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Sample records for yoghurt starter cultures

  1. Dosage of starter culture influences gel formation and physico-chemical properties of yoghurt made from zebu milk

    OpenAIRE

    Olorunnisomo, Olusola A.; Adedoyin Saudat Adewumi

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the optimum dosage of starter culture for yoghurt produced from zebu milk, fresh milk was inoculated with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25g/L of freeze-dried starter culture. Proximate composition, gel formation, pH, sensory properties and acceptance of yoghurts inoculated with different dosage of starter culture were evaluated after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h of incubation. Total solids, protein and carbohydrate content of yoghurts increased significantly (p20>15>10>5 g/L. Increasing dos...

  2. Comparative Studies on Folate Production and Parameter Optimization in Fermented Milk from Yoghurt Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. (Dr. Subir Kundu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the several causes reported for neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, deficiency of folate is one of the important reasons to be considered. Folate, water soluble vitamin, plays significant role in metabolic reactions. Humans cannot synthesize folate itself hence supplements and natural food sources are advisable to consume. Supplements have severe side effects on long term usage. Although milk is a poor soucrce of folate however folate producing microorganisms can enhance the folate content in the fermented milk. In this study, yogurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM No. 2904 and Lactobacillus helveticus NCIM No. 2733 were selected. Both the cultures were grown in MRS media and production was checked in reconstituted nonfat dry milk medium. Folate production was analysed by the TLC method and the modified ninhydrin assay which is not previously used on food products. Both cultures produced the folate in the fermented milk however S. thermophilus was found to be the best producer. After the production, optimization of culture condition such as temperature, pH, age of inoculum, inoculum volume and carbon source i.e. lactose concentration was carried out to obtain the enhanced folate content. S. thermophilus and L. helveticus gave the maximum production at 40°C and 37°C respectively and optimum pH was found to be 6.5 for both the cultures. Optimum age of inoculum was observed as the 15 hr while 5% inoculum volume was found to be optimum. Lactose concentration i.e. carbon source was also optimized and 2% lactose was found to be the optimum for the maximum folate production.

  3. Producing Yoghurt with the Rumex Acetocella (RA) Plant as the Starter and Comparing its Certain Characteristics with That Yoghurt Produced with the Yoghurt Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Uysal; Gokhan Kavas; Ozer Kimik

    2003-01-01

    In this study, two separate portions of yoghurt was produced from the yoghurt starter (YC) and the Rumex acetocella extract (RE). Then they were stored at ?4?C for 10 days. Some properties of both yoghurts were analysed on the 1st, 5th and 10th day of storage. According to the results, the effect of starter kinds a whey-off values and the number of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus were not significant. So when studied with respect to its sensory properties, RE yoghurts were like...

  4. STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavezenova I. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

  5. Starter cultures for kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mo-Eun; Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Jong-Hee; Park, Hae-Woong; Choi, Hak-Jong; Kim, Tae-Woon

    2015-05-28

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean vegetable product that is naturally fermented by various microorganisms present in the raw materials. Among these microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria dominate the fermentation process. Natural fermentation with unsterilized raw materials leads to the growth of various lactic acid bacteria, resulting in variations in the taste and quality of kimchi, which may make it difficult to produce industrial-scale kimchi with consistent quality. The use of starter cultures has been considered as an alternative for the industrial production of standardized kimchi, and recent trends suggest that the demand for starter cultures is on the rise. However, several factors should be carefully considered for the successful application of starter cultures for kimchi fermentation. In this review, we summarize recent studies on kimchi starter cultures, describe practical problems in the application of industrial-scale kimchi production, and discuss the directions for further studies. PMID:25674806

  6. The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayitno

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 109 : 109 (1 : 1, 109 : 2x109 (1 : 2 and 2x109 : 109 (2 : 1, and second factor was percentage (S of starter, with were 1, 2, 3 and 4 percent. Each treatment has three replicated. Variabels measured ware lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt after 12 hours fermented. Lactic acid content was determined by titration and lactose content by spectrofotometry. Result showed that number of Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and percentage of starter, including ther interaction, have very hight significant (P<0,01 affect on lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt. For resulted the yoghurt with the best quality (midle of lactic acid and lower lactose content recommended to used Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 1 : 2 with 4 percent starter addition. (Animal Production 8(2: 131-136 (2006 Key Words : Streptococus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, starter, yoghurt, lactic acid, lactose

  7. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets.

  8. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Guldas

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w) %) and withou...

  9. Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei

    OpenAIRE

    Sedarnawati Yasni; Ayuni Maulidya

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation fro...

  10. Yoghurt Production Using Soyamilk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyamilk was extracted from soaked dehulled crushed soyabeans by mixing with water and then filtering using a muslim cloth to separate the milk from residue. The filtered soyamilk was then pasteurised to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and undesirable enzymes. The extracted soyamilk had a lower acidity (0.03%) and fat content (1.0%) than cows milk (0.14 and 3.5% acidity and fat content respectively). Organoleptic (sensory) evaluation was carried by a panel and the results were analysed using the Anova an mean separation by using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Quality attributes of soyamilk that were significant (P > 0.05) affected were consistency and flavour. A 75:25 (cow milk:soyamilk) was not significantly different from 100% cow milk. The 25:75 cow milk:soyamilk and 100% soyamilk were not acceptable because of poor consistency and objectionable flavour. The fermented soyamilk yoghurt had a higher acceptability rating than fresh soyamilk. The sensory evaluation results showed that the 75:25 and 50:50 ( cow to soyamilk) yoghurt were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control (100% cow yoghurt). The 25:75 and 0:100 (cow milk:soyamilk yoghurt) had low rating and categorised as poor. By increasing the sugar content and amount of emulsifier (gelatin), the acceptability of 25:75 and 0:100 soyamilk yoghurt was improved. Fermentation using yoghurt starter culture improved the flavour and taste

  11. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elok Zubaedah1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50?C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

  12. Isolation and Identification of Lactococci from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

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    M.H. Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactococci isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 28 Lactococci were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional yoghurt. However, in the future can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Leuconostocs from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

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    N. Taarof

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Leuconostocs isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 34 Leuconostoc were determined. Additionally, our biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional yoghurt. However in the future, we can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

  14. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, Uduak G.; Mohammed, Abdullahi D.; Aminu, Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum) preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days r...

  15. Improving Quality of Yoghurt By Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out to study the possibility to utilize gamma irradiation to activate starter culture during incubation period and prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt. Starter culture of yoghurt was subjected to gamma irradiation with 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Gy to activate the starter then yoghurt was made. Effect of irradiation dose on titratable acidity and the sensory evaluation of all samples were evaluated during incubation period. The obtained results indicated that the irradiation doses 30, 35 and 40 Gy activated the starter and caused significant decreased of incubation period from 4 h to 3.5 h while irradiation doses that less than 30 Gy and more than 40 Gy did not significantly effect. Yoghurt samples were subjected to gamma irradiation with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy to prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt samples. The sensory, microbial and chemical properties of yoghurt samples were evaluated during cold storage. The obtained results indicated that the counts of total viable bacteria, molds and yeasts were decreased by applying gamma irradiation. Irradiation treatment caused significant decrease in acidity. The overall acceptability scores, total solid and ph value of all treatments were gradually decreased as the storage period proceeded while total nitrogen of all treatments was not affected. In addition, treatments of yoghurt with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy prolonged the shelf-life to 20, 28 and 36 days as compared to 12 days for control treatm as compared to 12 days for control treatment

  16. Effect of Lactococcin BZ and Enterocin KP on the Activity of Yoghurt Cultures

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    Nilgün Öncül

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of lactococcin BZ from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis BZ and enterocin KP from Enterococcus faecalis KP (1600 AU/mL on the activities of three different yoghurt cultures (Y1 and Y2: CHR Hansen, Denmark; Y3: Sacco, Italy were investigated. Lactic acid bacteria counts and pH values of the samples were determined during the incubation period (at 42°C for 24 h. It was found that lactococcin BZ had bactericidal effect against only one yoghurt culture whereas enterocin KP was effective against two yoghurt cultures. When lactococcin BZ and enterosin KP were used in combination (1:1, they showed bactericidal effect against two yoghurt cultures.

  17. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained) yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Kesenka?

    2010-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu...

  18. The Production of Set-Type-Bio-Yoghurt with Commercial Probiotic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz-ersan, L.; Kurdal, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the yoghurt and bio-yoghurt were produced using different commercial probiotic combinations of S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp., L. lactis and L. casei. The samples were analyzed for microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties at a 5-day interval during storage. Culture combinations and storage time significantly influenced some properties of the samples. While titratable acidity and lactic acid (%) increased, syneresis, pH, la...

  19. SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan

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    Widaningrum3

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Leuconostocs from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

    OpenAIRE

    Taarof, N.; Zamani, M. H.; Karimi Jashni, M.; Shah Ahmad Ghasemi, M.; Khalegh Babaki, A.; Azadnia, P.

    2011-01-01

    Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Leuconostocs isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 34 Leuconostoc were determined. Additionally, our biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures in order to protect the t...

  1. Isolation and Identification of Lactococci from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, M. H.; Karimi Jashni, M.; Davanian Mohaghegh, M.; Shah Ahmad Ghasemi, M.; Azadnia, P.; Khalegh Babaki, A.; Taarof, N.

    2011-01-01

    Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactococci isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 28 Lactococci were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical ...

  2. Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas / Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréia, Cirolini; Leadir Lucy Martins, Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra; Liana Inês Guidolin, Milani; Diala, Urnau; Bibiana Alves dos, Santos; Giovanna Dotta, Cervo; Ana Paula de Souza, Rezer.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, [...] e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated [...] from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were performed: T1 - addition of commercial starters (Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mixture of isolated Staphylococcus xylosus plus commercial Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T3 - mixture of isolated Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis plus commercial Staphylococcus xylosus; and T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis both isolated. The treatments showed a significant decrease of pH and reduction in the Aw ensuring microbiological safety to the products. With regard to lipid oxidation, the treatments that contained isolated strains of Staphylococcus xylosus presented significantly lower values than the other treatments. The sausages elaborated with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, both strains isolated, presented better sensorial results than the sausages elaborated with commercial starter cultures. Therefore, the addition of native starter cultures can be used in the elaboration of fermented Italian sausages providing safe products with differentiated flavor.

  3. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Kesenka?

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

  4. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  5. Effect of Some Selected Processing Routes on the Nutritional Value of Soy Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Adetunji, O. A.; Betiku, E.; Ojo, A.; Solomon, B. O.

    2006-01-01

    The processing methods of soymilk were investigated with major focus on their effects on the nutritional values of soy yoghurt. Various chemicals such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and deionized water were used for treating different samples of soybeans. Soy yoghurt was prepared from the soymilk obtained from all the samples using a mixed starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The yoghu...

  6. The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R) of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactoba...

  7. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovi? Spasenija D.; Cari? Marijana ?.; ?uri? Mirjana S.; Ili?i? Mirela D.; Durakovi? Katarina G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12%) on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat). Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark)...

  9. Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedarnawati Yasni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

  10. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p?0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P?0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  11. YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalalitha, V.; Palani Dorai, R.; Dhanalakshmi, B.; Elango, A.; Naresh Kumar, C.

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion) by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with contr...

  12. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian A Gogo; Kennedy O. Gogo; Peter L. Shalo; Symon Maina Mahungu

    2012-01-01

    High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v) and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v). Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v), were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v). The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v) Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bat...

  13. YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Jayalalitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with control yoghurt (P<0.05 in every week interval of storage period. In control yoghurt at 21 days of storage, lactobacillus survived four log units and bifidobacterium survived six log units. Extrusion method of encapsulation using alginate (2.0 % w/v +gelatin (2.0 % w/v +starch (0.5 w/v as wall materials provides maximum viability (9 log units for probiotics in yoghurt throughout the storage period of 21 days.

  14. Traditionally produced sauerkraut as source of autochthonous functional starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovi?, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Uroi?, Ksenija; Joki?, Mladen; Šuškovi?, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous sauerkraut fermentation was performed at industrial scale in "Prehrana Inc.", Varaždin, in order to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which were evaluated according probiotic criteria and tested for their capacity as probiotic starter cultures. At the end of the spontaneous sauerkraut fermentation, total LAB counts reached 9.0×10(5) CFU/ml. This underlines that the need for addition of the well characterised probiotic cultures, in appropriate viable cell counts, would be valuable in probiotic sauerkraut production. Phenotypic characterisation through API 50 CHL and SDS-PAGE of cell protein patterns revealed that Lactobacillus plantarum is predominant LAB strain in homofermentative phase of fermentation. Autochthonous LAB isolates SF1, SF2, SF4, SF9 and SF15 were selected based on the survival in in vitro gastrointestinal tract conditions. RAPD fingerprints indicated that the selected autochthonous LAB were distinct from one another. All of the strains efficiently inhibited the growth of indicator strains and satisfied technological properties such as acidification rate, tolerance to NaCl and viability during freeze-drying. Strains Lb. paraplantarum SF9 and Lb. brevis SF15, identified by AFLP DNA fingerprints, have shown the best properties to be applied as probiotic starter cultures, because of their highest adhesion to Caco-2 cells and expression of specific, protective S-layer proteins of 45 kDa in size. With addition of these strains, probiotic attribute of the sauerkraut will be achieved, including health promoting, nutritional, technological and economic advantages in large scale industrial sauerkraut production. PMID:24797236

  15. Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms are incorporated to make them more valuable. This article provides an overview of the different starter cultures and health benefits of fer-mented dairy products, which can be derived by the consumers through their regular intake.

  16. Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy-Corn Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research efforts in the developing countries have been geared towards the improvement of protein quality foods using blends of legume and cereal which is considered a nutritionally balanced product. Therefore, this present study is aimed at finding local substitute for milk based product with high protein content of a well balancing amino acid composition and high digestibility; determining the proximate composition, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation of soy-corn yoghurt with a view of knowing the consumer acceptability of the product. Yoghurt samples were produced from blends of soymilk and corn milk (yellow maize corn using Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. Ratio of soy milk to corn milk were 80%:20%; 70%:30% and 100% soymilk as control. The yoghurt samples produced were coded A, B and C representing 100% soy yoghurt, 80%:20% soy corn yoghurt and 70%:30% soy corn yoghurt respectively. Yoghurt samples were subjected to chemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment. The results of chemical analysis revealed protein contents of 4.30, 4.00 and 3.70% respectively for the samples. Fat contents varied between 2.10 and 2.60%, while ash contents of 0.50, 0.60 and 0.62% were obtained for the samples respectively. Total solids of between 10.98 and 8.80% were obtained with titratable acidity of 0.03, 0.05 and 0.06%, respectively. The carbohydrate contents of the samples ranged from 1.40 to 4.50% while all the samples showed fairly acidic levels. Water contents of between 89.00 and 91.20% were obtained. The microbiological examination revealed a tolerable level for all the samples.

  17. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O?uz GÜRSOY

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of these products were determined and compared. Generally, except the consistency sensed in mouth, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties were approximately same. Finally, these products were healthier than other yoghurt products, because of the amount of low fat and containing therapeutic bacteria.

  18. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulovi? Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug?1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug?1 for streptococci and >106 cfug?1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  19. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of ?s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  20. Effects of inoculation of commercial starter cultures on the quality and histamine accumulation in fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhui; Ren, Hongyang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Bai, Ting; Li, Junxia; Zhu, Wenyou

    2015-02-01

    To meet the requirements of high-quality safe products, starter cultures are used to produce fermented sausages. The effects of 3 commercial starter cultures, namely SM-194, T-SPX, and SM-181, on histamine accumulation and quality parameters including microbial quality, pH, water activity, and total volatile base nitrogen, as well as the color and texture properties, were evaluated during the fermentation and ripening of fermented sausages. Although initial counts of Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas were similar in the 4 batches, the growth of these microorganisms was significantly inhibited (P total volatile base nitrogen than the control sample during production (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it seems that the inoculation of commercial starter cultures, particularly starter cultures SM-194 and SM-181, contributes to improving microbial quality, hygienic quality and food safety of fermented sausages. PMID:25588615

  1. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  2. Fermentation profile and optimization of green olive fermentationusing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 as a starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Leal-sa?nchez, M. Vega; Ruiz-barba, Jose? Luis; Sa?nchez Go?mez, Antonio Higinio; Rejano Navarro, Luis; Jime?nez Di?az, Rufino; Garrido Ferna?ndez, A.

    2003-01-01

    The bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a strain originally isolated from an olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation. By means of a 23 (7 4) fractional factorial design, the salt concentration in brines was found to be the most important factor for producing the highest acidity and the highest initial population of the starter culture. To a lesser extent, other factors such as a high inoculum size, u...

  3. PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU [Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indratininingsih1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%, starch (16,66%, fat (11,56%, ash (7.73%, dry matter (87.57%, dietary fibre (33.35% and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%. The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

  4. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

  5. Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ili?i? Mirela D.; Cari? Marijana ?.; Milanovi? Spasenija D.; Doki? Ljubica P.; ?uri? Mirjana S.; Bošnjak Goran S.; Durakovi? Katarina G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C), on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat) during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark) were added to the milk at 43°...

  6. Use of RAPD-PCR as a method to follow the progress of starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plengvidhya, V; Breidt, F; Fleming, H P

    2004-06-15

    DNA fingerprinting methods were used to follow the progress of unmarked starter cultures in laboratory sauerkraut fermentations (1.2 and 13 l). Random prime PCR (RAPD-PCR) was used for strain-specific identification of Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultures. A comparative analysis of RAPD banding patterns for fermentation isolates and starter cultures was carried out using both genetically marked and unmarked cultures. While some variation in the RAPD patterns was observed, the results showed that the starter cultures dominated the fermentation during early heterofermentative stage for up to 5 days after the start of fermentation. Results from marked and unmarked starter cultures were confirmed by intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS)-PCR, and strain identify was confirmed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. The results demonstrate the utility of RAPD to follow the progression of unmarked starter cultures of L. mesenteroides in sauerkraut fermentations. PMID:15163585

  7. Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božani?

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition improved the consistency and sensory characteristic of the products. Probiotics yoghurt had slightly higher sensory properties. After hedonic scaleevaluation the control yoghurt samples and control probiotic yoghurt samples were not acceptable. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between investigated yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt, and Duncan test showed that yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt samples with additives were significantly different from others, i.e., they proved to be better then control samples.

  8. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture...

  9. Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Leblanc, A.; Perdigo?n, G.

    2005-01-01

    Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucur...

  10. Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., de Moreno de LeBlanc; G., Perdigón.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different [...] animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase). Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract) were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

  11. Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Moreno de LeBlanc

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase. Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

  12. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the survival of some strains, as pasteurized yogurts had no effect on their survival. In particular, the inhibitory effect exerted by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus on L. acidophilus NCFM was highly pronounced than by S. thermophilus, nevertheless, the same effect was not observed on SBT2062. The inhibition against stationary-phase NCFM cells might be caused by the elevated level of hydrogen peroxide produced by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Delineating factors driving the differences in survival trait among probiotic strains will lead to a more efficacious delivery of health benefits in fermented dairy products through targeted technological interventions. PMID:21196060

  13. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla, Santa; Renata Ernlund Freitas de, Macedo; Herta Stutz Dalla, Santa; Cristina Maria, Zanette; Renato João Sossela de, Freitas; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as [...] starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to

  14. Biochemical Properties of Some Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains from Traditional Fermented Milk Relevant to Their Technological Performance as Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambou Ngoufack Francois

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented milk and to study some of their important technological properties. Five isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditionally raw cow’s fermented milk were identified using phenotypic criteria and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell proteins. Four isolates named 2, 8, 13 and 20 FM were identified as Streptococcus thermophilus while isolate 285 N was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. All these strains exhibited good acidification activity although two strains of Sc. thermophilus (2FM, 20FM and Lb. bulgaricus (285N presented the best acidification rates. In addition to their fast acid production, strains 20FM and 285N produced exopolysaccharides. Based on these characteristics, strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N were selected and used as pure or mixed cultures in the manufacture of fermented milk. In mixed cultures, the Sc. thermophilus/Lb. bulgaricus association was positive for all combination tested. The combination of strain 285N with strain 2FM or 20FM had a significant effect on acid production by Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain (285N. These bacterial associations also affected the rheological properties of fermented milk samples. Strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N presented interesting biotechnological profiles and may influence the quality of fermented milk if they are used in association as starters in yoghurt manufacture.

  15. The Effects of Starter Cultures and Different Nitrite Doses on the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Sucuk Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Mu?kerrem; Go?kalp, Hu?snu? Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different nitrite doses (50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm NaNO2) and starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum + Staphylococcus carnosus, a commercial preparation) on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in sucuk (Turkish dry fermented sausage) were investigated. The initial inoculation of the L. monocytogenes was 104 cfu/g for each sucuk dough mix. At the beginning of the ripening period in sucuk samples containing different amounts of NaNO2 and without starter culture, L. monocytogen...

  16. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    2014-01-01

    Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters that were selected on their ability to produce aroma compounds in butter. Although the heterofermentative species are present in the starters and in the cheeses made with these starters, they have not been studied to the same extent as the Lactococcus population. Heterofermentative strains isolated from DL-starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low aminopeptidase activity compared to Lactobacillus danicus and especially Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris had a low and narrow activity. Aminotransferase activity was high on aromatic amino acids for Lb. danicus, and the Leuconostoc species had an activity similar to Lb. danicus only after growth in CBM. A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria at the time. Differences were seen in the establishment of the heterofermentative bacteria in the cheese matrix, Le. pseudomesenteroides and Lb. danicus grew to a higher number and survived longer than Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. More secondary alcohols and less acetoin were found in cheeses where the heterofermentative bacteria grew and were established well. The biodiversity of heterofermentative bacteria in DL-starters was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the strains were characterizedwith 16s rRNA sequencing and carbohydrate fermentation. The sugar fermentation results indicated an ongoing adaption of Le. mesenteroides to a dairy environment. The adaption from a plant environment to a dairy environment was also indicated in the draft genome sequences of strains Le. pseudomesenteroides 1159, PS12 and Le. mesenteroides subsp. cmreoris T26. The dairy strains had, in comparison with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL-starters contained numerous of strains of heterofermentative Le. mesenteroides, whereas Le. pseudomesenteroides and  only were found in some starters. The potential of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria to effect the flavour formation in cheese seems to be dependent on how well they grow and establish themselves in the cheese matrix. Lb. danicus had metabolic activities that lead to gas formation in the cheese matrix after nine weeks of ripening, indicating that it behaved more like non-starter Lactobacillus in cheese. The genetic information obtained gave insight in the metabolism of Leuconostoc and gave rise to numerous of new topics for further research in this area.

  17. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  18. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Domenico Cerri; Ebani, Valentina V.; Francesca Pedonese; Filippo Fratini; Roberta Nuvoloni; Barbara Turchi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany), to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control...

  19. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  20. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level. PMID:22833739

  1. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AldoCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signi?cance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  2. The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added (10% w/w to the processed cow’s milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profi le analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive fl avour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. Results. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper fl avours were dominating in the fermented milks fortifi ed with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin fl avours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not infl uenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Conclusions. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable fl avour.

  3. A novel Lactobacillus pentosus-paired starter culture for Spanish-style green olive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

    2012-05-01

    A new starter culture consisting of two Lactobacillus pentosus strains was developed and successfully used for Spanish-style green olive fermentations in an industrial study. The inoculum, consisting of L. pentosus LP RJL2 and LP RJL3 strains, was inoculated in 10,000 kg glass fiber containers at 10? CFU/ml and 10? CFU/ml, final concentration respectively, in five different olive processing plants in the south of Spain. As a control, uninoculated fermentors were also used. In all inoculated fermentors, the paired starter rapidly colonized the brines to dominate the natural microbiota and persisted throughout fermentation. A decline in pH to reach about 5.0 was achieved in the first 15-20 days, reaching about 4.0 at the end of the process. The lactic acid concentration in brines increased rapidly in the first 20 days of fermentation (0.3-0.4 g/100 ml) to give values higher than 0.8 g/100 ml at the end of the process. In contrast, increasing lactic acid concentration was slower in uninoculated than in the inoculated brines, and the final concentrations were lower. Although reaching similar values at the end of the process, the decline in pH in uninoculated fermentors was slower than in the inoculated ones. These results show the efficacy of the new starter culture to control the lactic acid fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. PMID:22265309

  4. Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

    2010-05-12

    The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS. PMID:20405917

  5. Quantifying the Significance of Phage Attack on Starter Cultures: a Mechanistic Model for Population Dynamics of Phage and Their Hosts Isolated from Fermenting Sauerkraut§

    OpenAIRE

    Mudgal, P.; Breidt, F.; Lubkin, S R; Sandeep, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of using starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation and thereby reducing the quantity of salt used in the process. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of waste salt that would enter in our water resources. Phage, naturally present in sauerkraut fermentation, could potentially affect the starter cultures introduced. Thus, a mechanistic mathematical model was developed to quantify the growth kinetics of the phage and starter cultures. The model was validated ...

  6. Manufacturing of fermented goat milk with a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in a controlled bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kongo, J.M.; Gomes, A M; Malcata, F. X

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This work was undertaken to study the feasibility and the characteristics of a fermented product made of goat milk, using a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus under controlled conditions, and to determine their survival in the fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Methods and Results: Goat milk was inoculated with Lact. acidophilus and Bif. animalis mixed starter, fermented in a glass bioreactor with controlled temperatur...

  7. Dipeptidase activity and growth of heat-treated commercial dairy starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to heat treatment at 50-80 °C for 15 s, 10 and 3 min was delayed by a few or 10-20 h compared to the control culture. Based on the results achieved, it may be concluded that in the production of rennet cheeses, the application of additional, fermentation-impaired starter cultures (via heating for ten or so minutes) may serve to accelerate their ripening and to improve their sensory attributes. PMID:25542242

  8. Avaliação sensorial de pães de fermentação natural a partir de culturas starters inovadoras / Sensory evaluation of natural fermentation breads with innovative starter cultures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernanda, Martinbianco; André Rosa, Martins; Rosane, Rech; Simone Hickmann, Flôres; Marco Antônio Záchia, Ayub.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação sourdough para a produção de pães é fortemente motivada por seus efeitos benéficos quanto ao sabor, textura, vida de prateleira e pelas propriedades nutricionais dos produtos obtidos. Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a aplicação dos micro-organismos Kluyveromyces marxianus, Dekkera bruxellen [...] sis e Lactobacillus plantarum como culturas starters alternativas na produção de pães. A partir de sete ensaios resultantes de um delineamento de mistura simplex-centroide, foram realizadas nos pães análises sensorial e instrumental. Observou-se que pães produzidos com L. plantarum apresentaram menor volume específico, enquanto que a mistura entre K. marxianus e L. plantarum exerceu influência positiva, possibilitando obter produtos de maior volume específico. A análise sensorial demonstrou a boa aceitabilidade para os pães produzidos com a mistura entre D. bruxellensis e K. marxianus e para a mistura entre os três micro-organismos. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram a possibilidade do uso de culturas starters definidas para a fermentação sourdough, que é tradicionalmente obtida sem controle de processo. Abstract in english The sourdough fermentation in bread making is strongly motivated due to its beneficial aspects on flavor, texture, shelf life, and the nutritional properties of the obtained products. In this research, the yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Dekkera bruxellensis, and the bacterium Lactobacillus plant [...] arum were used as alternative starter cultures in bread making. Experimental designs generated from simplex-centroid mixture were used in the sensorial analyses of breads. Results have shown that bread obtained with pure cultures of L. plantarum presented the smallest specific volume, while the mixture of K. marxianus and L. plantarum positively influenced the formation of good specific volume of products. Sensorial analysis showed good acceptability for breads obtained with D. bruxellensis and K. marxianus mixture, as well as for the mixture of the three microorganisms. The results obtained in this research suggest the possibility of using defined starter cultures for sourdough fermentation, which is traditionally carried out without any process controls.

  9. Optimation Formula of Goat Milk Yoghurt and White Oyster Mushroom Powder with Mixture Design Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yulianti Fitri Kurnia; Sedarnawati Yasni; Budi Nurtama

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using lactic acid bacteria as a starter. As a probiotics, Lactobacillus achidophillus was applied in the making of symbiotic yoghurt with white oyster mushroom powder as a prebiotic source. The objective of this research was to optimize goat milk yoghurt formula by mixture design with three component (white oyster mushroom, skim milk and skim goat milk) and four responses (pH, viscosity, total titrated acid and lactid ...

  10. Whey valorisation: a complete and novel technology development for dairy industry starter culture production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Athanasios A; Papapostolou, Harris; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bosnea, Loulouda A

    2009-08-01

    Whey is the major by-product of the dairy industry, produced in large quantities and usually disposed off causing major environmental pollution, due to its high organic load that makes treatment cost prohibitive. This paper comprises a contribution on the valorisation of this high polluting liquid waste of the dairy industry, based on research for the production of novel dairy starter cultures using whey as raw material. Starter cultures are used for cheese ripening in order to: (i) accelerate ripening, (ii) improve quality and (iii) increase shelf-life. The developed technology involves biomass production from whey followed by thermal drying of cultures. Specifically, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and kefir yeasts were thermally dried, and their efficiency in lactose and milk whey fermentations was studied. The most suitable culture regarding its technological properties was kefir, which was used for cheese ripening in freeze-dried and thermally dried form. Besides the reduction of production cost, which is an essential requirement for the food industry, the use of thermally dried kefir displayed several other advantages such as acceleration of ripening, increase of shelf-life, and improvement of hard-type cheese quality. PMID:19254836

  11. Microbial ecology studies of spontaneous fermentation: starter culture selection for prickly pear wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Lerma, G K; Gutiérrez-Moreno, K; Cárdenas-Manríquez, M; Botello-Álvarez, E; Jiménez-Islas, H; Rico-Martínez, R; Navarrete-Bolaños, J L

    2011-08-01

    A procedure for designing starter cultures for fermentation is illustrated for prickly pear wine production. The illustration includes kinetic studies on inoculated and spontaneous fermentation, microorganism identification studies based on molecular biology tools, and microbial ecology studies, which led to the selection of strains that are capable of synthesizing alcohol and desirable volatile compounds. Results show that a mixed starter inoculum containing?Pichia fermentans?and?Saccharomyces cerevisiae?leads to a fermented product that contains 8.37% alcohol (v/v). The gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis shows the presence of 9 major volatile compounds (Isobutanol, Isopentanol, Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl octanoate, Ethyl decanoate, Ethyl 9-decanoate, ?-Phenylethyl acetate, and Phenylethyl alcohol) that have ethereal, fruity, aromatic notes that are considered to be essential for a fine wine flavor. These compounds harmonically synergize with the alcohol to produce a fermented product with a unique flavor and taste. Several assays using the mixed culture show that the process is stable, predictable, controllable, and reproducible. Moreover, the results show that a mixed culture leads to a broader range of aromatic products than that produced by a single, pure culture. Therefore, we conclude that combinations of?Saccharomyces?strains and?non-Saccharomyces?strains can be used to obtain high-quality fermented beverages from prickly pear juice. PMID:22417507

  12. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanningsmeier, Suzanne; McFeeters, Roger F; Fleming, Henry P; Thompson, Roger L

    2007-06-01

    Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0% to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and nonbiodegradable NaCl. The objective was to determine whether addition of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture to reduced-salt cabbage fermentations would yield sauerkraut with reproducible and acceptable chemical composition and sensory qualities. Shredded cabbage was salted with 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% NaCl (wt/wt) at 2 starter culture levels, none or L. mesenteroides strain LA 81, ATCC 8293 (10(6) CFU/g). Fermentation products were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography, and pH was measured during the initial stages of fermentation and after 10 mo storage at 18 degrees C. A trained descriptive sensory panel used category scales to rate the flavor and texture of selected sauerkrauts. A modified Kramer shear test was used to measure firmness. Cabbage fermented with L. mesenteroides consistently resulted in sauerkraut with firm texture and reduced off-flavors across all salt levels (P sauerkraut quality was highly variable, with softening and off-flavors occurring as salt concentrations were decreased in natural fermentations (P Fermentations were rapid, with a more uniform decline in pH when starter culture was added. L. mesenteroides addition to cabbage fermentations ensured that texture and flavor quality were retained, while allowing 50% NaCl reduction. Application of this technology to commercial sauerkraut production could improve the uniformity of fermentations and substantially reduce generation of nonbiodegradable chloride waste. PMID:17995739

  13. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  14. Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fachin, Luciano; Moryia, Juliana; Neves Ga?ndara, Ana Lourdes; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada

    2008-01-01

    The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrate...

  15. Effect of starter culture and turmeric on physico-chemical quality of carabeef pastirma

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, P.; Borpuzari, R. N.; Nath, D. R.; Nath, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    Carabeef samples were sliced, pressed, cured and divided into 6 groups. Starter cultures (Micrococcus varians M483 (MV), Staphylococcus carnosus (SC), Lactobacillus sakei (LS), M. varians M483+ Lb. sakei and Staph. carnosus + Lb. sakei) were inoculated at the dose of 106–07cfu/g and stored at 10 ± 1°C for 7 days. Uninoculated samples were maintained as control. Samples were then divided into 2 treatment groups. Samples of treatment 1 (T1) were smeared with a paste of turmeric followed by ...

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns and resistance genes of starter cultures and probiotic bacteria used in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Sabine; Perreten, Vincent; Bleuler, Helen; Hugenschmidt, Gabriel; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2006-03-01

    A survey of starter and probiotic cultures was carried out to determine the current antibiotic resistance situation in microbial food additives in Switzerland. Two hundred isolates from 90 different sources were typed by molecular and other methods to belong to the genera Lactobacillus (74 samples), Staphylococcus (33 samples), Bifidobacterium (6 samples), Pediococcus (5 samples), or were categorized as lactococci or streptococci (82 samples). They were screened for phenotypic resistances to 20 antibiotics by the disk diffusion method. Twenty-seven isolates exhibiting resistances that are not an intrinsic feature of the respective genera were further analyzed by microarray hybridization as a tool to trace back phenotypic resistances to specific genetic determinants. Their presence was finally verified by PCR amplification or Southern hybridization. These studies resulted in the detection of the tetracycline resistance gene tet(K) in 5 Staphylococcus isolates used as meat starter cultures, the tetracycline resistance gene tet(W) in the probiotic cultures Bifidobacterium lactis DSM 10140 and Lactobacillus reuteri SD 2112 (residing on a plasmid), and the lincosamide resistance gene lnu(A) (formerly linA) in L. reuteri SD 2112. PMID:16464696

  17. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada Mohammed Salih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p?0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p?0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p?0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p?0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p?0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded that camel milk yoghurt showed high coagulation time and the addition of skim milk powder to camel milk improved some physical properties of the yoghurt.

  18. The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsenzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (?g kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

  19. Additives in yoghurt production

    OpenAIRE

    Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija; Jasmina Havranek

    2008-01-01

    In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory at...

  20. Effect of kaolin and copper based products and of starter cultures on green table olive fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Cinzia L; Fava, Giovanni; Tomaselli, Filippo; Romeo, Flora V; Pennino, Giuseppe; Vitello, Euplio; Caggia, Cinzia

    2011-08-01

    In the present study table olives treated in field with kaolin and copper based products against "olive-fruit fly" were fermented using two selected strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The fermentation process was monitored up to 260 days from brining through physico-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyses. Results showed a dominance of LAB and yeasts and low level of Enterobacteriaceae counts throughout the whole process both in un-treated and treated samples. When investigating the effect of the single treatments on microbial dynamics, ANOVA results highlighted that copper based products affected significantly the control sample, while the sample inoculated with LAB starters maintained high level throughout the process, guaranteeing the fermentation process. Different behavior was revealed by yeasts population, which was partially influenced by copper treatment at the beginning of the fermentation. The polyphasic approach used in the present study, which combined sensory evaluation to microbial counts and physico-chemical characteristics, let to the conclusion on the importance of starter cultures in fermentation of table olives especially those treated with "non-conventional" pesticide, which could be used to prevent olive fly damage. PMID:21569933

  1. Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C . S, Fávaro Trindade; S. C, Terzi; L.C, Trugo; R. C, Della Modesta; S, Couri.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolvimento e avaliação sensorial de iogurte de soja. Foram elaborados iogurtes através da fermentação de leite de soja, usando uma cultura mista de Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. O leite de soja com 9(0) Brix foi homogeinizado sob pressão (17 MPa) e fermentado com e sem [...] adição de sacarose (2,0 e 2,5 g por 100 g) por 4, 5, 6 e 7 horas. Os iogurtes obtidos foram analisados em relação as características sensoriais, pH, acidez titulável, fitatos e oligossacarídeos. Foi obtido um iogurte com ótimas qualidades sensoriais, a partir do leite de soja homogeinizado, com adição de 2% de sacarose e fermentado por 6 h. Os microrganismos utilizados não produziram fitases e a-galactosidases e, consequentemente, os teores de a-galactosídeos e de fitatos não foram alterados pelo processamento Abstract in english Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 [...] and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and a-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the process

  2. Effects of pure starter cultures on physico-chemical and sensory quality of dry fermented Chinese-style sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Krishna P.; Zhang, Chunhui; Xia, Wen Shui

    2010-01-01

    Dry fermented Chinese-style sausages prepared in laboratory inoculating with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC 33316, Staphylococcus xylosus-12 and without starter culture randomly sampled at 0, 3, 10, and 24 days of ripening were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory qualities. A significant (p

  3. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oktay, Yerlikaya.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

  4. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

  5. Genome analysis of the meat starter culture bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus TM300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, Ralf; Nerz, Christiane; Biswas, Lalitha; Resch, Alexandra; Raddatz, Guenter; Schuster, Stephan C; Götz, Friedrich

    2009-02-01

    The Staphylococcus carnosus genome has the highest GC content of all sequenced staphylococcal genomes, with 34.6%, and therefore represents a species that is set apart from S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus, and S. haemolyticus. With only 2.56 Mbp, the genome belongs to a family of smaller staphylococcal genomes, and the ori and ter regions are asymmetrically arranged with the replichores I (1.05 Mbp) and II (1.5 Mbp). The events leading up to this asymmetry probably occurred not that long ago in evolution, as there was not enough time to approach the natural tendency of a physical balance. Unlike the genomes of pathogenic species, the TM300 genome does not contain mobile elements such as plasmids, insertion sequences, transposons, or STAR elements; also, the number of repeat sequences is markedly decreased, suggesting a comparatively high stability of the genome. While most S. aureus genomes contain several prophages and genomic islands, the TM300 genome contains only one prophage, PhiTM300, and one genomic island, nuSCA1, which is characterized by a mosaic structure mainly composed of species-specific genes. Most of the metabolic core pathways are present in the genome. Some open reading frames are truncated, which reflects the nutrient-rich environment of the meat starter culture, making some functions dispensable. The genome is well equipped with all functions necessary for the starter culture, such as nitrate/nitrite reduction, various sugar degradation pathways, two catalases, and nine osmoprotection systems. The genome lacks most of the toxins typical of S. aureus as well as genes involved in biofilm formation, underscoring the nonpathogenic status. PMID:19060169

  6. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  7. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  8. On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2012-06-01

    Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

  9. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Starter Cultures on the Soaking Time and Quality of “Ofada” Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola Oyewol; Mojisola Edema; Olusegun Atanda; Oluwafunmilayo Adeniran

    2012-01-01

    Freshly harvested paddy rice was randomly obtained from three different farms in “Ofada” town, Ogun State, Nigeria and processed according to the traditional parboiling method. The rice was inoculated singly with cultures of Lactobacillus amylophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae which were isolated from the soak-water. In order to assess the effect of starter cultures on the soaking time of the rice, the pH and titratable acidity were determine...

  10. Studies on Organic Acids and Minerals Content of Sourdough Naans Made from Different Extraction Rate Wheat Flours and Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din; Salim- ur-Rehman; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Haq Nawaz

    2009-01-01

    Sourdough naans were prepared using different extraction rate wheat flours and sourdough starter cultures. Sourdough naans were analyzed to find out the effect of flour extraction rates on the production of organic acids and minerals content. It was concluded that organic acids (lactic, acetic and citric acid) increased with an increase in extraction rate and freeze dried cultures containing hetero-fermentative strains of LAB showed better performance than homo-fermentative in the production ...

  11. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: a Step-by-Step Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AntonioBevilacqua

    2012-05-01

    After this step, starter should be used for a pilot fermentation on a lab scale, highlighting its performances, limits and benefits, as well as all the issues related to its production, storage and stability throughout the time. Finally, starter optimization conducted on a lab scale should be verified on real conditions.

  12. Effect of Different Additives from Local Source on the Quality of Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Tariq Mehmood; Tariq Masud; Talat Mahmood; S. Maqsud

    2008-01-01

    Yoghurt is the most popular fermented milk product in the most parts of world. It involves use of specific symbiotic culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Yoghurt consists of valuable nutrients as in milk but it seems to have more than milk. In the present study different food additives from local source are used as additives and the effect is estimated for possible influence on the quality of yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using different stabilizers like carboxymethyl-cellulose (C...

  13. Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Bu?an

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

  14. Quantifying the Significance of Phage Attack on Starter Cultures: a Mechanistic Model for Population Dynamics of Phage and Their Hosts Isolated from Fermenting Sauerkraut§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, P.; Breidt, F.; Lubkin, S. R.; Sandeep, K. P.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of using starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation and thereby reducing the quantity of salt used in the process. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of waste salt that would enter in our water resources. Phage, naturally present in sauerkraut fermentation, could potentially affect the starter cultures introduced. Thus, a mechanistic mathematical model was developed to quantify the growth kinetics of the phage and starter cultures. The model was validated by independent experiments with two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from sauerkraut and their corresponding phage. Model simulations and experimental evidence showed the presence of phage-resistant cell populations in starter cultures which replaced phage-sensitive cells, even when the initial phage density (P0) and multiplicity of infection (MOI) were low (P0 fermentations. PMID:16751496

  15. Quantifying the significance of phage attack on starter cultures: a mechanistic model for population dynamics of phage and their hosts isolated from fermenting sauerkraut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgal, P; Breidt, F; Lubkin, S R; Sandeep, K P

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the possibility of using starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation and thereby reducing the quantity of salt used in the process. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of waste salt that would enter in our water resources. Phage, naturally present in sauerkraut fermentation, could potentially affect the starter cultures introduced. Thus, a mechanistic mathematical model was developed to quantify the growth kinetics of the phage and starter cultures. The model was validated by independent experiments with two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from sauerkraut and their corresponding phage. Model simulations and experimental evidence showed the presence of phage-resistant cell populations in starter cultures which replaced phage-sensitive cells, even when the initial phage density (P(0)) and multiplicity of infection (MOI) were low (P(0) fermentations. PMID:16751496

  16. Use of Starter Cultures in Olives: A Not-Correct Use Could Cause a Delay of Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bevilacqua

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of lactic acid bacteria for a correct course of fermentation of table olives has been extensively reviewed and it is a common idea that the inoculum of selected strains could exert a strong benefit for product quality; however, the basic assumption of this research is that a not-correct preparation of starter could affect its performances in brines and delay the benefit of a starter inoculum. Thus, some selected strains of LAB (lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were inoculated into brines of Bella di Cerignola olives (Spanish style, as a single starter (LAB or yeasts or a combined preparation (LAB + yeasts and compared to a natural fermentation, focusing on the performances of the process (acidification, production of lactic acid and trying to verify the basic assumption. LAB and yeasts were grown in the opportune lab media and then directly inoculated in brine after the lye treatment. LAB exerts a kind of benefit (increased content of lactic acid only for 2 - 3 weeks; then, the inoculated samples behave in the same way as not-inoculated ones. Thus, this research underlined that a starter culture, not prepared in the correct way, could not be useful to guide the fermentation.

  17. Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames / Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luís César, CASTRO; Rosa Helena, LUCHESE; José Francisco P., MARTINS.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltór [...] io, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo. Abstract in english The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as [...] well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

  18. Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís César CASTRO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2 no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL, umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP, aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7esporos mL-1 mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05 ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo.The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA, non-protein nitrogen (NPN, taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

  19. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman, Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores, Rall; Margarida Júri, Saeki; Ary, Fernandes Júnior.

    1147-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity pr [...] ofile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  20. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  1. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Dias, Disney R.; Pereira, Gilberto V. de Melo; Oliveira, J. M.; Domingues, Lucília; J. A. Teixeira; Silva, João Batista de Almeida e; Schwan, Rosane F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, i...

  2. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures. PMID:24290655

  3. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

  4. Phenolic trend and hygienic quality of green table olives fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Muccilli, Serena; Amenta, Margherita; Perri, Enzo; Romeo, Flora V

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, four different olive cultivars from Southern Italy, Carolea, Cassanese, Nocellara del Belice, Nocellara Messinese table olives, produced according to traditional fermentation processes, were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of selected starter cultures on growth of bacterial population and on olive phenols during fermentation. Only Cassanese and Nocellara del Belice inoculated samples reached a safe pH value under 4.6 after 90days while maintaining it until the end of storage. The most representative phenols in brine samples analysed by HPLC-MS/MS were hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside. Among the analysed phenols, only hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid and ferulic acid always increased during fermentation, while the others increased up to 90-120days and then decreased. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on pH and phenol values highlighted three clusters of olive cultivars. Throughout the brining period, lactic acid bacteria were always present while staphylococci and coliform bacteria disappeared after 30 and 90days, respectively. PMID:25976821

  5. Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Pacifico; Rossana Lauriola; Stefania Franchino; Anna Rita Dragano; Emanuela Ciuffreda; Cataldo Caldarola; Maria Teresa Cagnazzo; Antonio Bevilacqua; Maria Rosaria Corbo; Milena Sinigaglia

    2012-01-01

    This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum) were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amo...

  6. Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-08-01

    The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

  7. Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres, Cidália

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results were obtained using the nutritive media as a culture carrier rather than the freeze-dried starter.En este trabajo se empleo el inóculo Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 liofilizado y en caldo nutritivo para preparación de aceitunas "Azeiteira" tipo verde, estilo sevillano. En las salmueras inoculadas se observó una acidificación más rápida y reducción del periodo de supervivencia de las Enterobacteriaceae, especialmente cuando se aplicó el inóculo en caldo nutritivo.

  8. Selection of functional lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaesik; Ji, Yosep; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Park, Soyoung; Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hyunkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-17

    The purpose of this research was to find safe and suitable starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler), also known as garlic chives or Oriental garlic. This traditional herb has several functional properties and a strong flavour; its leaves are used as food material. Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from well-fermented leek kimchi. Controlled fermentation of the leek leaves was conducted with 2 strains (Weissella confusa LK4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LK8), selected as potential starter cultures on the basis of their safety properties, and on the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and viable cell numbers [colony forming units (CFUml(-1))] achieved during the fermentation. Microbial dynamics was also followed during fermentation by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) on DNA level. To analyse bioactive compounds such as thiols and allicin (diallyl thiosulfinates), the total flavonoid and polyphenolic contents were determined by colorimetric methods. Functional properties were assessed on the basis of anti-oxidative capacities by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). W. confusa LK4 rapidly increased during the first stage of leek fermentation, and was mainly responsible for accelerated fermentation during the early period in contrast to L. plantarum LK8, a stronger acid producer during the later stages of fermentation. After 48 h fermentation, leeks fermented with W. confusa LK4 showed the highest radical scavenging effects and reducing ability. The detectable amount of allicin of fermented leeks decreased relative to the change in pH, whereas the concentration of thiols significantly increased. Total flavonoid and poly-phenolic contents changed during fermentation and showed correlation with anti-oxidant effects. We therefore suggest the suitability of W. confusa LK4 as a potential starter culture for fermentation of leeks. PMID:25279760

  9. Enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid in a fermented red seaweed beverage by starter culture Lactobacillus plantarum DW12

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anussara, Ratanaburee; Duangporn, Kantachote; Wilawan, Charernjiratrakul; Pimpimol, Penjamras; Chaiyavat, Chaiyasut.

    2011-05-15

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum DW12, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing strain, was used as a starter culture to produce a functional fermented red seaweed beverage (FSB). Optimal conditions for producing FSB were established using Central Composite Design by varying the amounts of monosodium gluta [...] mate (MSG), sucrose and the initial pH in MRS medium. After a verification test, 1% MSG, 6% sucrose and an initial pH of 6 were selected. Four treatments were tested: traditional formula (A), red seaweed-cane sugar-potable water = 3:1:10, w/w/v, initial pH 6; the traditional formula with a 5% starter culture consisting of 4.1 x 10(9) CFU of DW 12/ml (B); formula A modified by changing the amounts of cane sugar and MSG to 6% and 1%, respectively (C); formula C with a 5% starter culture added (D). Comparison among the 4 treatments showed that the treatment D produced the highest amount of GABA (4000 mg/L) during days 45-60 while the GABA content of A, B and C treatments was 340, 730 and 1690 mg/L, respectively. However, the results of the sensory test for the treatments C and D showed that the presence of MSG produced an unsatisfactory salty taste. All finished products from the 4 treatments met Thai standard guidelines for chemical and microbiological qualities after 120 days. The results indicated that enrichment of the GABA content in FSB is possible by adding MSG and the GABA producing strain DW12; however, the appropriate amount of MSG addition should be further studied.

  10. Killer phenotype of indigenous yeasts isolated from Argentinian wine cellars and their potential starter cultures for winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ullivarri, Miguel Fernández; Mendoza, Lucía M; Raya, Raúl R; Farías, Marta E

    2011-11-01

    Of 31 yeasts, from different surfaces of two cellars from the northwest region of Argentina, 11 expressed killer activity against the sensitive strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae P351. Five of these killer yeasts were identified as S. cerevisiae by phenotypic tests and PCR-RFLP analysis. Two S. cerevisiae killer strains, Cf5 and Cf8, were selected based on their excellent kinetic and enological properties as potential autochthonous mixed starter cultures to be used during wine fermentation. They could dominate the natural microbiota in fermentation vats and keep the typical sensorial characteristics of the wine of this region. PMID:21720847

  11. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

  12. Effect of autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese on physicochemical, microbiological and volatile compound profiles and sensorial attributes of sucuk, a Turkish dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargozari, Mina; Moini, Sohrab; Akhondzadeh Basti, Afshin; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Gandomi, Hassan; Revilla Martin, Isabel; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

    2014-05-01

    The effect of adding autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese, on the physicochemical parameters and microbial counts of sucuk was investigated during the ripening period. SPME-GC/MS was used in volatile compound analysis and a trained group of panelists carried out sensory analysis of the final product. After preliminary screening, three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, which possess desirable technological properties, were used to prepare three starter cultures: LBP7, LBP10 and LBP14. The addition of LBP7 and LBP14 starter cultures had a significant effect (P<0.05) on lightness, leading to higher L values compared to control sausages during the ripening period. Both LBP7 and LBP14 sausages showed higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, lower growth of Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and greatly lowered the pH value compared to control sausages throughout the ripening process. At the end of the ripening process, lactic acid bacteria counts were affected (P<0.05) by the addition of starter culture since higher counts were observed in sausages prepared with LBP7 (9.14logCFU/g) and LBP14 (8.96logCFU/g) batches. The decrease of water activity during the ripening of sausages was not affected by the various starters. The texture profiles of all sausages were similar except for LBP10, which showed lower hardness and gumminess during ripening. Under the conditions of the study, volatile compounds were mainly from spices, and no marked differences were found among inoculated sausages. However, sensory evaluation revealed that most of the sensory attributes were scored higher for inoculated sausages than for the control ones. Therefore, LBP7 and LBP14 could be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of sucuk. PMID:24553492

  13. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: A Step-by-Step Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The selection of yeasts intended as starters for table olives is a complex process, including a characterization step at laboratory level and a validation at lab level and factory-scale. The characterization at lab level deals with the assessment of some technological traits (growth under different temperatures and at alkaline pHs, effect of salt, and for probiotic strains the resistance to preservatives), enzymatic activities, and some new functional properties (probiotic traits, production of vitamin B-complex, biological debittering). The paper reports on these traits, focusing both on their theoretical implications and lab protocols; moreover, there are some details on predictive microbiology for yeasts of table olives and on the use of multivariate approaches to select suitable starters. PMID:22666220

  14. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: a Step-by-Step Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    AntonioBevilacqua

    2012-01-01

    In the past yeasts were traditionally regarded as the spoiling microorganisms for table olives; however, their role and impact for product quality and for the correct course of fermentation has been revised and nowadays many authors suggest a controlled inoculum of yeasts both in alkali-treated and untreated olives. The selection of a starter is a complex process, involving different steps. After strain isolation from raw material, the first step is the identification through phenotyping ...

  15. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: A Step-by-Step Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The selection of yeasts intended as starters for table olives is a complex process, including a characterization step at laboratory level and a validation at lab level and factory-scale. The characterization at lab level deals with the assessment of some technological traits (growth under different temperatures and at alkaline pHs, effect of salt, and for probiotic strains the resistance to preservatives), enzymatic activities, and some new functional properties (probiotic traits, production ...

  16. Application of Bifidobacteria as Starter Culture in Whole Wheat Sourdough Breadmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Penella, Juan Mario; Tamayo Ramos, Juan Antonio; Haros, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at developing a new cereal-based product, with increased nutritional quality, by using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 as starter in whole wheat sourdough fermentation and evaluating its performance. Four different sourdough levels (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% on flour basis) in bread dough formulation were analysed. The effects of the use of bifidobacteria in sourdough bread were comparatively evaluated with controls (yeast and/or chemically acidified sourd...

  17. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA PARASCHIV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

  18. Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico / Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maristela da Silva do, Nascimento; Izildinha, Moreno; Arnaldo Yoshiteru, Kuaye.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390). Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos. Abstract in english In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the g [...] rowth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390). Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

  19. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

  20. Quantifying the significance of phage attack on starter cultures: A mechanistic model for population dynamics of phage and their hosts isolated from fermenting sauerkraut

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the possibility of using starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation and, thereby, reducing the quantity of salt used in the process. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of waste salt that would end up in our water resources. Phage, naturally present in sauerkraut fermentation, ...

  1. Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henshaw, E. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

  2. Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Mrv?i?

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

  3. The Effect of Starter Cultures on the Portuguese Traditional Sausage “Paio do Alentejo” in Terms of Its Sensory and Textural Characteristics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available “Paio do Alentejo” is a Portuguese dry-cured sausage, made with meat from the Alentejano pig breed. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of starter cultures on the quality of the sausage, mainly with regard to its sensory properties, rheological characteristics and PAH profile. Three batches of the product were examined: S1-inoculated with a commercial starter comprising Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts; S2-inoculated with a starter comprising Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus; C-the control batch, was not inoculated. A sensory panel of 12 experts analysed samples in accordance with a descriptive analysis using a structured scale. A Texture Profile Analysis and 16 EPA priority PAHs for dry fermented sausages were performed. Both inoculated batches were well received by the judges, no significant differences being noted between them. The use of S2 led to a slight improvement in terms of cohesiveness. However, the use of starter cultures was not found to influence PAH content.

  4. Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters.

  5. In vitro determination of volatile compound development during starter culture-controlled fermentation of Cucurbitaceae cotyledons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamda, Aristide Guillaume Silapeux; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Fokou, Elie; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Mercy, Achu; Germain, Kansci; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3, Pediococcus acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and Torulaspora delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 inoculation on the volatile compound profile of fermentation of Cucumeropsis mannii cotyledons were investigated. Different microbial associations were used as starters. All associations displayed the ability to ferment the cotyledons as judged by lowering the pH from 6.4 to 4.4-5 within 24h and increasing organic acids such as lactate and acetate. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts increased during fermentation. In the fermentation performed without inoculation (control), the LAB and yeast populations were lower than those in inoculated assays at the beginning, but they reached similar populations after 48 h. The Enterobacteriaceae population decreased during the fermentation, and they were not detected at 48 h in the L. plantarum UFLA CH3 and P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1 (LP+PA) and L. plantarum UFLA CH3, P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 (LP+PA+TD) samples. The assays inoculated with the yeast T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 exhibited the majority of volatile compounds (13 compounds) characterized by pleasant notes. The LP+PA+TD association seemed to be appropriate to ferment C. mannii cotyledons. It was able to control the Enterobacteriaceae population, and achieved high concentrations of esters and low concentrations of aldehydes and ketones. PMID:25306300

  6. A ready-to-use antifungal starter culture improves the shelf life of packaged bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerez, C L; Torino, M I; Obregozo, M D; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-04-01

    Fungal spoilage is the main cause of economic loss in the baking industry. In this study, we developed a ready-to-use biopreserver (slurry [SL]) for nonsliced packed bread by using selected antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and low-cost ingredients that are compatible with the food matrix. Four LAB strains (Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772, L. brevis CRL 796, L. plantarum CRL 778, and L. reuteri CRL 1100) tested in bread preservation were able to inhibit Penicillium sp. growth and lengthen shelf life twofold with respect to breads prepared using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2 days shelf life). The best biopreservation effect (5 days shelf life) was obtained with 40% antifungal slurry SL778 containing L. plantarum CRL 778; this was as effective as 0.2% calcium propionate (PCa). The antifungal effect of SL778 was related to the synthesis of acetic and phenyllactic acid as well as lactic acid, which was produced at a high concentration (31.2 mmol/kg) and lowered the pH of the dough, favoring the undissociated fraction of the organic acids. The combination of the starter SL778 with 0.4% PCa extended the shelf life of packaged bread to 24 days, 2.6-fold longer than breads prepared with only 0.4% PCa. PMID:20377968

  7. Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Božani?; Ljubica Tratnik; Mirjana Parat

    2001-01-01

    From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus), and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp) firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition imp...

  8. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Starter Cultures on the Soaking Time and Quality of “Ofada” Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Oyewol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Freshly harvested paddy rice was randomly obtained from three different farms in “Ofada” town, Ogun State, Nigeria and processed according to the traditional parboiling method. The rice was inoculated singly with cultures of Lactobacillus amylophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae which were isolated from the soak-water. In order to assess the effect of starter cultures on the soaking time of the rice, the pH and titratable acidity were determined at 12 h interval. The chemical composition and the sensory quality of the rice were also determined at the end of the soaking period while uninoculated rice served as control. The chemical composition of the rice as well as the pH and TTA of the soak-water were significantly (p < 0.05 different from the control while the processing time was shortened to 48 h. The rice inoculated with Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisae had the highest protein content and best sensory attributes.

  9. PH-sensing 96-well microtitre plates for the characterization of acid production by dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Gernot T; Goelling, Detlef; Klimant, Ingo; Schneider, Holger; Heinzle, Elmar

    2003-08-01

    A new method for characterization of acid production by dairy starter cultures is presented. Microplates with integrated optical pH sensors are developed. Two fluorophores, a pH-sensitive and a pH-insensitive one are immobilised at the bottom of a polystyrene 96-well microtitre plate. The pH-insensitive fluorophore serves as an internal reference and makes calibration unnecessary. The sensor measures pH accurately in optically well-defined media. Particles and fluorophores contained in the bulk medium disturbed the measurements. Despite these disturbances it was possible to clearly sense differences in inoculum type and in inoculum sizes of cultures of Lactococcus lactis and of Streptococcus thermophilus at 30 and 37 degrees C. Besides a pH-related signal there is information about other changes during milk fermentation. The cultivation results were compared with those from the established CINAC-method. From this comparison it can be concluded that the new method can be used reliably to characterize particularly a large number of strains for screening purposes but also for quality control. PMID:12916828

  10. Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Eren-Vapur; Tulay Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei) and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA) release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoac...

  11. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  12. STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOUGHURT [Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono4

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

  13. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

  14. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-01

    Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, by the DL-starter culture, and by the type strains. High and low levels of oxygen were produced by flushing milk with oxygen or nitrogen, respectively. The kinetics of milk acidification was characterized by the maximum rate and time of acidification (Vamax and Tamax), the maximum rate and time of reduction (Vrmax and Trmax), the minimum redox potential (Eh7 final), and time of reaching Eh7 final (Trfinal). Variations in kinetic parameters were observed at both the species and strain levels. Two of the Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strains were not able to lower redox potential to negative values. Kinetic parameters of the DL-starter culture were comparable with the best acidifying and reducing strains, indicating their additive effects. Acidification curves were mostly diauxic at all oxygen levels, displaying 2 maxima of acidification rate: before (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had a negative effect on reduction and acidification capacity of tested LAB. Reduction was significantly delayed at high initial oxygen, exhibiting longer Trmax, Trfinal, or both. Concurrently, anaerobic acidification rate maximum Vamax was decreased and Tamax was extended. Fermentation kinetics in nitrogen-flushed milk was not statistically different from that in untreated milk except for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis CHCC D2, which showed faster reduction time after nitrogen flushing. This study clarifies the relationship between the redox state in milk and acidification kinetics of the predominant subspecies in DL-starter cultures. This knowledge is important for dairies to ensure optimized, fast, and controlled milk fermentations, leading to greater standardization of dairy products. PMID:25597975

  15. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit BrØsted

    2015-01-01

    Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, by the DL-starter culture, and by the type strains. High and low levels of oxygen were produced by flushing milk with oxygen or nitrogen, respectively. The kinetics of milk acidification was characterized by the maximum rate and time of acidification (V(a)max and T(a)max), the maximum rate and time of reduction (V(r)max and T(r)max), the minimum redox potential (Eh7 final),and time of reaching Eh7 final (T(r)final). Variations in kinetic parameters were observed at both the species and strain levels. Two of the Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strains were not able to lower redox potential to negative values. Kinetic parameters of the DL-starter culture were comparable with the best acidifying and reducing strains, indicating their additive effects. Acidification curves were mostly diauxic at all oxygen levels, displaying 2 maxima of acidification rate: before (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had a negative effect on reduction and acidification capacity of tested LAB. Reduction was significantly delayed at high initial oxygen, exhibiting longer T(r)max, T(r)final, or both. Concurrently, anaerobic acidification rate maximum V(a)max was decreased and T(a)max was extended. Fermentation kinetics in nitrogen-flushed milk was not statistically different from that in untreated milk except for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis CHCC D2, which showed faster reduction time after nitrogen flushing. This study clarifies the relationship between the redox state in milk and acidification kinetics of the predominant subspecies in DL-starter cultures. This knowledge is important for dairies to ensure optimized, fast, and controlled milk fermentations, leading to greater standardization of dairy products.

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced. Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. Conclusions: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broadspectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties. They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga.

  17. Manufacture and characterization of kefir made from cow and buffalo milk, using kefir grain and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, O; Mortas, M; Atalar, I; Dervisoglu, M; Kahyaoglu, T

    2015-03-01

    The microbiological and chemical characteristics as well as organic and amino acid profiles of kefir samples made from cow and buffalo milks fermented by kefir grains and starter culture were investigated during storage for 21 d at 4°C. After incubation, lactic, acetic, and citric acid concentrations showed a difference among the samples due to milk type and production methods. Storage time had little effect on the organic acid values of kefir samples. As compared with cow milk kefir, buffalo milk kefir had higher numbers of microorganisms, except lactobacilli, at the end of storage. Whereas pH and titratable acidity exhibited similar changes during storage in all kefir samples, ethanol levels were significantly increased in buffalo milk kefir samples. Glutamic acid was the major amino acid at all sampling times for all samples. Tyrosine, serine, histidine, alanine, methionine, and lysine concentrations were determined to be different in all samples depending on milk type. In general, due to the higher microbial population (especially yeast), kefir made from buffalo milk may be preferred. PMID:25582588

  18. Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos / Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como áci [...] do lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos. Abstract in english Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to i [...] nhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

  19. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

  20. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovenská Bryndza Ovine Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    D'Auria, Giuseppe; Džunková, Mária; Moya, Andrés; Tomáška, Martin; Kološta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements.

  1. Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Asmahan A.; Mustafa, Muna M.

    2009-01-01

    This research was carried out to study the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus amylovorus) starter on traditional fermentation of sorghum flour (variety dabar). Results obtained indicated that fermentation time was reduced from 19-6 h albeit the final pH was reduced to 3.47. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the previous starter further reduced sorghum fermentation time to only 4 h and the final pH was 3.75.

  2. The influence of starter cultures on texture and sensorial properties of “Paio”, a Portuguese dry-cured sausage.

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, M; Agulheiro-Santos, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    A traditional Portuguese dry-cured sausage called “Paio” was obtained using meat from Alentejano pig breed female 24 month aged in a traditional meat plant. For this research work three batches were inoculated. One of them was inoculated with a commercial starter composed by Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts (designed S1); another with a starter composed by Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus (designed S2) and another one considered as the control sample was not ino...

  3. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AngeloSisto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

  4. Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Pacifico

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amounts and pH values; acidifying ability; metabolism (arginin deamination, esculin hydrolysis, acetoin production; survival at low pH and in presence of bile salts; hydrophobic properties; antibiotic resistance. After laboratory assays and strain selection through a multivariate analyses, it was highlighted that B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis represent a good compromise as potential functional starter cultures, as B. animalis subp. lactis showed a high growth index at pH 5 and good values at 25?C and 30?C, as well as the minimal viability loss at pH 2.5. B. longum subsp. infantis DSMZ 20088 was the best microorganism for its growth index in presence of 6.5% of salt added and at 25?C and 30?C.

  5. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product "probiotic table olives".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life. PMID:22586426

  6. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growthmodels were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25 °C)were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates fromcottage cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07–1.10with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria fromadded starter culturewere on average predicted to grow16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aromaculturewas on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L.monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone,which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The appliedmethodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy productswhere inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms

  7. Interference of different storage temperatures in the dynamics of probiotic Bifidobacterium spp. and Streptococcus thermophilus starter cultures in fermented milk / Interferência de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento na dinâmica de Bifidobacterium spp. probióticas e cultura starter Streptococcus thermophilus em leite fermentado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosângela, Freitas; Rodrigo Otávio, Miranda; Gabriel G., Netto; Luís Augusto, Nero; Antônio Fernandes de, Carvalho.

    Full Text Available As variações de temperatura que ocorrem durante a cadeia refrigerada da produção leiteira pode interferir na qualidade de alimentos bioativos, como leites fermentados. Bactérias probióticas são usualmente adicionadas a alimentos, visando a oferecer ao consumidor efeitos benéficos. O objetivo deste t [...] rabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade de culturas probióticas de bifidobactérias e de cultura starter de Streptococcus thermophilus em leites fermentados, armazenados nas temperaturas de 4 e 10ºC por um período de 28 dias. Culturas comerciais de Bifidobacterium spp. foram adicionadas ao leite fermentado produzido com Streptococcus thermophillus e estocados por 28 dias a 4 e 10ºC. Nesse período, as culturas de Bifidobacterium spp. e Streptococcus thermophillus foram monitoradas, com o objetivo de verificar seus comportamentos nas temperaturas de estocagem testadas. As contagens de ambos os micro-organismos não apresentaram variação significativa ao longo do período de estocagem a 4 e a 10ºC (p Abstract in english The variations of temperature during the cold chain can impair the quality of live foods, such as fermented milks. Probiotic bacteria are commonly added to food to provide the consumer with beneficial effects. Nevertheless, the concentration of probiotic in the end products should be elevated to ens [...] ure functionality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of probiotic strains of bifidobacteria and starter strain of Streptococcus thermophilus in fermented milks at storage temperatures of 4 and 10ºC, for a period of 28 days. Commercial cultures of Bifidobacterium spp. were added to milk fermented by Streptococcus thermophillus and stored for 28 days at 4 and 10ºC. During this period, bifidobacteria and S. thermophillus cultures were monitored to check their behavior in the evaluated storage conditions. Viable bifidobacteria and S. thermophillus counts showed no significant variation during storage at 4 and 10ºC (p

  8. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  9. The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shady, T. S. M; H. Ashour Eman; E.E.Y. El-Badrawy

    1999-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determi...

  10. Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria / Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana, Moriya; Luciano, Fachin; Ana Lourdes Neves, Gândara; Walkiria Hanada, Viotto.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Tem-se dado muita atenção à utilização de Bifidobacterium sp. em iogurtes devido às suas excelentes propriedades terapêuticas e nutricionais. Entretanto, é recomendado que, baseado em testes in vitro e em humanos, cada produto comercial indique qual a quantidade mínima diária recomendada de ingestão [...] para que se obtenha os benefícios desejados à saúde. Além da inerente dificuldade do crescimento de Bifidobacterium sp em leite, há uma necessidade de padronização de um método de contagem confiável de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das bactérias do iogurte. Este trabalho avaliou o uso dos meios M-MRS, MRS-NNLP e RCPB pH5, visando a contagem do número de células de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 na presença de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus após a fermentação do iogurte. O meio M-MRS não foi seletivo, apresentando crescimento de L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O meio MRS-NNLP apresentou boa seletividade para B. animalis Bb12, apesar de uma leve redução no número de células ter sido verificada quando comparado ao meio padrão MRS em cultura pura. O meio MRS-NNLP foi considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de B. animalis Bb12 porque a diferença encontrada entre as contagens em cultura pura foi bastante pequena. O meio RCPB pH5 apresentou crescimento diferencial de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 em relação às bactérias do iogurte e uma recuperação de células igual ao meio padrão MRS, sendo considerado o melhor meio de cultura deste estudo para a contagem de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das culturas do iogurte. Abstract in english Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer [...] health benefit(s) based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the use of the media M-MRS, MRS-NNLP and RCPB pH5 aimed at counting the number of Bifidobacterium animalis subesp. lactis in the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus after yoghurt fermentation. The M-MRS medium was not selective, allowing for the growth of L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. MRS-NNLP medium presented a good selectivity for B. animalis Bb12 with a slight reduction in the cell count of this microrganism when compared it to the standard MRS medium in pure culture. MRS-NNLP medium was considered a good option to enumerate B. animalis Bb12 although the reduction found in pure culture due to the low difference between the counts. The medium RCPB pH5 presented differentiated growth of B. animalis Bb12 in relation to the yoghurt bacteria and a cell recovery equal to that of the standard MRS, being considered the best option to enumerate Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria.

  11. Viability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in yoghurt: defining the best processing step to its addition / Viabilidade de Lactobacillus casei probiótico em iogurte natural: definição da melhor etapa de processamento para sua adição

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nataly, Simões Bandiera; Isadora, Carneiro; Alisson, Santana da Silva; Edson Renato, Honjoya; Elsa Helena, Walter de Santana; Lina Casale, Aragon-Alegro; Cínthia Hoch, Batista de Souza.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Probióticos são microrganismos capazes de produzir efeitos benéficos sobre seu hospedeiro, quando consumidos vivos e em quantidades adequadas. Para que exerçam esses efeitos, os alimentos probióticos devem conter tais microrganismos em populações acima de 106 UFC/g ou mL, durante toda sua validade. [...] Uma das estratégias para garantir a alta população dos probióticos em leites fermentados é adicioná-los durante ou após o processo de fermentação separadamente das culturas starter. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o comportamento do microrganismo probiótico Lactobacillus casei adicionado em iogurte natural, em diferentes etapas do processo de produção. Foram produzidos iogurtes com adição de L. casei em diferentes etapas: antes da suplementação com o starter (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), juntamente com essa cultura e após o término da fermentação. Além disso, um iogurte controle (sem probiótico) foi produzido. Os produtos foram estocados a 4°C e analisados após 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento. Nesses períodos, foram enumeradas as populações das culturas probiótica e starter e avaliados os parâmetros físico-químicos (pH e acidez). Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados através de análise de variância e teste de Tukey, ambos ao nível de 5% de significância.L. casei mantevese viável e em populações superiores a 108 UFC/g durante os 21 dias de armazenamento, suficientes para que as formulações fossem definidas como probióticas. Quando as diferentes etapas de adição do probiótico aos iogurtes foram avaliadas, com exceção do 1º dia, não houve diferença estatística entre as formulações (p Abstract in english Probiotics are live microorganisms capable of producing beneficial effects on its host when consumed in adequate amounts. To exert these effects, foods must contain probiotic microorganisms in populations above 106 CFU / g or mL throughout its shelf life. One of the strategies to ensure high populat [...] ion of probiotics in fermented milk is to add them during or after the fermentation process separately from the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of the probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus casei added to yoghurt in different stages of production. Yoghurts with L. casei were produced at different stages: before addition of starter (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), added together with this culture and at the end of fermentation. Yoghurt without probiotic added was produced as a control. The products were stored at 4 °C and analyzed after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. In these periods, the populations of probiotic and starter cultures were enumerated and the parameters pH and acidity were analyzed. The results were evaluated using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, both at 5% significance level. L. casei remained viable in populations of more than 108 CFU / g during 21 days of storage, which is suitable to define the formulations as probiotics. When the different stages of the addition of probiotics in yoghurts were evaluated there was no statistical difference between the formulations (p

  12. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 in addition to yogurt culture. Relative degrees of proteolysis were found to be considerably higher in yogurt samples than UHT milk as the control. Both regular and probiotic yogurts showed considerable ACE-inhibitory activities. Results showed that degree of proteolysis was not influenced by different fat contents, while was increased by high concentration of starter culture (1.5 % w/w) and reduced by inulin (1 % w/w). ACE-inhibitory activities of yogurt were also negatively affected by the presence of inulin and high levels of fat (5 % w/w). Moreover, yogurt containing probiotic bacteria showed higher inhibitory against ACE in comparison to the yogurt prepared with non-probiotic strains. PMID:25829629

  13. Use of Starter Cultures in Olives: A Not-Correct Use Could Cause a Delay of Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bevilacqua; Maria Rosaria Corbo; Milena Sinigaglia; Marianne Perricone

    2013-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria for a correct course of fermentation of table olives has been extensively reviewed and it is a common idea that the inoculum of selected strains could exert a strong benefit for product quality; however, the basic assumption of this research is that a not-correct preparation of starter could affect its performances in brines and delay the benefit of a starter inoculum. Thus, some selected strains of LAB (lactic acid bacteria) and yeasts were inoculated into br...

  14. Fermentation of table olives by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines and inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataridou, M; Kotzekidou, P

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an autochthonous starter culture developed by oleuropeinolytic strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum group on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and the biophenol content of table olives fermented under reduced salt conditions was studied. Black (cv. Kalamata) and green (cv. Chalkidikis) olives were fermented in two different kinds of brine (Brine A containing 2.3% NaCl, 32.3mM Ca-acetate and 33.9mM Ca-lactate and Brine B containing 4% NaCl, pH5.0 in both brines). The sensory attributes of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture assessed by a trained panel did not differ significantly compared with industrial processing. It is possible to carry out significant changes in table olive processing applying a completely microbiological procedure using oleuropeinolytic strains of the L. plantarum group as both the debittering and the fermentation agent in order to achieve improved sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the final product. Table olives processed by the suggested methodology may constitute a good source of biophenols in the diet, especially hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The inactivation potential of Escherichia coli O157 EDL-932 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture was evaluated. The population of each pathogen in olive homogenates of both cultivars is inactivated by more than 6logCFU/ml in less than 24h. When whole fermented olives were submerged in peptone/saline (containing 6.7logCFU/ml of the relevant bacterial pathogen) for 30min followed by rinsing in distilled water, the population of viable foodborne pathogens dropped more than 4 logs in olive pulp. During subsequent storage at 22 or 4°C the population of L. monocytogenes Scott A was further eliminated under the detection limit in both olive cultivars whereas the population of E. coli O157 EDL-932 could be detected in olives stored in peptone/saline at 22°C for 7days. The inhibitory effect of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines on pathogens is due to the antimicrobial activity of the phenolic compounds and the antagonistic action of the associated microflora. PMID:26065729

  15. Use of a Genetically Enhanced, Pediocin-Producing Starter Culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, To Control Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Buyong, Nurliza; Kok, Jan; Luchansky, John B.

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1. About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca. 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca. 106 CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes strains (ca. 103 CFU per ml). The viability of the pathogen and the activity of pediocin in the cheese were monitored at appropriate intervals throughout the manufacturing process and during ripen...

  16. Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15954629

  17. CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO / STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO / FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DIOFANOR, ACEVEDO; LUIS E, GUZMAN; AIDA, RODRIGUEZ.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o [...] desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho. Abstract in spanish RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesana [...] l, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The [...] quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

  18. An ecophysiological study of starter streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Roelf

    1981-01-01

    Cheese starter cultures used for the production of Gouda cheese consist of a mixture of strains of S. cremoris, S. lactis, S. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc spp. The exact ratio between the strains is unknown and changes on subculturing. ... Zie: Summary

  19. 7 CFR 58.406 - Starter facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG...and handling of starter cultures. All necessary...

  20. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Siefarth; Thi Bich Thao Tran; Peter Mittermaier; Thomas Pfeiffer; Andrea Buettner

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV) heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C). This second part of our feasibility study...

  1. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines. These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry

  2. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir / Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Daiana, Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo, Pimentel; Sandra, Garcia; Sandra Helena, Prudencio.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo [...] de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial via [...] bility during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  3. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas.

  4. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Winata, Vera; Wang, Xiaoxi; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk, the two probiotic strains were precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor. The activity of sublethally precultured probiotics was evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated adaptive stress responses of the two probiotic strains resulting in their viability improvement without adverse influence on milk acidification. A complementary metabolomic approach using SPME-GC/MS and (1)H-NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed substantial impact of the activity of sublethally precultured probiotics on metabolite formation demonstrated by distinctive volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. Changes in relative abundance of various aroma compounds suggest that incorporation of stress-adapted probiotics considerably influences the organoleptic quality of product. This study provides new information on the application of stress-adapted probiotics in an actual food-carrier environment. PMID:25846920

  5. Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Changes Induced by Bacillus subtilis (SDA3 During Starter Culture Fermentation of Soybean into Condiment (Soy-Daddawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Omafuvbe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to upgrade the traditional fermentation technology of soybean into daddawa, the effect of fermentation temperature on the biochemical and organoleptic properties of soy-daddawa produced by starter culture was studied. Bacillus subtilis SDA3 previously selected as a good starter for soy-daddawa production was used to ferment sterile dehulled cooked soybeans at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for 72 h. The viable cell counts of B.subtilis SDA3 increased throughout the 72 h fermentation process at 25 to 35°C while the counts decreased after the 24th h at 40°C fermentation. pH value increased throughout the fermentation with a rather low increase in the fermentation at 25°C. Relative proteolytic activity increased with fermentation, attained a peak at 48 h and then dropped in fermentations at 30-40°C. Proteolytic activity which was not detected by the 12th h increased thereafter till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Free amino acid content increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 30-40°C while an initial drop was observed in the first 12 h with subsequent increase till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Alpha amylase activity increased, attained a peak at the 48 h and then dropped in 30 and 35°C fermentations. Alpha amylase activity increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 25°C while at 40°C, the activity attained a peak at the 24th h and then dropped. Fermentation at 35°C gave the highest levels of proteolytic and alpha amylase activities, pH and free amino acids in soybean inoculated with B. subtilis SDA3. Organoleptically, soybean fermented by B. subtilis SDA3 at 35°C produced the best quality soy-daddawa as judged by a panel of regular soy-daddawa consumers. Fermentation at 35°C was therefore chosen as the optimised temperature for the production of soy-daddawa by B. subtilis SDA3 starter culture.

  6. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi and studies on their suitability for application as starter culture in the production of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kunz, Benno

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the investigation was to identify strains of lactobacilli coming from kimchi with properties suitable for use as starter cultures in sausage fermentation. A total of 31 strains of lactobacilli were isolated from kimchi on the 4-6th day of fermentation at 20°C using MRS agar plates and identified on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. The isolates were identified as Leuconostoc mes.mes./dent (12.9%), Lactobacillus curvatus (9.7%), Lactobacillus brevis (35.5%), Lactobacillus sake (25.8%), and Lactobacillus plantarum (16.1%). Thus, 51.6% of the isolates were homo-fermentative or facultative hetero-fermentative bacteria and the rest (48.4%) were hetero-fermentative bacteria. Among them L. brevis, L. curvatus, L. plantarum, and L. sake were investigated for their growth profile and metabolism characteristics in the fluid (submerged) model-medium modified according to the special conditions of fermented sausages. Relatively good growth properties were found for L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. sake with maximum numbers of 8.18, 8.51 and 8.17cfu/ml, respectively, whereas L. curvatus could not adapt to the special environmental conditions. Regarding souring properties, L. brevis showed little ability to decrease pH, whereas L. curvatus, L. plantarum, and L. sake showed relatively good acidifying properties. According to the results of glucose fermentation and its products, only L. plantarum exhibited homo-fermentative characteristics. As a result only L. plantarum among the isolates from kimchi had an ability to adapt to the complex environment of fermented sausage, which will thereby allow them to act as starter cultures and natural preservatives in sausage production. PMID:22061727

  7. Identification of peptides in traditional and probiotic sheep milk yoghurt with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitriou, Christos G.; Vafopoulou-mastrojiannaki, Anna; Silva, Sofia Vieira; Gomes, Ana-maria; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Two sets of traditional Greek sheep milk yoghurt were produced: the first one (YC) using normal yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus !10.13 and Streptococcus thermophilus !10.7) and the second (PR) with the same normal culture mixed with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei DC412. YC and PR had similar physicochemical properties and proteolysis patterns throughout storage. Both products showed similar peptide profiles by RP-HPLC but quantitative differences were ob...

  8. Quality Evaluation of Market Yoghurt /Dahi

    OpenAIRE

    Shahid Younus; Tariq Masud; Tariq Aziz

    2002-01-01

    This study was planned to evaluate and compare the quality of market yoghurt and dahi. Different samples of plant made yoghurt and dahi available in local markets of Islamabad and Rawalpindi were randomly collected and analyzed for physico- chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. Physico-chemical analysis revealed that plant made yoghurt samples were consistent and hardly showed any variation as compared to dahi. Microbiological examination showed that total viable count in yog...

  9. Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yoghurt: Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Semee Mumtaz; Salim - Ur - Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil; Haq Nawaz

    2008-01-01

    Enrichment of yoghurt with xylooligosaccharide (XO) at different levels was studied with physicochemical and sensory analysis. Yoghurt prepared by incorporation of XO were compared for these characteristics to the yoghurt containing stabilizer (gelatin, 0.4% w/w) in addition to XO. Moisture contents, pH, acidity and total solids were studied. These attributes were significantly affected by the use of stabilizer and rate of XO incorporation. Use of gelatin produced better results in terms of l...

  10. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  11. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (? = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

  12. Genotypic and technological diversity of Brevibacterium linens strains for use as adjunct starter cultures in 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Cafaro, Caterina; Salzano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two Brevibacterium linens strains isolated from 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments (natural cave and storeroom) were characterized and differentiated for features of technological interest and by genotypic methods, in order to select strains with specific features to be used as surface starter cultures. Results showed significant differences among strains on the basis of physiological and technological features, indicating heterogeneity within the species. A middle-low level of proteolytic activity was observed in 27.3 % of strains, while a small group (9.1 %) showed a high ability. Lipolytic activity was observed at three different temperatures and the highest value was detected at 20 °C with 13.6 % of strains, while an increase in temperature produced a slightly lower lipolysis in all strains. The evaluation of diacetyl production revealed that only 22.8 % of strains showed this ability, and most of them were isolated from product ripened in the natural cave. All strains exhibited only leu-aminopeptidase activity, with values more elevated in strains coming from the natural cave product. The combined analysis of genotypic results with the data obtained by the features of technological interest study established that the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) clusters obtained were composed not only of different genotypes but of different profiles based on technological properties too. This study demonstrated the importance of the ripening environment that affects the typical features of the artisanal product, leading to the selection of a specific surface microflora. Characterized strains could be associated within surface starters to standardize the production process of cheese, but preserving its typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and improving the quality of the final product. PMID:25147054

  13. Inventory of non starter lactic acid bacteria from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as assessed by a culture dependent multiphasic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solieri, Lisa; Bianchi, Aldo; Giudici, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate microbial species diversity and strain complexity of the cultivable non starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) occurring in 31 ripened Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheeses. Dereplication of 127 lactobacilli isolates by (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting yielded a total of 51 genotypes. Phylogenetic relatedness of all the genotypes with known Lactobacillus species was determined by a novel combined amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (16S-ARDRA), species-specific PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The species Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei comprise the largest portions of the cultivable NSLAB community in PR cheese, with an inter-individual diversity ranging from one to four dominant genotypes per sample. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus fermentum species were also detected at low frequency. The data showed differences in cultivable NSLAB population, with an overall decrease in diversity and complexity from early to advanced stages of ripening. Finally the de-replicated collection of genotypes resulting from this work is the bases for further functional screening. PMID:22626626

  14. Impact of sensory differences on consumer acceptability of yoghurt and yoghurt-like products

    OpenAIRE

    Bayarri, Sara; Carbonell, Inmaculada; Barrios, Edith X.; Costell, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain information about how perceptible sensory differences affect consumer acceptability for yoghurt and a yoghurt-like product. Descriptive sensory profiles of six commercial samples, three of plain yoghurt and three of plain fermented milk, were determined using a trained panel (n = 10). Sample acceptance was determined by a group of consumers (n = 120). Initially, two groups of consumers were identified using Cluster analyses. For one group 46 (38%) of the con...

  15. Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from raw seafoods and Thai fermented seafood products for their potential use as starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitirut Jaichalad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was analyzed from 52 samples of raw seafoods (shrimp and mussel, andThai fermented seafood products including fermented shrimp (kung-jom, mussel (hoi-dong, and fish (pla-jom. The viableLAB were 3.0?103 to 3.4?108 CFU/g. LAB were isolated and screened for their inhibitory activities against eight indicatorbacteria by agar spot test. Among all selected LAB isolates, 52 isolates showed strong inhibitory activity. They were furthercharacterized for their ability to resist hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, bile salts, and sodium chloride, and their ability toproduce bacteriocins and amino acid decarboxylase. The selected LAB isolates, 1IS11 and 4IS17, were bacteriocin-producingstrains, and showed no amino acid decarboxylase activity, which was suitable property for starter cultures. The isolate 1IS11could resist both hydrochloric and lactic acid at the lowest pH of 2.0, while the isolate 4IS17 was able to tolerate hydrochloricand lactic acid at the lowest pH of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Both isolates could grow in MRS broth containing a highconcentration of sodium chloride (10 % and bile salts (1.5%. They were identified by morphological characterization, biochemicaltest, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolate 1IS11 was found to be Enterococcus faecium, whereas the isolate4IS17 was Enterococcus faecalis.

  16. Potentially probiotic and bioprotective lactic acid bacteria starter cultures antagonise the Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to HT29 colonocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, M; Rubio, R; Aymerich, T; Ruas-Madiedo, P

    2015-01-01

    The capability of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to counteract the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to the epithelial intestinal cell line HT29 was studied. The highest adhesion ability to HT29 was achieved by the intestinal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, followed by the meat-derived strains Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 and Enterococcus faecium CTC8005. Surprisingly, the meat strains showed significantly better adhesion to HT29 than two faecal isolates of Lactobacillus casei and even significantly higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. Additionally, the anti-listerial, bacteriocin-producer starter culture L. sakei CTC494 was able to significantly reduce the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to HT29 in experiments of exclusion, competition and inhibition. The performance was better than the faecal isolate L. rhamnosus CTC1679. Our results reinforce the fact that the ability of LAB to interact with a host epithelium model, as well as to antagonise with foodborne pathogens, is a strain-specific characteristic. Additionally, it is underlined that this trait is not dependent on the origin of the bacterium, since some food LAB behave better than intestinal ones. Therefore, the search for novel strains in food niches is a suitable approach to find those with potential health benefits. These strains are likely pre-adapted to the food environment, which would make their inclusion in the formulation of probiotic foods more feasible. PMID:25488261

  17. Viscosity of stirred yoghurt during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija; Petar Mamula; Jasmina Havranek; Marija Pecina; Tomislav Poga?i?

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the changes in viscosity of stirred yoghurt from producer A (n = 20) and producer B (n = 20) throughout 21 days of storage. The content of fat, dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactic acid, pH and viscosity of stirred yoghurt were determined on the 0, 7th, 14th and the 21st day of storage of the product at the temperature of 4 °C. Considerable change in viscosity of stirred yoghurt (p < 0,05) throughout the maintenance period was determined on the 0 and ...

  18. The impact of oxygen on the final alcohol content of wine fermented by a mixed starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Pilar; Rojas, Virginia; Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2015-05-01

    We have developed a wine fermentation procedure that takes advantage of the metabolic features of a previously characterized Metschnikowia pulcherrima strain in order to reduce ethanol production. It involves the use of M. pulcherrima/Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed cultures, controlled oxygenation conditions during the first 48 h of fermentation, and anaerobic conditions thereafter. The influence of different oxygenation regimes and initial inoculum composition on yeast physiology and final ethanol content was studied. The impact of oxygenation on yeast physiology goes beyond the first aerated step and influences yields and survival rates during the anaerobic stage. The activity of M. pulcherrima in mixed oxygenated cultures resulted in a clear reduction in ethanol yield, as compared to S. cerevisiae. Despite relatively low initial cell numbers, S. cerevisiae always predominated in mixed cultures by the end of the fermentation process. Strain replacement was faster under low oxygenation levels. M. pulcherrima confers an additional advantage in terms of dissolved oxygen, which drops to zero after a few hours of culture, even under highly aerated conditions, and this holds true for mixed cultures. Alcohol reduction values about 3.7 % (v/v) were obtained for mixed cultures under high aeration, but they were associated to unacceptable volatile acidity levels. In contrast, under optimized conditions, only 0.35 g/L acetic acid was produced, for an alcohol reduction of 2.2 % (v/v), and almost null dissolved oxygen during the process. PMID:25582558

  19. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Siefarth; Thi Bich Thao Tran; Peter Mittermaier; Thomas Pfeiffer; Andrea Buettner

    2014-01-01

    This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal reg...

  20. DETERMINATION OF PROTEINS IN YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Borkovcová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to introduce method for detection of protein content in yoghurts. The analysis was focused on determination of major milk proteins which include caseins and lower amounts of whey proteins, in particular ?-lactalbumin a ?-lactoglobulin. 10 samples from the market were analyzed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatograph Alliance 2695 with PDA detector 2996 was used. The separation was performed on C18 column X Bridge TM, 150 x 3.0 mm, 3.5 ?m. Mobile phase contained water, acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid. Average value of determined proteins were: ?S-CN 47.1 ± 2.6 %, ?-CN 44.0 ± 3.8 %, ?-CN 9.0 ± 5.2 %, 96.7 ± 8.4 % LA and LG 14.7 ± 15.3%.

  1. Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Vij

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.

  2. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  3. USE OF METEROXYLON SAGU AS A STABILIZING AGENT IN YOGHURT

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Hasan; Nuzhat Huma; Aysha Sameen; Saima Rafiq; Nabila Gulzar

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is popular fermented milk product with higher nutritional value and significant health beneficial effects. The formulation of yoghurt with optimum texture, appearance, consistency and stability to synersis, and shelf life is major challenge to dairy industries. Usually, syneresis is reduced by either increasing the total solids of yoghurt or by using stabilizers. The main objective of the present study was to use Metroxylon sagu as stabilizing agent in yoghurt and to evaluate its infl...

  4. Carrot Yoghurt : Sensory, Chemical, Microbiological Properties and Consumer Acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Aly, Salwa A.; Galal, E. A.; Elewa, Neimat A.

    2004-01-01

    Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from cow`s milk obtained from Fayoum district, Egypt. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice before fermentation. The sensory, rheological, chemical, and microbiological quality of yoghurt samples were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4?C for three weeks. The Sensory scores increased especially for yoghurt samples with 15% carrot juice. Chemical analysis revealed an...

  5. Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production

    OpenAIRE

    Zaghloul, A. H.; Elgasim, A. E.; Khalifa, Maha E. A.; Mahfouz, M. B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added to yoghurt with ratio of 4 and 6%. Chemical compositions such as pH value, titratable acidity, wheying off, ash, protein, lactose, total carbohydrate, total solid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl of the t...

  6. Designing Inquiry Starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger-Bell, B.

    2010-12-01

    The term "Inquiry Starter" comes from the Institute for Inquiry's model for teaching and learning science through inquiry. It refers to the first phase of an inquiry activity where learners engage in actions that stimulate their curiosity and generate questions for further investigation. In the Professional Development Program, staff and participants have designed a wide variety of inquiry activities with a number of variations on the inquiry starter. This has provided a laboratory for examining inquiry starter design. In this paper, I describe and examine in detail the elements of this design and how the design of those elements is related to achieving learning objectives. There are a number of important common objectives in all inquiry starters. For example, all starters must define a domain for investigation and engage the learner's curiosity in that domain. There are also critical differences in learning objectives depending on the content area being studied, the learners' background knowledge and skills, and many other factors. In this paper I examine designs for both of these types of objectives.

  7. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions. Despite the importance of a properly conducted fermentation process, poor post-harvest practises, in combination with the unpredictable spontaneous nature of the fermentations, often results in sub-optimal flavour development. Our understanding of the microorganisms responsible for carrying out the fermentation of cocoa has greatly increased during the last decade. To overcome the inherited variability of spontaneous fermentations, this detailed insight into the microbial ecology has led to the development of defined inoculation cultures encompassing yeast and bacterial strains with beneficial functional properties. With the object ive of improving the volatile aroma and sensory properties of Ghanaian Forastero cocoa, the present Ph.D. study investigates the use of two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Lactobacillus fermentum in combination with either a commercially available aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Fermentations were conducted in an experimental small-scale tray setup at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana during the main crop of 2011/12. Using a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours offermentation, the yeast communities of both inoculated and spontaneous fermentations were dominated by Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica, with the latter being described for the first time in relation to cocoa fermentation. After 24 hours, the inoculated strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus were dominating the fermentation - composing 39.8% and 51.3% of the total yeast population, respectively. Chromosome Length Polymorphism among yeast populations belongingto the inoculation species was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. While all K. marxianus isolates were found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations of phenylacetaldehyde compared to a spontaneously fermented control, whereas inoculation with K. marxianus led to signifi

  8. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  9. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures / Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ernani Sebastião, Sant' Anna.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilida [...] de das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas. Abstract in english In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at differe [...] nt pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.

  10. Instant Prezi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  11. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  12. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  13. Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosicler BALDUINO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o tempo de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v e lactose 0,5% (m/v e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15UFC/mL.Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to reduce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15CFU/mL.

  14. Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas / Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o temp [...] o de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v) e lactose 0,5% (m/v) e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15)UFC/mL. Abstract in english Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to red [...] uce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15)CFU/mL.

  15. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis. No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation.

  16. Production and Evaluation of Yoghurt Ice Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamani, A. H.; Khaskheli, M.; Baloch, M. H.; Soomro, A. H.; Mangsi, A. S.; Khaskheli, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    Yoghurt ice cream was prepared from buffalo milk using conventional ice cream-making technique. A total of three trials (six batches in each) were conducted and analyzed for chemical characteristics and sensory attributes. Total Solids (TS) content of yoghurt ice cream averaged 32.790.64%, protein content 5.180.16%, fat content 4.840.10% and ash content 1.060.08%. The overall mean score rated by panelists for appearance/color was 3.680.08, for taste/flavor 39.630.71, for body/texture 25.500.4...

  17. Instant OSGi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  18. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency (RF heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C. This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress. The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life.

  19. Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage / Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciano, Fachin; Juliana, Moryia; Ana Lourdes Neves, Gândara; Walkiria Hanada, Viotto.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que [...] a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogurte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementação do meio RCPB pH5 com extrato de fígado desidratado e com os sais KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O, visando melhorar a diferenciação de Bifidobacterium em iogurte durante a estocagem refrigerada e também avaliou a contagem seletiva de Bifidobacterium em iogurte usando o meio MRS-LP. O meio MRS-LP apresentou a mesma recuperação de células que o meio RCPB pH5, usado como padrão, após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada do iogurte, sendo considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurtes durante a estocagem refrigerada. O meio RCPB pH5 fortificado também apresentou a mesma recuperação de células de Bifidobacterium que o meio padrão RCPB pH5; entretanto, a adição de extrato de fígado desidratado aumentou consideravelmente o diâmetro das colônias de Bifidobacterium, tornando a diferenciação destas bastante fácil e confiável quando comparadas à sua diferenciação no meio RCPB pH5 sem a fortificação. A adição dos sais (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O) não exerceu influência no desempenho do meio RCPB pH5. Abstract in english The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to co [...] unt them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.

  20. Instant Gimp starter

    CERN Document Server

    Amreen, Fazreil

    2013-01-01

    A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

  1. Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Banu; Sakin-Y?lmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balk?r, P?nar

    2014-07-01

    The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were affected by the drying outlet temperature only. Furthermore, the bulk (bulk and tapped densities, porosity, flowability, hygroscopicity and degree of caking) and particle properties (particle size distribution, particle density and morphology) of yoghurt powder obtained from optimum spray drying conditions were also determined. The bulk, tapped and particle densities of yoghurt powder were 538, 746 and 1177 kg/m(3), respectively. The mean diameter (D4.3) and the span value of yoghurt powder were 3.053 and 2.487 ?m, respectively. PMID:24966433

  2. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

  3. Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Singh Negi; Sunki Reddy Yella Reddy; Ramakrishna Chetana

    2013-01-01

    Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptabl...

  4. Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Bijeljac; Hajrudin Skender; Zlatan Sari?

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid ...

  5. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt.

    OpenAIRE

    O Mahony, M.; Mitchell, E.; Gilbert, R. J.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Begg, N. T.; Rodhouse, J. C.; Morris, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United Kingdom occurred in June 1989. A total of 27 patients was affected; one patient died. Twenty-five of the patients had eaten one brand of hazelnut yoghurt in the week before the onset of symptoms. This yoghurt contained hazelnut conserve sweetened with aspartame rather than sugar. Clostridium botulinum type B toxin was detected in a blown can of hazelnut conserve, opened and unopened cartons of hazelnut yoghurt, and one faecal s...

  6. Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Banu; Sakin-Y?lmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balk?r, P?nar

    2012-01-01

    The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were a...

  7. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    OpenAIRE

    AngeloSisto

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cul...

  8. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  9. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  10. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian

    2004-01-01

    A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the very important flavor compounds 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal with various growth conditions. We found that the aldehydes were present in the culture broth only as transient metabolites. They were produced in the exponential growth phase, reached a maximum concentration when the culture became anaerobic, and then they rapidly disappeared from the culture medium. This general pattern was observed for three different strains of S. xylosus and S. carnosus. Small amounts of inoculum or increased exposure to oxygen were found to favor production of the aldehydes as a result of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor affect on aldehyde production.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW) plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% g...

  13. Physico-chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Market Yoghurt in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olugbuyiro, Joseph A. O.; Oseh, Joy E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the quality of some yoghurts made and sold in the Nigerian market. Nine commercially available brands of yoghurt drinks which represent seven different manufacturers were randomly selected. The samples included seven plain yoghurt and two fruit yoghurt samples. All yoghurt samples were analyzed for chemical properties (moisture%, ash %, total solids, SNF, fat, pH and titratable acidity) and the organoleptic tests (color, thickness, appearance, body, texture, taste, smell, ...

  14. Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Singh Negi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.

  15. Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Nong Zhang; Joel Isanga

    2008-01-01

    Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v). Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing ?-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with lit...

  16. Quality Attributes of Soy-yoghurt During Storage Period

    OpenAIRE

    Manhal Mohammed Dafaalla Osman; Kamal Awad Abdel Razig

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of soybean milk in manufacturing yoghurt in Sudan was investigated. Soybean milk was prepared from grinded soybean seeds. Four samples of soy yoghurt product were used, namely sample A) 100% soymilk (sample B) 1:1 soymilk: cow milk), sample C (2:1 soymilk: cow milk) and sample D (1:2 soymilk: cow milk). The prepared soy yoghurt samples were stored at refrigerator temperature (10±2oC) followed by analyses at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days intervals. The chemical compositions of soyb...

  17. Milk and yoghurt do not impair the absorption of ofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvonen, P. J.; Kivisto?, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of milk and yoghurt on the oral absorption of ofloxacin were studied in seven healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over trial. After an overnight fast, 200 mg ofloxacin was given with 300 ml water, milk or yoghurt. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of ofloxacin were determined up to 24 h. Values of total plasma AUC and 24 h urinary excretion of ofloxacin were not affected by milk or yoghurt. Plasma ofloxacin concentrations from 0.5 to 1.5 h and the peak concentration...

  18. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    OpenAIRE

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

  19. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade.In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  20. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata) / USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Oliveira, CARIONI; Anna Cláudia Simas, PORTO; José Carlos Fiad, PADILHA; Ernani Sebastião, SANT' ANNA.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria [...] de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade. Abstract in english In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufa [...] cturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  1. Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

    2015-05-01

    Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used. PMID:25827218

  2. Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurul Islam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15% of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape. Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of fruit juice. Yoghurts fortified with 10% orange juice was the best in quality among the others. The smell and taste, body and consistency and color and texture of the fruit yoghurts were equally acceptable. 10 and 15% strawberry fruit yoghurt contain more acid and its texture was cracked down in refrigeration temperature. The moisture and acidity content of fruit yoghurts were increased than plain yoghurt because of high content of these in the fruits. The fat, protein, carbohydrates and ash content of strawberry and orange fruit yoghurt were decreased than normal plain yoghurt. But the carbohydrates content of grape yoghurt were increased because grape contains more sugar than milk and other two fruits. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 10% orange juice was more acceptable than others comparing all quality characteristics. The microbiological quality of the fruit yoghurts was also acceptable because of acid content of the fruits. In case of strawberry yoghurt, fruit juice concentration more than 5% was not suitable for fruit yoghurt because that are highly acidic and curd was cracked down at refrigerated condition. The findings of this research may give an overall idea about manufacturing of fruit yoghurt incorporating different level of fruit juice and appropriate technology of fruit yoghurt preparation.

  3. Simulation of stirred yoghurt processing in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carla S.; Dias, Ricardo P.; No?brega, Joa?o M.; Afonso, Isabel A.; Melo, Luis F.; Maia, Joa?o M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, simulations of stirred yoghurt processing in a plate heat exchanger were performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and the results compared with experimental data, showing a very good agreement. A Herschel–Bulkley model for the viscosity and an Arrhenius-type term for the temperature dependence were used to model the thermo-rheological behaviour of yoghurt. The heat exchanger used in this study operates in a parallel arrangement, thus simplif...

  4. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gilberto Vini?cius Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela Da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Ci?ntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

  5. Microbial Ecology of the Soppressata of Vallo di Diano, a Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage from Southern Italy, and In Vitro and In Situ Selection of Autochthonous Starter Cultures?

    OpenAIRE

    Villani, Francesco; Casaburi, Annalisa; Pennacchia, Carmela; Filosa, Luisa; Russo, Federica; Ercolini, Danilo

    2007-01-01

    The microbial ecology of “soppressata of Vallo di Diano,” a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, was studied by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The ripened fermented sausages were characterized by high microbial loads of both staphylococci and lactobacilli. Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the variable V3 and V1 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and direct DNA sequencing, it was possible to identify Staphy...

  6. Resveratrol entrapped niosomes as yoghurt additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, D; Beltrán, M; Gerone, I; Matos, M; Pazos, C

    2015-03-01

    Nanodesign of niosomes containing resveratrol (RSV) was carried out using food-grade surfactants with dodecanol to stabilise the membrane. Niosomes were prepared using a modified thin film hydration method. A factorial design analysis was carried out to reduce the number of experiments. The response factors were: mean size, polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Agitation speed and surfactant to dodecanol weight ratio were selected as key parameters for niosomes preparation. Parameter contribution was determined using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Niosomes formulated with Span 60 or Maisine 35-1 as surfactants, and dodecanol as stabiliser, were able to incorporate RSV. These niosomes exhibited a small mean size, narrow size distribution, high RSV entrapment efficiency and good stability. RSV addition did not involve changes in the textural properties of regular yoghurt demonstrating that RSV entrapped niosomes are suitable additives in these dairy products. PMID:25306346

  7. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  8. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  9. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  10. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  11. The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NETI YULIANA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results showed that using a mixed culture of L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides could greatly reduce contamination of non-lactic acid bacteria, retaining low amount of reducing sugar, rapidly producing lactic acid and consequently decreasing pH value of the pickle, as well as giving better sensory score. After 12 d of fermentation, sample of pickle inoculated with mixed culture showed the following characters: total lactic acid content 0.5%, total lactic acid bacteria 8.46 log10 CFU mL-1, total non-lactic acid bacteria 1 log10 CFU mL-1, total reducing sugar 0.84 g L-1, texture 64.92 mm 50 g-1 s-1, and hedonic sensory score for both taste and aroma 4 (like in a scale of 5. These results indicated the potential ability of the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria to improve the quality of the pickle fermented spontaneously.

  12. Improved creaminess in stirred yoghurt through amylomaltase-treated starch domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kanning, M. W.; Velde, F.; Alting, A. C.; Buwalda, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    Amylomaltase-treated starch (ATS) has been described as an excellent fat-replacer in set yoghurt. Its functionality as a creaminess enhancer relates to the ability to form domains, which have melting and yielding characteristics in the mouth. This study was intended to understand the functionality of ATS in stirred yoghurt. Sensory evaluation of reduced fat stirred yoghurt samples showed that the creaminess perception of stirred yoghurt with 1.5% fat and 0.5% ATS was comparable with the refer...

  13. Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt) Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Nurul Islam; Md. Fakruddin; Md. Nur Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15%) of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape). Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of...

  14. Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates comp...

  15. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma?gorzata Jasi?ska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  16. The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NETI YULIANA; SITI NURDJANAH; MIKA MARGARETA

    2013-01-01

    In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results...

  17. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen...

  18. 40 CFR 405.30 - Applicability; description of the cultured products subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable discharges resulting from the manufacture of cultured products, including cultured skim milk (cultured buttermilk), yoghurt, sour cream and dips of various...

  19. Increased CLA content in organic milk fermented by bifidobacteria or yoghurt cultures
    ---
    Teneur en acide linoléique conjugué accrue dans des laits biologiques fermentés par des bifidobactéries et des levains à yaourt

    OpenAIRE

    Florence, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Da Silva, Roberta Claro; Do Espi?rito Santo, Ana Paula; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Tamime, Adnan Y.; Oliveira, Marice? Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the kinetics of acidification, fatty acid (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2 c9, t11) content in fermented milks prepared from organic and conventional milk. Fermented milks were manufactured with five mixed cultures: four different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BL04, B94, BB12 and HN019) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340, in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040. The composition of milk was evaluat...

  20. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, A.; Jankowska, A.; Wi?niewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4°C and 20°C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20°C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4°C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  1. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 40C and 200C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 200C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 40C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes

  2. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  3. Novel paired starter culture system for sauerkraut, consisting of a nisin-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain and a nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, L J; Fleming, H P; Klaenhammer, T R

    1992-05-01

    Nisin-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides NCK293 and nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCK401 were evaluated separately and in combination for growth and nisin production in a model sauerkraut fermentation. Strains were genetically marked and selectively enumerated by using antibiotic-containing media. The growth and survival of L. mesenteroides were similar in the presence and absence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. The growth of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was not inhibited, although the maximum cell density was reduced and the population decline was more pronounced in the presence of L. mesenteroides. Nisin was detected within 24 h, and levels were relatively constant over the 12-day test period. The maximum cell populations and nisin level achieved could be altered by changing the initial cell ratios of L. mesenteroides and lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Isogenic nisin-producing and nisin-negative Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis derivatives were used in combination with nisin-resistant L. mesenteroides to demonstrate that nisin levels produced in mixed culture were sufficient to retard the onset of the growth of nisin-sensitive, homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. PMID:1622215

  4. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  5. Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos / Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Larissa Dias de, Avila; Carlos Eugenio, Daudt.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a [...] freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle). A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR), °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado. Abstract in english Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necess [...] ity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control). Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars (RS), °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

  6. Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Dias de Avila

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle. A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR, °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control. Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Reducing sugars (RS, °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

  7. Effect of Yoghurt and Protexin Boost on Broiler Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Aftahi, A.; Munim, T.; Hoque, M. A.; Ashraf, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of yoghurt and protexin boost on broiler growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability and profitability production was studied from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 120 day-old Arbor Acres commercial broiler chicks were distributed randomly into five dietary treatments. Each treatment had 3 replications each of 8 birds. The experimental treatments T1 considered as control and T2, T3, T4 received 3.0g, 4.0g, 5.0g sour yoghurt, respectively per liter of drinking w...

  8. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and ?-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg. PMID:25892751

  9. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  10. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

  11. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna

    2009-01-01

    The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1 wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus, pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil-enriched emulsion was responsible for the remarkably high oxidative stability and was able to protect the n-3 PUFA against oxidative deterioration. It should be considered that this strong antioxidative effect of yoghurt might mask potential antioxidative effects of the other ingredients in the drinking yoghurt.

  12. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultra filtration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30, 10 and 3 kDa. The peptides in these fractions were identified by LC–MS/MS. The identified peptides comprised a few Nterminal fragments of as1-, as2-, and j-casein, and several fragments from b-casein. Almost all the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained a considerable amount of free amino acids such as His, Tyr, Thr and Lys, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties. Thus, our findings confirm that the antioxidant effects of the peptide fractions from yoghurt are due to the presence of certain peptides and free amino acids with recognised antioxidant activity in these fractions.

  13. Rheological and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt-Modified Mayonnaise.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štern, Petr; Pokorný, J.; Šedivá, A.; Panovská, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 26, ?. 3 (2008), s. 190-198. ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : mayonnaise * rheology * sensory analysis * texture * yoghurt Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  14. Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy-yoghurt with Different Colours and Fruit Flavours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.F. Osundahunsi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different flavouring/colouring agents and fruits on the quality and acceptability of stirred soy-yoghurt were studied. Soy-yoghurts flavoured with strawberry, vanilla, orange, orange fruit, pineapple fruit and pawpaw fruit were compared for protein, pH, percentage lactic acid, soluble solids, percentage syneresis, total solids and microbial count with plain soy-yoghurt. Sensory evaluation was conducted in order to determine the acceptability of the samples. The pH and percent lactic acid ranged from 4.4-4.7 and 0.9-1.08%, respectively on the first day of storage while the values were 4.1-4.3 and 1.44-1.71%, respectively on the eighth day of storage at 6°C. Soluble solids of yoghurt samples ranged from 18.4-27.9% on the first day and were between 18.4-25.4% on the eight day of storage. The average percent syneresis of flavoured and fruit soy-yoghurts were 42.03 and 46.3%, respectively. The values increased with increasing storage days. The average protein content of fruit Soy-yoghurts was 5.01% while the average for flavoured soy-yoghurts was 3.93%. The total solids of plain yoghurt was 14.5%, flavoured soy-yoghurt was 13.5% and fruit soy-yoghurts was 12.5%. Microbiological examination revealed that the samples were within the acceptable minimum standards. The sensory evaluation showed that there was no significant difference in taste among all the samples. However, there were significant difference in the colour, aroma, consistency and overall acceptability of soy-yoghurts samples. The sensory evaluation revealed that there was preference for strawberry, vanilla, plain, orange flavoured, pineapple fruit flavoured yoghurts relative to pawpaw and orange fruit flavoured-yoghurts.

  15. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  16. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  17. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-? region with primer pair ?2/?12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  18. Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy-yoghurt with Different Colours and Fruit Flavours

    OpenAIRE

    Osundahunsi, O. F.; Amosu, D.; Ifesan, B. O. T.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different flavouring/colouring agents and fruits on the quality and acceptability of stirred soy-yoghurt were studied. Soy-yoghurts flavoured with strawberry, vanilla, orange, orange fruit, pineapple fruit and pawpaw fruit were compared for protein, pH, percentage lactic acid, soluble solids, percentage syneresis, total solids and microbial count with plain soy-yoghurt. Sensory evaluation was conducted in order to determine the acceptability of the samples. The pH and percent l...

  19. Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Niketi? Gordana B.; Peši?-Mikulec Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad ...

  20. Concentration changes of aroma components in plain and probiotic yoghurt during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Hruškar; Marina Krpan; Nada Vah?i?; Ivana Bucak

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two types of yoghurt, plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt purchased from Croatian and Slovenian market, were stored for up to 25 days at two different temperatures (+4 ºC, +20 ºC). Samples were analyzed every 5 days and changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and diacetyl content were determined. At the same time sensory evaluation was carried out. The aim of this study to show changes in concentrations of some flavor compounds and sensory quality in both yoghurt types during storag...

  1. Aflatoxin M1 levels in retail yoghurt and ayran in Erzurum in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Atasever, Meryem Aydemi?r; Atasever, Mustafa; O?zturan, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in yoghurt and ayran consumed in the province of Erzurum, Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 80 yoghurt samples and 80 ayran samples were randomly obtained from markets. The samples' AFM1 content and concentrations were examined by competitive ELISA method. AFM1 at detectable level (5 ng/kg) was found in 87.5% of the yoghurt samples and in 90.0% of the ayran samples. AFM1 levels in 16 (20%) yoghurt a...

  2. Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-08-01

    Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein. PMID:15545049

  3. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  4. PFP supply fan motor starters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake

  5. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Quasem, Jihad M.; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The formulas were ferm...

  6. The Quality of Yoghurt on Retail in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Karagozlu, C.; Kilic, S.; Uysal, H.; Akbulut, N.; Kesenkas, H.

    2005-01-01

    Some physico-chemical and microbiological properties of 47 commercial yoghurt samples collected from the local market were examined to determine their consistency to current codex. Results obtained showed that, considering non-fat solids contents, the majority (87.2%) of the samples were in line with the Turkish Food Codex Fermentative Milk Regulation. Nevertheless, 9 samples were found to be out of limits indicated in the relevant codex. The chemical composition of 80.9% of the samples did n...

  7. Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Material and methods. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability. Results. Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Conclusion. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid. Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

  8. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  9. Probiotics Bacteria from Egyptian Infants cause Cholesterol Removal in Media and Survive in Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Mahrous

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most significant groups of probiotic organisms are the lactic acid bacteria, commonly used in fermented dairy products. In this study, cultures were isolated from two infants. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, four promising isolates were identified as two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (P106, P110, strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (P164 and Lactobacillus. pentosus (P191which were tested for capability to remove cholesterol and to deconjugate sodium taurocholate from the culture medium. Results showed that a considerable variation existed among cultures in their growth viability in the presence of bile salt, deconjugation of sodium tauro-cholate and assimilation of cholesterol from the medium. All tested strains removed less cholesterol from the broth (ranged from 4.02-24.32% compared to those grown in broth supplemented with 0.2% bile salts (from 29.02 to 45.3. Lactobacillus acidophilus P106 appeared to be more active in bile salt hydrolase compared to the other strains, and therefore, is regarded as a suitable candidate probiotic and adjunct culture.These strains were employed to make yo-ghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time; a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with Streptococ-cus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus providing the rapid acidification. Storage trials at 4o C showed that the viability of the probiotic cultures was retained over 15 days.

  10. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  11. Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niketi? Gordana B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%.

  12. Incorporation of strawberries preparation in yoghurt: impact on phytochemicals and milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Alexandre, Elisabete M C; Coelho, Marta; Lopes, Cláudia; Almeida, Domingos P F; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-03-15

    An immediate decrease in the total antioxidant activity (23%) and total phenolic content (14%) was observed after addition of strawberry preparations to yoghurt. The total anthocyanin content did not change immediately, but decreased 24% throughout the yoghurt shelf-life. The individual compounds, (+)-catechin (60%), (-)-epicatechin (60%), kaempferol (33%) and quercetin-3-rutinoside (29%) decreased after 24h in the yoghurt made with the strawberry preparation. During the remaining period of storage these compounds increased by 47%, 6%, 4% and 18%, respectively. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside decreased 49% after 28 d. Immediately after the addition of the strawberry preparation to yoghurt, ?-lactoglobulin decreased to values lower than the limit of detection and ?-lactalbumin by approximately 34%, and was reduced further slowly throughout yoghurt self-life. An immediate interaction between the carrageenan present in the strawberry preparation and ?-LG was observed. The variations of both polyphenols and protein in the presence of carrageenan and the potential interactions were discussed. PMID:25308682

  13. Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma?gorzata Ziarno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates of S. thermophilus were cultured in artificial gastric fluid (with pepsin added and in artificial duodenal fluid (with the enzyme complex added, and in M17 broth containing cholesterol at an initial concentration of 600 µg/mL, as well as in M17 broth without cholesterol. Immediately after the adding of bacteria inoculums and at the end of experiment, the concentration of cholesterol and the number of bacteria were measured. Results. S. thermophilus did not remove statistically significant amounts of cholesterol from artificial gastric fluid. The isolates showed the ability to uptake cholesterol from M17 broth and artificial duodenal fluid, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depended on the isolate. All isolates of S. thermophilus remove much more cholesterol from M17 broth than from artificial duodenal fluid. All S. thermophilus isolates had worse survival in artificial gastric or duodenal fluids than in M17 broth. Conclusions. The ability of S. thermophilus cells to survive in artificial gastric fluid and artificial duodenal fluid varied according to the isolates.

  14. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

  15. Reproducibility of esophageal scintigraphy using semi-solid yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal scintigraphy is a non-invasive method which evaluate esophageal function quantitatively. We applied new technique using semi-solid yoghurt, which can evaluate esophageal function in a sitting position. To evaluate the reproducibility of this method, scintigraphy were performed in 16 healthy volunteers. From the result of four swallows except the first one, the mean coefficients of variation in esophageal transit time and esophageal emptying time were 12.8% and 13.4% respectively (interday variation). As regards the interday variation, this method had also good reproducibility from the result on the 2 separate days. (author)

  16. Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nouri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of 0 to 50% renneted skim milk (RSM as a fat mimetic upon the physico-chemical, physical, rheological and sensory characteristics of nonfat yoghurt in comparison to control samples (full fat and skim yoghurt. By increasing RSM content, the chemical characteristics (titratable acidity, pH as well as the content of fat and total protein of yoghurts did not alter except decrease of total solid in sample with 50% RSM. The yoghurts with more content of RSM exhibited higher b*and a* values, while the highest L* value, viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC, firmness and lowest syneresis were found in sample containing 30% RSM. It seems that new interaction in gel network of yoghurts containing RSM, exhibited greater ability to bind water than control skim yoghurt. In addition, probably new bridges between milk proteins (interacting partially hydrolyzed casein with casein can increase the number of bounds between protein particles leading to lower syneresis. However, excessive RSM content (higher than 30% did not increase the L* value, viscosity and WHC of samples probably because of too much aggregation of casein. Sensory results revealed that sample containing 30% RSM was exactly alike to full fat yoghurt in terms of overall sensory attributes. New formulation of palatable skim yoghurt was developed using 3% RSM successfully.

  17. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. PMID:24290824

  18. KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

  19. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  20. Thermal behaviour of stirred yoghurt during cooling in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carla S.; Dias, Ricardo P.; No?brega, Joa?o M.; Afonso, Isabel M.; Melo, Luis F.; Maia, Joa?o M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, CFD calculations were made in order to analyse the thermal behaviour of yoghurt in a plate heat exchanger, the yoghurt viscosity being described by a Herschel-Bulkley model. The influence of Reynolds number on local Nusselt numbers was analysed as well as the influence of entry effects on average Nusselt number. Numerical runs considering and discarding the influence of temperature on the viscosity were performed and the impact on average Nusselt numbers was analysed. Transv...

  1. Destructive Effects of Classical Viscosimeters on the Microstructure of Yoghurt Gel

    OpenAIRE

    O?zer, Barbaros

    2004-01-01

    The effects of empirical viscosity measuring techniques that are commonly used in the determination of the viscosity of weak viscoelastic gels such as yoghurt on the microstructure of yoghurt were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the measurement of viscosity, Brookfield and Haake viscosimeters were employed at 2 different measuring periods (15 and 30 s). The results obtained indicated that the increase in the measuring period (15 s versus 30 s) stimulated the further des...

  2. Heat transfer and rheology of stirred yoghurt during cooling in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, I. M.; Hes, Lubos; Maia, J. M.; Melo, L. F.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work an experimental investigation was conducted to obtain a correlation for the determination of convective heat transfer coefficients of stirred yoghurt in a plate heat exchanger. A rheological study was carried out in order to characterise the stirred yoghurt flow behaviour, evaluating its dependency both on shear rate and temperature. A shift in the temperature dependency was evidenced at 25 ºC. It is also shown that the material shows a complex flow behaviour, changing ...

  3. Effects of Processing on Antibiotic Residues (Streptomycin, Penicillin-G and Tetracycline) in Soft Cheese and Yoghurt Processing Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Adetunji, Victoria O.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-eight samples (40 cheese and 18 yoghurt samples) were collected from five soft cheese and two conventional yoghurt processors. The samples were collected along the processing lines of these dairy products and analyzed for antibiotic residues (streptomycin, penicillin-G and tetracycline). The mean residual levels for cheese was; streptomycin (0.00400.0018), penicillin-G (0.00620.0026) and tetracycline (0.00230.0008), while levels in yoghurt was; streptomycin (0.00140.0010), penicillin-G ...

  4. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

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    Katarina Lisak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

  5. The Use of Skim Milk and Essential Fatty Acids as an Alternative Method on Improving Yoghurt Nutrition Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Yuni Astuti; Triana Setyawardani

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to investigate the effects of addition of different levels lemuru seafish oil on skim milk-based yoghurt in order to produce good quality and marketable yoghurt. The experiment consisted of lemuru seafish oil fractination based on its freesing point and the addition of extracted lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt at 0.50%; 1%; 1.50%; 2%. Yoghurt with 0% lemuru seafish oil was included as a control. A Completely Randomised Design was employed and ...

  6. Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Harmayani 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

  7. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of those species during ripening of derived dairy products. A major increase in understanding the starter culture contribution to cheese ecosystem could be harnessed to control cheese ripening and flavor formation. PMID:23290237

  8. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incubation temperatures (high, medium and low) and flavour (sauce, strong, light and miscellaneous). Most Daquare prepared by solid-state fermentation from wheat, barley and/or peas with ingredient for...

  9. Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Astawan, M.; Wresdiyati, T.; Suliantari*; Arief, I. I.; Septiawan, R.

    2012-01-01

    Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermo...

  10. Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

  11. Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes, Xavier; José Henrique, Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de, Brito; Marcos Barcellos, Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca, Leandro; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Michele, Laboissière.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replic [...] ates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet), 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1) and starter (Assay 2) diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X²) and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X) and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X). Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X) and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X). Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X²) and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

  12. Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes, Xavier; José Henrique, Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de, Brito; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Marcos Barcellos, Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca, Leandro.

    1745-17-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases) to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. Th [...] e experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2) was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days) is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days), the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

  13. Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis and Quality of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhar Hussain Athar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was observed that there was gradual decrease in pH and increase in acidity in all samples during 15 days at 10°C±1. Lactose contents decrease in all Yoghurt samples during storage due to its conversion into lactic acid. It was observed that cornstarch tend to reduce syneresis followed by gelatin, pectin, guargum, CMC, Carrageenan, sodium alginate while comparing with control.

  14. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85Kr, 147Pm, 3H and 232Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  16. Semiconductor Sensor Array Based Electronic Nose for Milk, Rancid Milk and Yoghurt Odors Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A.; Sadistap, S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the use semiconductor sensor array based electronic nose for the identification of milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors. A low cost sensor array, serial data acquisition system and E-nose software package (ESP) tool are used to generate the database, feature extraction and normalization. The MLP NN is trained using the NeuroSolutions for the identification. The network has successfully classified milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors with 96% success rate. A sensitivity analysis is done to test the performance of the sensor data in the trained network

  17. Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis) and Quality of Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Izhar Hussain Athar; Mohammad Amin Shah; Ulfat-un-Nabi Khan

    2000-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis) and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was ...

  18. Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Santana, Toledo; Horacio Santiago, Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Albino; Marli Arena, Dionizio; Débora Cristine de Oliveira, Carvalho; Eduardo Terra, Nogueira.

    2205-22-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environmen [...] ts (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively) were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

  19. Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santana Toledo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

  20. Nutritional requirements of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter culture used in the elaboration of wine from orange / Requerimientos nutricionales de un cultivo iniciador de Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizado en la elaboración de vino de naranja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Mercedes, Ferreyra; María del Carmen, Schvab; Liliana Mabel, Gerard; Cristina Verónica, Davies; María Cristina, Cayetano Arteaga; Andreína, Stefani Leal.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de levaduras autóctonas para ser usadas en la elaboración de vino de naranja, incluye aislamiento, identificación y obtención de biomasa. Para optimizar su crecimiento se deben establecer los requerimientos nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las necesidades de vitamina [...] s y factores orgánicos de crecimiento de S. cerevisiae aislada de jugo de naranja fermentado. Se formuló un medio de cultivo con sacarosa (4 g/L) como fuente de carbono y energia (FCE) y urea como fuente de nitrógeno (FN), con 6 vitaminas (pantotenato de calcio, piridoxina, tiamina, biotina, niacina, ác. fólico) e inositol y ácido p-aminobenzoico (PABA) como factores de crecimiento. El medio completo se usó como testigo, preparándose además otros tres medios: con ausencia de todas las vitaminas y factores orgánicos de crecimiento, con pantotenato de Ca, piridoxina, tiamina, biotina e inositol y con esas 4 vitaminas, pero sin inositol. Finalmente, se procedió a eliminar una vitamina. Los cultivos se realizaron en aerobiosis a 30 ºC y pH 5,0. La cepa autóctona de S. cerevisiae requiere las vitaminas pantotenato de calcio, piridoxina, tiamina y biotina para crecer adecuadamente en condiciones aeróbicas en sistema batch; en cambio, no es auxótrofa para niacina, ácido fólico, PABA e inositol. Abstract in english The study of the yeasts present in the orange juice microbiota and used in the winemaking involves the isolation, identification and production of biomass. In order to optimize the yeast growth, the nutritional requirements should be determined. The aim of this work was to determine the vitamin and [...] other growth organic factors demand for the S. cerevisiae isolated from fermented orange juice. The culture medium was formulated with sucrose (4 g/L) as carbon and energy source (CES), urea as nitrogen source (NS), six vitamins (calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine, biotin, niacin, folic acid), and inositol and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as growth factors. The complete culture medium was used as blank, and three other media were prepared: without the vitamins and growth organic factors, with calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine, biotin and inositol and with the latter four vitamins, but for inositol. Finally, four new media were obtained by elimination of one vitamin at a time. The temperature was set at 30 ºC and the pH, at 5.0. The S. cerevisiae present in the orange juice needs calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine and biotin to grow adequately under aerobic conditions in a batch system, not being auxotroph for niacin, folic acid, PABA and inositol.

  1. Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Kavas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A and 70% goat - 30% cow (B, 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF and skim milk powder addition (MP were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration method and storage period on physico-chemical and microbiological properties of samples were investigated statistically.

  2. Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Kavas; Harun Uysal; Sevda Kilic; Necati Akbulut; Harun Kesenkas

    2003-01-01

    In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A) and 70% goat - 30% cow (B), 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c) mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF) and skim milk powder addition (MP) were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentra...

  3. Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonetta Amatiste

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12, fruit (14 and cereal yoghurt (4 produced with cow (8 and goat milk (22.The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

  4. Relations between rheological and textural characteristics of yoghurt-modified mayonnaise.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štern, Petr; Pokorný, J.; Panovská, Z.

    Hersonisos : European Society of Rheology, 2006. s. 177. [Annual European Rheology Conference AERC 2006 /3./. 27.04.2006-29.04.2006, Hersonisos, Crete] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : yoghurt -modified mayonnaise * rheology * viscoelasticity * sensory analysis * texture Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  5. STUDY REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOGHURT WITH RED BEETROOT JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Prodaniuc

    2009-01-01

    The study presents some physical - chemical characteristics of the beetroot juice yoghurt. The following determinations were carried out: the determination of the acidity by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) N/10, the determination of the fat content by the acid-butirometric method and the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature.

  6. [Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

    2010-12-01

    In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P consumer has a job or has had access to information on functional foods, the probability increased of knowledge of what these mean. There was thus majority acceptance of yoghurt enriched with fibre and with added sweetener. PMID:21866689

  7. Stability of Two Probiotics Bacteria of Goat Milk Yoghurt in Rat Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RARAH RATIH ADJIE MAHESWARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased age will affect the bacterial population of the human digestive tract, in which many bacteria will adapt and colonize different sites. Combining probiotics and prebiotics in what has been called a synbiotic could beneficially affect the host by improving survival and implantation/adhesion of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora. Probiotic bacteria are expected to survive in the digestive tract to give health effects to the host by balancing the intestinal microflora. The addition of fructo-oligosaccharides is expected to increase viability and growth of probiotics in the digestive tract. The objective of the current research is to investigate the effect of probiotic yoghurt and synbiotic yoghurt of Etawa Breed Cross Saanen (PESA goats together with fructo-oligosaccharides, on female rats and to study the stability of probiotic bacteria in the digestive tracts. The results showed that synbiotic yoghurt intake had no significant influence (p>0.05 on ration consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, final body weight and mortality. The synbiotic intake significantly increased the population of Bifidobacterium longum (p<0.01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (p<0.05, but in contrast decreased (p<0.05the population of Escherichia coli. The yoghurt synbiotic treatment over 14 days influenced probiotic bacteria’s stability asshown by the reduced population of B. longum and L. acidophilus.

  8. Stability of polyphenols and carotenoids in strawberry and peach yoghurt throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-05-13

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as on the antioxidant activity in strawberry and peach enriched yoghurt. The radical scavenging capacity of strawberry and peach yoghurt was 480 and 550% higher, respectively, at the level of the intestine than in fruit yoghurt not subjected to digestion. In strawberry the amount of bio-accessible anthocyanins increased during gastric digestion and the transition to the intestinal compartment produced a decrease in all the analyzed classes of polyphenols, being more pronounced in pelargonidin-3-glucoside (65%) and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (58%). In peach the (+)-catechin content strongly decreased (80%), and neochlorogenic, chlorogenic acid, rutin and the carotenoid zeaxanthin decreased at lower levels, between 32-45%, while ?-carotene was rather stable under gastric conditions (increased by 12%) during intestinal digestion. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that fruit yoghurt is an important source of bio-accessible polyphenols and carotenoids and that despite some losses induced by digestion conditions, it still releases relevant amounts at the level of the intestine to be absorbed and to promote health benefits. PMID:25882006

  9. Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not s>-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

  10. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  11. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.; I. Ahaotu; C.I. Owuamanam; C.C. Ogueke

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as sta...

  12. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Albertengo; María Susana Rodríguez; Mirta Montero; Marina Dello Staffolo; Miriam Martino; Alicia Bevilacqua

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was ...

  13. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for milk, yoghurt, and dressing. Yoghurt and dressing enriched with neat fish oil were more stable than those enriched with afish-oil-in-water emulsion, whereas milk enriched with neat fish oil was less stable than milk enriched with the fish-oil-in-water emulsion. Overall, it seemed that application of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad dressing.

  14. The Use of Tiger-Nut (Cyperus esculentus), Cow Milk and Their Composite as Substrates for Yoghurt Production

    OpenAIRE

    Sanful, Rita E.

    2009-01-01

    Yoghurt was produced from skimmed cow milk and tiger nut milk. The pH of the yoghurt was found to increase with increasing tiger nut milk in the composite. From the comparison made of the sensory attributes of the three samples of yoghurt composite, the yoghurt produced from the combination of cow milk and tiger nut milk had the highest mean score in all the parameters even though the difference between the means of cow milk-tiger nut composite and that of pure cow milk was insignificant. Thu...

  15. Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2011-01-01

    Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under ...

  16. Selection of yeasts as starter cultures for table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Beneduce, Luciano; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2013-05-01

    Ninety-nine yeasts were isolated from Bella di Cerignola table olives; first, the strains were studied in relation to their ability to produce biogenic amines in a laboratory medium and 49 strains were positive to this assay and cut off from the research. The remaining 50 strains were characterized for their enzymatic traits (?-glucosidase, catalase, pectolytic, xylanolytic, and lipolytic activities) and for their ability to grow at different temperatures, pHs, with salt or lactic/acetic acids added. Data were used for the evaluation of growth index and submitted to cluster and principal component analyses to choose the most promising 4 strains. In the final step of the research, the strains were inoculated as a cocktail in a model brine, containing different amounts of salt (4% to 12%) and glucose (0% to 3%), and adjusted to different pHs (4.0 to 9.0). Data analysis through a multiple regression procedure highlighted that salt, glucose, and pH acted in a different way within the storage and NaCl affected yeast growth only for few days, and then glucose and pH played a major role. PMID:23574538

  17. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of FOS and decrease in syneresis of obtained bio-yoghurts.  

  18. Isolation of cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and molecular comparison with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Elisabeth Penderup; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To isolate cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and compare them with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains using molecular typing methods. Methods and Results: The number of thermophilic bacteria in seven commercial cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starters was estimated to be <10 CFU g-1. Implementation of an enumeration step in the isolation method made it possible to isolate one thermophilic strain from each of five of seven cheeses. Comparing repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) profiles of the isolates with dairy-related Lact. helveticus strains indicated that one isolate was a Lact. helveticus. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA confirmed this, and the remaining four strains were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum and Enterococcus faecium. The rep-PCR profile of the isolated Lact. helveticus was identical to the rep-PCR profile of the Lact. helveticus adjunct culture used in the specific cheese, but their pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles differed slightly. Conclusion: It was possible to isolate cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starter and thermophilic adjunct cultures by using an enumeration step. Significance and Impact of the Study: Isolation of cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses made with mesophilic starters offers an original source for new dairy-relevant cultures.

  19. Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Nouri; Hamid Ezzatpanah; Soleiman Abbasi

    2011-01-01

    For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was ca...

  20. Influence of corrugation angle in the stirred yoghurt processing in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carla S.; Afonso, Isabel M.; Melo, Luis F.; Maia, Joa?o M.

    2004-01-01

    Research on heat transfer of non-Newtonian fluids during thermal processing is very useful for optimise heat exchanger design, as well as to define quality levels of the final product. In the present study non-isothermal, non-Newtonian flow in plate heat exchangers were simulated numerically, in order to evaluate the influence of corrugation angles on the thermal and hydrodynamics characteristics of yoghurt cooling in a plate heat exchanger. Simulations were carried out using the commercia...

  1. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeli?i?; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božani?

    2011-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

  2. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  3. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DilekHeperkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  4. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  5. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30 kDa, 10 kDa and 3 kDa. The fractions were tested for antioxidant activity by investigating the inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles, tocopherol and sensory characteristics, the lower molecular weight fractions 3–10 kDa and

  6. Pengaruh Temperatur Dalam Pembuatan Yoghurt dari Berbagai Jenis Susu Dengan Menggunakan Lactobacillus Bulgaricus dan Streptococcus Thermophilus The effect of Temperature in Making Yoghurt from Various Kind of Milk, Using Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Streptococcus Thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Nurzainah; Pasaribu, Elsegustri

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the colour, texture, taste and biological living of yoghurt. The yoghurt was treated with various temperature and various kinds of milk and using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Factorial randomized block was used and the first factor was temperature, i.e. T1 (30°C), T2 (37°C), T3 (44°C), T4 (51°C); and the second factor was various kinds of milk, i.e. S1 (Skim Cow Milk), S2 (Fresh Cow Milk), S3 (Full Cream Cow Milk) a...

  7. Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 ?mol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 ?mol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 ?mol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

  8. Aislamiento e identificación de cepas del género Bifidobacterium presentes en productos lácteos fermentados tipo yogur / Isolation and identification of strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus found in fermented yoghurt type milk products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Indira, Pérez; Aura, Falco; María Soledad, Tapia; Guillermina, Alonso.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de microorganismos probióticos del género Bifidobacterium es de gran importancia por su uso como suplemento que favorece la salud del consumidor. En Venezuela son pocos los estudios sobre caracterización microbiológica de estas bacterias y no existen métodos oficiales para su estud [...] io en alimentos. Esta investigación reporta la estandarización de técnicas microbiológicas y moleculares para el aislamiento e identificación de bifidobacterias aisladas de dos productos tipo yogur, I con probiótico y II sin probiótico. Se analizaron 10 muestras de cada yogur, una por semana, aislando 3 colonias por muestra. Los resultados mostraron que de los 60 aislados analizados, 27 colonias del Yogur I y 11 del Yogur II concordaron con las características de bifidobacterias. Se comparó el crecimiento bacteriano en dos medios de cultivo (MRS-m, RCA), sembrando por profundidad en placas y en tubos Miller-Pricket, obteniéndose mejores resultados con el medio MRS-m y las siembras por profundidad en tubos. De las extracciones de ADN se obtuvieron los patrones de ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR, determinándose que 34 aislados eran clones indistinguibles, mostrando el patrón de B. lactis utilizado como control positivo. Esta metodología puede ser utilizada por la industria y los entes encargados del control de la calidad de los productos probióticos Abstract in english The identification of probiotic microorganisms belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus is very important due to their use as supplements favorable for consumer’s health. In Venezuela there have been few studies of the microbiological characterization of these bacteria and there are no official method [...] s for their study in food. This investigation reports the standardization of microbiological and molecular techniques for the isolation and identification of bifidobacteria isolated from two yoghurt type products: I with probiotic and II without probiotic. Ten samples from each yoghurt type product were analyzed, one per week, and 3 colonies were isolated per sample. Results showed that of the 60 isolates analyzed, 27 colonies of Yoghurt I and 11 of Yoghurt II coincided with the characteristics of bifidobacteria. Bacterial growth was compared in two culture media (MRS-m, RCA), inoculating in-depth in plates and Miller-Pricket tubes; the best results were obtained with MRS-m medium and in-depth inoculations in tubes. By DNA extraction we obtained ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns, determining that 34 isolates were indistinguishable clones, showing the same pattern of the B. lactis used as positive control. This methodology can be used by the industry and the institutions in charge of quality control of probiotic products

  9. Fingerprint based bio-starter and bio-access

    OpenAIRE

    Iovane, G.; Giordano, P.; Iovane, C.; Rotulo, F.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper will be presented a safety and security system based on fingerprint technology. The results suggest a new scenario where the new cars can use a fingerprint sensor integrated in car handle to allow access and in the dashboard as starter button.

  10. A Z-Source Inverter for an Integrated Starter Alternator

    OpenAIRE

    HANGIU Radu-Petru; FILIP Andrei-Toader; MAR?I? Claudia Stelu?a; BIRÓ Károly Ágoston

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an integrated starter alternator system used in mild hybrid electric vehicles. Inverter configurations that are used in HEV are assessed with an emphasis on the novel Zsource inverter topology. The final part presents a simulation model of a bi-directional Z-source inverter, developed in AMESim, and the simulation results.

  11. Conversation starters: re-examining and reconstructing first encounters within the therapeutic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, M; Matarasso, B; Dixon, B; Shepperd, C

    2004-10-01

    This paper describes, analyses and reconstructs early encounters between nurse and client. Too often nurses take for granted ordinary encounters with clients and thus overlook opportunities to develop the nurse-client relationship. Common encounters, drawn from reflection on practice, are analysed using contemporary cultural theories. Creative alternatives are suggested and we argue that they represent opportunities to make meaningful connections with and for clients. As conversation starters, these ideas may be used by nurses to facilitate a more trusting therapeutic relationship. They may help to deepen understanding or insight into mental health problems and help to reveal hidden strengths and solutions. By noticing, valuing, discussing and developing this space, we as mental health nurses are extending our discipline base and articulating, with more precision and persuasion, exactly how we contribute to better health outcomes. PMID:15450025

  12. SPARKLING WINE PRODUCTION BY CHAMPENOISE METHOD IN LOMBARDY REGION: YEAST POPULATION BIODIVERSITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INDIGENOUS SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AS POTENTIAL STARTERS

    OpenAIRE

    BARRERA CARDENAS, SHIRLEY MIREYA

    2012-01-01

    Sparkling wine obtained through the Champenoise method represents a relevant cultural and outstanding economical fact in Italy. There are two Lombardy sparkling wines belonging to DOCG: (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) Franciacorta DOCG and Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico which high quality production is remarkable. Commercial starters belonging to Saccharomyces species currently used in Italy for sparkling wine production have been isolated from French territories on the ba...

  13. Performance of broiler starters fed varying levels of dietary methionine

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemo G.O.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred and fifty broiler chicks (Arbor acre breed) were used to determine responses of broiler starters to varying levels of dietary methionine. The chicks were divided into 5 treatment groups consisting of 6 replicates of five chicks each. The chicks were kept in floor pens. The study lasted for 28 days and was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The performance variables under determination were Weight Gain and Feed Intake. No significant ...

  14. The post-entry performance of cohorts of export starters in German manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates four cohorts of firms from German manufacturing industries that started to export in the years between 1998 and 2002 and follows them over the five years after the start. Export starters are a rare species and they are small on average compared to incumbent exporters. Between 30 percent and 40 percent of the starters became continuous exporters; some starters stepped out and back into exporting, many of them more than once. The share of total exports contributed by exp...

  15. Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Demarigny Yann; Gerber Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the ...

  16. Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Aurora

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

  17. Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Al-wabel, N. A.; Mousa, H. M.; Omer, O. H.; Abdel-salam, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) activities were estimated before and afte...

  18. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Suk Choi; Joo Wan Kim; Ki-Young Kim; Jong-Kwang Lee; Jae Hak Sohn; Sae-Kwang Ku

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lu...

  19. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Benkovi?; Blaženka Kos; Katarina Tonkovi?; Andreja Leboš; Jagoda Šuškovi?; Ljerka Gregurek

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 m...

  20. Effect of Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on Growth and Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for Production of Probiotic Herbal Milk and Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Gholami, P.; Ehsandoost, E.; Marhamatizadeh, M. H.; Nazemi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was ...

  1. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  2. Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.N., Rinaldoni; M.E., Campderrós; A., Pérez Padilla; E., Perino; J.E., Fernández.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with benefic [...] ial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and in the fermented product have been studied by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results show that XRF technique has been successfully used for determination of minerals content in dairy products, still for trace species. The minerals measures were validated with other analytical techniques with high accuracy and versatility as inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and atomic emission spectrometry (EEA). Furthermore the proteins content was increased 13 % and lactose content has been reduced in 30 %, in compared with some commercial products.

  3. Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais / Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Rocha dos Santos, Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva, Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva, Rosa; Bárbara Amorim, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Fo [...] ram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were u [...] sed and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

  4. Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro, com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente, e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente, em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC, cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia.Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm, varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

  5. Evaluation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08 as a co-starter in wine fermentation for the improvement of ethyl esters production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, Juliano; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia de Souza; Camargo Mendes, Sandra Denise; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Valente, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08, a yeast isolated from red wine barrels in Brazil, was evaluated as co-starter in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Z. bailii BCV 08 was preliminarily shown to produce high levels of esters, and the production was optimized in bench and bioreactor scales using grape must. White wine vinifications were conducted with mixed cultures containing different proportions of Z. bailii BCV 08 and an enological strain of S. cerevisiae. In all trials that contained Z. bailii BCV 08, the production of ethyl esters was enhanced in comparison to the vinification control. Our results clearly show the potential of Z. bailii BCV 08 as a mixed starter with S. cerevisiae in order to increase the aromatic complexity of wine. PMID:25801972

  6. Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: Karakteristik Kimiawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was designed to improve quality of dadih in a process which was more controlled. The use of cow milk was to replace buffalo milk utilization due to its availability was very limited; the use of probiotic starter combination was to conduct fermentation process of dadih more controlled, and the specific characteristics of dadih could be measured. Therefore the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the best starter concentration that will be used in fermentation process of dadih and to investigate chemical characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combination of probiotic starter bacteria (L. plantarum (A1, L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2, L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3 and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4 and stored at low temperatures for 0, 7 and 14 days. The results showed that the best starter concentration was 3% with similar comparison among starters and the combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly moisture, protein, fat, ash contents, pH and titratable acidity of dadih at H-0 (before storage. The characteristics of dadih after storing for 14 days at low temperature showed that combinations of starter affected significantly pH and titratable acidity (P<0.01. However these variables were not affected by storage time. Protein, moisture and fat contents were not affected by starter combinations and storage time; ash content was affect significantly by storage time but not by starter combination. It is concluded that all dadih produced by different starter combinations have no significant differences in chemical characteristics, but dadih produced by starter combination A4 has more advantages in probiotic content.

  7. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  8. Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi

    OpenAIRE

    E. Taufik

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1), L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2), L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3) and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B...

  9. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

  10. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ design verification activities are being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

  11. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Albertengo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0. The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2 and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work.

  12. Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Amália Saturnino, Chaves; Suely de Fátima, Costa; Leandra Queiroz de, Melo; Marcos Neves, Pereira.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter) with possible early weaning and ground starter (control), were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males). Animals [...] were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05), despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P

  13. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

  14. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi H.; Pourshahidi S.; Amanat D.; Khaleghi V.; Andisheh Tadbir A.

    2012-01-01

    Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA) was detected form human’s recourses many yea...

  15. Low-fat yoghurt intake in pregnancy associated with increased child asthma and allergic rhinitis risk: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2012-01-01

    Dairy products are important sources of micronutrients, fatty acids and probiotics which could modify the risk of child asthma and allergy development. To examine the association of dairy product intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years in the Danish National Birth Cohort, data on milk and yoghurt consumption were collected in mid-pregnancy (25th week of gestation) using a validated FFQ (n 61 909). At 18 months, we evaluated asth...

  16. Incorporation of different natural polyphenol extracts into a yoghurt and their effect on viability of a selected probiotic strain

    OpenAIRE

    Pisu, Rosa; Juliano, Claudia Clelia Assunta; Alamanni, Maria Cristina Paolina; Coloru, Gavina Carmina; Cossu, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The aims of our project were: (1) to prepare different extracts of strawberry-tree honey, Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke), Arbutus unedo L. fruits (strawberry-tree) and Prunus avium L. var. Bonnannaro fruits (cherry) and characterise them with respect to their polyphenol contents; (2) to study the effect of these extracts on viability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 12116; (3) to incorporate these extracts into commercial yoghurt samples to verify if their presence ...

  17. Effect of Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent on Growth and Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for Production of Probiotic Herbal Milk and Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gholami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40° Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 109. All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.

  18. Effect of denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on growth and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M

    2013-12-15

    This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities. PMID:24517020

  19. Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Miriam; Lanza, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2013-05-01

    Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the ?-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the ?-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives. PMID:23498181

  20. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB. The occurrence of cracks was higher in cheeses with more hydrolyzed a(S1)- and ß-casein, higher content of free amino acids, lower strain at fracture (shorter texture), and a greater number of PAB

  1. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  2. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.C., Marques; D.A., Marinho.

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players particip [...] ated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  3. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  4. Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.H, Malik; L, Holm; E, Johansson.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige [...] was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

  5. QUALITY AND MICRIOBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN YOGHURT SUPPLEMENTED WITH COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Aderinola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of African yam bean for the production of yoghurt substituted with cow milk was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with Yoghurmet® in ratios with reconstituted cow milk powder in the ratios 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, 100:0 and 0:100 (African yam bean milk:Cow milk. Sample 0:100 which was 100% cow milk yoghurt served as the control. The samples were stored for 14 days at 4oC and 3 days at room temperature. The results of the proximate composition of the fresh samples in percentages are; Moisture: 82.76, 81.62, 83.62, 86.53 and 85.42. Total solids: 17.25, 18.47, 16.35, 13.47and14.57. Protein: 5.93, 4.27, 5.87, 5.57 and 5.14. Ash: 0.94, 0.83, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.87. Fat: 1.07, 2.53, 1.18, 1.45 and 1.75. Carbohydrate: 9.09, 10.73, 8.33, 5.53 and 6.78 for the samples 100:0, 0:100, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 respectively. The moisture, total solids, fat and carbohydrate contents differed significantly (p?0.05 in all the samples. The protein content of 100:0 and 90:0 did not differ significantly but differs in other samples. 0:100 differ significantly from other samples in ash content. There was no fiber in the samples. The total viable microbial count was highest in 70:30 (1×107cfu/ml for refrigerated storage samples while 50:50 (9.5×106cfu/ml had the highest count in room temperature storage samples. There were no yeasts/moulds enumerated in the refrigerated storage samples while yeast/moulds appeared in 100:0 (3×106cfu/ml and 70:30 (1×106cfu/ml on the 3rd day of room temperature storage. The titratable acidity of all the samples increased gradually throughout the storage period while their pH decreased. The specific gravity of the samples also decreased gradually throughout the storage period. The anti-nutritional composition of the samples containing African yam bean was also determined. The sensory properties showed that samples stored at refrigeration temperature maintained good quality up to 14 days of storage and that sample 50:50 was most preferred.

  6. Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Al-Wabel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST activities were estimated before and after alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Obtained results showed that blood glucose levels in sera of treated rats fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture decreased with mean values of 135.0 ± 26.85 mg/100 mL serum compared with the treated rat fed on basal diet (positive control with mean value of 237.66 ± 14.43 mg/100 mL serum. Data showed that ALT and AST activities in sera of treated rat fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were nearest to the level of un-treated rats fed basal diet (negative control. The means values of ALT and AST level in treated group fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were 57.33 ± 20 and 189.33 ± 48.85 compared with the positive control 90 ± 31.76 and 260.00 ± 57.27 and negative control 44.66 ± 9.5 and 180.66 ± 23.58 U L-1, respectively. Data concluded that mixture of medicinal plant extracts and stirred yoghurt filtrate may play a role in protection against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rat.

  7. Efecto de la concentración de cultivos iniciadores y dextrosa sobre la calidad de la maduración y vida útil sensorial del pepperoni / Effect of the concentration of starter cultures and dextrose on the quality of the maturation and the sensory life of pepperoni / Efeito da concentração de cultivos iniciadores e dextrose sobre a qualidade da maturação e vida útil sensorial do pepperoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio, Montes Álvarez; Claudia, Restrepo Flórez; Jairo, Patiño Gómez; Jaime Andrés, Cano Salazar.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução. A automatização dos processos na indústria cárnica, e a combinação entre cultivos de rápida fermentação e substratos fermentables que permitam elaborar produtos madurados secos de alta qualidade em curto tempo e com novas características sensoriais são os fatores a ter em conta para melh [...] orar, estandarizar e diminuir o tempo de elaboração tradicional deste tipo de alimentos, permitindo às empresas cárnicas diversificar seus produtos e proporcionar ao consumidor alimentos com novos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demonstrar as vantagens de controlar os parâmetros de temperatura e umidade, em câmara de estufaje e a incorporação de diferentes dosificações de cultivo iniciador e dextrose nas etapas de fermentação, maturação, e na conservação do pepperoni. Materiais e métodos. Para avaliar o efeito das concentrações de dextrose e cultivos iniciadores sobre a maturação do pepperoni, avaliaram-se 4 combinações entre as concentrações 0.03% e 0.05% do cultivo Bactoferm LHP, e 0.5% e 1% de dextrose. A fermentação e maturação se realizou em condições controladas de umidade e temperatura. O tempo de vida útil foi avaliado num período de 100 dias, analisando as características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais do alimento cada 30 dias, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. As principais diferenças encontradas, durante o armazenamento, nos pepperoni com percentagens maiores de 0,5 de dextrose, foi a aparição de defeitos no produto final como cores marrons, sabor ácido e gorduroso nos produtos finais. Pelo contrário, concentrações de 0,03% de cultivo starter e 0,5% de dextrose permitiram obter produtos com maior retenção de umidade, melhorando a aparência e textura do produto. O estudo de vida útil do pepperoni determinou que os tratamentos avaliados garantiram a inocuidad do produto por 94 dias a 26° C, como resultado do efeito sinérgico dos metabólitos das bactérias ácido-lácticas, que evitaram o desenvolvimento de microorganismos alterantes e patogênicos. Conclusão. A utilização de dextrose como substrato fermentable para os cultivos iniciadores foi essencial para controlar a velocidade de acidificación do pepperoni durante a fermentação, e evitar assim o rápido descenso do PH e a formação de defeitos sensoriais no produto final; desta maneira, consegue-se a estabilidade sensorial do produto em condições de armazenamento ao ambiente. Abstract in spanish Introducción. La automatización de los procesos en la industria cárnica, y la combinación entre cultivos de rápida fermentación y sustratos fermentables que permitan elaborar productos madurados secos de alta calidad en corto tiempo y con nuevas características sensoriales son los factores a tener e [...] n cuenta para mejorar, estandarizar y disminuir el tiempo de elaboración tradicional de este tipo de alimentos, permitiendo a las empresas cárnicas diversificar sus productos y proporcionar al consumidor alimentos con nuevos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demostrar las ventajas de controlar los parámetros de temperatura y humedad, en cámara de estufaje, y la incorporación de diferentes dosificaciones de cultivo iniciador y dextrosa en las etapas de fermentación, maduración, y en la conservación del pepperoni. Materiales y métodos. Para evaluar el efecto de las concentraciones de dextrosa y cultivos iniciadores sobre la maduración del pepperoni, se evaluaron 4 combinaciones entre las concentraciones 0.03% y 0.05% del cultivo Bactoferm LHP, y 0.5% y 1% de dextrosa. La fermentación y maduración se realizó en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura. El tiempo de vida útil fue evaluado en un período de 100 días, analizando las características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales del alimento cada 30 días, durante el almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. Las principales diferencias encontradas, durante el almacenamiento, en los pepperoni con porcentajes mayores de 0,5 de dextrosa, fue la apar

  8. Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Rasdhari, M.; Parekh, T.; Dave, N.; Patel, V.; Subhash, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis...

  9. Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Regina Moreira; Rosane Freitas Schwan; Eliana Pinheiro Carvalho; Alan E. Wheals

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7) cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other ...

  10. Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

  11. Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, A. H.; Holm, L.; Johansson, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition w...

  12. Fuzzy and ANFIS based soft starter fed induction motor drive for high performance applications

    OpenAIRE

    L. Rajaji; Kumar, C.; M. Vasudevan

    2008-01-01

    Soft starters are used with induction motors in blowers, fans, pumps and the crane hoist drives. AC voltage controllers are used as soft starters in induction motors for starting and to adjust its speed. This paper highlights the intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy and Neuro fuzzy based ac voltage controllers to generate the firing pulses for appropriate thyristors for any given operating torque, speed of the motor and the load. FUZZY and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System) models...

  13. Functionality of selected strains of moulds and yeasts from Vietnamese rice wine starters

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, N. T. P.; Rombouts, F. M.; Nout, M. J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The role of starch-degrading mycelial fungi, and the alcohol production and ethanol tolerance of the yeasts isolated from selected Vietnamese traditional rice wine starters were examined, and optimum conditions for these essential steps in rice wine fermentation were determined. Of pure isolates from Vietnamese rice wine starters, mould strains identified as Amylomyces rouxii, Amylomyces aff. rouxii, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae, were superior in starch degradation, glucose produc...

  14. Characteristics of some traditional Vietnamese starch-based rice wine fermentation starters (men)

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, N. T. P.; Rombouts, F. M.; Nout, M. J. R.

    2007-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta region of South-Vietnam, wine from purple glutinous rice is particularly interesting because of its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. It is manufactured at home or by small cottage industries, using traditional solid-state starters (Men). With the objective of improving the knowledge about the functionality of traditional Men, this study deals with the properties and composition of 29 samples of Vietnamese commercial rice wine starters. We ...

  15. Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Mishra

    2013-01-01

    High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with sm...

  16. Fate of Bacillus anthracis during production of laboratory-scale cream cheese and homemade-style yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Katja; Schneider, Oda; Schmoock, Gernot; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy C

    2015-04-01

    The viability of Bacillus anthracis during production and storage of cream cheese and yoghurt was evaluated. Experimental cheeses were manufactured from whole milk inoculated with a suspension of B. anthracis vegetative cells and spores at a final concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lab ferment were used to induce milk ripening and milk coagulation. The pH-value of the contaminated milk dropped below 4.5 within the first 6 h and the amount of LAB increased by approximately 2-logs. During cheese production and storage at 5-9 °C for 24 days no growth of B. anthracis was observed. The amount of vegetative cells and spores fluctuated by 1-log. Inoculation of whole milk with heat-treated spores at 10(4) cfu/ml resulted in a slight increase of vegetative cell counts during the first 6 h. This indicated that germination occurred, but replication of vegetative cells was still inhibited in the produced cheese. Incubation of cheeses at room temperature or heating after milk coagulation strongly reduced the amount of LAB but had no effect on the growth behaviour of B. anthracis. The vegetative cell and spore content remained steady at 10(4) cfu/100 mg. During yoghurt production the pH-value decreased within 5 h below 5 and growth of B. anthracis was inhibited throughout storage. A pH-value of 5 or less is likely a critical factor to control the growth of B. anthracis. However, spores remained viable in experimental cream cheeses and yoghurts and are a potential risk of infection. PMID:25475304

  17. Effects of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Inflammatory Factors in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rahim Foroushani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (107 CFU g-1 for each or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation. Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-a, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.441.56 to 7.441.03 g mL-1 (p = 0.041. There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.551.57 to 14.511.62 g mL-1, p = 0.202. The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-a (from 73.756.59 to 77.915.61 pg mL-1, p = 0.633. Serum TNF-a did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134. In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-a.

  18. Application of autochthonous mixed starter for controlled Kedong sufu fermentation in pilot plant tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Xu, Miao; Zhai, Shuang; Chen, Hong; Li, Ai-li; Lv, Xin-tong; Deng, Hong-ling

    2015-01-01

    Traditional sufu is fermented by back-slopping and back-slopping has many defects. The objective of this study was to apply autochthonous mixed starter to control Kedong sufu fermentation. Sufu was manufactured using back-slopping (batch A) and autochthonous mixed starter (batch B) with Kocuria kristinae F7, Micrococcus luteus KDF1, and Staphylococcus carnosus KDFR1676. Considering physicochemical properties of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B met the standard requirements, respectively. Considering sensory characteristics of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The maturation period of sufu was shortened by 60 d. Profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of typical sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured by autochthonous mixed starter. In final products, content of total biogenic amines was reduced by 48%. Autochthonous mixed starter performed better than back-slopping. Fermentation had a positive influence on the quality, safety, and sensory properties of sufu. The application of autochthonous mixed starter does not change the sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sufu. In addition, it reduces maturation period and improves their homogeneity and safety. It is possible to substitute autochthonous mixed starter for back-slopping in the manufacture of sufu. PMID:25533352

  19. Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demarigny Yann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the production of local cheeses or sourdough breads. The beginning of this new millennium has witnessed a deep change in consumer demand, in pursuit of quality, safety and pleasure. In this context, natural starters could, in the future, play an important role in the development of fermented products. However, food producers and researchers have first to cope with fundamental problems in the understanding of these complex ecosystems. The dynamic evolution of the microbial population inside the natural starter (its resilience, its genetic and physiological aptitudes and the consequences on the product are still partially unknown. This document reviews a broad range of articles concerning the use of natural starters with a specific focus on cheeses and breads, and discusses the major stakes for local food production and the consumption of typical products.

  20. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borsting, M. W.; Qvist, K. B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O) and a thermophilic strain of Lactobacillus plus O-culture (OLb) having different abilities to release amino acids, contribute to the structure and flavour development in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Cheeses manufactured using the four combinations of coagulants and cultures were analysed during a 28-week ripening period for the composition of casein, peptides, free amino acids, rheological properties and for sensory properties at end of ripening. Cheeses with CC, showed less extensive primary proteolysis, lower levels of bitterness and higher stress at fracture, which correlates to a harder structure. Whereas cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb-culture had a higher amount of free amino acids and lower strain at fracture, which correlates to a shorter structure, and the peptide profiles of cheeses produced with BC and CC were rather similar after 28 weeks in contradiction to cheeses with O-culture. Replacing the traditional coagulant BC with CC reduced bitterness but increased hardness of the reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Replacing O- with OLb-culture also reduced bitterness but resulted in a shorter structure. The results highlight tools which could be employed to alter primary proteolysis and amino acid release, respectively, for the optimisation of flavour and structure of reduced-fat cheese.

  1. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality. PMID:25809991

  2. Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt / Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Raimundo Ferreira, Grosso; Carmen Sílvia, Fávaro-Trindade.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou a estabilidade de Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) e de Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) nas formas livre e imobilizada em alginato de cálcio, em leite e leite acidificado (pHs 5.0, 4.4 e 3.8), e a estabilidade de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte (fermentado até pH 4.2), durante [...] 28 dias de estocagem refrigerada. Também foi estudada a eficiência de dois meios de cultura (ágar MRS modificado e Reinforced Clostridial Agar, acrescido de Prussian Blue) para enumerar B. lactis em iogurte. Ágar Lee foi usado para enumeração de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus quando B. lactis era enumerado no meio MRS. Ambos os microrganismos, nas formas livre e imobilizada, apresentaram uma taxa de sobrevivência adequada nos leites acidificados, uma vez que houve redução de apenas um ciclo log, após 21 dias de estocagem refrigerada. O número de células viáveis de B. lactis imobilizado mostrou um declínio gradual durante o período de armazenamento do iogurte, passando de 10(8) ufc/ml até não ter mais contagem na diluição 10-1. Quando as culturas não estavam em equilíbrio, o meio MRS modificado foi mais eficiente para a contagem de B. lactis em iogurte. Em vista destes resultados pode-se concluir que ambos os microrganismos podem ser incorporados em leite e leite acidificados, haja visto que a redução na população foi pequena durante o período de armazenagem estudado. A presença da cultura tradicional de iogurte parece ter afetado negativamente a sobrevivência de B. lactis e a imobilização não proveu proteção às células, em nenhum dos tratamentos estudados. Abstract in english This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of [...] refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determined. Lee's agar was used to count Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus when B. lactis were counted in the MRS medium. B. lactis and L. acidophilus in both free and immobilized forms presented satisfactory rates of survival in milk and acidified milk because the average reduction of the population was only one log cycle after 21 days of storage. The number of viable cells of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt presented a gradual decline throughout the storage period, passing from 10(8) cfu/ml to no count after 28 days of storage. When the cultures were not in equilibrium just the selective medium was efficient in counting B. lactis in yoghurt. The results showed that both microorganisms can be added to milk and acidified milk, because their population was only slightly affected during storage. The presence of traditional culture of yoghurt seems to be harmful for survival of immobilized B. lactis and the immobilization in calcium alginate failed as an effective barrier to protect the cells in all analysed treatments.

  3. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan; Shobana Devi R; Regina Mary R; Prabhavathi D; Vidya R; Mechenro John; Nv, Mahendri; Pugazhendhi Srinivasan; Ramakrishna Balakrishnan S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghur...

  4. Thermal comfort zones for starter meat-type quails

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MS, Sousa; I de FF, Tinôco; AG, Amaral; KRA, Inoue; SL, Barreto; H, Savastano Jr; CF, Souza; MO, Paula.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine thermal comfort ranges, as evaluated by air temperature and black-glove temperature and humidity index (BGTHI), for starter meat-type quails. Nine hundred quails were randomly distributed into five environmental chambers. Each chamber was programmed to pr [...] ovide different temperatures weekly. The following thermal environments were provided: SC - severe cold, MC - moderate cold, TC - recommended comfort environment, MH - moderate heat, and SH - severe heat. The best live performance was obtained when quails were submitted to temperatures of 36-39 ºC and BGTHI of 87.1 ± 0.4 and 91.4 ± 0.6 during the first week of rearing. Temperatures of 27-30 ºC and BGTHI of 75.8 ± 0.4 and 79.9 ± 0.6, during the second week, and temperature of 24 ºC and BGTHI of 70.8 ± 0.5 during the third week of rearing.

  5. Anti-Listeria starters: in vitro selection and production plant evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Stefano; Popovic, Mina; Amaretti, Alberto; Di Gioia, Diana; Rossi, Maddalena

    2014-05-01

    Anti-Listeria bacterial starters are highly demanded by the meat industry. Novel bioprotective anti-Listeria starters were searched among Lactobacillus species strains isolated from artisanal sausages. The screening confirmed that anti-Listeria activity is a strain-specific property and yielded only 1 strain (of 36) exhibiting a satisfactory level of inhibition, L. delbrueckii WC0286. This strain was compared with two commercial bioprotective starters, SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20, in a model simulating in vitro the first step of the fermentation process. The presence of the bioprotective starters did not modify the pH in such a way that could affect the safety or organoleptic properties of the product. Both SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20 effected an important reduction of Listeria counts (0.56 and 0.72 log CFU g(-1), respectively, in 72 h), while the anti-Listeria effect of L. delbrueckii WC0286 was minor (0.15 log CFU g(-1)). These results discouraged the utilization of L. delbrueckii WC0286 for a challenge test in a pilot salami production, in favor of the best-performing bioprotective starter, SafePro B-LC-20. The test confirmed that SafePro B-LC-20 did not alter the acidification trend of sausages and was capable of inhibiting Listeria, which decreased by 1.21 log CFU g(-1). This information is relevant to address research activity toward the development of new bioprotective starters. The data herein presented demonstrate that the efficacy in Listeria control of potentially bioprotective bacterial starters requires further validation in real meat matrixes, possibly by using in vitro meat fermentation experiments to narrow down the list of candidates before pilot scale challenge tests. PMID:24780342

  6. Avaliação da preferência, quanto ao sabor, do iogurte de "leite" de soja adicionado de leite de vaca perante o tradicional / Evaluation of the flavor preference of the soybean milk yoghurt added of cow's milk confronted with the traditional

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    G. de, Souza; A.J.de, Oliveira; I., Shirose; J.L.E. do, Valle.

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a avaliação de preferência, quanto ao sabor, do iogurte de "leite" de soja adicionado de leite de vaca (85 e 15%, respectivamente) perante o tradicional, ambos nos sabores coco e morango. Os resultados da aplicação do teste sequencial bicaudal pareado - preferência na avaliação organolept [...] ica do sabor dos iogurtes, mostraram que a preferência ê pelo tradicional, embora o novo produto seja aceitável quanto ao sabor. Abstract in english A test was made to evaluate flavor preference between cow milk added soybean milk yoghurt (85 and 15% respectively), and traditional yoghurt. The results of the application of the sequential two-sided paired preference comparison test in the organoleptic evaluation of the flavor of the yoghurts show [...] ed that the preference is for the traditional yoghurt, not with standing the acceptable flavor of the new product.

  7. Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VB Fascina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO and tallow (T combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01, as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01 body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05 as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.

  8. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    FILIP Andrei-Toader; HANGIU Radu-Petru; MAR?I? Claudia; BIRO Karoly-Agoston

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA) system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves...

  9. How Does "Time-on-Task" Affect the Achievement of Early and Late Starters of Indonesian in Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    In the Australian education context, there are typically two cohorts of language learners at the secondary school level, those who commence their study of the target language early in their primary schooling (early starters), and those who commence their study later, at the beginning of secondary school (late starters). The two groups may have…

  10. Starter Unit Flexibility for Engineered Product Synthesis by the Nonreducing Polyketide Synthase PksA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt-Roehl, Callie R; Hill, Eric A; Adams, Martina M; Vagstad, Anna L; Li, Jesse W; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-06-19

    Nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are unique among PKSs in their domain structure, notably including a starter unit:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (SAT) domain that selects an acyl group as the primer for biosynthesis, most commonly acetyl-CoA from central metabolism. This clan of mega-enzymes resembles fatty acid synthases (FASs) by sharing both their central chain elongation steps and their capacity for iterative catalysis. In this mode of synthesis, catalytic domains involved in chain extension exhibit substrate plasticity to accommodate growing chains as small as two carbons to 20 or more. PksA is the NR-PKS central to the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 whose SAT domain accepts an unusual hexanoyl starter from a dedicated yeast-like FAS. Explored in this paper is the ability of PksA to utilize a selection of potential starter units as substrates to initiate and sustain extension and cyclization to on-target, programmed polyketide synthesis. Most of these starter units were successfully accepted and properly processed by PksA to achieve biosynthesis of the predicted naphthopyrone product. Analysis of the on-target and derailment products revealed trends of tolerance by individual PksA domains to alternative starter units. In addition, natural and un-natural variants of the active site cysteine were examined and found to be capable of biosynthesis, suggesting possible direct loading of starter units onto the ?-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain. In light of the data assembled here, the predictable synthesis of unnatural products by NR-PKSs is more fully defined. PMID:25714897

  11. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler AM; DS Lubisco; MM Vieira; AML Ribeiro; Penz Jr AM

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

  12. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for <4 wk, increasing particle size of the starter by feeding whole oats did not affect rumen fermentation nor did it improve digestive system development. PMID:25747837

  13. Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1, L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2, L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3 and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4 and stored at low temperatures (refrigerator for 0, 7 and 14 days. The observed variables were viscosity, total lactic acid bacteria, total Bifidobacterium bifidum and organoleptic properties (color, aroma, taste and firmness. The result showed that combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly (P>0.05 viscosity and total Bificobacterium bifidum of dadih at H-0 (before storage, but affect significantly (P<0.05 total lactic acid bacteria. The characteristics of dadih during 14 days of storage in low temperature showed that combinations of starter did not significantly affect viscosity but storage time affect significantly (P<0.05. Total Bificobacterium bifidum was not affected significantly by either starter combination or storage time.Total lactic acid bacteria was significantly affected (P<0.05 by storage time and very significantly affected (P<0.01 by starter combinations. A4 starter combination (L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum has the most preference modus value for firmness, color, flavor and aroma according to panelist test result. Among those four organoleptic parameters, only aroma was affected significantly by starter combination.

  14. The effects of marketing activities on fast moving consumer good purchases: the case of yoghurt Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.

  15. Role of probiotics and functional foods in health: gut immune stimulation by two probiotic strains and a potential probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Novotny Nuñez, Ivanna; Carmuega, Esteban; de Moreno de LeBlanc, Alejandra; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous reports that show the benefits on the health attributed to the probiotic consumptions. Most of the studies were performed using animal models and only some of them were validated in controlled human trials. The present review is divided in two sections. In the first section we describe how the probiotic microorganisms can interact with the intestinal epithelial cells that are the first line of cell in the mucosal site, focusing in the studies of two probiotic strains: Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 (actually Lactobacillus paracasei CNCMI-1518) and Lactobacillus casei CRL 431. Then we describe same beneficial effects attributed to probiotic administration and the administration of fermented milks containing these microorganisms or potential probiotic yoghurt, principally on the immune system and on the intestinal barrier in different experimental mouse models like enteropathogenic infection, malnutrition, cancer and intestinal inflammation. PMID:25516152

  16. Efeito do tratamento térmico do leite na qualidade do iogurte / Effect of milk heat treatment on yoghurt quality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    W.M.C., Araújo; J.G.B., Caruso; A.J.de, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available O efeito do tratamento térmico do leite na qualidade do iogurte foi investigado aquecendo-se leite em banho-maria a 65°C por 30 min., 75°C por 10, 20 e 30 min., e 85°C por 10, 20 e 30 min.. A qualidade do iogurte foi avaliada por um painel de dez degustadores, utilizando-se a escala hedônica. Aos de [...] gustadores foi pedido julgarem o aroma, sabor e consistência do produto. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou uma preferência significativa pelo produto feito com o leite tratado a 85°C por 30 minutos, embora os produtos obtidos a partir dos tratamentos térmicos a 75°C por 10, 20 e 30 minutos tenham sido efetivos em produzir o iogurte com as características de pH e ací-dez titulável desejáveis. Abstract in english Effect of milk treatment on yoghurt quality was investigated by heating the milk in water bath at 65°C for 30 min., 75°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. and 85°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Yoghurt quality was evaluated by a ten trained panelists using a hedonic scale from 0 to 6. The panelists were asked to judg [...] e flavor and consistence of the product. The statistical analysis of the results showed a significant preference for the product made from milk heat-treated at 85°C for 30 minutes, although the products made from milk heated at 75°C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes had pH and titratable acidity as desired.

  17. Alcohols, esters and heavy sulphur compounds production by pure and mixed cultures of apiculate wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Nathalie; Mendes, Filipa; Hogg, Tim; Vasconcelos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as pure or mixed starter cultures in commercial medium, in order to compare their kinetic parameters and fermentation patterns. In pure and mixed cultures, yeasts presented similar ethanol yield and productivity. Pure cultures of H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae showed a specific growth rate of 0.38 h?¹; however, this value decreased when these yeasts were grown in mixed cultures with H. guil...

  18. Inhibition of Listeria innocua in Cheddar Cheese by Addition of Nisin Z in Liposomes or by In Situ Production in Mixed Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Benech, R. -o; Kheadr, E. E.; Laridi, R.; Lacroix, C.; Fliss, I.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of addition of purified nisin Z in liposomes to cheese milk and of in situ production of nisin Z by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL719 in the mixed starter on the inhibition of Listeria innocua in cheddar cheese was evaluated during 6 months of ripening. A cheese mixed starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL719 was selected for high-level nisin Z and acid production. Experimental cheddar cheeses were produced on a...

  19. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovi?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Sokovi?, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

  20. Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter?

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-Ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

  1. Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mishra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with small impact on the power quality. A small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator is an attractive choice for an isolated grid hybrid power system in remote areas because of its low cost, compactness, ruggedness, high reliability, low inertia and ease in control. In this work, a SCR based soft starter for limiting the high inrush current during the connection of the small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator to an isolated weak grid has been proposed. Soft-starter is designed to reduce inrush current or surge in current while achieving a proper synchronism between the generator and the grid.

  2. The AskA Starter Kit: How To Build and Maintain Digital Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Kasowitz, Abby S.

    This Starter Kit is designed to help organizations and individuals who wish to offer human-mediated information services via the Internet to users in the K-12 community. A six-step process is proposed for organizations to follow in creating an "AskA" service. This process addresses all aspects involved in building and maintaining an AskA service…

  3. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    AldoCorsetti

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signi?cance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation ...

  4. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results fr...

  5. Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Jasna Mrv?i?; Damir Stanzer; Dragana Boži?; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best...

  6. PEDIOCIN PRODUCTION BY PEDIOCOCCCUS ACIDILACTICI IN CO-CULTURE WITH YOGURT STARTER BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The direct production of the antilisterial bacteriocin pediocin in milk is not feasible since Pediococcus acidilactici poorly ferments lactose and prefers glucose for growth. Solutions to this problem have included the transfer of a lactose operon to pediococci from lactic bacteria and prehydrolys...

  7. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    AldoCorsetti

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signi?cance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentatio...

  8. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Yousef I. Hassan; Lloyd B. Bullerman

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  9. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, J. E. T.

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughput...

  10. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia ?im?ek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  11. The Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes in Sucuks Produced with Different Lactic Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Mu?kerrem; Go?kalp, Hu?snu? Yusuf

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the growth and viability status of Listeria monocytogenes were investigated during the ripening and storage period of sucuk (Turkish dry fermented sausage) produced using different lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum Lb 8 and L. plantarum Lb 75, Pediococcus acidilactici Lb 626, P. pentosaceus Lb 1010, L. sakei 706 and L. sakei 706-B). The initial inoculum of L. monocytogenes into sucuk dough was 104 cfu/g. There was a significant increase in the L. monocytogenes cou...

  12. Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

  13. Aplicación de la metodología de superficie de respuesta para evaluar el efecto de la concentración de azúcar y de cultivos iniciadores comerciales sobre la cinética de fermentación del yogurt / Application of response surface methodology to evaluate the effect of the concentration of sugar and commercials starters on the fermentation kinetics of yogurt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.M., Rodríguez-Bernal; J. A., Serna-Jiménez; M.A., Uribe-Bohórquez; B., Klotz; M. X., Quintanilla-Carvajal.

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, mediante la metodología de diseño experimental de superficie de respuesta de optimización (MSRO) se evaluó la concentración de dos cultivos iniciadores comerciales (YO-MIX TM 204 (L) y YOFLEX® (Y)) y el porcentaje de azúcar añadido (5, 7.5 y 10 %) como factores influyentes sobre el [...] proceso de fermentación de yogurt, con el fin de identificar la tasa de acidificación más alta. De igual forma, se planteó la caracterización del crecimiento microbiano durante el proceso de acidificación. Las condiciones óptimas de acidificación para L se dan a los porcentajes de azúcar más bajos y concentraciones de inóculo más altas, mientras que para Y se dan a los porcentajes de azúcar medios y concentraciones de inóculos más altas para tiempos totales de proceso de 4.4 y 4.2 horas, respectivamente. Se determinó la tasa de crecimiento para cada cultivo iniciador dando como resultado menores tasas de crecimiento para estreptococos (0.705 h?1 para L y 0.367 h?1 para Y) que para lactobacilos (0.733 h?1 para L y 0.389 h?1 para Y) en cada cultivo iniciador. Finalmente se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tiempo en el que se alcanzó la máxima tasa de acidificación para los cultivos iniciadores evaluados a una misma concentración de azúcar. Abstract in english In this work, the concentration of two commercials starters (YO-MIX TM (L) 204 and YOFLEX® (Y)) and sugar percentage (5, 7.5 and 10%) were evaluated by optimization response surface methodology (ORSM), in order to identify the higher acidification rate. The starters growth was followed during the ac [...] idification process. The results showed that optimal acidification conditions for L were at the lowest value of sugar and the highest value of the starter concentration. In the case of Y the optimal acidification conditions were with the highest starter concentration but at medium sugar levels. Total acidification times were 4.4 and 4.2 hours, respectively. The growth rate for each starter culture was determined by nonlinear regression resulting lower growth rates for streptococcus (0.705 h?1 for L and 0.367 h?1 for Y) than for lactobacillus (0.733 h?1 for L and 0.389 h?1 for Y) in each starter. Finally, significant differences were found in the time necessary to reach the maximum acidification rate for starter cultures evaluated at the same concentration of sugar. This kind of studies should continue because it offers the possibility of growth in the dairy sector by standardizing production processes.

  14. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada)

    OpenAIRE

    Belkacem Abdous; Pierre Gosselin; Stéphane Germain; Pierre Valois; Diane Bélanger

    2009-01-01

    Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG) with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC) adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70%) of adults living in Québec (Canada) meas...

  15. Differences between Cheddar cheese manufactured by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods using different commercial starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel-ur-Rehman; Drake, M A; Farkye, N Y

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, Cheddar cheese is made by the milled-curd method. However, because of the mechanization of cheese making and time constraints, the stirred-curd method is more commonly used by many large-scale commercial manufacturers. This study was undertaken to evaluate quality differences during ripening (at 2 and 8 degrees C) of Cheddar cheese made by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods, using 4 different commercial starters. Twenty-four vats (4 starters x 2 methods x 3 replicates) were made, with approximately 625 kg of pasteurized (72 degrees C x 16 s) whole milk in each vat. Fat, protein, and salt contents of the cheeses were not affected by the starter. Starter cell densities in cheese were not affected by the method of manufacture. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria counts at 90, 180, and 270 d were influenced by the manufacturing method, with a higher trend in milled-curd cheeses. Proteolysis in cheese (percentage of water-soluble N) was influenced by the starter and manufacturing method (270 d). Sensory analysis by a trained descriptive panel (n = 8) revealed differences in cooked, whey, sulfur, brothy, milk fat, umami, and bitter attributes caused by the starter, whereas only brothy flavor was influenced by storage temperature. The method of manufacture influenced diacetyl, sour, and salty flavors. PMID:18096927

  16. Selection and use of autochthonous mixed starter for lactic acid fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda F; Siragusa, Sonya; De Angelis, Maria; Paradiso, Annalisa; Minervini, Fabio; De Gara, Laura; Gobbetti, Marco

    2008-10-31

    Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella soli/Weissella koreensis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus fermentum were identified from raw carrots, French beans and marrows by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. L. plantarum M1, Leuc. mesenteroides C1 and P. pentosaceus F4 were selected based on the rates of growth and acidification in vegetable juice media, and used as the autochthonous mixed starter for the fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows. An allochthonous starter, consisting of the same species, was also used for fermentation. A two-step fermentation process (1 day at 25 degrees C and 7 days at 15 degrees C) in brine (1% w/v) followed by storage at room temperature in olive oil until 40 days was set up. Unstarted vegetables subjected to the same treatments were used as the controls. Cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the started vegetables were ca. 10,000 (autochthonous starter) and 1000 (allochthonous starter) times higher than unstarted samples throughout the process. When fermented with the autochthonous starter, carrots, French beans or marrows were characterized by the rapid decrease of pH (fragrance. Appearance was the sensory attribute that mainly distinguished marrows fermented with the autochthonous starter. PMID:18710789

  17. An experimental evaluation of the performance deficit of an aircraft engine starter turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. E.; Roelke, R. J.; Hermann, P.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to determine the aerodynamic performance deficit of a 13.5 - centimeter-tip-diameter aircraft engine starter turbine. The two-phased evaluation comprised both the stator and the stage performance, and the experimental design is described in detail. Data obtained from the investigation of three honeycomb shrouds clearly showed that the filled honeycomb reached a total efficiency of 0.868, 8.2 points higher than the open honeycomb shroud, at design equivalent conditions of speed and blade-jet speed ratio. It was concluded that the use of an open honeycomb shroud caused the large performance deficit for the starter turbine. Further research is suggested to ascertain stator inlet boundary layer measurements.

  18. Fuzzy and ANFIS based soft starter fed induction motor drive for high performance applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rajaji

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft starters are used with induction motors in blowers, fans, pumps and the crane hoist drives. AC voltage controllers are used as soft starters in induction motors for starting and to adjust its speed. This paper highlights the intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy and Neuro fuzzy based ac voltage controllers to generate the firing pulses for appropriate thyristors for any given operating torque, speed of the motor and the load. FUZZY and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System models have been designed to achieve the proposed algorithm. MATLAB/SIMULINK package was used to simulate the proposed methods. Simulation results presented in this paper explain the advantages of proposed soft starting methods over conventional method. The advantages of intelligent methods proposed in this paper are its simplicity, stability, accuracy and fast response.

  19. Biodiversity in Oscypek, a Traditional Polish Cheese, Determined by Culture-Dependent and -Independent Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Alegría, Ángel; Szczesny, Pawel; Mayo, Baltasar; Bardowski, Jacek; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Oscypek is a traditional Polish scalded-smoked cheese, with a protected-designation-of-origin (PDO) status, manufactured from raw sheep's milk without starter cultures in the Tatra Mountains region of Poland. This study was undertaken in order to gain insight into the microbiota that develops and evolves during the manufacture and ripening stages of Oscypek. To this end, we made use of both culturing and the culture-independent methods of PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi...

  20. Yeasts as Ripening Adjunct Cultures in Turkish White Brined Cheese Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kesenkas?, Harun; Akbulut, Necati

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the possibility of using yeasts as adjunct cultures in the production of white brined cheese, which is quite important to the Turkish dairy industry, and to evaluate the effects of these yeasts on cheese ripening. In addition to starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris), adjunct yeast cultures of Yarrowia lipolytica, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were separately co-inoculated to each cheese...

  1. Effect of Inoculating Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter in Low-Salt Pickle Process of Zhacai

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyang Gao; Zhidong Sun; Xinyong Du; Chunqi Mao; Guoqing He

    2012-01-01

    The traditional pickle process of Zhacai was thought unsafely and unstable, because of the high salt and nitrite contents. The study has shown a method to solve these problems. One Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) strain, Lactobacillus plantarum was used as starter in the low salt pickle process of Chinese Zhacai. The LAB inoculation amounts were 2, 5, 8%, respectively and the group without LAB inoculation was set as the control. The inoculation groups were added with 8% salt, while the control gro...

  2. Digital Fundamentals Instructor and Student Resource: Getting to Know the FPGA Spartan-3E Starter Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide helps instructor and students become familiar with the hardware interface of Spartan 3E FPGA board. The Spartan-3E Starter Kit board is more advanced and complex compared to other Spartan development boards. The advantage of this board is that it is programmed through USB port. JTAG port is used to program previous versions. Users must create a free account to download this resource.

  3. Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça

    OpenAIRE

    Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes; Roberta Amália de Carvalho Araújo; Patrícia Silva Cisalpino; Elizabeth Spangler Andrade Moreira; Carlos Leomar Zani; Carlos Augusto Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomy...

  4. Tissue engineering of heart valves using decellularized xenogeneic or polymeric starter matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, D.; Stock, U A; Hoerstrup, S P

    2007-01-01

    Heart valve replacement represents the most common surgical therapy for end-stage valvular heart diseases. A major drawback that all contemporary heart valve replacements have in common is the lack of growth, repair and remodelling capability. In order to overcome these limitations, the emerging new field of tissue engineering is focusing on the in vitro generation of functional, living heart valve replacements. The basic approach uses starter matrices either of decellularized xenogeneic or p...

  5. Design of a high voltage converter for a belt alternator starter

    OpenAIRE

    Stojan, David; Sever, Peter; Horvat, Janko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents high voltage power converter design for a belt driven starter alternator. First electrical and mechanical construction of converter is presented. Next section describes thermal simulation of converter housing to met specified temperature range and at the end control topology with start-up test is presented. The aim in design proces of converter was to use standard electronic components while assembly proces must be easy and cheap. Standard alternator with small modificatio...

  6. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco NoéArroyo López; AmparoQuerol Simon

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce ...

  7. Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Oger R.; Jm, Romnee; Berben G.; Ninane V.

    2005-01-01

    The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneo...

  8. Impact of yeast starter formulations on the production of volatile compounds during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Patrizia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romaniello, Rossana; Zambuto, Marianna; Calabretti, Antonella; Capece, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The most diffused starter formulation in winemaking is actually represented by active dry yeast (ADY). Spray-drying has been reported as an appropriate preservation method for yeast and other micro-organisms. Despite the numerous advantages of this method, the high air temperatures used can negatively affect cell viability and the fermentative performance of dried cells. In the present study, 11 wine S. cerevisiae strains (both indigenous and commercial) were submitted to spray-drying; different process conditions were tested in order to select the conditions allowing the highest strain survival. The strains exhibited high variability for tolerance to spray-drying treatment. Selected strains were tested in fermentation at laboratory scale in different formulations (free fresh cells, free dried cells, immobilized fresh cells and immobilized dried cells), in order to assess the influence of starter formulation on fermentative fitness of strains and aromatic quality of wine. The analysis of volatile fraction in the experimental wines produced by selected strains in different formulations allowed identification of?>?50 aromatic compounds (alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes and terpenes). The results obtained showed that the starter formulation significantly influenced the content of volatile compounds. In particular, the wines obtained by strains in dried forms (as both free and immobilized cells) contained higher numbers of volatile compounds than wines obtained from fresh cells. PMID:25100258

  9. Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FILIP Andrei-Toader

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves energy by using the stop/start function andproviding assistance during driving. For the study, apermanent magnet synchronous motor was chosen,due to its high efficiency.

  10. Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Moreira

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7 cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.Setenta e duas embalagens de iogurtes de quatro indústrias diferentes foram analisadas durante três épocas diferentes com intervalo mensal. A população microbiana total encontrada foi em torno de 6 x 10(7 células g-1 de iogurte. A contagem de leveduras variou entre 1 a 2.700 células g-1. Não foi possível observar uma sistemática contaminação, mas este estudo longitudinal revelou que contaminação ad hoc e armazenamento impróprio pode levar a elevadas populações de leveduras. De modo geral foi detectada uma contaminação maior nos meses mais quentes do ano mas em valores inferiores aos encontrados em outros países. Um total de 577 isolados de leveduras foram identificados como pertencentes a 10 espécies. As leveduras mais abundantes foram, em ordem, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii e Candida maltosa. A levedura psicrófila, Mrakia frigida foi pela primeira vez mencionada como isolada a partir de iogurtes. Foi encontrada em algumas amostras uma pequena contaminação por espécies de Monilia e Penicillium. Os testes utilizados para crescimento sugeriram que habilidade para fermentar sacarose, crescimento a 5ºC e na presença de 300 µg g-1 de sorbato foram as três propriedades fisiológicas mais importantes para a presença destas leveduras em iogurtes. Os dados também sugerem que clima mais quente e refrigeração inadequada são as principais causas de alta nível de contaminação, aumento da diversidade e mudança na microbiota presente.

  11. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Mortada Mohammed Salih; Omer Ibrahim Ahmed Hamid

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7%) to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used...

  12. Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil / Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Regina, Moreira; Rosane Freitas, Schwan; Eliana Pinheiro de, Carvalho; Alan E., Wheals.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Setenta e duas embalagens de iogurtes de quatro indústrias diferentes foram analisadas durante três épocas diferentes com intervalo mensal. A população microbiana total encontrada foi em torno de 6 x 10(7) células g-1 de iogurte. A contagem de leveduras variou entre 1 a 2.700 células g-1. Não foi po [...] ssível observar uma sistemática contaminação, mas este estudo longitudinal revelou que contaminação ad hoc e armazenamento impróprio pode levar a elevadas populações de leveduras. De modo geral foi detectada uma contaminação maior nos meses mais quentes do ano mas em valores inferiores aos encontrados em outros países. Um total de 577 isolados de leveduras foram identificados como pertencentes a 10 espécies. As leveduras mais abundantes foram, em ordem, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii e Candida maltosa. A levedura psicrófila, Mrakia frigida foi pela primeira vez mencionada como isolada a partir de iogurtes. Foi encontrada em algumas amostras uma pequena contaminação por espécies de Monilia e Penicillium. Os testes utilizados para crescimento sugeriram que habilidade para fermentar sacarose, crescimento a 5ºC e na presença de 300 µg g-1 de sorbato foram as três propriedades fisiológicas mais importantes para a presença destas leveduras em iogurtes. Os dados também sugerem que clima mais quente e refrigeração inadequada são as principais causas de alta nível de contaminação, aumento da diversidade e mudança na microbiota presente. Abstract in english Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7) cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal [...] study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.

  13. Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj; Ljubica Tratnik

    2002-01-01

    Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion...

  14. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

  15. Starter dietary lysine level and strain cross effects on performance and carcass traits of broiler females

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A, Corzo; MT, Kidd.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lysine has been shown to impact the performance of broilers, particularly with aspect of breast meat accretion and yield. There have been studies that suggest that early dietary lysine has an effect on breast meat yield in male broilers. A study was designed to evaluate starter dietary lysin [...] e (1.20 vs 1.35% of diet as achieved by the addition of L-lysine at the expense of a filler) effect on performance of female broilers from three different genetic strain crosses, and monitor subsequent effects at 41 and 56 d of age. Body weight and feed consumption were higher for birds consuming the high lysine starter diet, but feed conversions were similar when compared to the low lysine diet. Body weight and feed conversion were similar among strains. Mortality was unaffected by lysine level and strain cross. Carcass and breast meat weight, but not yields, were higher in birds fed the high lysine diet. At 56 d differences in carcass yield, abdominal fat, and breast meat yield were seen among strains, such that the strain with highest yield had the least amount of abdominal fat in terms of absolute weight and percentage. No effect on processing yields by dietary lysine was observed at any time regardless of the growing characteristics of the broilers. However, for early slaughter ages, feeding high levels of dietary lysine during the starter phase could prove to be convenient when maximum live performance or breast meat absolute values are desiredin order to maintain the commercial quality of final products.

  16. Starter dietary lysine level and strain cross effects on performance and carcass traits of broiler females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Corzo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary lysine has been shown to impact the performance of broilers, particularly with aspect of breast meat accretion and yield. There have been studies that suggest that early dietary lysine has an effect on breast meat yield in male broilers. A study was designed to evaluate starter dietary lysine (1.20 vs 1.35% of diet as achieved by the addition of L-lysine at the expense of a filler effect on performance of female broilers from three different genetic strain crosses, and monitor subsequent effects at 41 and 56 d of age. Body weight and feed consumption were higher for birds consuming the high lysine starter diet, but feed conversions were similar when compared to the low lysine diet. Body weight and feed conversion were similar among strains. Mortality was unaffected by lysine level and strain cross. Carcass and breast meat weight, but not yields, were higher in birds fed the high lysine diet. At 56 d differences in carcass yield, abdominal fat, and breast meat yield were seen among strains, such that the strain with highest yield had the least amount of abdominal fat in terms of absolute weight and percentage. No effect on processing yields by dietary lysine was observed at any time regardless of the growing characteristics of the broilers. However, for early slaughter ages, feeding high levels of dietary lysine during the starter phase could prove to be convenient when maximum live performance or breast meat absolute values are desiredin order to maintain the commercial quality of final products.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli From Cheese, Yoghurt and Silage by 16S rDNA Gene and Study of Bacteriocin and Biosurfactant Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharareh Peymanfar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background: The Lactobacilli belong to lactic acid bacteria, whose primary fermentation end product from sugars is lactic acid and that is why foods are conserved. Lactic acid bacteria have been used for millennia in the production of silage. Therefore, they are an indispensable part of intestinal microflora in human and animals. .Objectives: This research meant to isolate lactic acid bacteria with significant effects from different environments. .Materials and Methods: In this study, heterofermentative LAB were isolated from cheese, yoghurt and corn silage in Broujerd ,Iran. The standard biochemical methods were applied. Acid tolerance was studied by exposure to acidic PBS and growth in bile salt was measured by the spectrophotometric method. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on environment isolated E.coli, bacteriocin and biosurfactant production. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and amplified by PCR method. .Results: The 3 isolates from cheese, yoghurt and silage were effective against isolated E.coli and could produce biosurfactants. Phylogenic relationships of the 3 potential candidates were determined comparing the 16Sr DNA gene sequences, they were found to be as 3 isolates of Lactobacillus buchneri, L.brevis and L.kefiri that were effective on the isolated E.coli from environment. .Conclusions: It was found that the isolated bacteria produced biosurfactants that had a great potential for different industries.

  18. Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oger R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneous medium developed around the grains during fermentation and, for the lactic acid streptococci, even more to the initial conditions of fermentation, probably to parameters linked to milk renewal (room temperature, waiting time at room temperature before incubation.

  19. Enhancement and selective production of oligomycin through inactivation of avermectin's starter unit in Streptomyces avermitilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiong; Yunxiang, Liang; Yinghua, Zheng

    2006-06-01

    Oligomycin and its analogues, produced by Streptomyces avermitilis and other actinomycetes, are of interest for their potent and selective biological activities. PCR-mediated gene replacement, targeting bkdF, one of avermectin's starter unit encoding genes in S. avermitilis, was performed to yield an oligomycin producer, BIB0423. The engineered strain produced oligomycin A at 2.3 mg/ml compared to the wild type strain at 0.1 mg/ml. This resulting mutant was genetically stable and should be useful for the industrial production of oligomycin. PMID:16786277

  20. Lactococcus bacteriophages isolated from whey and their effects on commercial lactic starters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Raquel de Godoy, Oriani; Fumio, Yokoya.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Para ampliar conhecimentos sobre a incidência de bacteriófagos de bactérias lácticas na indústria de leite do Estado de São Paulo e a sua influência sobre a capacidade acidificante de fermentos lácticos disponíveis em nosso mercado, o presente trabalho foi conduzido com o intuito de esclarecer a rea [...] l situação dos laticínios no Estado. Foram coletadas 33 amostras de soro de queijo em 17 laticínios. Foram isolados 16 bacteriófagos, 12 específicos para Lactococcus lactis, 3 para L. diacetylactis e um capaz de lisar ambos os microrganismos. Os experimentos mostraram que, uma diminuição de 10% na acidez em presença de soro suspeito, ao contrário do estabelecido na literatura, não reflete a veracidade da presença de bacteriófagos na amostra, uma vez que a maioria apresentou redução acima desse valor embora atividade fágica estivesse presente em apenas 65% das indústrias avaliadas. Utilizando uma mistura de bacteriófagos isolados, procedeu-se testes com 12 fermentos lácticos comerciais, e, em 8 horas, somente 2 tipos mostraram diferença na capacidade de acidificação. Verificou-se também que os fermentos, quando submetidos a repicagem diária, mantiveram os bacteriófagos após 20 subcultivos. A partir dos fermentos comerciais foram obtidas as bactérias componentes, que foram testadas individualmente quanto à resistência aos bacteriófagos, mostrando que o nível de sensibilidade varia consideravelmente entre os diferentes tipos de fermentos (BD, D, O e um de L. diacetylactis). Cinco bacteriófagos isolados não se mostraram infectivos a nenhum dos microrganismos isolados, enquanto 1 deles, mostrou-se infectivo para a quase totalidade dos isolados. Abstract in english The incidence of phages of lactic acid bacteria in milk industry and their effects on acidification ability of commercial lactic acid starters were studied. Cheese whey samples (33 samples) were collected from 17 factories. A total of 16 bacteriophages were isolated (12 specific for Lactococcus lact [...] is, 3 for L. diacetylactis and one capable of lysing both species). The results showed that 10% reduction in acidification tests was not good indication of phage in the sample. The majority of samples showed reduction higher than 10%, although only 65% were phage positive. The isolated phages were quite stable and showed no reduction in infectivity even after 20 daily replications. A pool of bacteriophages was prepared from isolates and inoculated in 12 commercial lactic starters. After 8 hours of incubation, only 2 showed reduced acidification. Bacterial strains isolated from commercial starters were tested regarding the phage resistance. Considerable difference in phage sensitivity was observed among different starters (BD, D, O and L. diacetylactis). Five bacteriophages showed no infectivity on any isolates but one was infective for most of isolates.

  1. Lactococcus bacteriophages isolated from whey and their effects on commercial lactic starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Raquel de Godoy Oriani

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of phages of lactic acid bacteria in milk industry and their effects on acidification ability of commercial lactic acid starters were studied. Cheese whey samples (33 samples were collected from 17 factories. A total of 16 bacteriophages were isolated (12 specific for Lactococcus lactis, 3 for L. diacetylactis and one capable of lysing both species. The results showed that 10% reduction in acidification tests was not good indication of phage in the sample. The majority of samples showed reduction higher than 10%, although only 65% were phage positive. The isolated phages were quite stable and showed no reduction in infectivity even after 20 daily replications. A pool of bacteriophages was prepared from isolates and inoculated in 12 commercial lactic starters. After 8 hours of incubation, only 2 showed reduced acidification. Bacterial strains isolated from commercial starters were tested regarding the phage resistance. Considerable difference in phage sensitivity was observed among different starters (BD, D, O and L. diacetylactis. Five bacteriophages showed no infectivity on any isolates but one was infective for most of isolates.Para ampliar conhecimentos sobre a incidência de bacteriófagos de bactérias lácticas na indústria de leite do Estado de São Paulo e a sua influência sobre a capacidade acidificante de fermentos lácticos disponíveis em nosso mercado, o presente trabalho foi conduzido com o intuito de esclarecer a real situação dos laticínios no Estado. Foram coletadas 33 amostras de soro de queijo em 17 laticínios. Foram isolados 16 bacteriófagos, 12 específicos para Lactococcus lactis, 3 para L. diacetylactis e um capaz de lisar ambos os microrganismos. Os experimentos mostraram que, uma diminuição de 10% na acidez em presença de soro suspeito, ao contrário do estabelecido na literatura, não reflete a veracidade da presença de bacteriófagos na amostra, uma vez que a maioria apresentou redução acima desse valor embora atividade fágica estivesse presente em apenas 65% das indústrias avaliadas. Utilizando uma mistura de bacteriófagos isolados, procedeu-se testes com 12 fermentos lácticos comerciais, e, em 8 horas, somente 2 tipos mostraram diferença na capacidade de acidificação. Verificou-se também que os fermentos, quando submetidos a repicagem diária, mantiveram os bacteriófagos após 20 subcultivos. A partir dos fermentos comerciais foram obtidas as bactérias componentes, que foram testadas individualmente quanto à resistência aos bacteriófagos, mostrando que o nível de sensibilidade varia consideravelmente entre os diferentes tipos de fermentos (BD, D, O e um de L. diacetylactis. Cinco bacteriófagos isolados não se mostraram infectivos a nenhum dos microrganismos isolados, enquanto 1 deles, mostrou-se infectivo para a quase totalidade dos isolados.

  2. Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkacem Abdous

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

  3. Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poga?i?, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. PMID:24010599

  4. The Optimum Protein Content in High-Energy Starter Diet for Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar chukar)

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Ozek

    2006-01-01

    The optimum protein content in high-energy starter diet was investigated in the experiment. The birds were fed one of the 6 isocaloric (3200 kcal/kg Metabolizable energy) diets containing 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 % protein from hatch to 8 weeks of age. Body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of partridges were examined in the experiment. There were no significant effects of the protein content in high-energy starter diet on the body weight at any age. According to the...

  5. Rheology of spreadable goat cheese made with autochthonous lactic cultures differing in their ability to produce exopolysaccharides

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Frau Silvia, Florencia.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the rheology of spreadable cheeses elaborated with autochthonous lactic starter cultures without the addition of exopolysaccharide-producing strain in the same starter with exopolysaccharide-producing strain. From a rheological standpoint, both samples were chara [...] cterized as weak viscoelastic gels and pseudoplastic products. It was concluded that cheese made with exopolysaccharide-producing strain showed smaller G', G", and ?* values over the range of frequencies studied and smaller critic stress values than the cheese without exopolysaccharide-producing strain. The results obtained indicate that cheeses without exopolysaccharide-producing strain need to be added with any texture enhancer product.

  6. Short communication: Effect of inclusion rate of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in starter mixture for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanat, P; Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different inclusion rates of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (M-SB) in the starter mixture (SM) on performance of dairy calves. Forty female Holstein calves with a mean (± SD) age of 12.8 (±1.5) d were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments (10 calves/treatment) and fed SM without (M-SB-0) or with 0.3% (M-SB-0.3), 0.6% (M-SB-0.6), or 0.9% (M-SB-0.9) of M-SB (as fed) during a 49-d period of milk replacer feeding. The milk replacer was fed at 670g/d divided into 2 equal meals. Starter mixture with or without M-SB was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the trial. Body weight of calves was recorded weekly, whereas intakes of milk replacer and SM and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Intake of SM decreased linearly with increasing M-SB inclusion rate. Average daily gain decreased and body weight gain tended to decrease linearly with increasing amounts of M-SB in SM, but feed efficiency was not affected. Fecal score and number of days with diarrhea increased cubically with increasing M-SB inclusion rate in SM. Under the conditions of the current study, supplementation of SM with M-SB had a negative effect on performance of calves. PMID:25648817

  7. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco NoéArroyo López

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favourable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes, a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, Kluyveromyces lactis, among others, have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

  8. Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, Francisco N; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; García-García, Pedro; Querol, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth, and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favorable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non-assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes), a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2, and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Kluyveromyces lactis, among others), have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future. PMID:22558000

  9. Descriptive sensory profile of cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese prepared using indigenous cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtaza, M A; Rehman, S U; Anjum, F M; Huma, N

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the sensory profile of Cheddar cheese prepared from cow and buffalo milk using indigenous and commercial cultures. Commercially available and locally isolated, indigenous starter cultures were used to prepare cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese. The cheese was ripened at 4 and 12°C and analyzed for descriptive sensory profile by a panel of 10 assessors after 60 and 120 d of ripening. On evaluation, the mean scores for odor, flavor, and texture attributes obtained for buffalo milk cheese were significantly higher than those obtained for cow milk cheese. For most of the traits, cheese samples prepared from indigenous cultures and ripened at higher temperature received higher descriptive scores compared with those of commercial cultures and ripened at lower degrees. Milk sources highly significantly affected the "creamy" and "sour" traits of odor; the "creamy," "smoky," and "soapy" flavors; and all the texture attributes except "maturity." Starter cultures considerably influenced the production of "acidic," "bitter," "sweet," and "sour" characteristics. The use of elevated ripening temperature showed noticeable effect on all the characteristics except the "creamy" odor and flavor. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis also showed that milk sources, starter cultures, and ripening temperatures significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. PMID:23332853

  10. Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to arm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

  11. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; SØrensen, Elin

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success on their markets. 3. When aggregated, 16 potential key success factors were derived: High product quality, attractive packaging, high quality of raw material, possession of advanced technology and know-how, competent management and competent staff, wide product range, extensive product development activities/high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions, three direct determinants lead to high perceived value: attractive packaging, high product quality, and extensive marketing activities. High product quality is in turn determined by high raw material quality, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and competent management and indicating an emphasis on an objective concept of quality. 5. According to managers' perceptions, extensive market knowledge is the main determinant of good relations with trade, supplemented by extensive product development activities, good logistics management, and extensive marketing activities. Competent management and staff is a major second-order determinant. 6. According to managers' perceptions, scale production, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and good logistics management are regarded as the main direct determinants of low relative costs, with competent management and staff and financial resources as second-order determinants. 7. Managers' perceptions seem to be fairly correct with regard to the determinants of consumer perceived value and good relations with trade. They do not seem to be correct with regard to the determinants of low relative costs.

  12. Effect of hydrostatic high-pressure processing on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of starter-free Queso Fresco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic-style cheese sold in the U.S., underwent high-pressure processing (HPP), which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, to determine the effects of this process on quality traits of the cheese. Starter-free rennet-set QF (manufa...

  13. High specification starter diets improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to 10 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Wellock, I; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-10-01

    Piglets born with low birth weights (LBiW) are likely to be lighter at weaning. Starter regimes tailored for pigs of average BW therefore may not be optimal for LBiW nursery performance. The objective was to determine if LBiW pigs benefit from a high specification starter regime and the provision of extra feed (additional allowance of last phase diet of the starter regime) in comparison to a standard commercial regime. Additionally, the effect of starter regime on performance of normal birth weight (NBiW) pigs at weaning was determined and compared to that of LBiW pigs. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined. The experiment was therefore an incomplete 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, as the provision of extra feed was given only to LBiW pigs (n = 6 replicates per treatment; 5 pigs per replicate). Treatments comprised birth weight (LBiW or NBiW), starter regime (high specification [HS] or standard starter [SS]), and extra feed 3 quantity (yes [YF] or no [NF], for LBiW pigs only; feed 3 corresponded to the last phase diet of the starter regime). At weaning (d 28), pigs were randomly assigned within each birth weight category to treatment groups. Nutritional treatments were fed ad libitum on a kilogram/head basis for approximately 3 wk followed by a common weaner diet fed ad libitum until d 70. Starter regime (P = 0.019), feed 3 amount (P = 0.010), and their interaction (P = 0.029) had an effect on ADG of LBiW pigs from d 28 to 49, with pigs on HS followed by YF (HY) performing best. An improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted between d 28 and 49 for pigs fed the additional feed 3 (P = 0.030); between d 49 and 70, the only residual effect seen was of starter regime (P = 0.017) on ADG. In contrast, there was no significant effect of starter regime from d 28 to 70 on ADG, ADFI, or FCR of NBiW pigs. By d 49 and 70, LBiW pigs on regime HY weighed the same as NBiW pigs (d 70 BW; 30.0 vs. 30.6 kg; P = 0.413), with similar growth rates from d 28 to 70 (0.570 vs. 0.533 kg/d; P = 0.137). Despite highest feed cost for regime HY at US$12.30 per pig, its margin over feed was greatest ($23.40). Conversely, regime SS gave the best margin over feed for NBiW pigs at $22.70 per pig. In conclusion, a postweaning feeding regime formulated for LBiW pigs improved the ADG and FCR to the end of the nursery phase enabling them to achieve the same weight as NBiW. Targeting the provision of the high quality expensive regime only to light pigs will ensure maximum growth and increased profitability. PMID:25184839

  14. Efecto de la Microencapsulación sobre las Propiedades Reológicas y Fisicoquímicas del Yogurt Blando / Microencapsulation Effects on the Rheological and Physico-chemical Properties of Soft Yoghurt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael E, González Cuello; Jaime, Pérez Mendoza; Néstor A, Urbina Suarez.

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de la microencapsulación de Lactobacillus acidophilus empleando un sistema gelificante binario, en la obtención de yogures blandos, evaluando los parámetros fisicoquímicos y reológicos después del proceso de incubación. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que [...] la microencapsulación de L. acidophilus incrementa la viscosidad y carácter visco elástico del yogurt. Sin embargo, el análisis sensorial llevado a cabo no mostró diferencias entre los yogures obtenidos con L. acidophilus microencapsulado y en estado libre. En cuanto a los análisis fisicoquímicos, los cambios en los valores de lactosa, grasa y proteína sugieren una mayor actividad metabólica por parte de Lactobacillus acidophilus microencapsulado, lo cual se evidencia por el mayor número de células bacterianas obtenidas. Por tal motivo, la microencapsulación bacteriana puede ser una técnica interesante para llevar a cabo la inclusión de bacterias probióticas en sistemas alimentarios ácidos, sin ocasionar pérdida de los atributos sensoriales del producto alimenticio. Abstract in english In this paper the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus microencapsulation using a gelling binary system, in obtaining of soft yogurts, was studied, evaluating bromatological and rheological parameters. The results show that L. acidophilus microencapsulation increases viscosity and viscoelastic yog [...] urt characteristics. However, the sensory analysis conducted did not show differences between yoghurt elaborated with L. acidophilus microencapsulated and yoghurt in free state. With respect to the physicochemical analysis, changes in the lactose, fat and protein values suggest an increase in the metabolic activity by L. acidophilus microencapsulated, which is evidenced by the increasing number of bacterial cells obtained at the end of the incubation period. Therefore, bacterial microencapsulation can be an interesting technique to perform the inclusion of probiotic bacteria in acidic food systems, without causing loss of the sensory attributes of the food product.

  15. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luziane Moreira dos Santos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade, foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada experimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4 + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases.Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age, were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  16. Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial / Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luziane Moreira dos, Santos; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Antônio Gilberto, Bertechini; Elias Tadeu, Fialho; Elisangela Minati, Gomide; Luciana de Paula, Naves.

    2476-24-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias) e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade), foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp) em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada expe [...] rimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4) + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial), quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial) mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial) ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial). Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn) das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS). Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases. Abstract in english Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days) and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age), were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP) in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experimen [...] t consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4) + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase), four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase) plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase) or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase). In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC) were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

  17. Facilitating advance care planning in community palliative care: conversation starters across the client journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Jeanine; Street, Annette F

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of a tool for palliative care nurses to initiate and facilitate advance care planning (ACP) conversations in community palliative care practice. Seven community palliative care services located across Australia participated in a multi-site action research project. Data included participant observation, individual and focus group interviews with palliative care health professionals, and medical record audit. A directed content analysis used a pre-established palliative care practice framework of referral, admission, ongoing management, and terminal/discharge care. From this framework a Conversation Starter Tool for ACP was developed. The Tool was then used in orientation and continuing nurse education programmes. It provided palliative care nurses the opportunity to introduce and progress ACP conversations. PMID:23665571

  18. Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla

    Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference treatments were banded next to the seed row. Plants were harvested on nine dates with 4-6 days interval and an exponential growth function was fitted to the recordings. The P-uptake from acidified cattle slurry was clearly increased compared to raw slurry, and comparable to the mineral P-reference treatment. The effect of untreated raw slurry was similar to the mineral reference without P.

  19. Final report for the 1996 Engineer Starters Program (Pre-Freshmen Enrichment Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1996-08-15

    This report has been developed for the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University College of Engineering, Department of Energy and other foundations/corporations sponsoring the 1996 Engineer Starters Program and for general information. The College of Engineering conducted its Annual outreach program for Middle and High School students from July 8 to August 2, 1996. The continuing primary goal of this program is to expose youth to the various challenging opportunities in the Mathematics and Science based careers, Engineering and Technology. The curriculum for the summer of 1996 included: Mathematics; Science; Computers; Graphics; Problem Solving; Career Explorations; Communications; Field Trips to Manufacturing Plants/Industries; and Engineering Projects/Designs. The 1996 program included rising seventh through tenth graders. Parental involvement was instituted as a vital component of the summer experiences. The primary objective is to increase the number of minorities entering engineering and science professions.

  20. Effect of rotation speed on the temperature of starter alternator machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hamdy; Harmand, Souad

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a study on the effect of rotation speed on the temperature distribution of starter alternator machine. The effect of the outer conditions of the machine on its temperature is also studied. The numerical solution of the thermal model of the machine is solved by using a nodal approach during a numerical code (SAME). This code is established at our laboratory and is written by MATLAB. The results show that when the rotation speed of the machine increases, the temperature of the machine increases. They also show that increasing the rotation speed of the machine more than five times increases the power loss from the machine three times and the maximum temperature difference of the machine about 40 %.

  1. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Kessler

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  2. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    AM, Kessler; DS, Lubisco; MM, Vieira; AML, Ribeiro; AM, Penz Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconu [...] t fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and dry matter (DMM), crude protein (CPM), and crude fat (CFM) metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS), acid soybean oil (ASO), or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO). Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

  3. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 against Listeria innocua when used as an adjunct starter in the manufacture of cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susan; Serrano, L Mariela; Griffin, Carmel; O'Connor, Paula M; Schaad, Gwenda; Bruining, Chris; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Meijer, Wilco C

    2011-08-30

    Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products. PMID:21995443

  4. Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 against Listeria innocua when used as an adjunct starter in the manufacture of cheese

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)\\/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products.

  5. Effect of hydrocolloid type on physiochemical properties of nonfat drinkable yogurt fermented with ropy and non-ropy yogurt cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Saad Gad; Sahar Hassan Salah Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Drinkable yogurt is defined as a dairy-based yogurt that is drinkable in a liquid form and may or may not include fruit or fruit flavoring. Mouthfeel defects may be affected by processing conditions, starter cultures and stabilizer selection. This research was investigated the effect of hydrocolloid type (gelatin, carboxymethylcellulose or high methoxy pectin) on the sensory characteristics and rheological properties of drinkable yogurts fermented with nonropy and ropy yogurt cultures. The re...

  6. Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products

    OpenAIRE

    Manju Pathak; Danik Martirosyan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS) for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The pre...

  7. METHOD PROCEDURE OF AMPLITUDE OF SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGES IN THE SYSTEM OF ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR – CABLE CONSIDERING THE CONDITIONS OF SWITCHING OF POWER CONTACTS OF THE SOLENOID STARTER ???????? ??????? ????????? ?????????????? ?????????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????????? – ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?????????? ??????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksaev I. N.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the method procedure, allowing to define the amplitude of a switching overstrain is described when switching by the solenoid starter of the asynchronous electric motor

  8. Summary report of the 3. research co-ordination meeting on development of reference input parameter library for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data (Phase 1: Starter File)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains the summary of the third and the last Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Input Parameter Library for Nuclear Model Calculations of Nuclear Data (Phase I: Starter File)'', held at the ICTP, Trieste, Italy, from 26 to 29 May 1997. Details are given on the status of the Handbook and the Starter File - two major results of the project. (author)

  9. Partial Substitution of Soyabean Meal with Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seed Meal in Broiler Starter Diets: Effects on Performance, Water Consumption and Carcass Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokoro; Smart O.; Joseph O.I. Obasuyi

    2006-01-01

    The study was initiated to ascertain the effect of partial substitution of soyabean meal with breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal in broiler starter chickens diets reared in a tropical environment. 300 broilers chicks were used for the study and they were divided into 15 replicate groups such that three replicates were allocated to a diet. Five broiler starter diets (3000 Kcal MEKg-1 and 24% CP) were formulated such that the Soya bean meal in the diet were replaced with breadfruit see...

  10. Utilization of Duckweed (Lemna paucicostata in Least-cost Feed Formulation for Broiler Starter: A Linear Programming Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.O.S. Olorunfemi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the economic use of locally available and non-conventional feedstuff - Duckweed (Lemna paucicostata as dietary component of feed for broilers aged between 0 and 5 weeks old using Linear Programming (LP technique to investigate, analyse and determine the most efficient way of compounding the least-cost ration. Mathematical models were constructed, taking into consideration nutrient composition of each of the available ingredient, raw material specifications, costs and nutrient requirements of the broiler starter`s mash. Simplex algorithm was used in solving the resulting linear programming models. The LP model gave least cost feed formulation containing duckweed as optimum at iteration 26. The result shows that utilization of diet containing 26.09% of duckweed is cost-effective by reducing the cost of the feed by 10.64% and this will invariably improve profitability in broiler production.

  11. Pivalic acid acts as a starter unit in a fatty acid and antibiotic biosynthetic pathway in Alicyclobacillus, Rhodococcus and Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezanka, Tomáš; Siristova, Lucie; Schreiberová, Olga; Rezanka, Michal; Masák, Jan; Melzoch, Karel; Sigler, Karel

    2011-06-01

    A biosynthetic pathway using pivalic acid as a starter unit was found in three bacterial species, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus erythropolis and Streptomyces avermitilis. When deuterium-labelled pivalic acid was added to A. acidoterrestris and R. erythropolis nutrient media it was incorporated into fatty acids to give rise to tert-butyl fatty acids (t-FAs). In addition, in R. erythropolis, pivalic acid was transformed into two starter units, i.e. isobutyric and 2-methylbutyric acid, which served as precursors of corresponding iso-even FAs and anteiso-FAs. In S. avermitilis the biosynthesis also yielded all three branched FAs; apart from this pathway, both pivalic and 2-methylbutyric acids were incorporated into the antibiotic avermectin. PMID:21450004

  12. System-level Modeling and Simulation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for an Integrated Starter Alternator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANGIU Radu-Petru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper first presents an overview of various hybrid electric vehicle architectures with an emphasis on the Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA hybrid architecture. The operation modes of an ISAsystem and the constraints for an electric machine acting as an ISA are detailed. Finally a model for a ISA hybrid vehicle, developed in AMESim is presented and the results of a simulated drive cycle are assessed.

  13. System-level Modeling and Simulation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for an Integrated Starter Alternator

    OpenAIRE

    HANGIU Radu-Petru; FILIP Andrei-Toader; MARTIS Claudia Steluta; BIRÓ Károly Ágoston

    2012-01-01

    This paper first presents an overview of various hybrid electric vehicle architectures with an emphasis on the Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA) hybrid architecture. The operation modes of an ISAsystem and the constraints for an electric machine acting as an ISA are detailed. Finally a model for a ISA hybrid vehicle, developed in AMESim is presented and the results of a simulated drive cycle are assessed.

  14. Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in traditionally produced home-made Radan cheese during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Jokovic Natasa; Vukasinovic Maja; Veljovic Katarina; Tolinacki Maja; Topisirovic L.

    2011-01-01

    Two hundred thirteen non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Radan cheese during ripening were identified with both a classical biochemical test and rep-PCR with (GTG)5 primer. For most isolates, which belong to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Enterococcus faecium, a phenotypic identification was in good agreement with rep-PCR identification. Lactococeus lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus fa...

  15. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry for the study of the production of volatile compounds by bakery yeast starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Salim; Romano, Andrea; Cappellin, Luca; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Benozzi, Elisabetta; Märk, Tilmann D; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; El-Nakat, Hanna; Guzzo, Jean; Biasioli, Franco

    2014-09-01

    The aromatic impact of bakery yeast starters is currently receiving considerable attention. The flavor characteristics of the dough and the finished products are usually evaluated by gas chromatography and sensory analysis. The limit of both techniques resides in their low-throughput character. In the present work, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled to a time-of-flight mass analyzer, was employed, for the first time, to measure the volatile fractions of dough and bread, and to monitor Saccharomyces cerevisiae volatile production in a fermented food matrix. Leavening was performed on small-scale (1?g) dough samples inoculated with different commercial yeast strains. The leavened doughs were then baked, and volatile profiles were determined during leavening and after baking. The experimental setup included a multifunctional autosampler, which permitted the follow-up of the leavening process on a small scale with a typical throughput of 500 distinct data points in 16?h. The system allowed to pinpoint differences between starter yeast strains in terms of volatile emission kinetics, with repercussions on the final product (i.e. the corresponding micro-loaves). This work demonstrates the applicability of PTR-MS for the study of volatile organic compound production during bread-making, for the automated and online real-time monitoring of the leavening process, and for the characterization and selection of bakery yeast starters in view of their production of volatile compounds. PMID:25230182

  16. Spray drying as a method for preparing concentrated cultures of Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, P; Castro, H; Kirby, R.

    1995-01-01

    Spray drying and freeze drying as methods for concentration of Lactobacillus bulgaricus starter cultures were compared in terms of viability,lag phase until onset of pH decrease and total acid production. For the experimental conditions used, no significant differences were detected between the methods. The effect of spray drying on the cell membrane of Lactobacillus bulgaricus was studied. Five separate methods were used to study the theory that spray drying causes cell membrane ...

  17. Effect of Inoculating Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter in Low-Salt Pickle Process of Zhacai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyang Gao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The traditional pickle process of Zhacai was thought unsafely and unstable, because of the high salt and nitrite contents. The study has shown a method to solve these problems. One Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strain, Lactobacillus plantarum was used as starter in the low salt pickle process of Chinese Zhacai. The LAB inoculation amounts were 2, 5, 8%, respectively and the group without LAB inoculation was set as the control. The inoculation groups were added with 8% salt, while the control group 10%. The dynamic changes of physical and chemical parameters of two groups were detected during the pickle process. The results showed that: pH value of the inoculated groups declined rapidly, the lowest pH value was 3.61; the LAB became the predominant bacteria strains during the pickle and the colony amounts of the inoculated groups could be up to 6.32 log10 cfu/mL; the nitrite content of each group kept rising and the nitrite peaks of the inoculated groups appeared 3 days in advance, but the peak values were nearly half of the control group; amino nitrogen contents were lower but finally higher than control group and the highest value could reach 0.46 g/100 mL finally. Therefore, the inoculated groups with the lower salt could be more safety and better flavor. This study provided important reference to optimize the pickle fermentation process of Chinese Zhacai.

  18. Selection of yeasts with multifunctional features for application as starters in natural black table olive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatsou, S; Benítez, A; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Panagou, E Z; Arroyo-López, F N

    2015-04-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms with a great importance in the elaboration on many foods and beverages. In the last years, researches have focused their attention to determine the favourable effects that these microorganisms could provide to table olive processing. In this context, the present study assesses, at laboratory scale, the potential technological (resistance to salt, lipase, esterase and ?-glucosidase activities) and probiotic (phytase activity, survival to gastric and pancreatic digestions) features of 12 yeast strains originally isolated from Greek natural black table olive fermentations. The multivariate classification analysis carried out with all information obtained (a total of 336 quantitative input data), revealed that the most promising strains (clearly discriminated from the rest of isolates) were Pichia guilliermondii Y16 (which showed overall the highest resistance to salt and simulated digestions) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus Y18 (with the overall highest technological enzymatic activities), while the rest of strains were grouped together in two clearly differentiated clusters. Thus, this work opens the possibility for the evaluation of these two selected yeasts as multifunctional starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, in real table olive fermentations. PMID:25475268

  19. Selection of Thai starter components for ethanol production utilizing malted rice from waste paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirilux Chaijamrus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixed herbs in Thai rice wine starter (Loog-pang were investigated in order to directly maintain theefficiency of the microbial community (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Amylomyces sp., Gluconobacter sp. and Pediocccuspentosaceus. The optimum formula was galanga, garlic, long pepper, licorice, and black pepper at the ratio of 0.5:8:1:4:1,respectively. Previously, waste paddy has been used directly as a renewable resource for fuel ethanol production using solidstate fermentation (SSF with Loog-pang. In this study, hydrolyzed malted rice starch was used as the sole nutrient source insubmerged fermentation (SmF to enhance the process yield. The maximum ethanol productivity (4.08 g/kg waste paddy h-1and the highest ethanol concentration (149±7.0 g/kg waste paddy were obtained after 48 hrs of incubation. The resultsindicated that starch saccharification provided a higher ethanol yield (48.38 g/100g sugar consumed than SSF. In addition,the efficiency of ethanol fermentation was 67% which is similar to that of the malted rice made from normal paddy (68%.This result suggests that waste paddy could be used as an alternative raw material for ethanol production.

  20. Kefir grains as a starter for whey fermentation at different temperatures: chemical and microbiological characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londero, Alejandra; Hamet, María F; De Antoni, Graciela L; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

    2012-08-01

    We report here a comparative analysis of the growth, acidification capacity, and chemical and microbiologic composition between kefir grains after 20 subcultures in whey at 20, 30, and 37°C and the original kefir grains coming from milk along with a determination of the microbiological composition of the fermented whey as compared with that of traditional fermented milk. When fermentation was carried out repeatedly at 30 or 37°C, kefir grains changed their kefir-like appearance, exhibited reduced growth rates, had a lower diversity of yeasts and water content, and a higher protein-to-polysaccharide ratio compared with the original kefir grains. In contrast, at 20°C kefir grains could remain in whey for prolonged periods without altering their acidification capacity, growth rate, macroscopic appearance or chemical and microbiologic composition-with the only difference being a reduction in certain yeast populations after 20 subcultures in whey. At this incubation temperature, the presence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lb. kefir, Lb. parakefir, Lactococcus lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces unisporus, and Sac. cerevisiae was detected in kefir grains and in fermented whey by denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In whey fermented at 20°C the number of lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) was significantly lower (Pkefir grains as whey-fermentation starters. PMID:22717048

  1. Dietary Toxicity Evaluation of Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss the reference safety of the Brown Rice Starter Red Kojic Rice Wine (BRSRKRW and provide scientific basis for rational development and utilization of the wine. In order to evaluate the toxicity of BRSRKRW in vivo, acute and subchronic toxicity of BRSRKRW in SD rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of BRSRKRW at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, or 31.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw, were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, BRSRKRW at 1.5, 3 and 6 g/kg•bw were administered for 30 days. The results showed that BRSRKRW did not affect weight gain in growing rats, in the level of hematological parameters, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid in blood and histopathological damages of the liver. Overall, the study suggests that the risk of drinking BRSRKRW toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  2. Determination of optimal regimes in obtaining kilka protein hydrolysates for sturgeon starter diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamdari Hojatollah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal regimes of obtaining hydrolysates of minced fish (Clupeonella sp., kilka with a predictable output of water-soluble protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds in them. The technological process has been studied by two types of raw material: whole fish and fish without head and entrails. Studying the process of obtaining kilka hydrolysates for sturgeon starter diets showed that the most rational way of hydrolysis in this case is enzymatic-acid method by pre-grinding of raw materials in meat-mincer with a die diameter 4.5 mm. The following optimal process parameters have been identified: temperature – 55 °C, the duration of hydrolysis – 3 days at duty of water – 1 : 3; a dose of formic acid – 3 % and a dose of sodium chloride – 0.25 %. Comparison of the experimental results showed that hydrolysates reception from intact kilka is much more efficient than that of gutted kilka. Optimal regimes, both in the first and in the second case, practically do not differ.

  3. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2015-07-01

    A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage. PMID:25947246

  4. Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp. intended for use as starter and probiotic cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Ralitsa; Yocheva, Lyubomira; Tserovska, Lilia; Zhelezova, Galina; Stefanova, Nina; Atanasova, Akseniya; Danguleva, Antonia; Ivanova, Gergana; Karapetkov, Nikolay; Rumyan, Nevenka; Karaivanova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility were tested for 23 Lactobacillus and three Bifidobacterium strains isolated from different ecological niches. Agar-well diffusion method was used to test the antagonistic effect (against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans) of acid and neutralized (pH 5.5) lyophilized concentrated supernatants (cell-free supernatant; CFS) and whey (cell-free whey fractions; CFW) from de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe/trypticase-phytone-yeast broth and skim milk. Acid CFS and CFW showed high acidification rate-dependent bacterial inhibition; five strains were active against C. albicans. Neutralized CFS/CFW assays showed six strains active against S. aureus (L. acidophilus L-1, L. brevis 1, L. fermentum 1, B. animalis subsp. lactis L-3), E. coli (L. bulgaricus 6) or B. cereus (L. plantarum 24-4?). Inhibition of two pathogens with neutralized CFS (L. bulgaricus 6, L. helveticus 3, L. plantarum 24-2L, L. fermentum 1)/CFW (L. plantarum 24-5D, L. plantarum 24-4?) was detected. Some strains maintained activity after pH neutralization, indicating presence of active substances. The antibiotics minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the Epsilometer test method. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Four lactobacilli were resistant to one antibiotic (L. rhamnosus Lio 1 to streptomycin) or two antibiotics (L. acidophilus L-1 and L. brevis 1 to kanamycin and clindamycin; L. casei L-4 to clindamycin and chloramphenicol). Vancomycin MICs > 256 ?g/mL indicated intrinsic resistance for all heterofermentative lactobacilli. The antimicrobially active strains do not cause concerns about antibiotic resistance transfer and could be used as natural biopreservatives in food and therapeutic formulations.

  5. The Effect of LAB as Probiotic Starter Culture and Green Tea Extract Addition on Dry Fermented Pork Loins Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffe-Skoci?ska, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Ko?o?yn-Krajewska, Danuta; Dolatowski, Zbigniew; Jachacz-Jówko, Luiza

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory quality of dry fermented pork loin produced with the addition of Lb. rhamnosus LOCK900 probiotic strain, 0.2% glucose, and 1.5% green tea extract. Three loins were prepared: control sample (P0: no additives), sample supplemented with glucose and probiotic strain (P1), and sample with glucose, green tea extract, and probiotic (P2). The samples were analyzed after 21 days of ripening and 180 days of storage. The results indicated that the highest count of LAB was observed both in the samples: with probiotic and with probiotic and green tea extract (7.00?log?cfu/g after ripening; 6.00?log?cfu/g after storage). The oxidation-reduction potential values were lower in the probiotic loin samples. Probiotic and green tea extract have not caused color changes of study loins during storage. The study demonstrated that an addition of probiotic and green tea extract to dry fermented loins is possible and had no impact on sensory quality after product storage. PMID:25961018

  6. Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture : evaluation of morphological and microbial variations

    OpenAIRE

    Magalha?es, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, M. A.; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Luci?lia; Teixeira, J. A.; Silva, Joa?o B. Almeida E.; Schwan, Rosane F.

    2010-01-01

    Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed dis...

  7. Salame elaborado com Lactobacillus plantarum fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno Salami sausage prepared with Lactobacillus plantarum fermented in porcine plasma culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo produzir uma cultura starter com uma cepa de Lactobacillus plantarum em um meio de cultura com plasma suíno e verificar a viabilidade de sua aplicação em salame. O meio de cultura foi preparado com plasma suíno e água destilada (1:1, pH 11,0. Após a esterilização, 300 mL foram adicionados de 400 mL de uma solução estéril de glicose e difosfato de potássio. A cepa de Lb. plantarum foi semeada no meio de cultura e submetida à fermentação em pH 7,0, durante 36 horas (100 rpm, 37 ± 0,1 °C. Ao alcançar a fase estacionária, a cultura foi centrifugada e ressuspendida em leite desnatado estéril, liofilizada e aplicada em salame. A influência do inóculo foi avaliada nas características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais de salames. Os resultados encontrados foram comparados com tratamentos sem adição de cultura starter e com uma cultura comercial. O microrganismo Lb. plantarum teve um crescimento máximo de 9,82 Log UFC.mL-1, após 30 horas de fermentação. Os salames elaborados com a cultura starter produzida apresentaram uma queda de pH significativamente maior, e menor valor de atividade de água que os demais tratamentos. O microrganismo Lb. plantarum melhorou significativamente o sabor dos salames.The purpose of this work was to produce a starter culture with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum in a porcine plasma culture medium and ascertain the viability of applying it in salami sausage. The culture medium was prepared with porcine plasma and distilled water (1:1, pH 11.0. After sterilization, 300 mL were added of 400 mL of a sterile solution of glucose and potassium diphosphate. The Lb. plantarum strain was inoculated into the culture medium and subjected to fermentation at pH 7.0 for 36 hours (100 rpm, 37 ± 0.1 °C. When the stationary phase was reached, the culture was centrifuged and resuspensed in sterile skimmed milk, lyophilized and applied to salami. An evaluation was made of the influence of the inoculum on the microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of salami sausages. The results were compared with treatments without the addition of starter culture and with a commercial culture. The microorganism Lb. plantarum showed a maximum growth of 9.82 Log UFC.mL-1 after 30 hours of fermentation. The salami sausages prepared with the starter culture produced in this study showed a significantly greater drop in pH and lower water activity than the other treatments. The microorganism Lb. plantarum improved the flavor of the salami sausages considerably.

  8. Desenvolvimento de bebida láctea sabor morango utilizando diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo obtidos com leite de búfala / Development of strawberry-flavored milk drink using different yoghurt levels and whey obtained from buffalo's milk

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Sibelli Passini Barbosa, Ferrão; Sérgio Augusto De Albuquerque, Fernandes; Ana Prudência Assis, Magnavita; Tayse Dantas Rebouças, Santos.

    2193-21-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de bebidas lácteas elaboradas com leite de búfala e diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo. Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações à base de leite de búfala, soro de queijo tipo [...] frescal e iogurte. Os tratamentos foram: T1=10% leite, 10% soro e 80% iogurte; T2=10% leite, 20% soro e 70% iogurte; T3=10% leite, 30% soro e 60% iogurte; T4=10% leite, 40% soro e 50% iogurte; e T5=10% leite, 50% soro e 40% iogurte. Para o leite e soro, foram determinadas acidez titulável (°D), densidade a 15°C, gordura, EST e ESD. As bebidas lácteas foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável, gordura, proteína, viscosidade, cor (CIEL*a*b*), teste de aceitação sensorial com escala hedônica de cinco pontos, ordenação da preferência, enumeração de coliformes a 35 e 45°C e contagem de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios. Os resultados obtidos, submetidos ao teste de ANOVA e teste de médias com nível de significância a 5%, revelaram que os níveis de soro influenciaram os valores de pH, acidez, gordura, proteína, viscosidade e L* das bebidas lácteas, enquanto as coordenadas de cromaticidade a* e b* não sofreram influência. As formulações com 10 e 20% de soro foram as mais aceitas no teste de aceitação sensorial, bem como na preferência pelos julgadores. Abstract in english This research was carried out to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of dairy beverages elaborated with buffalo milk and different levels of yoghurt and whey. Five formulations were developed based on buffalo's milk, cheese whey and yogurt. The treatments we [...] re: T1=10% milk, 10% whey and 80% yoghurt; T2=10% milk, 20% whey and 70% yoghurt; T3=10% milk, 30% whey and 60% yoghurt; T4=10% milk, 40% whey and 50% yoghurt; T5=10% milk, 50% whey and 40% yoghurt. It was determined the acidity (°D), density at 15°C, fat, total solids (TS) and non-fat solids (SNF). The dairy beverage was evaluated on: pH, titratable acidity, percentages of fat and protein, viscosity, color (CIEL*a*b*), sensorial acceptance test with hedonic scale of five points and preference ordination, coliforms enumeration s at 35°C and 45°C, count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. The obtained results, submitted to ANOVA and Tukey Test with significance level of 5% revealed that the whey rates of the dairy beverage influenced pH, acidity, fat, protein, viscosity, L*, and water activity, while the chromaticity coordinates a* and b* did not suffer influence. The formularizations with 10% and 20% whey were the most accepted in the sensorial acceptance test, as well as in the preference of the judges.

  9. Effects of crack starter bead preparation in drop-weight test of nil-ductility transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure for making crack starter weld deposits on drop-weight test (DWT) specimens was altered from two passes to one pass in about 1990. The effects of some parameters of crack starter weld process on drop-weight test results were studied. Results of this study indicated that length of overlap of the second pass and height of crack starter beads were most effective on mil-ductility temperature (TNDT). When overlap length and bead height of two-pass deposit were small enough, TNDT obtained by two-pass deposit became lower than one-pass TNDT, the discrepancy being by as much as 25 C. TNDT values for 24 Japanese steels were determined using two different DWT methods, one-pass deposit and two-pass deposit having small overlap length and bead height. The difference of TNDT depending on DWT method could be seen only for high-toughness low-alloy steel base metals. For other materials (i.e., low-to-medium-toughness low-alloy steel base metals, weld metals, and high-toughness carbon steels), TNDTs by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, TNDTs by two-pass and one-pass deposits were essentially the same. For lower-toughness steels, TNDT was frequently lower than the temperature of (vTcv - 33 C), and thus, the reference nil-ductility temperature (RTNDT) was determined from Charpy impact test results. Thesened from Charpy impact test results. These results can be taken as a way of interpreting the past toughness evaluations made for operating plants using the two-pass TNDT

  10. Efecto del Salvado de Trigo en las Propiedades Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales del Yogurt de Leche de Búfala / Effect of Bran Wheat on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Buffalo Milk Yoghurt

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mónica M, Simanca; Ricardo D, Andrade; Margarita R, Arteaga.

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de salvado de trigo (en concentraciones 0, 1, 3 y 5% p/v) y el tiempo de almacenamiento en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del yogurt de leche de búfala. Al producto obtenido se le realizaron pruebas fisicoquímicas (acidez, pH, materia grasa, sólidos to [...] tales, sinéresis y densidad) y análisis de aceptación sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos con 50 catadores. La adición de salvado de trigo influyó de manera directamente proporcional sobre la acidez, sinéresis, sólidos totales y densidad, e inversamente sobre el pH y la aceptación sensorial del producto. Durante el tiempo de almacenamiento se observó un aumento de la acidez y sinéresis, lo cual evidenció pérdida de calidad del producto. El análisis sensorial mostró que el yogurt de leche de búfala con 1% de adición de salvado de trigo presenta características organolépticas similares al yogurt con leche de búfala sin adición de fibra. Abstract in english The effect of adding wheat bran (at concentrations of 0, 1, 3 and 5% w/v) and of the storage time on physicochemical and sensory properties of buffalo milk yoghurt were evaluated. Physicochemical tests, such as acidity, pH, fat, total solids, syneresis and density were done and sensory acceptance an [...] alysis using the 9-point hedonic scale with 50 tasters were performed. The addition of wheat bran directly influenced acidity, syneresis, total solids and density, and inversely influenced pH and sensory acceptance of the product. During the storage period there was an increase in acidity and syneresis, which showed loss of product quality. Sensory analyses showed that buffalo milk yoghurt with 1% of wheat bran presented organoleptic characteristics similar to that of yoghurt without bran addition.

  11. Math starters 5- to 10-minute activities aligned with the common core math standards, grades 6-12

    CERN Document Server

    Muschla, Judith A; Muschla, Erin

    2013-01-01

    A revised edition of the bestselling activities guide for math teachers Now updated with new math activities for computers and mobile devices-and now organized by the Common Core State Standards-this book includes more than 650 ready-to-use math starter activities that get kids quickly focused and working as soon as they enter the classroom. Ideally suited for any math curriculum, these high-interest problems spark involvement in the day's lesson, help students build skills, and allow teachers to handle daily management tasks without wasting valuable instructional time. A newly updated edit

  12. Urine Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C and S Formal name: Culture, Urine Related tests: Urinalysis ; Blood Culture ; Susceptibility Testing ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; Gram ... A urine culture may be ordered with a urinalysis or as follow up to abnormal results on ...

  13. Flavour formation from hydrolysis of pork sarcoplasmic protein extract by a unique LAB culture isolated from Harbin dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Liu, Qian; Sun, Qinxiu; Kong, Baohua; Xiong, Youling

    2015-02-01

    The lactic acid bacteria Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from Harbin dry sausage were assessed for their protein hydrolysis and flavour development in pork muscle sarcoplasmic protein extracts. Gel electrophoresis indicated that sarcoplasmic proteins were degraded by all of the strains, especially by P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus. Trichloroacetic acid-soluble peptides increased in all of the samples (P meat starter culture. PMID:25460113

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Seaweed in Starter and Finisher Diets in Pellet and Mash Form on Performance and Carcass Quality of Ducks

    OpenAIRE

    El-deekx, A. A.; Mervat Brikaa, A.

    2009-01-01

    Two trials were run to assess the nutritional value of seaweed as a feedstuff in starter and finisher diets for ducks. The first trial (starter period): 96, one-day old commercial ducks were weighed, wing banded and randomly distributed to battery brooders into 8 treatment groups (3 replicates x 4 ducks each). The ducks were fed the experimental diets contained 0, 4, 8 and 12% seaweed, the diets were offered ad-libitum in pellet and mash form from one day to 5 wks of age. The second trial (fi...

  15. Biodiversity in Oscypek, a traditional Polish cheese, determined by culture-dependent and -independent approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Angel; Szczesny, Pawel; Mayo, Baltasar; Bardowski, Jacek; Kowalczyk, Magdalena

    2012-03-01

    Oscypek is a traditional Polish scalded-smoked cheese, with a protected-designation-of-origin (PDO) status, manufactured from raw sheep's milk without starter cultures in the Tatra Mountains region of Poland. This study was undertaken in order to gain insight into the microbiota that develops and evolves during the manufacture and ripening stages of Oscypek. To this end, we made use of both culturing and the culture-independent methods of PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The culture-dependent technique and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting detected the predominant microorganisms in traditional Oscypek, whereas the next-generation sequencing technique (454 pyrosequencing) revealed greater bacterial diversity. Besides members of the most abundant bacterial genera in dairy products, e.g., Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, identified by all three methods, other, subdominant bacteria belonging to the families Bifidobacteriaceae and Moraxellaceae (mostly Enhydrobacter), as well as various minor bacteria, were identified by pyrosequencing. The presence of bifidobacterial sequences in a cheese system is reported for the first time. In addition to bacteria, a great diversity of yeast species was demonstrated in Oscypek by the PCR-DGGE method. Culturing methods enabled the determination of a number of viable microorganisms from different microbial groups and their isolation for potential future applications in specific cheese starter cultures. PMID:22247135

  16. Production of potential probiotic Spanish-style green table olives at pilot plant scale using multifunctional starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A; Arroyo-López, F N

    2014-12-01

    This work evaluates the use of two multifunctional starters of Lactobacillus pentosus species (TOMC LAB2 and TOMC LAB4) during elaboration of Manzanilla olive fruits processed according to the Spanish-style. Data show that the use of inocula at the onset of fermentation led to a proper acidification and sugar consumption of brines compared to the spontaneous process, obtaining in a shorter period of time the maximum population for lactic acid bacteria. Both inoculated L. pentosus strains were recovered at high frequencies at the end of fermentation on the olive surface, which was corroborated by RAPD-PCR analysis. In situ observation of olive epidermis slices by scanning electron microscopy revealed a strong aggregation and adhesion between microorganisms, which reached population levels of approximately 6 and 7 log10 cfu/cm(2) for yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae on the olive surface were also found at the onset of fermentation (?9 log10 cfu/cm(2)), but they declined during the process and were below the detection limit at the end of fermentation. Results obtained in this study show the advantage of using multifunctional starters with the ability to adhere to the olive epidermis because, ultimately, the fruits are the food ingested by consumers. PMID:25084674

  17. Lycee Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Regine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent French national survey about the cultural behavior of lycee students. Points out the internal diversity of the lycee population in cultural practices. Argues that an adolescent culture exists; identifies an upper secondary school culture; and defines its relationship with mass, classical, or class cultures. (NL)

  18. Iranian wheat flours from rural and industrial mills: Exploitation of the chemical and technology features, and selection of autochthonous sourdough starters for making breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontonio, Erica; Nionelli, Luana; Curiel, José Antonio; Sadeghi, Alireza; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed at describing the main chemical and technology features of eight Iranian wheat flours collected from industrial and artisanal mills. Their suitability for bread making was investigated using autochthonous sourdough starters. Chemical analyses showed high concentration of fibers and ash, and technology aptitude for making breads. As shown through 2-DE analyses, gliadin and glutenin subunits were abundant and varied among the flours. According to the back slopping procedure, type I sourdoughs were prepared from Iranian flours, and lactic acid bacteria were typed and identified. Strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, and Leuconostoc citreum were the most abundant. Based on the kinetics of growth and acidification, quotient of fermentation and concentration of total free amino acids, lactic acid bacteria were selected and used as sourdough mixed starters for bread making. Compared to spontaneous fermentation, sourdoughs fermented with selected and mixed starters favored the increase of the concentrations of organic acids and total free amino acids, the most suitable quotient of fermentation, and the most intense phytase and antioxidant activities. Although the high concentration of fibers, selected and mixed starters improved the textural features of the breads. This study might had contribute to the exploitation of the potential of Iranian wheat flours and to extend the use of sourdough, showing positive technology, nutritional and, probably, economic repercussions. PMID:25583343

  19. Evaluation of mannan-oligosaccharides offered in milk replacers or calf starters and their effect on performance and rumen development of dairy calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jackeline Thaís da, Silva; Carla Maris Machado, Bittar; Lucas Silveira, Ferreira.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the route of administration of mannan-oligosaccharides in the diet of dairy calves and their effects on performance and plasma parameters indicative of rumen development. Following birth, twenty-four male Holstein calves were used in a completely randomize [...] d design and assigned to the following treatments: Control; 4 g/d Bio-Mos® (Alltech Biotech.) added to starter concentrate; and 4 g/d Bio-Mos® mixed into milk replacer. Animals were housed in individual hutches with free access to water, and fed 4L/d of milk replacer until weaning at six weeks. Calves also received 23g/kg crude protein of starter concentrate ad libitum. Fecal scores were evaluated daily. Body weights, growth measurements and blood samples for glucose, urea-N and ?-hidroxibutyrate analyses were taken weekly until 8 weeks of age. There were no significant effects of treatment or treatment × age interactions for mean starter concentrate intake, weight gain or body growth. However, there was a significant age effect for all parameters. Fecal scores were not affected by treatments. Also, plasma concentration of glucose, urea-N or ?-hidroxibutyrate were not affected by treatment or the treatment × age interaction. However, urea-N and ?-hidroxibutyrate concentrations significantly increased with age, suggesting adequate rumen development. Under the conditions of this study, there were no calf performance benefits when mannan-oligosaccharides were incorporated into milk replacer or calf starter concentrate.

  20. Evaluation of mannan-oligosaccharides offered in milk replacers or calf starters and their effect on performance and rumen development of dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackeline Thaís da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the route of administration of mannan-oligosaccharides in the diet of dairy calves and their effects on performance and plasma parameters indicative of rumen development. Following birth, twenty-four male Holstein calves were used in a completely randomized design and assigned to the following treatments: Control; 4 g/d Bio-Mos® (Alltech Biotech. added to starter concentrate; and 4 g/d Bio-Mos® mixed into milk replacer. Animals were housed in individual hutches with free access to water, and fed 4L/d of milk replacer until weaning at six weeks. Calves also received 23g/kg crude protein of starter concentrate ad libitum. Fecal scores were evaluated daily. Body weights, growth measurements and blood samples for glucose, urea-N and ?-hidroxibutyrate analyses were taken weekly until 8 weeks of age. There were no significant effects of treatment or treatment × age interactions for mean starter concentrate intake, weight gain or body growth. However, there was a significant age effect for all parameters. Fecal scores were not affected by treatments. Also, plasma concentration of glucose, urea-N or ?-hidroxibutyrate were not affected by treatment or the treatment × age interaction. However, urea-N and ?-hidroxibutyrate concentrations significantly increased with age, suggesting adequate rumen development. Under the conditions of this study, there were no calf performance benefits when mannan-oligosaccharides were incorporated into milk replacer or calf starter concentrate.