharide that was mainly composed of gluco-galactan. Peak temperature for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers were 90.59, 87.61, 95.18 and 97.38°C, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed degradation temperature of 326.44, 294.6, 296.7 and 299.62°C for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers, respectively. SEM and AFM analysis divulged that three cocultured EPSs had different surface morphology than ZW3 polymer. Since co-cultured polymers have different structure than the polymer produced exclusively by EPS producing strain, it can be safely concluded from the study that co-culturing can be one way to change the structure of polymers. Coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with non-EPS producing strains resulted in yoghurt with increased viscosity and delayed syneresis.

Ahmed Z; Wang Y; Anjum N; Ahmad H; Ahmad A; Raza M

2013-08-01

262

Characterization of new exopolysaccharides produced by coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with yoghurt strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project was designed to study the coculturing affect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strains Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (L.k) ZW3, with non EPS producing strains L. bulgaricus (L.b) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S.t) in three different combinations: L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, and L.k+L.b+S.t. FTIR analysis revealed presence of strong stretch in regions of 3400, 2900 and 1647cm(-1) which is characteristic of a typical polysaccharide. Co-cultured EPSs were composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose; and their sugar compositions were different from ZW3 polysaccharide that was mainly composed of gluco-galactan. Peak temperature for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers were 90.59, 87.61, 95.18 and 97.38°C, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed degradation temperature of 326.44, 294.6, 296.7 and 299.62°C for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers, respectively. SEM and AFM analysis divulged that three cocultured EPSs had different surface morphology than ZW3 polymer. Since co-cultured polymers have different structure than the polymer produced exclusively by EPS producing strain, it can be safely concluded from the study that co-culturing can be one way to change the structure of polymers. Coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with non-EPS producing strains resulted in yoghurt with increased viscosity and delayed syneresis. PMID:23664933

Ahmed, Zaheer; Wang, Yanping; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Ahmad, Asif; Raza, Mohsin

2013-05-07

263

A study of product stability of commercial probiotic fermented milk and yoghurt Produktstabilitet av kommersiell probiotisk syrnet melk og yoghurt under lagring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the stability of three probiotic fermented milk products (‘Cultura Naturell’, ‘Biola Syrnet Lettmelk Naturell’ and ‘Biola Pluss Yoghurt Mild Naturell’) produced by TINE BA was studied and samples from each production were studied at three different times within designated shelf-life. ...

Liu, Xiaojiao

264

Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter  

CERN Multimedia

A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

Volpe, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

265

Pengaruh Temperatur Dalam Pembuatan Yoghurt dari Berbagai Jenis Susu Dengan Menggunakan Lactobacillus Bulgaricus dan Streptococcus Thermophilus The effect of Temperature in Making Yoghurt from Various Kind of Milk, Using Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Streptococcus Thermophilus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of this research were to study the colour, texture, taste and biological living of yoghurt. The yoghurt was treated with various temperature and various kinds of milk and using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Factorial randomized block was used and the first f...

Ginting, Nurzainah; Pasaribu, Elsegustri

266

Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

1975-01-01

267

Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis) and Quality of Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis) and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was observed that there was gradual decrease in pH and increase in acidity in all samples during 15 days at 10°C±1. Lactose contents decrease in all Yoghurt samples during storage due to its conversion into lactic acid. It was observed that cornstarch tend to reduce syneresis followed by gelatin, pectin, guargum, CMC, Carrageenan, sodium alginate while comparing with control.

Izhar Hussain Athar; Mohammad Amin Shah; Ulfat-un-Nabi Khan

2000-01-01

268

Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and ?-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8x104 to 1.85x107 cfu mL-1. Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

M. Rasdhari; T. Parekh; N. Dave; V. Patel; R. Subhash

2008-01-01

269

Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a starter arrangement for an engine. It comprises a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein the at least one blade has a wear surface made of the same material; a housing including a sleeve in which the rotary motor is positioned, (a relay valve means for selectively providing a pressurized operating fluid to the rotary motor,) wherein the blade material and the sleeve inner surface coating cooperate to enable the motor to rotate in the sleeve with a minimum of friction thereby obviating the need for a lubricating system for the starter arrangement.

Kristoff, J.J.; Elwer, M.

1992-05-12

270

Cell-wall proteinases PrtS and PrtB have a different role in Streptococcus thermophilus/Lactobacillus bulgaricus mixed cultures in milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The manufacture of yoghurt relies on the simultaneous utilization of two starters: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (Lb. bulgaricus). A protocooperation usually takes place between the two species, which often results in enhanced milk acidification and aroma formation compared to pure cultures. Cell-wall proteinases of Lactococcus lactis and lactobacilli have been shown to be essential to growth in milk in pure cultures. In this study, the role of proteinases PrtS from S. thermophilus and PrtB from Lb. bulgaricus in bacterial growth in milk was evaluated; a negative mutant for the prtS gene of S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 was constructed for this purpose. Pure cultures of S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 and its PrtS-negative mutant were made in milk as well as mixed cultures of S. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus: S. thermophilus CNRZ 385 or its PrtS-negative mutant was associated with several strains of Lb. bulgaricus, including a PrtB-negative strain. The pH and growth of bacterial populations of the resulting mixed cultures were followed, and the Lactobacillus strain was found to influence both the extent of the benefit of Lb. bulgaricus/S. thermophilus association on milk acidification and the magnitude of S. thermophilus population dominance at the end of fermentation. In all mixed cultures, the sequential growth of S. thermophilus then of Lb. bulgarius and finally of both bacteria was observed. Although proteinase PrtS was essential to S. thermophilus growth in milk in pure culture, it had no effect on bacterial growth and thus on the final pH of mixed cultures in the presence of PrtB. In contrast, proteinase PrtB was necessary for the growth of S. thermophilus, and its absence resulted in a higher final pH. From these results, a model of growth of both bacteria in mixed cultures in milk is proposed.

Courtin P; Monnet V; Rul F

2002-11-01

271

Effects of metabolites of Lactobacilli isolated from local yoghurts in Chahrmahal va Bakhtiary on pathogenic bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotics have some beneficial effects on health so these microorganisms are added to dairy products and other foods as well. Lactobacillus bacteria are the most commonly used for this purpose. The aim of this study was to find native Lactobacillus bacteria which has the potentiality for using as probiotic.Materials and methods: For isolating lactobacilli, gram strain reaction and catalase test were performed on separated bacteria from 40 local yoghurt samples: after isolating, the acid resistance ability of isolates were evaluated by placing isolates in pH=2.5 for 2 hours and culturing samples on medium and colony counts. Then, among 18 acid resistant bacteria, by gel diffusion method the inhibitory effect of isolates on pathogens bacteria such as E.coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. The results were compared to the results of investigated commercial strains.Results: The results revealed that S4 isolate had the most inhibitory effect, it showed %80 good-inhibitory and %20 strong-inhibitory effect on pathogenic bacteria, which were completely consistent with results for commercial Lactobacillus gasseri strain. Also, the lowest inhibitory effect against pathogens was related to (Y4-Y5-Y11-Y14-Y15) isolates that all of them had weak-inhibitory effect on pathogens. Other strains were classified in good-inhibitor group.Discussion and conclusion: Considering daily increasing of drug resistance relating to pathogenic bacteria, today, the use of probiotics, especially lactobacilli as an appropriate alternative of antibiotics is important. The investigated bacteria in this study were able to inhibit pathogens’s growth to some extent, but for investigating the results more accurately, some methods with more sensitivity, for instance, two layers method and MIC method can be used as well.

Samira Ebrahimi Alavijeh; Mohammadreza Mahzounieh; Mohsen Mobini Dehkordi

2013-01-01

272

[Iron concentration and acceptation of yoghurt prepared in casting iron pots (iron migration and acceptation of yogurt)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Food fortification is an interesting strategy to treat and prevent iron anemia. This study aims to quantify the iron in yoghurt, with gelatin and sugar and without, prepared in iron and glass containers. Sensorial test was use to evaluate the acceptance and preference of the both products. The yoghurt was prepared in containers of iron and glass with UHT milk, powder milk and natural industrialized yoghurt. After fermentation, half of the product received addition of sugar and strawberry flavor gelatin. The collected samples get the total iron quantified by ICP OES. Sensorial analysis involving 105 consumers was use to determine the acceptance and preference of the products. 0,018 and 0,882mg of iron per 100g added in the natural yoghurt prepared in the glass and in the iron pots, respectively. The yoghurt with gelatin presented 0,037 and 1,302mg of iron per 100g when prepared in the glass and in the iron pots, respectively. The preference was low for the yoghurt prepared in the iron pot (29,5%), but when added strawberry gelatin it was about 51,5%. The yoghurt prepared in iron pots, is easily home made and adds important amount of iron. Add gelatin and sugar can favored its consumption. PMID:16640200

Quintaes, Késia Diego; Almeyda Haj-Isa, Niurka M; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio

2005-12-01

273

Biochemical characterization of a novel dual-function a-L-arabinofuranosidase/b-xylosidase isolated from a compost starter mixture  

Science.gov (United States)

The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 43 enzyme was isolated from a culture seeded with a compost starter mixed bacterium population. The gene was cloned into E. coli with a C-terminal His-tag and its recombinant product termed deAX was expressed and purified to apparent homogeneity. The en...

274

Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of those species during ripening of derived dairy products. A major increase in understanding the starter culture contribution to cheese ecosystem could be harnessed to control cheese ripening and flavor formation.

Bottari B; Agrimonti C; Gatti M; Neviani E; Marmiroli N

2013-01-01

275

Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A) and 70% goat - 30% cow (B), 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c) mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF) and skim milk powder addition (MP) were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration method and storage period on physico-chemical and microbiological properties of samples were investigated statistically.

Gokhan Kavas; Harun Uysal; Sevda Kilic; Necati Akbulut; Harun Kesenkas

2003-01-01

276

Isolation and Identification of Wild Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Yoghurt Preparation from Indigenous Dahi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in fermented dairy products. Their role in the production of value added products of milk like yoghurt, cheese and butter etc has got great significance. In this study thirty-five samples of dahi were collected randomly from the local markets of Rawalpindi. A ...

Talat Mehmood; Tariq Masud; Syed Ali Abbass; Shabana Maqsud

277

Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7) cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.

Moreira Silvia Regina; Schwan Rosane Freitas; Carvalho Eliana Pinheiro de; Wheals Alan E.

2001-01-01

278

The Influence of Transglutaminase Treatment on Functional Properties of Strained Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Transglutaminase (TG) on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of strained yoghurt. Strained yoghurt samples were produced with four different enzyme concentrations; C (Control), T1 (0.74 Unit TG g-1 protein), T2 (1.29 Unit TG g-1 protein) and T3 (1.85 Unit TG g-1 protein). The samples were evaluated regarding chemical composition, proteolysis, texture profile, viscosity, water holding capacity, microbiological counts and sensory properties. Cross linking of milk proteins by TG enzyme improved the physical properties of the yoghurts before straining. Surprisingly the textural parameters of the strained yoghurts were not affected by the enzyme but the water holding capacity was improved. Higher treatments of the TG enzyme decreased the proteolytic activity and acidity with increasing storage time. On the contrary enzymatic cross linking had no significant effect on the microbiological properties and the sensory attributes were not unfavorable affected.

Nayil Dinkci

2012-01-01

279

Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12), fruit (14) and cereal yoghurt (4) produced with cow (8) and goat milk (22).The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

Virginia Carfora; Nicla Marri; Carmela Tripaldi; Daniela Patriarca; Giuseppina Giacinti; Carlo Boselli; Gilberto Giangolini; Simonetta Amatiste

2013-01-01

280

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases) to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2) was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days) is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days), the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier; José Henrique Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de Brito; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Marcos Barcellos Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates o (more) f 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet), 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1) and starter (Assay 2) diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X²) and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X) and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X). Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X) and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X). Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X²) and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

Xavier, Suzany Aparecida Gomes; Stringhini, José Henrique; Brito, Alexandre Barbosa de; Café, Marcos Barcellos; Leandro, Nadja Susana Mogyca; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Laboissière, Michele

2012-04-01

282

Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet), 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1) and starter (Assay 2) diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X²) and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X) and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X). Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X) and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X). Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X²) and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier; José Henrique Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de Brito; Marcos Barcellos Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Michele Laboissière

2012-01-01

283

Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

284

Using fractal image analysis to characterize microstructure of low-fat stirred yoghurt manufactured with microparticulated whey protein  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Differences in the microstructure of low fat yoghurt manufactured with microparticulated whey proteins used as fat replacer were investigated. Images were obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy and studied using a technique for image analysis that combines an initial 2D-wavelet compression followed by fractal analysis and inspection of the fractal curves by principal components analysis (PCA). One commercial and three experimental microparticulated ingredients with different chemical characteristics were used in the yoghurt formulations and compared to both full and low fat yoghurts without fat replacer. The results showed that the amount of native and soluble whey proteins present in the microparticles had a positive influence on the structure of the formed gel. The created structure, dominated by dense aggregates and low amount of serum, had an increased degree of self similarity or fractality with yoghurts in which fat was present.

Torres IC; Amigo Rubio JM; Ipsen R

2012-04-01

285

Pneumatic starter for internal combustion engine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A starter arrangement for an engine is described which consists of: a fluid actuated rotary vane motor which is adapted to engage an associated engine, the rotary motor having a hub and at least one blade which is slidably mounted in the hub and is made from a fiber reinforced plastic material to reduce friction, and wherein at least one blade has a wear surface made of the same material; a housing including a sleeve in which the rotary motor is positioned, the sleeve having on its inner surface a hard metallic coating to reduce friction, wherein the sleeve inner surface coating comprises a chromium electrocuting having a hardness which measures at least 70 on the Rockwell C hardness scale and a microfinish of less than 10 micro-inches R.M.S.; and, a relay valve means for selectively providing a pressurized operating fluid to the rotary motor, wherein the blade material and the sleeve inner surface coating cooperate to enable the motor to rotate in the sleeve with a minimum of friction thereby obviating the need for a lubricating system for the starter arrangement.

Kristof, J.J.; Elwer, M.

1989-07-11

286

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively) were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Rodrigo Santana Toledo; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino; Marli Arena Dionizio; Débora Cristine de Oliveira Carvalho; Eduardo Terra Nogueira

2011-01-01

287

Effect of probiotic yoghurt on the salivary PH of orthodontic patients- A clinical trial study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract:Background and Aim: previous studies have reported the benefits of probiotic dairy products on oral microbiota. To this date, no study has been conducted on the effects of these products on salivary pH. It’s clear that the salivary pH plays an important role in the initiation of tooth demineralization processes. This study was done to evaluate the effect of probiotic yoghurt on the salivary pH of orthodontic patients.Materials and Methods: This cross over, double blind, clinical trial study was done on 20 orthodontic patients referred to a private office in Tehran 3 months into their of orthodontic treatment. The patients’ salivary pH was measured at the beginning of the study. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The first group consumed the A(probiotic) yoghurt and the second group consumed the B(non probiotic) yoghurt for 2 weeks. After 6 weeks of wash out period, the patients consumed the yoghurt for another 2 weeks. The measurement for Salivary pH was taken at the beginning as well as the end of both 2 week periods of yoghurt consumption. Results were compared by repeated measured ANOVA. Results: The salivary pH before and after consumption of probiotic yogurt was 6.79±0.32 and 7.08±0.39 respectively(p<0.05). In non probiotic group the pH before and after consumption was 6.86±0.35 and 6.88±0.36 .Comparison of the results indicated that probiotic yogurt can cause an increase in the salivary pH while non probiotic yogurt had no effect on the salivary pH.Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yogurt would be a simple and practical method for salivary pH elevation and providing a suitable condition for remineralization of tooth mineral structures.Key words: pH ; Patients; Probiotic; Yoghurt; SalivaJournal Res Dent Sci 2013;10(3): 156-160

Hoorizad M; Mirhashemi route M; Rahpeyma R; Zavareian S

2013-01-01

288

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages/ Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas (more) isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12). Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas. Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each iso (more) lated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12). The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.

Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Brod, Fábio Cristiano Angonesi; Tagliari, Caroline; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Arisi, Ana Carolina Maisonnave; Sant'Anna, Ernani Sebastião

2007-09-01

289

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-st (more) arter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively) were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Toledo, Rodrigo Santana; Rostagno, Horacio Santiago; Albino, Luiz Fernando Teixeira; Dionizio, Marli Arena; Carvalho, Débora Cristine de Oliveira; Nogueira, Eduardo Terra

2011-10-01

290

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer). It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat) milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus) cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis) pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA) were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0) and myristic (14:0). Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA), Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), elaidic acid (t9-18:1) and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid) predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids), decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior; M. R. Pedrao; L. F. Dias; L. N. Paula; F. A.G. Coro; Nilson Evelazio De Souza

2012-01-01

291

New Series of Low-Voltage Magnetic Motor Starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic motor starters are in widespread use as components for automatic, energy-efficient equipment in a variety of industrial facilities. Recent rapid growth in the fields of electronics and mechatronics has stimulated calls for high reliability, low p...

F. Matsumoto S. Nishizako S. Otsuka

1984-01-01

292

Effects of Processing on Antibiotic Residues (Streptomycin, Penicillin-G and Tetracycline) in Soft Cheese and Yoghurt Processing Lines  

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Full Text Available Fifty-eight samples (40 cheese and 18 yoghurt samples) were collected from five soft cheese and two conventional yoghurt processors. The samples were collected along the processing lines of these dairy products and analyzed for antibiotic residues (streptomycin, penicillin-G and tetracycline). The mean residual levels for cheese was; streptomycin (0.00400.0018), penicillin-G (0.00620.0026) and tetracycline (0.00230.0008), while levels in yoghurt was; streptomycin (0.00140.0010), penicillin-G (0.00170.0017) and tetracycline (0.00110.0071). Penicillin-G exceeded Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) in raw milk and cheese for 4 out of the 5 processors. In yoghurt processing only powdered milk for processor F exceeded MRLs for penicillin-G. Significant differences (p<0.05) was obtained along the processing lines for all processors. Generally antibiotic residue levels reduced along the processing line of soft cheese and yoghurt. The presence of penicillin-G above MRLS in some of the samples poses a threat to the consumers.

Victoria O. Adetunji

2011-01-01

293

[Genetic improvement of technological characteristics of starters for fermented milk products].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Possibility for improvement of technological characteristics of lactobacilli using mutations of resistance to rifampicin (rif(r)) and streptomycin (str(r)) was studied. Using starter model of Narine Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA-9602 Armenian diet milk product, it was showed that a possibility for selecting strains with increased rate of milk fermentation and acid production is higher in Rif(r) and Str(r) mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine than in cultures sensitive to antibiotics. The milk products obtained using Rif(r) and Str(r) strains had high viscosity, improved texture, increased amount of alive cells and good organoleptic features.

Oganesian GG; Barsegian AA; Grigorian NG; Toptsian AV

2010-07-01

294

Thermal drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and its efficient use as starter for whey fermentation and unsalted cheese making.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown on whey was dried by a simple thermal drying method at the range 35-55 degrees C and its efficiency for lactic acid fermentation of whey was evaluated. Drying of cells in whey suspension in the examined temperature range did not affect significantly their viability (82-87% survival), indicating a protective effect of whey as both growth and drying medium. The kinetics of fermentation of whey and mixtures of whey/molasses using the dried culture were comparable to those of non-dried cells, and only low pH had a detrimental effect on the fermentation ability of the dried cells. Furthermore, dried L. bulgaricus, free or immobilized on casein coagulates, was used as starter for the production of unsalted hard-type cheese. The effects of the amount of starter culture and the immobilization technique, the evolution of microbial counts, and the sensory properties of the produced cheeses were evaluated during ripening at various temperatures.

Katechaki E; Solomonidis T; Bekatorou A; Koutinas AA

2010-11-01

295

Microflora of murcha: an amylolytic fermentation starter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Murcha is a traditional starter, used commonly in Darjeeling hills and Sikkim in India to ferment a variety of starchy substrates in order to produce sweet-sour alcoholic beverages, called jnards. Murcha cakes are mildly acidic (pH 5.2) and contain 13% w/w moisture and 0.7% w/w ash (dry weight basis). A total of 194 bacterial, 190 yeast and 80 mould strains were isolated from 30 samples of murcha. The counts (cfu/g fresh weight) of micro-organisms in the samples were 2.0 x 10(7) to 4.2 x 10(8) for Pediococcus pentosaceus, 4.0 x 10(7) to 6.8 x 10(8) for Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, 2.0 x 10(6) to 7.2 x 10(7) for Pichia anomala, 1.0 x 10(6) to 4.1 x 10(7) for Mucor circinelloides and < 10 to 1.0 x 10(6) for Rhizopus chinensis. While all the species were prevalent in 100% of the samples, R. chinensis was detected in only 50% of them. Both the moulds but one yeast species, S. fibuligera had amylolytic activity.

Tamang JP; Sarkar PK

1995-01-01

296

Microflora of murcha: an amylolytic fermentation starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Murcha is a traditional starter, used commonly in Darjeeling hills and Sikkim in India to ferment a variety of starchy substrates in order to produce sweet-sour alcoholic beverages, called jnards. Murcha cakes are mildly acidic (pH 5.2) and contain 13% w/w moisture and 0.7% w/w ash (dry weight basis). A total of 194 bacterial, 190 yeast and 80 mould strains were isolated from 30 samples of murcha. The counts (cfu/g fresh weight) of micro-organisms in the samples were 2.0 x 10(7) to 4.2 x 10(8) for Pediococcus pentosaceus, 4.0 x 10(7) to 6.8 x 10(8) for Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, 2.0 x 10(6) to 7.2 x 10(7) for Pichia anomala, 1.0 x 10(6) to 4.1 x 10(7) for Mucor circinelloides and < 10 to 1.0 x 10(6) for Rhizopus chinensis. While all the species were prevalent in 100% of the samples, R. chinensis was detected in only 50% of them. Both the moulds but one yeast species, S. fibuligera had amylolytic activity. PMID:7476555

Tamang, J P; Sarkar, P K

1995-01-01

297

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30 kDa, 10 kDa and 3 kDa. The fractions were tested for antioxidant activity by investigating the inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles, tocopherol and sensory characteristics, the lower molecular weight fractions 3–10 kDa and

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

298

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA) and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(ptolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT) and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(p-tolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT) were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC) - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 ?mol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 ?mol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 ?mol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

Lejla Durakovi?; Frane Delaš; Alma Tudi?; Katarina Hui?-Babi?; Sulejman Redžepovi?

2012-01-01

299

Selection of yeasts as starter cultures for table olives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ninety-nine yeasts were isolated from Bella di Cerignola table olives; first, the strains were studied in relation to their ability to produce biogenic amines in a laboratory medium and 49 strains were positive to this assay and cut off from the research. The remaining 50 strains were characterized for their enzymatic traits (?-glucosidase, catalase, pectolytic, xylanolytic, and lipolytic activities) and for their ability to grow at different temperatures, pHs, with salt or lactic/acetic acids added. Data were used for the evaluation of growth index and submitted to cluster and principal component analyses to choose the most promising 4 strains. In the final step of the research, the strains were inoculated as a cocktail in a model brine, containing different amounts of salt (4% to 12%) and glucose (0% to 3%), and adjusted to different pHs (4.0 to 9.0). Data analysis through a multiple regression procedure highlighted that salt, glucose, and pH acted in a different way within the storage and NaCl affected yeast growth only for few days, and then glucose and pH played a major role.

Bevilacqua A; Beneduce L; Sinigaglia M; Corbo MR

2013-05-01

300

Comparison of the effects of high-pressure microfluidization and conventional homogenization of milk on particle size, water retention and texture of non-fat and low-fat yoghurts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of high-pressure homogenization using a Microfluidizer® on texture, water-holding capacity, and extent of syneresis on stirred yoghurts was compared with that of conventional homogenization. The effect of homogenization condition on particle size was also assessed in milk and in yoghurt. Stirred yoghurts were prepared from recombined milk samples (0 and 1.5% fat) heat-treated (95 °C, 2 min) and then treated by conventional valve homogenization at 25 MPa or microfluidization at 150 MPa. Homogenization conditions influenced the particle size in milk, gel particle size, and textural quality of stirred yoghurts in a manner dependent upon fat content. Milk microfluidized at 150 MPa had smaller particle size than homogenized milk, but resulted in larger particles in yoghurt. Microfluidization of low-fat milk modified the microstructure of yoghurt, giving more interconnectivity in the protein networks with embedded fat globules, but with similar texture profiles and water retention compared with yoghurt made from conventionally homogenized milk.

Ciron CIE; Gee VL; Kelly AL; Auty MAE

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
301

Aislamiento e identificación de cepas del género Bifidobacterium presentes en productos lácteos fermentados tipo yogur/ Isolation and identification of strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus found in fermented yoghurt type milk products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La identificación de microorganismos probióticos del género Bifidobacterium es de gran importancia por su uso como suplemento que favorece la salud del consumidor. En Venezuela son pocos los estudios sobre caracterización microbiológica de estas bacterias y no existen métodos oficiales para su estudio en alimentos. Esta investigación reporta la estandarización de técnicas microbiológicas y moleculares para el aislamiento e identificación de bifidobacterias aisl (more) adas de dos productos tipo yogur, I con probiótico y II sin probiótico. Se analizaron 10 muestras de cada yogur, una por semana, aislando 3 colonias por muestra. Los resultados mostraron que de los 60 aislados analizados, 27 colonias del Yogur I y 11 del Yogur II concordaron con las características de bifidobacterias. Se comparó el crecimiento bacteriano en dos medios de cultivo (MRS-m, RCA), sembrando por profundidad en placas y en tubos Miller-Pricket, obteniéndose mejores resultados con el medio MRS-m y las siembras por profundidad en tubos. De las extracciones de ADN se obtuvieron los patrones de ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR, determinándose que 34 aislados eran clones indistinguibles, mostrando el patrón de B. lactis utilizado como control positivo. Esta metodología puede ser utilizada por la industria y los entes encargados del control de la calidad de los productos probióticos Abstract in english The identification of probiotic microorganisms belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus is very important due to their use as supplements favorable for consumer?s health. In Venezuela there have been few studies of the microbiological characterization of these bacteria and there are no official methods for their study in food. This investigation reports the standardization of microbiological and molecular techniques for the isolation and identification of bifidobacteria is (more) olated from two yoghurt type products: I with probiotic and II without probiotic. Ten samples from each yoghurt type product were analyzed, one per week, and 3 colonies were isolated per sample. Results showed that of the 60 isolates analyzed, 27 colonies of Yoghurt I and 11 of Yoghurt II coincided with the characteristics of bifidobacteria. Bacterial growth was compared in two culture media (MRS-m, RCA), inoculating in-depth in plates and Miller-Pricket tubes; the best results were obtained with MRS-m medium and in-depth inoculations in tubes. By DNA extraction we obtained ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns, determining that 34 isolates were indistinguishable clones, showing the same pattern of the B. lactis used as positive control. This methodology can be used by the industry and the institutions in charge of quality control of probiotic products

Pérez, Indira; Falco, Aura; Tapia, María Soledad; Alonso, Guillermina

2012-06-01

302

Isolation of cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and molecular comparison with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To isolate cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and compare them with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains using molecular typing methods. Methods and Results: The number of thermophilic bacteria in seven commercial cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starters was estimated to be <10 CFU g-1. Implementation of an enumeration step in the isolation method made it possible to isolate one thermophilic strain from each of five of seven cheeses. Comparing repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) profiles of the isolates with dairy-related Lact. helveticus strains indicated that one isolate was a Lact. helveticus. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA confirmed this, and the remaining four strains were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum and Enterococcus faecium. The rep-PCR profile of the isolated Lact. helveticus was identical to the rep-PCR profile of the Lact. helveticus adjunct culture used in the specific cheese, but their pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles differed slightly. Conclusion: It was possible to isolate cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starter and thermophilic adjunct cultures by using an enumeration step. Significance and Impact of the Study: Isolation of cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses made with mesophilic starters offers an original source for new dairy-relevant cultures.

Jensen, Marie Elisabeth Penderup; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

2009-01-01

303

Aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt produced in Guilan province of Iran using immunoaffinity column and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was aimed to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in 120 natural yoghurt samples consisting of 80 samples of commercial and 40 samples of traditional yoghurt in Guilan province in the north of Iran. The occurrence and concentration range of AFM(1) in samples were determined by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of yoghurts showed that all the samples were contaminated with AFM(1) in concentration levels ranging from 4.2 to 78.9 ng/kg. In general, 16 samples (13.33%) had higher AFM(1) level than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/kg) accepted by European Union, but the contamination level was lower than 500 ng/kg in all the samples, which is accepted by Codex Alimentarius and National Standard. The concentration of AFM(1) in 26 samples (21.66) was lower than 10 ng/kg. The range of contamination of AFM(1) was comparatively higher in traditional yoghurt (average concentration of 32.9 ng/kg) than that in commercial yoghurt (average concentration of 21.6 ng/kg; p < 0.01). Because yoghurt is the most popular dairy product consumed in Iran, the AFM(1) contamination is a serious problem for public health. This study reports the data of a first survey on the presence of AFM1 in yoghurt in Guilan, Iran.

Tabari M; Tabari K; Tabari O

2013-02-01

304

Starter sequence for steady-state free precession imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamic equilibrium exploited by balanced steady-state free precession imaging develops slowly because its formation is dependent on both spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation times. Attempting to image before steady state is established results in artifacts due to transient signal oscillations. Using a starter sequence to precondition the spin system can significantly reduce the delay before imaging. An improved design for a steady-state starter sequence is presented. The new sequence has the advantage of uniformly exciting the steady-state response for all resonance offsets and can be phase cycled to suppress banding artifacts. PMID:15799066

Foxall, D L

2005-04-01

305

Isolation and Identification of Wild Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Yoghurt Preparation from Indigenous Dahi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in fermented dairy products. Their role in the production of value added products of milk like yoghurt, cheese and butter etc has got great significance. In this study thirty-five samples of dahi were collected randomly from the local markets of Rawalpindi. A total of 69 isolates were identified phenotypically and divide into three genera Lactococcus (36 isolates), Lactobacillus (15 isolates) and Streptococcus (18 isolates). Out of 69 isolates 26% were of S. thermophilus followed by 22% L. bulgaricus, 16% L. acidophilus, 9% L. lactis and 9% L. casei, respectively. After identification, potential of strains for lactic acid production after 6 hrs, 12 hrs and 24 hrs were also determined. In addition to acid production diacetyl production was also observed at 37oC for 8 hrs with two hours intervals. There were generally increasing trend for diacetyl production. The study showed that there was a variety of lactic acid bacteria in our environment which has potential to produce quality yoghurt.

Talat Mehmood; Tariq Masud; Syed Ali Abbass; Shabana Maqsud

2009-01-01

306

On the influence of non-enzymatic crosslinking of caseins on the gel strength of yoghurt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

After storage of UHT milk at 37 degrees C resp. 50 degrees C, yoghurt was prepared. For a storage temperature of 37 degrees C, breaking strength of the yoghurt samples increased from 2.7 to 5.8 N with increasing storage duration of the UHT milk. A plateau is reached after 17 days of storage. This increase in breaking strength correlates with a significant increase in non-reducible casein oligomerization from 14% for fresh UHT milk to 25% measured using size exclusion chromatography under reducing and denaturing conditions and calculated as sum of predominantly formed dimers and trimers at the total casein fraction. At a storage temperature of 50 degrees C, a less increase in breaking strength from 2.7 to 4.6 N with a plateau after 17 days was observed while casein oligomerization increased to 63%. After acid hydrolysis, only lysinoalanine and histidinoalanine were detected in the caseinate samples via amino acid analysis. The quantified concentration of lysinoalanine and histidinoalanine could not explain the observed casein oligomerization. Thus, unknown crosslinked amino acids must have been formed during storage, inducing significant changes in the functional properties of milk proteins.

Lauber S; Klostermeyer H; Henle T

2001-06-01

307

Effects of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Inflammatory Factors in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, sev...

Zatollah Asemi; Shima Jazayeri; Mohammad Najafi; Mansoreh Samimi; Vahid Mofid; Farzad Shidfar; Abbas Rahim Foroushani

308

Yoghurt fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus H+ -ATPase-defective mutants exhibits enhanced viability of Bifidobacterium breve during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent acid production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during refrigerated storage is a major cause of reduced viability of probiotic strains such as Bifidobacterium breve in yoghurt. It was established that H+ -ATPase-defective mutants of lactic acid bacteria have reduced growth and metabolism in low pH environments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of post-acidification and maintenance of B. breve viability in yoghurt fermented by L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity during refrigerated storage. Spontaneous neomycin mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that had a significantly (P or = 10(8) CFU/ml) of both Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 1192(T) and Bifidobacteruim breve JCM 7017 during storage at 10 degrees C for 21 days. These results clearly showed that yoghurt fermented by mutants of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with reduced membrane-bound H+ -ATPase activity has reduced post-acidification that prolongs viability of B. breve in yoghurt during refrigerated storage. PMID:17434219

Ongol, Martin Patrick; Sawatari, Yuki; Ebina, Yoshiko; Sone, Teruo; Tanaka, Michiko; Tomita, Fusao; Yokota, Atsushi; Asano, Kozo

2007-03-12

309

Starter with planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A starter is described for an internal combustion engine having a ring gear, the starter comprising: a starter motor having an armature shaft; a drive shaft extending in coaxial relation to the armature shaft, the drive shaft having a projection extending radially outwardly from an axial end of the drive shaft adjacent the armature shaft; a pinion in spline engagement with an outer periphery of the drive shaft and adapted to be in mesh with the ring gear of the internal combustion engine; a planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism comprising a sun gear formed on an outer periphery of an axial end portion of the armature shaft of the starter motor, Planetary gears rotatably mounted on the projection of the drive shaft so as to be in meshing engagement with the sun gear, and an internal gear disposed radially outwardly of the planetary gears so as to be in meshing engagement with the planetary gears. The planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism is operative to reduce the rotational speed of the armature shaft and transmit the rotation of the armature shaft to the drive shaft through the sun gear, the planetary gears and the internal gear; a center bracket comprising a cylindrical portion supported through a bearing by an outer periphery of one of the drive shaft and the armature shaft, and a disc-shaped portion extending radially outwardly from an axial end of the cylindrical portion; and a shock absorber unit.

Imamura, T.; Yukawa, Y.

1987-01-13

310

Fingerprint based bio-starter and bio-access  

CERN Document Server

In the paper will be presented a safety and security system based on fingerprint technology. The results suggest a new scenario where the new cars can use a fingerprint sensor integrated in car handle to allow access and in the dashboard as starter button.

Iovane, G; Iovane, C; Rotulo, F

2003-01-01

311

Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

Zarate G. Edwin; Peña Aurora; Escobar G. Jorge A.

1988-01-01

312

Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184) and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan; Shobana Devi R; Regina Mary R; Prabhavathi D; Vidya R; Mechenro John; Mahendri NV; Pugazhendhi Srinivasan; Ramakrishna Balakrishnan S

2011-01-01

313

Influence of milk type and addition of passion fruit peel powder on fermentation kinetics, texture profile and bacterial viability in probiotic yoghurts  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of the addition of passion fruit peel powder (PFPP) on the fermentation kinetics and texture parameters, post-acidification and bacteria counts of probiotic yoghurts made with two milk types were evaluated during 28 days of storage at 4 °C. Milks were fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (CY340), and one strain of probiotic bacteria: Lactobacillus acidophilus (L10 and NCFM), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bl04 and HN019). The addition of PFPP reduced significantly fermentation time of skim milk co-fermented by the strains L10, NCFM and HN019. At the end of 28-day shelf-life, counts of B. lactis Bl04 were about 1 Log CFU mL–1 higher in whole yoghurt fermented with PFPP regarding its control but, in general, the addition of PFPP had less influence on counts than the milk type itself. The titratable acidity in yoghurts with PFPP was significantly higher than in their respective controls, and in skim yoghurts higher than in the whole ones. The PFPP increased firmness, consistency (except for the NCFM strain of L. acidophilus) and cohesiveness of all skim yoghurts. The results point out the suitability of using passion fruit by-product in the formulation of both skim and whole probiotic yoghurts.

do Espírito Santo AP; Perego P; Converti A; Oliveira MN

2012-07-01

314

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais/ Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulo (more) se. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were s (more) ubmitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Mathias, Thiago Rocha dos Santos; Andrade, Kelita Carlos Silva; Rosa, Cíntia Letícia da Silva; Silva, Bárbara Amorim

2013-03-01

315

Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with beneficial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and (more) in the fermented product have been studied by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results show that XRF technique has been successfully used for determination of minerals content in dairy products, still for trace species. The minerals measures were validated with other analytical techniques with high accuracy and versatility as inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and atomic emission spectrometry (EEA). Furthermore the proteins content was increased 13 % and lactose content has been reduced in 30 %, in compared with some commercial products.

Rinaldoni, A.N.; Campderrós, M.E.; Pérez Padilla, A.; Perino, E.; Fernández, J.E.

2009-04-01

316

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia.Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva Rosa; Bárbara Amorim Silva

2013-01-01

317

Comparative Study on the Physico-chemical Composition of Industrial Yoghurt and Indigenous Dahi  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of industrial yoghurt and conventional made dahi. According to the statistical analysis non-significant differences were observed in pH values and acidity percentage amongst all types of dahi samples, but significant differences were observed in fat and total solids percentages. The highest total solids and fat percentage was recorded from the sample C with an average of 13.81150 ± 0.20178 and 5.071 ± 0.123364, respectively where as lowest total solids and fat percentage was recorded from sample A with an average of 12.348 ± 0.1202419 and 2.48 ± 0.0504891, respectively. According to the results of organoleptic evaluation the maximum score was given by the panel of judges to sample C.

A.H. Soomro; M.A. Arain; M. Khashkeli; B. Bhutto

2003-01-01

318

Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with beneficial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and in the fermented product have been studied by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results show that XRF technique has been successfully used for determination of minerals content in dairy products, still for trace species. The minerals measures were validated with other analytical techniques with high accuracy and versatility as inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and atomic emission spectrometry (EEA). Furthermore the proteins content was increased 13 % and lactose content has been reduced in 30 %, in compared with some commercial products.

A.N. Rinaldoni; M.E. Campderrós; A. Pérez Padilla; E. Perino; J.E. Fernández

2009-01-01

319

Dietary Inclusion Rate of Cocoa Husk for Starter Cockerels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Growth performance and economics of production were measured to assess the dietary inclusion rate of cocoa husk for starter cockerels. The study involved 156, 2-week-old cockerels which were reared for 6 weeks on four diets incorporating 0, 10, 15 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize. Body weight gain and feed conversion were depressed beyond the 10% CHM level. Although cost of feed consumed decreased across treatments, feed cost/kg body weight gain was reduced beyond the 10% CHM level. Ten percent dietary inclusion of CHM appears optimal in cockerel starter diets since beyond this level, growth performance and monetary gains are sacrificed.

O. Olubamiwa; A. R. Otun; O. G. Longe

2002-01-01

320

[Trials of cheese-making using concentrated bacterial starters  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies about cheese preparation with frozen and concentrated bacterial starters have been carried out. The Pategras cheeses were obtained from raw milk. The starters were prepared with a selected strain of Streptococcus lactis, concentrated until reaching a value of 3.10(9) colony forming units/ml and resuspended in milk previously supplemented with 8% of yeast extract. These concentrates were frozen at -40 degrees C and kept at -20 degrees C for 60 days. Three kinds of starters were tested: one thawed by placing the flask in a 40 degrees C water bath, another added to the cheese vat without previous thawing and a control sample prepared in steamed reconstituted milk. In order to evaluate the convenience of each technique several chemical and microbiological analysis were performed during the preparation (Table 1 and 2) and the ripening of the cheese (Table 3). The results have showed that the direct use of thawed frozen concentrates in the cheese vat allows the obtaining of high quality cheese. On the other hand, the technique based on thawing through a water bath did not lead to good results.

Garat MH; Meinardi CA; Carrasco de Mendoza MS; Simonetta AC

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Choke-thyristor starter for induction squirrel-cage high-power motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Design of starter systems is discussed for high-power induction squirrel-cage motors used in drive systems for heavy-duty belt conveyors. Use of a choke-thyristor starter is analyzed. The starter consists of a choke and a thyristor controller. The choke consists of a transformer with an optimum air-gap, the primary winding of the transformer is connected in series with the motor winding; the secondary winding is connected with a thyristor controller. Block scheme of the choke-thyristor starter is given. Its characteristics are presented in 4 diagrams. Design of the choke-thyristor starter for the SZJe 136t/sub s//sub p/4 squirrel-cage motor with a rated power of 320 kW used in a drive system for a belt conveyor for brown coal haulage is analyzed. Specifications of the starter, its operation and reliability are discussed.

Azarewicz, S.; Nessel, H.; Pawlaczyk, L.

1985-01-01

322

Effect of Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on Growth and Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for Production of Probiotic Herbal Milk and Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40° Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 109. All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.

M.H. Marhamatizadeh; E. Ehsandoost; P. Gholami; M. Nazemi

2013-01-01

323

Milk-based beverages obtained by Kombucha application  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper investigates the manufacture of milk-based beverages by application of several Kombucha starters. Local Kombucha culture was grown up on three substrates: sweetened black and green tea, and topinambur. Their concentrates were obtained by vacuum-evaporation and amounts of 10% and 15% (v/v) were applied to milk (2.2% fat). The traditional yoghurt starter (B3) was applied for producing control samples. All fermentations were stopped when the pH reached 4.4. Fermentation curves were registered, linear for yoghurt and sigmoidal for Kombucha. Two times faster process was achieved with yoghurt starter. Influence of inoculum concentration on the rate of fermentation was insignificant. Viscosities were higher for Kombucha beverages at lower speeds of spindle, but lower at higher speeds of spindle. Very high sensory scores were achieved for all beverages, after production and after 5-days' storage.

Malbaša RadomirV; Milanovi? SpasenijaD; Lon?ar EvaS; Djuri? MirjanaS; Cari? Marijana?; Ili?i? MirelaD; Kolarov Ljiljana

2009-01-01

324

Isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous identification and quantification of beta-casomorphin 5 and beta-casomorphin 7 in yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of beta-casomorphin 5 (BCM5) and beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) in yoghurt. The method used deuterium labelled BCM5-d10 and BCM7-d10 as surrogate standards for confident identification and accurate and quantification of these analytes in yoghurt. Linear responses for BCM5 and BCM7 (R(2)=0.9985 and 0.9986, respectively) was observed in the range 0.01-10ng/?L. The method limits of detection (MLDs) in yoghurt extracts were found to be 0.5 and 0.25ng/g for BCM5 and BCM7, respectively. Analyses of spiked samples were used to provide confirmation of accuracy and precision of the analytical method. Recoveries relative to the surrogate standards of these spikes were in the range of 95-106% for BCM5 and 103-109% for BCM7. Precision from analysis of spiked samples was expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD) and values were in the range 1-16% for BCM5 and 1-6% for BCM7. Inter-day reproducibility was between 2.0-6.4% for BCM5 and between 3.2-6.1% for BCM7. The validated isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was used to measure BCM5 and BCM7 in ten commercial and laboratory prepared samples of yoghurt and milk. Neither BCM5 nor BCM7 was detected in commercial yoghurts. However, they were observed in milk and laboratory prepared yoghurts and interestingly their levels decreased during processing. BCM5 decreased from 1.3ng/g in milk to 1.1ng/g in yoghurt made from that milk at 0day storage and yoghurts immediately after processing. These preliminary results indicate that fermentation and storage reduced BCM5 and BCM7 concentration in yoghurt. PMID:24176353

Nguyen, D D; Solah, V A; Johnson, S K; Charrois, J W A; Busetti, F

2013-09-18

325

Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: Karakteristik Kimiawi  

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Full Text Available This experiment was designed to improve quality of dadih in a process which was more controlled. The use of cow milk was to replace buffalo milk utilization due to its availability was very limited; the use of probiotic starter combination was to conduct fermentation process of dadih more controlled, and the specific characteristics of dadih could be measured. Therefore the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the best starter concentration that will be used in fermentation process of dadih and to investigate chemical characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combination of probiotic starter bacteria (L. plantarum (A1), L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2), L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3) and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4)) and stored at low temperatures for 0, 7 and 14 days. The results showed that the best starter concentration was 3% with similar comparison among starters and the combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly moisture, protein, fat, ash contents, pH and titratable acidity of dadih at H-0 (before storage). The characteristics of dadih after storing for 14 days at low temperature showed that combinations of starter affected significantly pH and titratable acidity (P<0.01). However these variables were not affected by storage time. Protein, moisture and fat contents were not affected by starter combinations and storage time; ash content was affect significantly by storage time but not by starter combination. It is concluded that all dadih produced by different starter combinations have no significant differences in chemical characteristics, but dadih produced by starter combination A4 has more advantages in probiotic content.

E. Taufik

2004-01-01

326

Thermal drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and its efficient use as starter for whey fermentation and unsalted cheese making.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown on whey was dried by a simple thermal drying method at the range 35-55 degrees C and its efficiency for lactic acid fermentation of whey was evaluated. Drying of cells in whey suspension in the examined temperature range did not affect significantly their viability (82-87% survival), indicating a protective effect of whey as both growth and drying medium. The kinetics of fermentation of whey and mixtures of whey/molasses using the dried culture were comparable to those of non-dried cells, and only low pH had a detrimental effect on the fermentation ability of the dried cells. Furthermore, dried L. bulgaricus, free or immobilized on casein coagulates, was used as starter for the production of unsalted hard-type cheese. The effects of the amount of starter culture and the immobilization technique, the evolution of microbial counts, and the sensory properties of the produced cheeses were evaluated during ripening at various temperatures. PMID:20127423

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Solomonidis, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2010-02-03

327

Yeasts from autochthonal cheese starters: technological and functional properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The aim of this work was to identify 20 yeasts isolated from autochthonal cheese starters and evaluate their technological and functional properties. METHODS AND RESULTS: The capacities of the yeasts to grow at different temperatures, pH, NaCl and lactic acid concentrations as well as the proteolytic and lipolytic activities were studied. Moreover, survival to simulated gastrointestinal digestion, hydrophobicity, antimicrobial activity against pathogens and auto- and co-aggregation abilities were evaluated. The sequentiation of a fragment from the 26S rDNA gene indicated that Kluyveromyces marxianus was the predominant species, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Clavispora lusitaniae, Kluyveromyces lactis and Galactomyces geotrichum. RAPD with primer M13 allowed a good differentiation among strains from the same species. All strains normally grew at pH 4.7-5.5 and temperatures between 15 and 35°C. Most of them tolerated 10% NaCl and 3% lactic acid. Some strains showed proteolytic (eight isolates) and/or lipolytic (four isolates) capacities. All strains evidenced high gastrointestinal resistance, moderate hydrophobicity, intermediate auto-aggregation and variable co-aggregation abilities. No strains inhibited the growth of the pathogens assayed. CONCLUSIONS: Some strains from dairy sources showed interesting functional and technological properties. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study has been the first contribution to the identification and characterization of yeasts isolated from autochthonal cheese starters in Argentina. Many strains could be proposed as potential candidates to be used as probiotics and/or as co-starters in cheese productions.

Binetti A; Carrasco M; Reinheimer J; Suárez V

2013-08-01

328

Culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments.

Smith TB; Rodríguez MD; Bernal G

2011-02-01

329

Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented.

1994-01-01

330

Instant Django 1.5 application development starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

Rocco, Mauro

2013-01-01

331

Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented.

Pott, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlisle, S. [Agapito (J.F.T.) and Associates, Inc., Grand Junction, CO (United States)

1994-05-01

332

Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Serial Wound Starter Motor with Learning Vector Quantization Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) software for real time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of serial wound starter motors has been developed using Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) neural network. The starter motors are serial wound dc motors which enable the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to run. When the starter motor fault occurs, the ICE cannot be run. Therefore, condition monitoring and pre-diagnosis of starter motor faults are important. The information of voltages and currents is acquired from the starter motor via data acquisition card and transferred to the program. With this program using LVQ network, six faults observed in the starter motors were successfully detected and diagnosed in real time. The GUI software makes it possible to condition monitoring and diagnose the faults in starter motors before they occur by keeping fault records of the past occurrences. This system can be used in service shops and in test departments of starter motor manufacturers. In addition, this system has potential to be used for real time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of vehicles with the help of industrial computers.

R. Bayir

2008-01-01

333

Postweaning performance of heifers fed starter with and without hay during the milk-feeding period.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed the carryover effects of providing forage during the milk-feeding period on postweaning feed intake and growth of heifers. At 11 wk of age, heifers previously (3 to 77 d of age) reared on starter (n=8) or starter plus grass hay (n=8) were switched to a single diet consisting of restricted amounts of concentrate [60% of the starter required to support daily body weight (BW) gain of 800 g] with ad libitum access to coarsely chopped orchardgrass hay. Feed intake and growth were measured from 11 to 18 wk of age. Starter dry matter (DM) intake averaged 2.14 ± 0.15 kg/d for both treatments. Forage consumption and total (starter plus hay) DM, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, and metabolizable energy intakes were greater in heifers previously fed forage compared with those provided no forage. Initial and final BW were similar for the 2 treatments (108.2 ± 9.1 and 149.6 ± 9.3 kg, respectively). Overall average daily gain in heifers previously fed starter alone (0.92 ± 0.05,kg/d) tended to be greater than those previously fed starter plus hay (0.79 ± 0.06,kg/d). Total DM intake (starter plus hay) was lower in heifers previously fed starter alone than those fed starter plus hay (3.55 ± 0.13 vs. 4.08 ± 0.15 kg/d, respectively). Feed efficiency (BW gain/DM intake) after switching to a common diet was greater in calves previously fed starter alone than in those previously fed starter plus hay (0.26 ± 0.01 vs. 0.19 ± 0.01, respectively). However, heifers provided access to hay had a smaller body barrel (an indicator of gut fill) at 15 wk (127.7 ± 1.7 vs. 134.3 ± 2.7 cm) and 17 wk (132.4 ± 1.9 vs. 141.0 ± 2.2 cm) of age and had greater blood ?-hydroxybutyrate (0.22 ± 0.04 vs. 0.32 ± 0.04 mmol/L) compared with heifers that did not have access to hay earlier in life. These results indicate that provision of hay early in life promotes forage intake when heifers are switched to a high forage diet. However, greater feed consumption did not translate into live BW gain. Higher feed efficiency after switching to a common diet in heifers previously fed starter alone compared with those fed starter plus hay must be viewed with caution because intestinal content likely varied between treatment groups.

Khan MA; Weary DM; Veira DM; von Keyserlingk MA

2012-07-01

334

Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) activities were estimated before and after alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Obtained results showed that blood glucose levels in sera of treated rats fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture decreased with mean values of 135.0 ± 26.85 mg/100 mL serum compared with the treated rat fed on basal diet (positive control) with mean value of 237.66 ± 14.43 mg/100 mL serum. Data showed that ALT and AST activities in sera of treated rat fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were nearest to the level of un-treated rats fed basal diet (negative control). The means values of ALT and AST level in treated group fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were 57.33 ± 20 and 189.33 ± 48.85 compared with the positive control 90 ± 31.76 and 260.00 ± 57.27 and negative control 44.66 ± 9.5 and 180.66 ± 23.58 U L-1, respectively. Data concluded that mixture of medicinal plant extracts and stirred yoghurt filtrate may play a role in protection against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rat.

N.A. Al-Wabel; H.M. Mousa; O.H. Omer; A.M. Abdel-Salam

2008-01-01

335

Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the ?-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the ?-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives.

Zago M; Lanza B; Rossetti L; Muzzalupo I; Carminati D; Giraffa G

2013-05-01

336

Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the ?-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the ?-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives. PMID:23498181

Zago, Miriam; Lanza, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

2012-11-28

337

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H Malik; L Holm; E Johansson

2012-01-01

338

CULTURE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Provided is an aquiculture device using wet fog in which culture fluid and pure water are alternately sprayed by two spraying device, room humidification effect is provided by device of spraying pure water, and device of spraying the culture fluid is washed with water, and thus vibrator is not impaired by the culture fluid. The aquiculture device comprises a body(1) a water storage part(2) for storing a pure water at the bottom of the body(1) a culture fluid storage part(3) at the upper part of one side of the body(1) a culturing room(4) formed at the upper part of the other side of the body(1) a double structure of support layer(41) and a filtering layer(42) which have space(43) therebetween a first spray device(5) and a second spray device(6) installed in the water storage part(2). In the device, pure water and culture fluid are alternately supplied from the water storage part(2) and the culture fluid storage part(3).

CHOI JIN YOUNG; PARK DEOK JAE

339

Long-term consumption of fermented dairy products over 6 months increases HDL cholesterol.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the hypocholesterolaemic effect of yoghurt supplemented with Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum 913 in women. DESIGN: The cross-over study consisted of three periods (7 weeks each): first period, control yoghurt for all 29 women; second period, probiotic yoghurt for 18 women, control yoghurt for 11 women; third period, the reverse of that in the second period. SETTING: Department of Nutritional Physiology, Institute of Nutritional Science, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena. SUBJECTS: Twenty-nine healthy women, aged 19-56 y. Fifteen of these were normocholesterolaemic and 14 women were hypercholesterolaemic. INTERVENTION: Yoghurt (300 g) daily containing 3.5% fat and starter cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and L. lactis. Probiotic yoghurt was the control yoghurt enriched with L. acidophilus 145, B. longum 913 and 1% oligofructose (synbiotic). RESULTS: The mean serum concentration of total cholesterol and the LDL cholesterol was not influenced by the synbiotic (P>0.05). The HDL concentration increased significantly by 0.3 mmol/l (P=0.002). The ratio of LDL/HDL cholesterol decreased from 3.24 to 2.48 (P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The long-term daily consumption of 300 g yoghurt over a period of 21 weeks (control and synbiotic) increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol and lead to the desired improvement of the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio.

Kiessling G; Schneider J; Jahreis G

2002-09-01

340

Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO) and tallow (T) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the incl (more) usion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P

Fascina, VB; Carrijo, AS; Souza, KMR; Garcia, AML; Kiefer, C; Sartori, JR

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determined. Lee's agar was used to count Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus when B. lactis were counted in the MRS medium. B. lactis and L. acidophilus in both free and immobilized forms presented satisfactory rates of survival in milk and acidified milk because the average reduction of the population was only one log cycle after 21 days of storage. The number of viable cells of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt presented a gradual decline throughout the storage period, passing from 10(8) cfu/ml to no count after 28 days of storage. When the cultures were not in equilibrium just the selective medium was efficient in counting B. lactis in yoghurt. The results showed that both microorganisms can be added to milk and acidified milk, because their population was only slightly affected during storage. The presence of traditional culture of yoghurt seems to be harmful for survival of immobilized B. lactis and the immobilization in calcium alginate failed as an effective barrier to protect the cells in all analysed treatments.Este trabalho avaliou a estabilidade de Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) e de Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) nas formas livre e imobilizada em alginato de cálcio, em leite e leite acidificado (pHs 5.0, 4.4 e 3.8), e a estabilidade de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte (fermentado até pH 4.2), durante 28 dias de estocagem refrigerada. Também foi estudada a eficiência de dois meios de cultura (ágar MRS modificado e Reinforced Clostridial Agar, acrescido de Prussian Blue) para enumerar B. lactis em iogurte. Ágar Lee foi usado para enumeração de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus quando B. lactis era enumerado no meio MRS. Ambos os microrganismos, nas formas livre e imobilizada, apresentaram uma taxa de sobrevivência adequada nos leites acidificados, uma vez que houve redução de apenas um ciclo log, após 21 dias de estocagem refrigerada. O número de células viáveis de B. lactis imobilizado mostrou um declínio gradual durante o período de armazenamento do iogurte, passando de 10(8) ufc/ml até não ter mais contagem na diluição 10-1. Quando as culturas não estavam em equilíbrio, o meio MRS modificado foi mais eficiente para a contagem de B. lactis em iogurte. Em vista destes resultados pode-se concluir que ambos os microrganismos podem ser incorporados em leite e leite acidificados, haja visto que a redução na população foi pequena durante o período de armazenagem estudado. A presença da cultura tradicional de iogurte parece ter afetado negativamente a sobrevivência de B. lactis e a imobilização não proveu proteção às células, em nenhum dos tratamentos estudados.

Carlos Raimundo Ferreira Grosso; Carmen Sílvia Fávaro-Trindade

2004-01-01

342

Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt/ Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho avaliou a estabilidade de Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) e de Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) nas formas livre e imobilizada em alginato de cálcio, em leite e leite acidificado (pHs 5.0, 4.4 e 3.8), e a estabilidade de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte (fermentado até pH 4.2), durante 28 dias de estocagem refrigerada. Também foi estudada a eficiência de dois meios de cultura (ágar MRS modificado e Reinforced Clostridial Agar, acrescido de Prussian Blue (more) ) para enumerar B. lactis em iogurte. Ágar Lee foi usado para enumeração de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus quando B. lactis era enumerado no meio MRS. Ambos os microrganismos, nas formas livre e imobilizada, apresentaram uma taxa de sobrevivência adequada nos leites acidificados, uma vez que houve redução de apenas um ciclo log, após 21 dias de estocagem refrigerada. O número de células viáveis de B. lactis imobilizado mostrou um declínio gradual durante o período de armazenamento do iogurte, passando de 10(8) ufc/ml até não ter mais contagem na diluição 10-1. Quando as culturas não estavam em equilíbrio, o meio MRS modificado foi mais eficiente para a contagem de B. lactis em iogurte. Em vista destes resultados pode-se concluir que ambos os microrganismos podem ser incorporados em leite e leite acidificados, haja visto que a redução na população foi pequena durante o período de armazenagem estudado. A presença da cultura tradicional de iogurte parece ter afetado negativamente a sobrevivência de B. lactis e a imobilização não proveu proteção às células, em nenhum dos tratamentos estudados. Abstract in english This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis i (more) n yoghurt was determined. Lee's agar was used to count Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus when B. lactis were counted in the MRS medium. B. lactis and L. acidophilus in both free and immobilized forms presented satisfactory rates of survival in milk and acidified milk because the average reduction of the population was only one log cycle after 21 days of storage. The number of viable cells of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt presented a gradual decline throughout the storage period, passing from 10(8) cfu/ml to no count after 28 days of storage. When the cultures were not in equilibrium just the selective medium was efficient in counting B. lactis in yoghurt. The results showed that both microorganisms can be added to milk and acidified milk, because their population was only slightly affected during storage. The presence of traditional culture of yoghurt seems to be harmful for survival of immobilized B. lactis and the immobilization in calcium alginate failed as an effective barrier to protect the cells in all analysed treatments.

Grosso, Carlos Raimundo Ferreira; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen Sílvia

2004-06-01

343

Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of starters and non-starters and playing positions in elite Australian Rules Football: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A purpose of this study was to determine if pre-season anthropometric and physiological measures were significantly different for the players from one Australian Football League (AFL) club selected to play in the first game of the season compared to the players not selected. Another purpose was to compare fitness test results for defenders, forwards and mid-fielders in the same AFL club. Thirty-four players were tested for isolated quadriceps and hamstrings strength, leg extensor muscle strength and power, upper body strength, sprinting speed, vertical jump (VJ), endurance, skinfolds and hamstring flexibility. The starters who were selected to play the first game were a significantly older and more experienced playing group, and were significantly better (p < 0.05) in measures of leg power, sprinting speed and the distance covered in the Yo Yo intermittent recovery test compared to the non-starters. Although there were trends for the superiority of the starters, the differences in lower and upper body strength, VJ and predicted VO2max were non-significant. The forwards generally produced the worst fitness scores of the playing positions with the midfielders having significantly lower skinfolds and the defenders possessing better hamstring strength and VJ compared to the forwards. It was concluded that some fitness qualities can differentiate between starters and non-starters, at least in one AFL club. Comparisons of playing positions and the development of fitness norms for AFL players require further research.

Young WB; Newton RU; Doyle TL; Chapman D; Cormack S; Stewart G; Dawson B

2005-09-01

344

Efecto de la concentración de cultivos iniciadores y dextrosa sobre la calidad de la maduración y vida útil sensorial del pepperoni/ Effect of the concentration of starter cultures and dextrose on the quality of the maturation and the sensory life of pepperoni/ Efeito da concentração de cultivos iniciadores e dextrose sobre a qualidade da maturação e vida útil sensorial do pepperoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Introdução. A automatização dos processos na indústria cárnica, e a combinação entre cultivos de rápida fermentação e substratos fermentables que permitam elaborar produtos madurados secos de alta qualidade em curto tempo e com novas características sensoriais são os fatores a ter em conta para melhorar, estandarizar e diminuir o tempo de elaboração tradicional deste tipo de alimentos, permitindo às empresas cárnicas diversificar seus produtos e proporcio (more) nar ao consumidor alimentos com novos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demonstrar as vantagens de controlar os parâmetros de temperatura e umidade, em câmara de estufaje e a incorporação de diferentes dosificações de cultivo iniciador e dextrose nas etapas de fermentação, maturação, e na conservação do pepperoni. Materiais e métodos. Para avaliar o efeito das concentrações de dextrose e cultivos iniciadores sobre a maturação do pepperoni, avaliaram-se 4 combinações entre as concentrações 0.03% e 0.05% do cultivo Bactoferm LHP, e 0.5% e 1% de dextrose. A fermentação e maturação se realizou em condições controladas de umidade e temperatura. O tempo de vida útil foi avaliado num período de 100 dias, analisando as características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais do alimento cada 30 dias, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. As principais diferenças encontradas, durante o armazenamento, nos pepperoni com percentagens maiores de 0,5 de dextrose, foi a aparição de defeitos no produto final como cores marrons, sabor ácido e gorduroso nos produtos finais. Pelo contrário, concentrações de 0,03% de cultivo starter e 0,5% de dextrose permitiram obter produtos com maior retenção de umidade, melhorando a aparência e textura do produto. O estudo de vida útil do pepperoni determinou que os tratamentos avaliados garantiram a inocuidad do produto por 94 dias a 26° C, como resultado do efeito sinérgico dos metabólitos das bactérias ácido-lácticas, que evitaram o desenvolvimento de microorganismos alterantes e patogênicos. Conclusão. A utilização de dextrose como substrato fermentable para os cultivos iniciadores foi essencial para controlar a velocidade de acidificación do pepperoni durante a fermentação, e evitar assim o rápido descenso do PH e a formação de defeitos sensoriais no produto final; desta maneira, consegue-se a estabilidade sensorial do produto em condições de armazenamento ao ambiente. Abstract in spanish Introducción. La automatización de los procesos en la industria cárnica, y la combinación entre cultivos de rápida fermentación y sustratos fermentables que permitan elaborar productos madurados secos de alta calidad en corto tiempo y con nuevas características sensoriales son los factores a tener en cuenta para mejorar, estandarizar y disminuir el tiempo de elaboración tradicional de este tipo de alimentos, permitiendo a las empresas cárnicas diversificar sus pr (more) oductos y proporcionar al consumidor alimentos con nuevos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demostrar las ventajas de controlar los parámetros de temperatura y humedad, en cámara de estufaje, y la incorporación de diferentes dosificaciones de cultivo iniciador y dextrosa en las etapas de fermentación, maduración, y en la conservación del pepperoni. Materiales y métodos. Para evaluar el efecto de las concentraciones de dextrosa y cultivos iniciadores sobre la maduración del pepperoni, se evaluaron 4 combinaciones entre las concentraciones 0.03% y 0.05% del cultivo Bactoferm LHP, y 0.5% y 1% de dextrosa. La fermentación y maduración se realizó en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura. El tiempo de vida útil fue evaluado en un período de 100 días, analizando las características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales del alimento cada 30 días, durante el almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. Las principales diferencias encontradas, durante el almacenamiento, en los pepperoni con porcentajes mayores de 0,5

Montes Álvarez, Julio; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia; Patiño Gómez, Jairo; Cano Salazar, Jaime Andrés

2013-01-01

345

Diagnostik af kræft hos børn starter i almen praksis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hvert år får mellem 150 og 170 børn i Danmark konstateret kræft. Almen praksis spiller en central rolle i vurderingen af syge børn – også af de få børn, der viser sig at have kræft. Denne artikel ser nærmere på, hvornår og hvordan en begrundet mistanke om kræftsygdom hos børn opstår, og hvordan forløbene er i Danmark. En af kernekompetencerne for den praktiserende læge er at kunne skelne de relativt få alvorligt syge fra de mange patienter med forbi¬gående symptomer. Mange symptomer på banal og alvorlig sygdom ligner nemlig hinanden. Udenlandske studier viser, at der tit går lang tid, fra barnet får de første symptomer, til behandlingen starter. Samtidig kan en hurtig diagnose være afgørende for udviklingen af sygdommen. Der er behov for mere viden om børn, der henvender sig i almen praksis med vage eller vedvarende symptomer. Måske kan lægesøgning ses som en markør for debut af symptomer og dermed anvendes som indikator for eventuel kræftsygdom? Viden om symptomer er relevant både for uddannelse af alment praktiserende læger og for udviklingen af kliniske retningslinjer, herunder kræftpakker for børn.

Ahrensberg, Jette MØller; Vedsted, Peter

2013-01-01

346

Efeito do tratamento térmico do leite na qualidade do iogurte/ Effect of milk heat treatment on yoghurt quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O efeito do tratamento térmico do leite na qualidade do iogurte foi investigado aquecendo-se leite em banho-maria a 65°C por 30 min., 75°C por 10, 20 e 30 min., e 85°C por 10, 20 e 30 min.. A qualidade do iogurte foi avaliada por um painel de dez degustadores, utilizando-se a escala hedônica. Aos degustadores foi pedido julgarem o aroma, sabor e consistência do produto. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou uma preferência significativa pelo produto feito (more) com o leite tratado a 85°C por 30 minutos, embora os produtos obtidos a partir dos tratamentos térmicos a 75°C por 10, 20 e 30 minutos tenham sido efetivos em produzir o iogurte com as características de pH e ací-dez titulável desejáveis. Abstract in english Effect of milk treatment on yoghurt quality was investigated by heating the milk in water bath at 65°C for 30 min., 75°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. and 85°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Yoghurt quality was evaluated by a ten trained panelists using a hedonic scale from 0 to 6. The panelists were asked to judge flavor and consistence of the product. The statistical analysis of the results showed a significant preference for the product made from milk heat-treated at 85°C for 30 minutes, although the products made from milk heated at 75°C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes had pH and titratable acidity as desired.

Araújo, W.M.C.; Caruso, J.G.B.; Oliveira, A.J.de

1989-01-01

347

Classification of lytic bacteriophages attacking dairy Leuconostoc starter strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A set of 83 lytic dairy bacteriophages (phages) infecting flavor-producing mesophilic starter strains of the Leuconostoc genus was characterized, and the first in-depth taxonomic scheme was established for this phage group. Phages were obtained from different sources, i.e., from dairy samples originating from 11 German dairies (50 Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides [Ln. pseudomesenteroides] phages, 4 Ln. mesenteroides phages) and from 3 external phage collections (17 Ln. pseudomesenteroides phages, 12 Ln. mesenteroides phages). All phages belonged to the Siphoviridae family of phages with isometric heads (diameter, 55 nm) and noncontractile tails (length, 140 nm). With the exception of one phage (i.e., phage ?LN25), all Ln. mesenteroides phages lysed the same host strains and revealed characteristic globular baseplate appendages. Phage ?LN25, with different Y-shaped appendages, had a unique host range. Apart from two phages (i.e., phages P792 and P793), all Ln. pseudomesenteroides phages shared the same host range and had plain baseplates without distinguishable appendages. They were further characterized by the presence or absence of a collar below the phage head or by unique tails with straight striations. Phages P792 and P793 with characteristic fluffy baseplate appendages could propagate only on other specific hosts. All Ln. mesenteroides and all Ln. pseudomesenteroides phages were members of two (host species-specific) distinct genotypes but shared a limited conserved DNA region specifying their structural genes. A PCR detection system was established and was shown to be reliable for the detection of all Leuconostoc phage types.

Ali Y; Kot W; Atamer Z; Hinrichs J; Vogensen FK; Heller KJ; Neve H

2013-06-01

348

Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO) and tallow (T) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01), as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01) body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05) as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

VB Fascina; AS Carrijo; KMR Souza; AML Garcia; C Kiefer; JR Sartori

2009-01-01

349

Evaluation of genetic polymorphism among Lactobacillus rhamnosus non-starter Parmigiano Reggiano cheese strains.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) is an Italian cooked, long-ripened cheese made with unheated cow's milk and natural whey starter. The microflora is involved in the manufacturing of this cheese, arising from the natural whey starter, the raw milk and the environment. Molecular studies have shown that mesophilic non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) are the dominant microflora present during the ripening of PR. In this study, a characterisation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from a single PR manufacturing and ripening process is reported, using a combination of genotypic fingerprinting techniques (RAPD-PCR and REP-PCR). The intraspecies heterogeneity evidenced for 66 strains is correlated to their abilities to adapt to specific environmental and technological conditions. The detection of biotypes that correlate with specific moments in cheese ripening or differential development throughout this process suggests that these strains may have specific roles closely linked to their peculiar technological properties.

Bove CG; De Dea Lindner J; Lazzi C; Gatti M; Neviani E

2011-01-01

350

The Crankshaft Starter Generator Sachs dynastart; Der Kurbelwellen-Startergenerator Sachs DynaStart  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mannesmann Sachs has been developing electric drives for automotive applications for ten years. One of the most interesting example for the application of the approved Sachs motor technology is the Crankshaft Starter Generator CSG. The CSG combines the conventional starter and the generator into a single unit offering a significantly improved performance and novel functionalities as well. (orig.) [German] Das Auto wird zunehmend elektrifiziert. Der Antriebsstrang bleibt bei diesem Trend nicht aussen vor. Neben der Automatisierung von Kupplung und Getriebe mittels elektromechanischer Aktuatoren eroeffnet die Integration einer elektrischen Maschine - zum Beispiel in das Schwungrad, die Kupplung oder das Zweimassenschwungrad (ZMS) - attraktive Moeglichkeiten hinsichtlich Funktionalitaet, Effizienz und Kompaktheit. (orig.)

Weimer, J.; Sattler, M.; Baumeister, J. [Mannesmann Sachs AG, Schweinfurt (Germany). Produktbereich Automatisierung und Elektrische Antriebssysteme

2000-06-01

351

Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis of Transients of Induction Motor with Soft Starter Startup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the parameters of the machine and of the soft starter on the dynamics of the induction machine start. In order to evaluate the effects of this variation we have used a design of experiments (DOE). The situations may reproduce actual situations occurred in practice, for example the variation of initial voltage Ui , modification of the start time and load value. In the present paper we have investigated the relation between the inrush current, volt