WorldWideScience
 
 
1

STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

Zavezenova I. V.

2013-05-01

2

Wine starters cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.

Débora Santos

2008-01-01

3

The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 109 : 109 (1 : 1, 109 : 2x109 (1 : 2 and 2x109 : 109 (2 : 1, and second factor was percentage (S of starter, with were 1, 2, 3 and 4 percent. Each treatment has three replicated. Variabels measured ware lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt after 12 hours fermented. Lactic acid content was determined by titration and lactose content by spectrofotometry. Result showed that number of Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and percentage of starter, including ther interaction, have very hight significant (P<0,01 affect on lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt. For resulted the yoghurt with the best quality (midle of lactic acid and lower lactose content recommended to used Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 1 : 2 with 4 percent starter addition. (Animal Production 8(2: 131-136 (2006 Key Words : Streptococus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, starter, yoghurt, lactic acid, lactose

Prayitno

2006-05-01

4

Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was investigated in terms of microbial growth, acidification and changes in the biochemical composition of milk during set-yoghurt fermentation. A complementary metabolomics approach was applied for global characterization of volatile and non-volatile polar metabolite profiles of yoghurt associated with proteolytic activity of the individual strains in the starter cultures. The results demonstrated that only non-proteolytic S. thermophilus (Prt-) strain performed proto-cooperation with L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The proto-cooperation resulted in significant higher populations of the two species, faster milk acidification, significant abundance of aroma volatiles and non-volatile metabolites desirable for a good organoleptic quality of yoghurt. Headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis allows discriminating set-yoghurts fermented by different types of starter cultures according to their metabolite profiles. Our finding underlines that selection of suitable strain combinations in yoghurt starters is important for achieving the best technological performance regarding the quality of product. PMID:24598513

Settachaimongkon, Sarn; Nout, M J Robert; Antunes Fernandes, Elsa C; Hettinga, Kasper A; Vervoort, Jacques M; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; van Valenberg, Hein J F

2014-05-01

5

Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets.

Hansen, Egon Bech

2014-01-01

6

Yoghurt Production Using Soyamilk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soyamilk was extracted from soaked dehulled crushed soyabeans by mixing with water and then filtering using a muslim cloth to separate the milk from residue. The filtered soyamilk was then pasteurised to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and undesirable enzymes. The extracted soyamilk had a lower acidity (0.03%) and fat content (1.0%) than cows milk (0.14 and 3.5% acidity and fat content respectively). Organoleptic (sensory) evaluation was carried by a panel and the results were analysed using the Anova an mean separation by using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Quality attributes of soyamilk that were significant (P > 0.05) affected were consistency and flavour. A 75:25 (cow milk:soyamilk) was not significantly different from 100% cow milk. The 25:75 cow milk:soyamilk and 100% soyamilk were not acceptable because of poor consistency and objectionable flavour. The fermented soyamilk yoghurt had a higher acceptability rating than fresh soyamilk. The sensory evaluation results showed that the 75:25 and 50:50 ( cow to soyamilk) yoghurt were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control (100% cow yoghurt). The 25:75 and 0:100 (cow milk:soyamilk yoghurt) had low rating and categorised as poor. By increasing the sugar content and amount of emulsifier (gelatin), the acceptability of 25:75 and 0:100 soyamilk yoghurt was improved. Fermentation using yoghurt starter culture improved the flavour and taste

1998-11-09

7

Developments in thermophilic starter cultures for cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increases in Italian cheese consumption have focused attention on the need for additional research into the microbiology and genetics of the lactic starter cultures used in these fermentations. Starter cultures can have a significant impact on the body and texture of cheese, as well as on functional properties such as melting. As knowledge related to the physiology, genetics and general microbiology of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria expands, new strategies are becoming available to improve...

1998-01-01

8

PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50?C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

Elok Zubaedah1

2003-12-01

9

Starter cultures for cereal based foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. PMID:24230471

Brandt, Markus J

2014-02-01

10

Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogen...

Fa?varo Trindade, C. S.; Terzi, S. C.; Trugo, L. C.; Della Modesta, R. C.; Couri, S.

2001-01-01

11

SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

Widaningrum3

2013-06-01

12

Angiotensin I-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of tryptic peptides of ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin and of milk yoghurts obtained by using different starters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the angiotensin I-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of tryptic hydrolysates of ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin, and of yoghurts made by using different starters. Ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin (a mixture of variants A and B at a ratio of 50/50) was subjected to trypsin activity. The degree of hydrolysis of native whole $\\beta$-lactoglobulin reached 56, 72, 93 and 95% after 1, 2, 8 and 24 h, respectively. ACE-inhibitory activity of tryptic hydrolysat...

2005-01-01

13

Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid to quality of raw material for yoghurt manufacture. The quality of raw milk for yoghurt production was high. Average relative density was 1,030. Acidity varied from 6.11 to 6.64oSH, with mean value of 6.28oSH. Evaporating of milk and addition of skim milk dry powder were used for dry solids adjustment required for good quality yoghurtmanufacture. Milk for yoghurt manufacture, had relative density from 1.035 to 1.036 with average value of 1.035. Acidity ranged from 7.07 to 7.59oSH. Average acidity was 7.30oSH. Fat content was in range from 1.94 to 2.00% and 1.98% in average. Yoghurt starter culture showed high acidic activity, as indicated in its acidity value before inoculation of yoghurt milk. Mean value of acidity of starter culture was 40.36oSH with variations from 38.05 to 42.64oSH. The acidity of final product varied from 37.36 to 38.81oSH or 38.26oSH in average. The acidity of yoghurt in Dairy Industry Zenica was adjusted to be somewhat lower than usual in order to keep high quality of products during distribution and consuming chain.

Sonja Bijeljac

2004-01-01

14

Effect of Some Selected Processing Routes on the Nutritional Value of Soy Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The processing methods of soymilk were investigated with major focus on their effects on the nutritional values of soy yoghurt. Various chemicals such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and deionized water were used for treating different samples of soybeans. Soy yoghurt was prepared from the soymilk obtained from all the samples using a mixed starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus....

Adetunji, O. A.; Betiku, E.; Ojo, A.; Solomon, B. O.

2006-01-01

15

Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas / Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, [...] e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated [...] from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were performed: T1 - addition of commercial starters (Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mixture of isolated Staphylococcus xylosus plus commercial Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T3 - mixture of isolated Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis plus commercial Staphylococcus xylosus; and T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis both isolated. The treatments showed a significant decrease of pH and reduction in the Aw ensuring microbiological safety to the products. With regard to lipid oxidation, the treatments that contained isolated strains of Staphylococcus xylosus presented significantly lower values than the other treatments. The sausages elaborated with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, both strains isolated, presented better sensorial results than the sausages elaborated with commercial starter cultures. Therefore, the addition of native starter cultures can be used in the elaboration of fermented Italian sausages providing safe products with differentiated flavor.

Andréia, Cirolini; Leadir Lucy Martins, Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra; Liana Inês Guidolin, Milani; Diala, Urnau; Bibiana Alves dos, Santos; Giovanna Dotta, Cervo; Ana Paula de Souza, Rezer.

16

Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p?0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P?0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

Metin Guldas

2010-12-01

17

Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

Sedarnawati Yasni

2014-03-01

18

Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experime...

2009-01-01

19

EFFECT OF MAIZE VARIETY AND BACTERIA STARTER CULTURE ON MAIZE FERMENTATION PROCESS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of different maize variety and bacteria starter culture on maize fermentation process was evaluated. Eleven varieties of maize were subjected to fermentation both naturally and in the presence of bacteria starter culture (bactocell). One variety was further fermented with different bacteria starter cultures. The cultures used were; Pediococcus acidilactici (Bactocell), Lactobacilli amylophillus, L. reuteri, L. caesi and L...

Felix Oghenemaro Enwa; Jane Beal; Matthew Ikhuoria Arhewoh

2011-01-01

20

Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

Silviya Popova

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug?1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug?1 for streptococci and >106 cfug?1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

Radulovi? Zorica

2014-01-01

22

PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU [Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%, starch (16,66%, fat (11,56%, ash (7.73%, dry matter (87.57%, dietary fibre (33.35% and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%. The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

Indratininingsih1

2004-04-01

23

The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added ...

Hynes, E.; Ogier, J. C.; Lamberet, G.; Delacroix-buchet, A.

2002-01-01

24

Production of Nigerian Nono Using Lactic Starter Cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB on nutritional quality, acceptability and shelf life of nono was investigated. The lactic starter cultures were selected based on their ability to produce diacetyl. Lactobacillus caseiN18 produced the highest quantity (1.65 g/ml of diacetyl while Lactobacillus brevisN15 produced the lowest amount (0.9 g/ml. During 24 h fermentation a general decrease in pH was observed with a corresponding increase in Titratable Acidity (TA. The pH ranged between 5.51 and 6.29; while the TA ranged between 19 and 21%. The mixed starter culture comprises of L. caseiN18 and L. plantarumN07 produced the highest quantity of diacetyl (2.40 g/ml while the lowest quantity of diacetyl (2.00 g/ml was recorded for the sample produced with spontaneous fermentation. Nono fermented with mixed culture of L. caseiN18 and L. plantarumN07 had the highest protein content (69.98% while nono produced with spontaneous fermentation (control had the lowest (59.20%. Nono fermented with L. caseiN18 and L. plantarumN07 was rated best with overall acceptability of 7 while the control had overall acceptability of 4. The Nono sample stored in refrigerator had a shelf-life of 6 days while the sample stored at room temperature (28oC2oC had a shelf life of 3 days.

R.E. Avanrenren

2011-01-01

25

Traditionally produced sauerkraut as source of autochthonous functional starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous sauerkraut fermentation was performed at industrial scale in "Prehrana Inc.", Varaždin, in order to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which were evaluated according probiotic criteria and tested for their capacity as probiotic starter cultures. At the end of the spontaneous sauerkraut fermentation, total LAB counts reached 9.0×10(5) CFU/ml. This underlines that the need for addition of the well characterised probiotic cultures, in appropriate viable cell counts, would be valuable in probiotic sauerkraut production. Phenotypic characterisation through API 50 CHL and SDS-PAGE of cell protein patterns revealed that Lactobacillus plantarum is predominant LAB strain in homofermentative phase of fermentation. Autochthonous LAB isolates SF1, SF2, SF4, SF9 and SF15 were selected based on the survival in in vitro gastrointestinal tract conditions. RAPD fingerprints indicated that the selected autochthonous LAB were distinct from one another. All of the strains efficiently inhibited the growth of indicator strains and satisfied technological properties such as acidification rate, tolerance to NaCl and viability during freeze-drying. Strains Lb. paraplantarum SF9 and Lb. brevis SF15, identified by AFLP DNA fingerprints, have shown the best properties to be applied as probiotic starter cultures, because of their highest adhesion to Caco-2 cells and expression of specific, protective S-layer proteins of 45 kDa in size. With addition of these strains, probiotic attribute of the sauerkraut will be achieved, including health promoting, nutritional, technological and economic advantages in large scale industrial sauerkraut production. PMID:24797236

Beganovi?, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Uroi?, Ksenija; Joki?, Mladen; Šuškovi?, Jagoda

2014-01-01

26

Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition improved the consistency and sensory characteristic of the products. Probiotics yoghurt had slightly higher sensory properties. After hedonic scaleevaluation the control yoghurt samples and control probiotic yoghurt samples were not acceptable. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between investigated yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt, and Duncan test showed that yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt samples with additives were significantly different from others, i.e., they proved to be better then control samples.

Rajka Božani?

2001-10-01

27

The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli [...] growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of ?s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

Hynes, E.; Ogier, J.C.; Lamberet, G.; Delacroix-Buchet, A..

28

Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase. Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

A. de Moreno de LeBlanc

2005-04-01

29

Viability and physiological state transitions of Rhizopus oligosporus sporangiospores in tempe starter culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The viability and various physiological characteristics of individual sporangiospores of Rhizopus oligosporus in tempe starter cultures that had been stored for 8, 10, 16 and 30 months were examined by flow cytometry in combination with fluorescent dyes. Besides live, dead, and dormant spores we distinguished a category of sublethally damaged spores. Results indicated that the shelf-life of tempe starters was not limited by the death of spores, but by sublethal damage to spores as well as by ...

Thanh, N. V.; Rombouts, F. M.; Nout, M. J. R.

2007-01-01

30

Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

Lilian A Gogo

2012-04-01

31

Genome Sequence of Lactococcus raffinolactis Strain 4877, Isolated from Natural Dairy Starter Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nonstarter lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus raffinolactis is prevalent in a wide range of environments, such as the dairy environment, but little is known about this species. Here, we present the draft genome of Lactococcus raffinolactis strain 4877, isolated from a natural mesophilic dairy starter culture.

Meslier, Victoria; Loux, Valentin; Renault, Pierre

2012-01-01

32

Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

2008-06-30

33

Effects of selected factors on rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of inulin (1 %, combination of inulin (1 % and acacia honey (4 %, heat treatment of milk, and storage time on the rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt. Rheological properties were assessed trough viscosity, syneresis and texture (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity. Yoghurt was prepared from milk (1,5 % fat with added inulin (1% before heat treatment at 85 °C for 20 min or 95 °C for 10 min. After cooling to 55 °C honey (4 % was added. Samples were inoculated using probiotic starter culture (70 % w/w Streptococcus thermophilus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 % w/w Bifidobacterium ssp.. Yoghurt samples were held on +5 °C during 21 days. Measurements of pH value, lactic acid, viscosity, syneresis, and textural properties were done after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The results of this study show that honey addition significantly decreased fermentation time compared to fermentation time of control samples or samples containing inulin. Furthermore, addition of honey and inulin to milk caused significant lower syneresis (p<0,05 during storage time, while there was no significant influence on viscosity and texture of final product. The applied heat treatment of milk had no significant influence on rheological properties of probiotic yoghurt.

Jovana Glušac

2011-03-01

34

Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Drinking Yoghurt in Khartoum State, Sudan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the technological characteristics of lactic acid bacteria used as lactic acid starter in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products and which are suitable to local conditions. Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB, isolated from drinking yoghurt in different areas in Khartoum state, Sudan. The purification of isolates was done by transferring Gram +ve rods and cocci shaped bacteria to the plates of selective media MRS and M-17, respectively. These isolates were further sub cultured until pure isolates were obtained. From 18 drinking yoghurt samples a total of 303 LAB positives were determined, in which 47 (17.38% and 256 (82.62% were identified as lactic acid cocci and lactic acid bacilli, respectively. Additionally, our biochemical tests showed the occurrence of 22 (44.44% Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris and 25 (55.56% Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris among lactic acid cocci. While, in the case of lactic acid bacilli, Lactobacillus helveticus 35 (15.3%; Lactobacillus plantarum 74 (22.3%; Lactobacillus brevis 17 (21%; Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 36 (15.5% and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 94 (25.9% was found. Among lactic acid cocci and bacilli, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were found to be the more dominant species, respectively. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional drinking yoghurt. However, in the future we can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains and assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

Asmahan Azhari Ali

2011-01-01

35

Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7?×?10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying. PMID:24584512

Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

2014-06-01

36

Biochemical Properties of Some Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains from Traditional Fermented Milk Relevant to Their Technological Performance as Starter Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented milk and to study some of their important technological properties. Five isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditionally raw cow’s fermented milk were identified using phenotypic criteria and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell proteins. Four isolates named 2, 8, 13 and 20 FM were identified as Streptococcus thermophilus while isolate 285 N was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. All these strains exhibited good acidification activity although two strains of Sc. thermophilus (2FM, 20FM and Lb. bulgaricus (285N presented the best acidification rates. In addition to their fast acid production, strains 20FM and 285N produced exopolysaccharides. Based on these characteristics, strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N were selected and used as pure or mixed cultures in the manufacture of fermented milk. In mixed cultures, the Sc. thermophilus/Lb. bulgaricus association was positive for all combination tested. The combination of strain 285N with strain 2FM or 20FM had a significant effect on acid production by Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain (285N. These bacterial associations also affected the rheological properties of fermented milk samples. Strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N presented interesting biotechnological profiles and may influence the quality of fermented milk if they are used in association as starters in yoghurt manufacture.

Zambou Ngoufack Francois

2007-01-01

37

Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased. PMID:24741179

Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

2014-04-01

38

Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

2009-01-01

39

Improved strategies for on-farm production of starter cultures for conservation of herbage biomass  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ensiling with the aid of bacteria is a widely applied method for the conservation of forage material in agronomy. About 50 % of agronomists use such starter cultures to im-prove their silage quality. Nevertheless, commercially available preparations of ensiling bacteria are relatively expensive (up to 2.50 €/ton silage). Furthermore, the composition of ingredients in these commercial products and consequently their effectiveness often vary. Therefore many farmers are interested in cheaper a...

Idler, Christine; Klocke, Michael

2006-01-01

40

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany), to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised mi...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany), to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control ...

2011-01-01

42

Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signi?cance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

AldoCorsetti

2012-07-01

43

The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (?g kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

M. Mohsenzadeh

2008-01-01

44

A novel Lactobacillus pentosus-paired starter culture for Spanish-style green olive fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new starter culture consisting of two Lactobacillus pentosus strains was developed and successfully used for Spanish-style green olive fermentations in an industrial study. The inoculum, consisting of L. pentosus LP RJL2 and LP RJL3 strains, was inoculated in 10,000 kg glass fiber containers at 10? CFU/ml and 10? CFU/ml, final concentration respectively, in five different olive processing plants in the south of Spain. As a control, uninoculated fermentors were also used. In all inoculated fermentors, the paired starter rapidly colonized the brines to dominate the natural microbiota and persisted throughout fermentation. A decline in pH to reach about 5.0 was achieved in the first 15-20 days, reaching about 4.0 at the end of the process. The lactic acid concentration in brines increased rapidly in the first 20 days of fermentation (0.3-0.4 g/100 ml) to give values higher than 0.8 g/100 ml at the end of the process. In contrast, increasing lactic acid concentration was slower in uninoculated than in the inoculated brines, and the final concentrations were lower. Although reaching similar values at the end of the process, the decline in pH in uninoculated fermentors was slower than in the inoculated ones. These results show the efficacy of the new starter culture to control the lactic acid fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. PMID:22265309

Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

2012-05-01

45

Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Desenvolvimento e avaliação sensorial de iogurte de soja. Foram elaborados iogurtes através da fermentação de leite de soja, usando uma cultura mista de Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. O leite de soja com 9(0) Brix foi homogeinizado sob pressão (17 MPa) e fermentado com e sem [...] adição de sacarose (2,0 e 2,5 g por 100 g) por 4, 5, 6 e 7 horas. Os iogurtes obtidos foram analisados em relação as características sensoriais, pH, acidez titulável, fitatos e oligossacarídeos. Foi obtido um iogurte com ótimas qualidades sensoriais, a partir do leite de soja homogeinizado, com adição de 2% de sacarose e fermentado por 6 h. Os microrganismos utilizados não produziram fitases e a-galactosidases e, consequentemente, os teores de a-galactosídeos e de fitatos não foram alterados pelo processamento Abstract in english Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 [...] and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and a-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the process

C . S, Fávaro Trindade; S. C, Terzi; L.C, Trugo; R. C, Della Modesta; S, Couri.

46

Additives in yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

Milna Tudor

2008-02-01

47

Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

Uduak G. AKPAN

2007-09-01

48

Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR–DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDN...

Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M. H.; Samson, R. A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M. J. R.

2012-01-01

49

Effect of starter culture and turmeric on physico-chemical quality of carabeef pastirma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carabeef samples were sliced, pressed, cured and divided into 6 groups. Starter cultures (Micrococcus varians M483 (MV), Staphylococcus carnosus (SC), Lactobacillus sakei (LS), M. varians M483+ Lb. sakei and Staph. carnosus + Lb. sakei) were inoculated at the dose of 106–07cfu/g and stored at 10 ± 1°C for 7 days. Uninoculated samples were maintained as control. Samples were then divided into 2 treatment groups. Samples of treatment 1 (T1) were smeared with a paste of turmeric followed by ...

Maurya, P.; Borpuzari, R. N.; Nath, D. R.; Nath, N. C.

2010-01-01

50

A novel Lactobacillus pentosus-paired starter culture for Spanish-style green olivefermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new starter culture consisting of two Lactobacillus pentosus strains was developed and successfully used for Spanish-style green olive fermentations in an industrial study. The inoculum, consisting of L.pentosus LP RJL2 and LP RJL3 strains, was inoculated in 10,000kg glass fiber containers at 10 6CFU/ml and 10 5CFU/ml, final concentration respectively, in five different olive processing plants in the south of Spain. As a control, uninoculated fermentors were also used. In all inoculated fer...

Ruiz-barba, Jose? Luis; Jime?nez Di?az, Rufino

2012-01-01

51

Starter cultures and cattle feed manipulation enhance conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in Cheddar cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a fatty acid (FA) that provides several health benefits to humans. The feeding of fish oil-supplemented diets to dairy cows has been extensively studied as a means to improve the CLA content in milk. Several studies have also been conducted on the ability of many microorganisms to produce CLA by utilizing substrates containing linoleic acid. In the present study, the dietary manipulated milk was used in combination with the CLA-producing culture to manufacture Cheddar cheese. The two diets fed to cattle were control and treatment diets to obtain control and treatment milk, respectively. The treatment diet containing fish oil (0.75% of dry matter) was fed to 32 dairy cows grouped in a pen for 18 d to increase the total CLA content in milk. Treatment milk had a CLA content of 1.60 g/100g of FA compared with 0.58 g/100g of FA in control milk obtained by feeding the control diet. A 2 × 2 factorial design with 3 replicates was used to test the combined effect of the CLA-producing starter culture of Lactococcus lactis (CI4b) versus a commercial CLA nonproducing cheese starter as the control culture, and type of milk (control vs. treatment milk) on CLA content in Cheddar cheese. Chemical composition (moisture, salt, fat, and protein) was not affected by the type of culture used. However, the age of the cheese affected the sensory properties and microbiological counts in the different treatments. Ripening with the CI4b culture was found to be effective in further enhancing the CLA content. The CI4b cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk contained 1.09 and 2.41 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 1 mo of ripening, which increased to 1.44 and 2.61 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA after 6 mo of ripening, respectively. The use of treatment milk resulted in an increase in the CLA isomers (trans-7,cis-9+cis-9,trans-11, trans-9,cis-11+cis-10,trans-12, trans-10,cis-12, cis-9,cis-11, trans-11,cis-13, cis-11,cis-13, trans-11,trans-13, and trans-9,trans-11). The CI4b culture specifically increased cis-11,cis-13 and trans-10,cis-12 isomers in cheese. The total CLA content in cheese was significantly higher when the CI4b culture was used compared with CLA nonproducing culture cheeses made from control milk and treatment milk after 1 mo [1.09 and 2.14 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] and 6 mo [0.99 and 2.05 (±0.18) g of total CLA/100g of FA] of ripening, respectively. The results indicated that the combination of a CLA-producing starter culture and milk from cattle fed fish oil-supplemented diets (0.99 g of CLA/100g of FA) could enhance levels of total CLA in Cheddar cheese by up to 2.6 times compared with cheese made from control milk with CLA nonproducing starter culture (2.61 g of CLA/100g of FA) after 6 mo. PMID:23403190

Mohan, M S; Anand, S; Kalscheur, K F; Hassan, A N; Hippen, A R

2013-04-01

52

Starter culture selection for making chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-07-15

53

Interaction of Bifidobacterium and Yoghurt Mixed Culture with Salmonella During Associated Cultures Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antimicrobial activity of four strains of Bifidobacterium toward Salmonella ssp. during associated cultures growth was investigated in skim milk medium. All strains showed different degrees of antagonistic action toward the indicator strain. The highest degree of inhibition (96%) was obtained with Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium longum (92%). The combination effect of yogurt mixed culture with bifidobacterial strains (di-associated culture) toward ...

Cheikhyoussef, A.; Pogori, N.; Tian, F. W.; Chen, W.; Zhang, H.

2008-01-01

54

Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Starter Cultures on the Soaking Time and Quality of “Ofada” Rice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Freshly harvested paddy rice was randomly obtained from three different farms in “Ofada” town, Ogun State, Nigeria and processed according to the traditional parboiling method. The rice was inoculated singly with cultures of Lactobacillus amylophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae which were isolated from the soak-water. In order to assess the effect of starter cultures on the soaking time of the rice, the pH and titratable acidity were deter...

Oluwafunmilayo Adeniran; Olusegun Atanda; Mojisola Edema; Olusola Oyewol

2012-01-01

55

Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-09-30

56

Synthesis of carotenoids by Rhodotorula rubra GED8 co-cultured with yogurt starter cultures in whey ultrafiltrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two cultures, a yeast ( Rhodorula rubra GED8) and a yogurt starter ( Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2-11+ Streptococcus thermophilus 15HA), were selected for associated growth in whey ultrafiltrate (WU) and active synthesis of carotenoids. In associated cultivation with the yogurt culture L bulgaricus 2-11+S. thermophilus 15HA under intensive aeration (1.3 l(-1)min(-1) air-flow rate) in WU (45 g lactose l(-1)), initial pH 5.5, 30 degrees C, the lactose-negative strain R. rubra GED8 synthesized large amounts of carotenoids (13.09 mg l(-1 )culture fluid). The carotenoid yield was approximately two-fold higher in association with a mixed yogurt culture than in association with pure yogurt bacteria. The major carotenoid pigments comprising the total carotenoids were beta-carotene (50%), torulene (12.3%) and torularhodin (35.2%). Carotenoids with a high beta-carotene content were produced by the microbial association 36 h earlier than by Rhodotorula yeast species. No significant differences were notd in the ratio between the pigments synthesized by R. rubra GED8+ L. bulgaricus 2-11, R. rubra GED8+ S. thermophilus 15HA, and R.rubra GED8+yogurt culture, despite the fact that the total carotenoid concentrations were lower in the mixed cultures with pure yogurt bacteria. PMID:14997360

Simova, E D; Frengova, G I; Beshkova, D M

2004-03-01

57

Genome Sequences of Two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strains Isolated from Danish Dairy Starter Cultures  

Science.gov (United States)

The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters.

Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; S?rensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardo, Y.

2014-01-01

58

Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

Biljana Radeljevi?

2013-03-01

59

Effect of the use of curing salts and of a starter culture on the sensory and microbiological characteristics of homemade salamis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Homemade salamis may have their food safety guaranteed by means of the addition of curing salt and starter cultures, without loosing their traditional manufacturing recipes brought to Brazil by the Italian immigration in the early 20th century. In this work, the influence of curing salt and of a starter culture, composed of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus, over the sensory and microbiological characteristics of Italian type salamis, containing 3% lactose and 0.5% saccharose, was evaluated. T...

Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Patrícia Bonat Pianovsky

2005-01-01

60

Selection of staphylococci strains isolated from a Portuguese traditional fermented/dry sausage for potential use as starter cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to evaluate its potential use as starter cultures, 104 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained from sausages and different sampling environment points in workshops A and B, at southern region of Portugal. PCR amplification was carried out to confirm genus and species allocation. From workshop A, 47 isolates were staphylococci, the majority belonging to the specie S. equorum, while from workshop B, of the 57 isolates identified as staphylococci, most were S. xilosus. The genetic...

Carvalho, L.; Fernandes, M. J.; Fernandes, H.; Semedo-lemsaddek, T.; Elias, M.; Barreto, A. S.; Fraqueza, M. J.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, ...

2011-01-01

62

Effects of pure starter cultures on physico-chemical and sensory quality of dry fermented Chinese-style sausage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dry fermented Chinese-style sausages prepared in laboratory inoculating with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC 33316, Staphylococcus xylosus-12 and without starter culture randomly sampled at 0, 3, 10, and 24 days of ripening were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory qualities. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in moisture content of sausage during ripening was observed, whereas other major chemical parameters remained unchanged. The microbial fermentatio...

Rai, Krishna P.; Zhang, Chunhui; Xia, Wen Shui

2010-01-01

63

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

2012-09-01

64

EFFECT OF SELECTED DAIRY STARTER CULTURES ON MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF VENISON (Dama dama NITRITE-FREE DRY-CURED SAUSAGES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the use of selected lactic acid bacteria starter culture of dairy origin in the production of nitrite-free low-acid fermented venison (Dama dama sausage (Salame di daino produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy, and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame di daino was obtained with two different processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial counts of safety indicators were lower in salami made with the addition of starter cultures. Pathogens after the first week of ripening were only detected from salami made without the addition of starter cultures. Control salami were paler and harder, whereas those made with the addition of starter cultures slightly saltier, juicier and in general more acceptable. Selected dairy-origin starter (SDS cultures did prevent the growth of safety indicators, greatly reduced the rate of isolation of pathogens and increased the acceptability of full-ripened salami.

B. Cenci Goga

2011-08-01

65

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures. PMID:24290655

Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

2014-04-01

66

Ultrastructure of biofilms formed on barley kernels during malting with and without starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. In the malting process, dry barley kernels are steeped in water which initiates germination and invigorates microbial growth on the kernels. In the present study, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to visualize the microbial community within the tissues of barley kernels before and after the steeping, with and without Lactobacillus plantarum E76 added as a starter culture. The results show that the community of 10(8)cfu g(-1) on dry, stored barley kernels increased 5-10 fold during the steeping forming a dense biofilm of bacteria and fungi with slimy exopolymeric matrix. FESEM revealed that crevices between the outer epidermis and the testa of sound barley kernels were heavily colonized with microbes, whereas there were only few microbes on the outer surface of the husks, in the aleurone layer or in the endosperm underneath an intact testa layer. The microbes frequently possessed appendages forming bridging them to the kernel and the individual microbial cells to each other. The L. plantarum added to the steeping water reduced the amount of exopolymeric matrix in the biofilm and improved the wort filterability. PMID:19376468

Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Laitila, Arja

2009-06-01

67

Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Changes Induced by Bacillus subtilis (SDA3) During Starter Culture Fermentation of Soybean into Condiment (Soy-Daddawa)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In an attempt to upgrade the traditional fermentation technology of soybean into daddawa, the effect of fermentation temperature on the biochemical and organoleptic properties of soy-daddawa produced by starter culture was studied. Bacillus subtilis SDA3 previously selected as a good starter for soy-daddawa production was used to ferment sterile dehulled cooked soybeans at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for 72 h. The viable cell counts of B.subtilis SDA3 increased throughout the 72 ...

Omafuvbe, B. O.

2008-01-01

68

Applicability of bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus pentosus 31-1 as a novel functional starter culture or coculture for fermented sausage manufacture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The technological feasibility of producing fermented sausages using the bacteriocin-producing Lactobacillus pentosus 31-1, isolated from a traditional Chinese fermented meat product (Xuanwei ham), was evaluated. Strain 31-1 was used both as a single starter and in coculture for manufacture of fermented sausages. The microbiological and physicochemical properties (color, texture, and sensory quality) and the production of bacteriocin during ripening of these products were compared with those characteristics of sausages produced with a commercial meat starter. Challenge tests were performed using Listeria innocua or Staphylococcus aureus as target strains. The addition of L. pentosus 31-1 can significantly reduce L. innocua and S. aureus populations during all ripening phases. Free amino acid and free fatty acid analysis suggested that strain 31-1 might have proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The use of this strain resulted in a final product with a brighter surface and better texture and sensory profiles. A maximum bacteriocin (pentocin 31-1) concentration of 640 AU/g was detected in homogenized sausages with added L. pentosus 31-1. The bacteriocin-producing strain L. pentosus 31-1 could be used as a novel functional starter culture or coculture for sausage fermentation. PMID:20132674

Liu, Guorong; Griffiths, Mansel W; Shang, Nan; Chen, Shangwu; Li, Pinglan

2010-02-01

69

Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2014-08-01

70

Effect of selected dairy starter cultures on microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of swine and venison (Dama dama) nitrite-free dry-cured sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was the evaluation of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture of dairy origin in the production of nitrite-free low-acid fermented venison (Dama dama) sausage (salame di daino) produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy), and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame di daino was obtained with two different processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial counts of Enterobacteriaceae, coliform organisms and Pseudomonas spp. were lower in salami made with the addition of starter cultures. Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp, and Listeria monocytogenes after the first week of ripening were only detected from control salami. Control salami were paler and harder, whereas those made with the addition of starter cultures were slightly saltier, juicier and in general more acceptable. Selected dairy-origin starter (SDS) cultures did prevent the growth of both indicators of food safety and of process hygiene and increased the acceptability of full-ripened salami. PMID:22032919

Cenci-Goga, B T; Rossitto, P V; Sechi, P; Parmegiani, S; Cambiotti, V; Cullor, J S

2012-03-01

71

Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results were obtained using the nutritive media as a culture carrier rather than the freeze-dried starter.En este trabajo se empleo el inóculo Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 liofilizado y en caldo nutritivo para preparación de aceitunas "Azeiteira" tipo verde, estilo sevillano. En las salmueras inoculadas se observó una acidificación más rápida y reducción del periodo de supervivencia de las Enterobacteriaceae, especialmente cuando se aplicó el inóculo en caldo nutritivo.

Peres, Cidália

2008-09-01

72

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

2012-01-01

73

A Strategy for Rotation of Different Bacteriophage Defenses in a Lactococcal Single-Strain Starter Culture System †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new strategy for starter culture rotations was developed for a series of phage-resistant clones genetically derived from a single strain of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis. Phage-resistant derivatives carrying different defense systems were constructed via conjugation with various plasmids encoding abortive infection (Abi/Hsp) and/or restriction and modification (R/M) systems of different specificity. The plasmids included pTR2030 (Hsp+ R+/M+), pTN20 (Abi+ R+/M+), pTRK11 (R+/M+), and pTRK6...

Sing, Wesley D.; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

1993-01-01

74

Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became dominant in Daqu, and next, to assess the impact of Bacillus sp. on Daqu and its derived products. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to study the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation. Throughout the incubation, 67 presumptive Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained, 52 of which were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identified organisms belonged to 8 Bacillus species: B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. anthracis. A primer set specific for Bacillus and related genera was used in a selective PCR study, followed by a nested DGGE PCR targeting the V9 region of the 16S rDNA. Species identified from the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were related to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, B. benzoevorans, and B. foraminis. The predominant species was found to be B. licheniformis. Certain B. licheniformis strains exhibited potent antimicrobial activities. The greatest species diversity occurred at the Liangmei stage of Daqu incubation. To date, we lack sufficient knowledge of Bacillus distribution in Daqu. Elucidating the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation would enable the impact of Bacillus on Daqu to be accessed, and the quality and stabilization of Daqu-derived products to be optimized. PMID:23648849

Yan, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Han, Bei-Zhong; Han, Jian-Shu; Nout, M J Robert; Chen, Jing-Yu

2013-05-01

75

Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degradation kinetics of pesticides is first order, the rate constant of degradation and the half live period of the pesticides were calculated. The results indicated that degradation of the pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing were enhanced by one or both starters, except for malathion, and the two commercial DVS starters had different influences on the degradation kinetics of the pesticides.

LI-YING BO

2011-03-01

76

Effect of autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese on physicochemical, microbiological and volatile compound profiles and sensorial attributes of sucuk, a Turkish dry-fermented sausage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of adding autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese, on the physicochemical parameters and microbial counts of sucuk was investigated during the ripening period. SPME-GC/MS was used in volatile compound analysis and a trained group of panelists carried out sensory analysis of the final product. After preliminary screening, three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, which possess desirable technological properties, were used to prepare three starter cultures: LBP7, LBP10 and LBP14. The addition of LBP7 and LBP14 starter cultures had a significant effect (Pwater activity during the ripening of sausages was not affected by the various starters. The texture profiles of all sausages were similar except for LBP10, which showed lower hardness and gumminess during ripening. Under the conditions of the study, volatile compounds were mainly from spices, and no marked differences were found among inoculated sausages. However, sensory evaluation revealed that most of the sensory attributes were scored higher for inoculated sausages than for the control ones. Therefore, LBP7 and LBP14 could be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of sucuk. PMID:24553492

Kargozari, Mina; Moini, Sohrab; Akhondzadeh Basti, Afshin; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Gandomi, Hassan; Revilla Martin, Isabel; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

2014-05-01

77

Comparative metabolic profiling to investigate the contribution of O. oeni MLF starter cultures to red wine composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research work we investigated changes in volatile aroma composition associated with four commercial Oenococcus oeni malolactic fermentation (MLF) starter cultures in South African Shiraz and Pinotage red wines. A control wine in which MLF was suppressed was included. The MLF progress was monitored by use of infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatographic analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to evaluate the volatile aroma composition and organic acid profiles, respectively. Significant strain-specific variations were observed in the degradation of citric acid and production of lactic acid during MLF. Subsequently, compounds directly and indirectly resulting from citric acid metabolism, namely diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and ethyl lactate, were also affected depending on the bacterial strain used for MLF. Bacterial metabolic activity increased concentrations of the higher alcohols, fatty acids, and total esters, with a larger increase in ethyl esters than in acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl propionate concentrations were increased by MLF. In contrast, levels of hexyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl acetate were reduced or remained unchanged, depending on the strain and cultivar evaluated. Formation of ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-methylbutryate, and ethyl isovalerate was related to specific bacterial strains used, indicating possible differences in esterase activity. A strain-specific tendency to reduce total aldehyde concentrations was found at the completion of MLF, although further investigation is needed in this regard. This study provided insight into metabolism in O. oeni starter cultures during MLF in red wine. PMID:22120647

Malherbe, Sulette; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; du Toit, Maret

2012-03-01

78

Production of Italian Dry Salami: Effect of Starter Culture and Chemical Acidulation on Staphylococcal Growth in Salami Under Commercial Manufacturing Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of starter culture and chemical acidulation on the growth and enterotoxigenesis of Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 in Italian dry salami under commercial manufacturing conditions was studied. The experimental design included two levels of S. aureus (104 and 105/g), three levels of starter culture (0, 105, and 106/g), three levels of initial pH (pH0) (6.1, 5.5, and 4.8), two manufacturing plants, and three replications. S. aureus growth in the salami was affected significantly (P <...

Metaxopoulos, J.; Genigeorgis, C.; Fanelli, M. J.; Franti, C.; Cosma, E.

1981-01-01

79

Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus), and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp) firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition imp...

2001-01-01

80

Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

DANIELA PARASCHIV

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico / Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390). Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos. Abstract in english In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the g [...] rowth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390). Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

Maristela da Silva do, Nascimento; Izildinha, Moreno; Arnaldo Yoshiteru, Kuaye.

82

Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus starter cultures as a tool for microflora management in malting and for enhancement of malt processability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076 (E76) and Pediococcus pentosaceus VTT E-90390 (E390) starter cultures were added to the steeping water of normal malting barley in order to balance the microbial community and to enhance malt processability. In this study, we also investigated the effects of lactic acid-acidified MRS-spent medium (MRS-LA) on malting performance. Malting trials with five different two-row barley varieties were carried out in 25 kg pilot scale. The starter cultures promoted yeast growth during malting and restricted the growth of harmful bacteria and Fusarium fungi. Furthermore, they had positive effects on malt characteristics. Reduction in wort viscosity and beta-glucan content and enhanced xylanase and microbial beta-glucanase activities were observed. Starter cultures notably improved lautering performance. Some of the beneficial effects were due to the lactic acid and low pH, as similar effects were obtained with MRS-LA. Starter cultures offer a tool for tailoring of malt properties. PMID:16719505

Laitila, Arja; Sweins, Hannele; Vilpola, Arvi; Kotaviita, Erja; Olkku, Juhani; Home, Silja; Haikara, Auli

2006-05-31

83

The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Malolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. RESULTS: Descriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines. These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. CONCLUSION: Although the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23427009

Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret; Tredoux, Andreas; Muller, Nina; Naes, Tormod; Nieuwoudt, Hélène

2013-02-20

84

Exo-Polysaccharide Production of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and its Effects on Physical Properties of Some Traditional and Industrial Yoghurt Samples of Isfahan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exo-polysaccharide (EPS production by some lactic acid bacteria (starter during fermentation could affect the physical properties of yoghurt. In this study, at first EPS content and its effects on physical properties of three traditional (S1, S2 and G and one industrial (I yoghurt samples were studied. The results showed that there was significant differences in fat content, solid non-fat content, pH, EPS content, viscosity, elasticity and sensitivity to syneresis among samples. Statistical analysis based on a completely randomized design revealed that a significant correlation exists between EPS content and viscosity as well as resistance to syneresis of the samples. Fat content and solid non-fat content of the samples showed no correlation with physical properties of the samples. In the second phase of the study, to remove effects of raw milk composition and to be able to attribute the results to the EPS producing activity of the starter, skim milk was used to produce yoghurt samples using yoghurt samples tested in the first stage only as sources of starter. In these yoghurt samples, there were significant differences between amount of EPS and physical properties of yoghurts. There was also a significant correlation between EPS content and physical properties of each sample.

M SH.Zeinodin

2009-07-01

85

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.

2010-01-01

86

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

87

Method for the specific simultaneous identification and detection of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented milks and starter cultures for fermented milks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The invention relates to a method for the specific simultaneous identification and detection of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented milks and starter cultures for fermented milks. The method can be used for the rapid and simultaneous detection and identification of different species of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. acidophilus) in mixed cultures with B. lactis, species usually found in yogurt and fermented milks containing probiotics. The ...

Tabasco Rentero, Raquel; Paarup, Torsten; Janer Otero, Carolina; Pela?ez Marti?nez, Mari?a Carmen; Requena Rolani?a, Mari?a Teresa

2008-01-01

88

The Effect of Starter Cultures on the Portuguese Traditional Sausage “Paio do Alentejo” in Terms of Its Sensory and Textural Characteristics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Profile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Paio do Alentejo” is a Portuguese dry-cured sausage, made with meat from the Alentejano pig breed. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of starter cultures on the quality of the sausage, mainly with regard to its sensory properties, rheological characteristics and PAH profile. Three batches of the product were examined: S1-inoculated with a commercial starter comprising Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts; S2-inoculated with a starter comprising Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus; C-the control batch, was not inoculated. A sensory panel of 12 experts analysed samples in accordance with a descriptive analysis using a structured scale. A Texture Profile Analysis and 16 EPA priority PAHs for dry fermented sausages were performed. Both inoculated batches were well received by the judges, no significant differences being noted between them. The use of S2 led to a slight improvement in terms of cohesiveness. However, the use of starter cultures was not found to influence PAH content.

Elias M.

2014-03-01

89

Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results ...

Pintado, Cristina; Brito, Dulce; Catulo, Luis; Peres, Cida?lia

2008-01-01

90

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria / Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tem-se dado muita atenção à utilização de Bifidobacterium sp. em iogurtes devido às suas excelentes propriedades terapêuticas e nutricionais. Entretanto, é recomendado que, baseado em testes in vitro e em humanos, cada produto comercial indique qual a quantidade mínima diária recomendada de ingestão [...] para que se obtenha os benefícios desejados à saúde. Além da inerente dificuldade do crescimento de Bifidobacterium sp em leite, há uma necessidade de padronização de um método de contagem confiável de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das bactérias do iogurte. Este trabalho avaliou o uso dos meios M-MRS, MRS-NNLP e RCPB pH5, visando a contagem do número de células de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 na presença de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus após a fermentação do iogurte. O meio M-MRS não foi seletivo, apresentando crescimento de L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O meio MRS-NNLP apresentou boa seletividade para B. animalis Bb12, apesar de uma leve redução no número de células ter sido verificada quando comparado ao meio padrão MRS em cultura pura. O meio MRS-NNLP foi considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de B. animalis Bb12 porque a diferença encontrada entre as contagens em cultura pura foi bastante pequena. O meio RCPB pH5 apresentou crescimento diferencial de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 em relação às bactérias do iogurte e uma recuperação de células igual ao meio padrão MRS, sendo considerado o melhor meio de cultura deste estudo para a contagem de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das culturas do iogurte. Abstract in english Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer [...] health benefit(s) based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the use of the media M-MRS, MRS-NNLP and RCPB pH5 aimed at counting the number of Bifidobacterium animalis subesp. lactis in the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus after yoghurt fermentation. The M-MRS medium was not selective, allowing for the growth of L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. MRS-NNLP medium presented a good selectivity for B. animalis Bb12 with a slight reduction in the cell count of this microrganism when compared it to the standard MRS medium in pure culture. MRS-NNLP medium was considered a good option to enumerate B. animalis Bb12 although the reduction found in pure culture due to the low difference between the counts. The medium RCPB pH5 presented differentiated growth of B. animalis Bb12 in relation to the yoghurt bacteria and a cell recovery equal to that of the standard MRS, being considered the best option to enumerate Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria.

Moriya, Juliana; Fachin, Luciano; Gândara, Ana Lourdes Neves; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada.

91

An optimized procedure for the enological selection of non-Saccharomyces starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The apiculate yeasts are the species predominating the first stage of grape must alcoholic fermentation and are important for the production of desired volatile compounds. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a protocol for the enological selection of non-Saccharomyces strains directly isolated from a natural must fermentation during the tumultuous phase. At this scope, fifty Hanseniaspora uvarum isolates were characterized at strain level by employing a new combined PCR-based approach. One isolate representative of each identified strain was used in fermentation assays to assess strain-specific enological properties. The chemical analysis indicated that all the analyzed strains were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide, whereas they showed fructophilic character and high glycerol production. Analysis of volatile compounds indicated that one strain could positively affect, during the alcoholic fermentation process, the taste and flavour of alcoholic beverages. The statistical evaluation of obtained results indicated that the selected autochthonous H. uvarum strain possessed physiological and technological properties which satisfy the criteria indicated for non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts selection. Our data suggest that the described protocol could be advantageously applied for the selection of non-Saccharomyces strains suitable for the formulation of mixed or sequential starters together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:20571862

De Benedictis, Maria; Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Tristezza, Mariana; Tufariello, Maria; Grieco, Francesco

2011-02-01

92

Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Starter Cultures on the Soaking Time and Quality of “Ofada” Rice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Freshly harvested paddy rice was randomly obtained from three different farms in “Ofada” town, Ogun State, Nigeria and processed according to the traditional parboiling method. The rice was inoculated singly with cultures of Lactobacillus amylophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae which were isolated from the soak-water. In order to assess the effect of starter cultures on the soaking time of the rice, the pH and titratable acidity were determined at 12 h interval. The chemical composition and the sensory quality of the rice were also determined at the end of the soaking period while uninoculated rice served as control. The chemical composition of the rice as well as the pH and TTA of the soak-water were significantly (p < 0.05 different from the control while the processing time was shortened to 48 h. The rice inoculated with Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisae had the highest protein content and best sensory attributes.

Olusola Oyewol

2012-02-01

93

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

94

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, A ND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOY BASED GOUDA CHEESE ANALOG MA DE FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF FA T, SODIUM CITRATE AND VARIOUS CHEESE STARTER CULTURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. Thefree fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

Abu Amar

2012-11-01

95

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovensk? Bryndza Ovine Cheese  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements.

Dzunkova, Maria; Moya, Andres; Tomaska, Martin; Kolosta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

2014-01-01

96

The influence of starter cultures on texture and sensory properties of “Paio”, a Portuguese dry-cured sausage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A traditional Portuguese dry-cured sausage called “Paio” was obtained using meat from Alentejano pig breed female 24 month aged in a traditional meat plant. For this research work three batches were inoculated. One of them was inoculated with a commercial starter composed by Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts (designed S1); another with a starter composed by Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus (designed S2) and another one considered as the control sample was not ino...

2011-01-01

97

The influence of starter cultures on texture and sensorial properties of “Paio”, a Portuguese dry-cured sausage.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A traditional Portuguese dry-cured sausage called “Paio” was obtained using meat from Alentejano pig breed female 24 month aged in a traditional meat plant. For this research work three batches were inoculated. One of them was inoculated with a commercial starter composed by Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts (designed S1); another with a starter composed by Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus (designed S2) and another one considered as the control sample was not ino...

2011-01-01

98

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos / Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como áci [...] do lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos. Abstract in english Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to i [...] nhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

99

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

AngeloSisto

2012-05-01

100

Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amounts and pH values; acidifying ability; metabolism (arginin deamination, esculin hydrolysis, acetoin production; survival at low pH and in presence of bile salts; hydrophobic properties; antibiotic resistance. After laboratory assays and strain selection through a multivariate analyses, it was highlighted that B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis represent a good compromise as potential functional starter cultures, as B. animalis subp. lactis showed a high growth index at pH 5 and good values at 25?C and 30?C, as well as the minimal viability loss at pH 2.5. B. longum subsp. infantis DSMZ 20088 was the best microorganism for its growth index in presence of 6.5% of salt added and at 25?C and 30?C.

Angela Pacifico

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Selection of Starter Culture for Yogurt Preparation and its Antibacterial Activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on the symbiotic relationship of six combinations of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus for the preparation of yogurt in relation to its anti-microbial activity were carried out. The ratio 2:1 of L. bulgaricus: S. thermophillus in the inoculum was found best for the preparation of prime quality yogurt with maximum antibacterial activity. The ratio of the two cultures in the final product was 1:1. The yogurt samples were evaluated for curdling...

Mujeeb ur Rahman; Shereen Gul; Farooqi, Wasim A.

1999-01-01

102

Selection of Starter Culture for Yogurt Preparation and its Antibacterial Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on the symbiotic relationship of six combinations of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus for the preparation of yogurt in relation to its anti-microbial activity were carried out. The ratio 2:1 of L. bulgaricus: S. thermophillus in the inoculum was found best for the preparation of prime quality yogurt with maximum antibacterial activity. The ratio of the two cultures in the final product was 1:1. The yogurt samples were evaluated for curdling time, acidity, diacetyl acetoin contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the best product was comparable in 200 mcg/ml with 100 mcg/ml of Kanamycin and Ampiclox

Mujeeb ur Rahman

1999-01-01

103

Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus amylovorus starter on traditional fermentation of sorghum flour (variety dabar. Results obtained indicated that fermentation time was reduced from 19-6 h albeit the final pH was reduced to 3.47. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the previous starter further reduced sorghum fermentation time to only 4 h and the final pH was 3.75.

Asmahan A. Ali

2009-01-01

104

Beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharide production by Rhodotorula rubra GED8 grown with a yogurt starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The underlying method for obtaining a beta-carotene-rich carotenoid-protein preparation and exopolysaccharides is the associated cultivation of the carotenoid-synthesizing lactose-negative yeast strain Rhodotorula rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter culture (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 2-11 + Streptococcus thermophilus 15HA) in whey ultrafiltrate (45 g lactose/l) with a maximum carotenoid yield of 13.37 mg/l culture fluid on the 4.5th day. The chemical composition of the carotenoid-protein preparation has been identified. The respective carotenoid and protein content is 497.4 microg/g dry cells and 50.3% per dry weight, respectively. An important characteristic of the carotenoid composition is the high percentage (51.1%) of beta-carotene (a carotenoid pigment with the highest provitamin A activity) as compared to 12.9% and 33.7%, respectively, for the other two individual pigments--torulene and torularhodin. Exopolysaccharides (12.8 g/l) synthesized by the yeast and lactic acid cultures, identified as acid biopolymers containing 7.2% glucuronic acid, were isolated in the cell-free supernatant. Mannose, produced exclusively by the yeast, predominated in the neutral carbohydrate biopolymer component (76%). The mixed cultivation of R. rubra GED8 with the yogurt starter (L. bulgaricus 2-11 + S. thermophilus 15HA) in ultrafiltrate under conditions of intracellular production of maximum amount of carotenoids and exopolysaccharides synthesis enables combined utilization of the culture fluid from the fermentation process. PMID:16989319

Frengova, Ginka I; Simova, Emilina D; Beshkova, Dora M

2006-01-01

105

The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determined lead to prevent or inhibit the growth of all pathogens. These factors clearly showed the inhibition effect of lactic acid bacteria against pathogens. The count of all pathogenic organisms decreased sharply with fermentation time until it disappeared completely after 3 days. This shows the importance of the consumption of fermented milks. Cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria shows clearly an inhibitory activity against all pathogenic organisms used. But, non-boiled extract was highly active than those of boiled ones. This means that, lactic acid bacteria produced thermolabile substances inhibit or prevent the growth of pathogens. Finally all these observations show the hygienic and nutritional importance of the consumption of fermented milks.

Shady, T. S. M

1999-01-01

106

Physico-chemical characteristics and free fatty acid composition of dry fermented mutton sausages as affected by the use of various combinations of starter cultures and spices.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbiological, physico-chemical and free fatty acid composition of dry fermented mutton sausages were determined during ripening and storage. Three sausage mixtures (starter culture [SC], SC and black pepper [SC+BP] and SC, BP and cumin [SC+BP+C]) were compared with a control (CO). In general, the lactic acid bacteria populations in the SC+BP increased significantly to 9 log CFU/g and were higher than the CO (8 log CFU/g) (P0.05). PMID:21458169

Zhao, Lihua; Jin, Ye; Ma, Changwei; Song, Huanlu; Li, Hui; Wang, Zhenyu; Xiao, Shan

2011-08-01

107

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (? = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

Caroline Siefarth

2014-05-01

108

Identification of peptides in traditional and probiotic sheep milk yoghurt with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two sets of traditional Greek sheep milk yoghurt were produced: the first one (YC) using normal yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus !10.13 and Streptococcus thermophilus !10.7) and the second (PR) with the same normal culture mixed with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei DC412. YC and PR had similar physicochemical properties and proteolysis patterns throughout storage. Both products showed similar peptide profiles by RP-HPLC but quantitative differences were ob...

2007-01-01

109

CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO / STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO / FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o [...] desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho. Abstract in spanish RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesana [...] l, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The [...] quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

DIOFANOR, ACEVEDO; LUIS E, GUZMAN; AIDA, RODRIGUEZ.

110

Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

Ufuk Eren-Vapur

2012-12-01

111

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir / Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo [...] de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial via [...] bility during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

Flávia Daiana, Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo, Pimentel; Sandra, Garcia; Sandra Helena, Prudencio.

112

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas.

Flávia Daiana Montanuci

2012-12-01

113

Reduction of the degradation activity of umami-enhancing purinic ribonucleotide supplement in miso by the targeted suppression of acid phosphatases in the Aspergillus oryzae starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miso (fermented soybean paste) is a traditional Japanese fermented food, and is now used worldwide. The solid-state culture of filamentous fungus, Aspergillus oryzae, grown on rice is known as rice-koji, and is important as a starter for miso fermentation because of its prominent hydrolytic enzyme activities. Recently, commercial miso products have been supplemented with purinic ribonucleotides, such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) and guanine monophosphate, to enhance the characteristic umami taste of glutamate in miso. Because the purinic ribonucleotides are degraded by enzymes such as acid phosphatases in miso, heat inactivation is required prior to the addition of these flavorings. However, heat treatment is a costly process and reduces the quality of miso. Therefore, an approach to lower acid phosphatase activities in koji culture is necessary. Transcriptional analysis using an A. oryzae KBN8048 rice-koji culture showed that eight of the 13 acid phosphatase (aph) genes were significantly down-regulated by the addition of phosphoric acid in the preparation of the culture in a concentration-dependent manner, while aphC expression was markedly up-regulated under the same conditions. The eight down-regulated genes might be under the control of the functional counterpart of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional activator Pho4, which specifically regulates phosphatase genes in response to the ambient phosphate availability. However, the regulatory mechanism of aphC was not clear. The IMP dephosphorylation activities in rice-koji cultures of KBN8048 and the aphC deletion mutant (?aphC) were reduced by up to 30% and 70%, respectively, in cultures with phosphoric acid, while protease and amylase activity, which is important for miso fermentation, was minimally affected. The miso products fermented using the rice-koji cultures of KBN8048 and ?aphC prepared with phosphoric acid had reductions in IMP dephosphorylation activity of 80% and 90%, respectively, without any adverse effects on amylase and protease activities. Thus, preparing the A. oryzae rice-koji culture under phosphate-sufficient conditions preferentially produces a fermentation starter of miso exhibiting low purinic ribonucleotide dephosphorylation activity. Moreover, aphC is a potential breeding target to reduce purinic ribonucleotide degradation activity further in commercial miso products. PMID:23973834

Marui, Junichiro; Tada, Sawaki; Fukuoka, Mari; Wagu, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Yohei; Kitamoto, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Tatsuya; Hattori, Ryota; Suzuki, Satoshi; Kusumoto, Ken-Ichi

2013-09-01

114

Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Changes Induced by Bacillus subtilis (SDA3 During Starter Culture Fermentation of Soybean into Condiment (Soy-Daddawa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an attempt to upgrade the traditional fermentation technology of soybean into daddawa, the effect of fermentation temperature on the biochemical and organoleptic properties of soy-daddawa produced by starter culture was studied. Bacillus subtilis SDA3 previously selected as a good starter for soy-daddawa production was used to ferment sterile dehulled cooked soybeans at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for 72 h. The viable cell counts of B.subtilis SDA3 increased throughout the 72 h fermentation process at 25 to 35°C while the counts decreased after the 24th h at 40°C fermentation. pH value increased throughout the fermentation with a rather low increase in the fermentation at 25°C. Relative proteolytic activity increased with fermentation, attained a peak at 48 h and then dropped in fermentations at 30-40°C. Proteolytic activity which was not detected by the 12th h increased thereafter till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Free amino acid content increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 30-40°C while an initial drop was observed in the first 12 h with subsequent increase till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Alpha amylase activity increased, attained a peak at the 48 h and then dropped in 30 and 35°C fermentations. Alpha amylase activity increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 25°C while at 40°C, the activity attained a peak at the 24th h and then dropped. Fermentation at 35°C gave the highest levels of proteolytic and alpha amylase activities, pH and free amino acids in soybean inoculated with B. subtilis SDA3. Organoleptically, soybean fermented by B. subtilis SDA3 at 35°C produced the best quality soy-daddawa as judged by a panel of regular soy-daddawa consumers. Fermentation at 35°C was therefore chosen as the optimised temperature for the production of soy-daddawa by B. subtilis SDA3 starter culture.

B.O. Omafuvbe

2008-01-01

115

Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.

Shilpa Vij

2011-07-01

116

Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added to yoghurt with ratio of 4 and 6%. Chemical compositions such as pH value, titratable acidity, wheying off, ash, protein, lactose, total carbohydrate, total solid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl of the tested yoghurt with and without stabilizers were carried out using the official methods. The data concluded that the pH values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and decreased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. On the other hand, Titratable acidity values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and increased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. The Wheying off of the set yoghurt was significantly lower in the yoghurt containing inulin at 4, 6% and mucilage at 0.2% compared with control yoghurt. The reduction percentages in the wheying-off were 30, 58 and 50%, respectively compared to control. None of the stabilizers used in (p = 0.05 affect on the ash content of yoghurt However, a decrease in lactose content was observed with the increase in the storage period. There was a substantial decrease in lactose content from 2 to 0.78% on the 10th day of storage. The protein content of yoghurt treated with inulin 6%, mucilage 0.2% and control were significantly different (p = 0.05 and gave value of 4.56, 4.37 and 4.19%, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, mucilage and inulin are potential stabilizers to be used in yoghurt processing.

A.H. Zaghloul

2011-01-01

117

An evaluation of the effect of Bacillus cells and Bacillus spores in association with cowpea granules as starter cultures for the fermentation of African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Bentham) to 'ugba'.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on the improvement of the traditional production of 'ugba', a protein-rich fermented African oil bean seed product, were undertaken, by developing starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis cells and spores in association with cowpea granules. The viability of the cells in association remained stable at 94.5% for 6 months at 30 degrees C and for up to 10 months at 4 degrees C while the viability of the spores in association remained stable at ca. 96% for up to 10 months at both 4 and 30 degrees C. The starter cultures resulted in high increases in protease activity from ca 2.8 mg N/min to about 51.6 +/- 0.4 mg N/min in 48 h and a corresponding increase in amino-nitrogen content of ca 2.0 +/- 0.2 mg N 100 g dry matter (DM) to ca 18.5 +/- 0.3 mg N/100 g (DM) during the same period. Changes in the protease activity of the natural process were gradual and increased from 3.0 mg N/min to 38.0 +/- 0.8 mg N/min after 5 days of fermentation. The maximum amino nitrogen content of 'ugba' produced by the starter cultures (18.5 +/- 0.3 mg N/100 g DM) after 2 days was significantly (p <0.05) higher than the maximum amino nitrogen content (12.5 +/- 0.8 mg N/100 g DM), of 'ugba' obtained by the natural process. 'Ugba' produced by the starter cultures were well accepted and compared favorably with the natural product. PMID:10898482

Isu, N R; Abu, G O

2000-01-01

118

Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate r...

Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

2009-01-01

119

Investigation of the volatile composition of pinotage wines fermented with different malolactic starter cultures using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC × GC-TOF-MS) was used for the detailed investigation of the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) using three commercial Oenococcus oeni strains on the volatile composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinotage wines. GC × GC allowed the identification of 115 volatile compounds, including both major constituents and trace-level compounds, in a single analysis. A number of compounds differing in mean concentration levels between the control wines and those fermented with different starter cultures were shown for the first time to be influenced by MLF and/or the bacterial strain. Principal component analysis (PCA) provided excellent separation between the wines fermented with different MLF starter cultures and the control wine. Significantly different levels for some volatile compounds in wines fermented with one of the LAB starter cultures could be indicative of metabolic differences of this strain. PMID:22023396

Vestner, Jochen; Malherbe, Sulette; Du Toit, Maret; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Mostafa, Ahmed; Górecki, Tadeusz; Tredoux, Andreas G J; de Villiers, André

2011-12-28

120

Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from raw seafoods and Thai fermented seafood products for their potential use as starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was analyzed from 52 samples of raw seafoods (shrimp and mussel, andThai fermented seafood products including fermented shrimp (kung-jom, mussel (hoi-dong, and fish (pla-jom. The viableLAB were 3.0?103 to 3.4?108 CFU/g. LAB were isolated and screened for their inhibitory activities against eight indicatorbacteria by agar spot test. Among all selected LAB isolates, 52 isolates showed strong inhibitory activity. They were furthercharacterized for their ability to resist hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, bile salts, and sodium chloride, and their ability toproduce bacteriocins and amino acid decarboxylase. The selected LAB isolates, 1IS11 and 4IS17, were bacteriocin-producingstrains, and showed no amino acid decarboxylase activity, which was suitable property for starter cultures. The isolate 1IS11could resist both hydrochloric and lactic acid at the lowest pH of 2.0, while the isolate 4IS17 was able to tolerate hydrochloricand lactic acid at the lowest pH of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Both isolates could grow in MRS broth containing a highconcentration of sodium chloride (10 % and bile salts (1.5%. They were identified by morphological characterization, biochemicaltest, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolate 1IS11 was found to be Enterococcus faecium, whereas the isolate4IS17 was Enterococcus faecalis.

Thitirut Jaichalad

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage / Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que [...] a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogurte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementação do meio RCPB pH5 com extrato de fígado desidratado e com os sais KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O, visando melhorar a diferenciação de Bifidobacterium em iogurte durante a estocagem refrigerada e também avaliou a contagem seletiva de Bifidobacterium em iogurte usando o meio MRS-LP. O meio MRS-LP apresentou a mesma recuperação de células que o meio RCPB pH5, usado como padrão, após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada do iogurte, sendo considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurtes durante a estocagem refrigerada. O meio RCPB pH5 fortificado também apresentou a mesma recuperação de células de Bifidobacterium que o meio padrão RCPB pH5; entretanto, a adição de extrato de fígado desidratado aumentou consideravelmente o diâmetro das colônias de Bifidobacterium, tornando a diferenciação destas bastante fácil e confiável quando comparadas à sua diferenciação no meio RCPB pH5 sem a fortificação. A adição dos sais (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O) não exerceu influência no desempenho do meio RCPB pH5. Abstract in english The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to co [...] unt them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.

Luciano, Fachin; Juliana, Moryia; Ana Lourdes Neves, Gândara; Walkiria Hanada, Viotto.

122

Selection and characterization of mixed starter cultures for lactic acid fermentation of carrot, cabbage, beet and onion vegetable mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

An evaluation of various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for the fermentation of cabbage, carrot and beet-based vegetable products was carried out. As part of a screening process, the growth of 15 cultures in a vegetable juice medium (VJM) was characterized by automated spectrophotometry. Acidification patterns as well as viability during storage of the LAB were also established. There were greater differences between the pure cultures than the mixed ones with respect to growth in VJM and viability during storage. Reductions in viable cell counts during storage of the fermented VJM occurred more rapidly with a Leuconostoc strain than for pediococci or lactobacilli. Inoculation of vegetables was carried out with cultures of Lactobacillus plantarum NK-312, Pediococcus acidilactici AFERM 772 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides BLAC which were rehydrated in a brine. This rehydration procedure was not detrimental to viability. During fermentation of a carrot/cabbage vegetable mix, sugar metabolism was characterized by the assimilation of both glucose and fructose, but sugars remained in the fermented vegetables when acidification stopped. The pH in the LAB-inoculated vegetables after 72 h at 20 degrees C was significantly lower (by 0.2 units) than the uninoculated control. Inoculation with LAB designed for silage fermentation resulted in the inhibition of acetic acid production, and reduced the production of ethanol during fermentation. The selection process on VJM enabled the preparation of a mixed culture that was more rapid than the silage inoculants in acidifying the medium and was more effective in reducing the production of gas during the fermentation and storage of the fermented vegetables. PMID:11294348

Gardner, N J; Savard, T; Obermeier, P; Caldwell, G; Champagne, C P

2001-03-20

123

Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

Maja Benkovi?

2008-05-01

124

Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were affected by the drying outlet temperature only. Furthermore, the bulk (bulk and tapped densities, porosity, flowability, hygroscopicity and degree of caking) and particle properties (particle size distribution, particle density and morphology) of yoghurt powder obtained from optimum spray drying conditions were also determined. The bulk, tapped and particle densities of yoghurt powder were 538, 746 and 1177 kg/m(3), respectively. The mean diameter (D4.3) and the span value of yoghurt powder were 3.053 and 2.487 ?m, respectively. PMID:24966433

Koç, Banu; Sakin-Y?lmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balk?r, P?nar

2014-07-01

125

An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The largest recorded outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United Kingdom occurred in June 1989. A total of 27 patients was affected; one patient died. Twenty-five of the patients had eaten one brand of hazelnut yoghurt in the week before the onset of symptoms. This yoghurt contained hazelnut conserve sweetened with aspartame rather than sugar. Clostridium botulinum type B toxin was detected in a blown can of hazelnut conserve, opened and unopened cartons of hazelnut yoghurt, and one faecal s...

O Mahony, M.; Mitchell, E.; Gilbert, R. J.; Hutchinson, D. N.; Begg, N. T.; Rodhouse, J. C.; Morris, J. E.

1990-01-01

126

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiot...

Ramakrishna Chetana; Sunki Reddy Yella Reddy; Pradeep Singh Negi

2013-01-01

127

Instant Prezi starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

Ladores, Minerva M

2013-01-01

128

Instant Apache Maven starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

Turatti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

129

Instant Sinatra starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

Yates, Joe

2013-01-01

130

Banana Frozen Yoghurt from Camel Milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study is conducted in the dairy laboratory of the faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish Sciences, Al-Neelain University. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of manufacture frozen yoghurt from camel milk with banana flavor and investigate the suitable levels of banana which were 10, 12 and 14%. pH value, fat%, total solids, solids not fat, specific gravity, overrun, sensory properties and acceptability were studied. The result of chemical analysis showed n...

Salma Kh Ahmed; Rea Haroun; Eisa, Mohamed O.

2010-01-01

131

Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures / Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilida [...] de das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas. Abstract in english In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at differe [...] nt pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.

Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ernani Sebastião, Sant' Anna.

132

Instant OSGi starter  

CERN Document Server

Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

Goodyear, Jamie

2013-01-01

133

FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

Aijaz H. Soomro

2012-12-01

134

Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o tempo de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v e lactose 0,5% (m/v e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15UFC/mL.Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to reduce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15CFU/mL.

Rosicler BALDUINO

1999-12-01

135

Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas / Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o temp [...] o de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v) e lactose 0,5% (m/v) e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15)UFC/mL. Abstract in english Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to red [...] uce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15)CFU/mL.

BALDUINO, Rosicler; OLIVEIRA, Antonio Sérgio de; HAULY, Maria Celia de Oliveira.

136

DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

2013-01-01

137

DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW) plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% g...

Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

2013-01-01

138

Profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewe and goat milk and their yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to determine the profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewes' and goats' milk and manufactured products, such as yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey, as well as changes in trace element content during Torba yoghurt-making processes. Concentrations of non-essential trace elements in ewe (Awassi) and goat (Damascus) milk and their yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey were quantitatively determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), after microwave digestion. Aluminium, antimony, arsenic, boron, beryllium, cadmium, nickel, lead, silver, titanium, thallium and vanadium were determined for both types of milk and their products. Barium was not detected in goats' milk or their products. Among all trace elements, boron was the most abundant and beryllium was least present in milk and the manufactured products. The results showed that goats' and ewes' milk and their manufactured products may be a source of 13 non-essential trace elements. PMID:24786251

Sanal, Hasan; Güler, Zehra; Park, Young W

2011-12-01

139

Effect of yoghurt or yoghurt serum on microbial quality of cig kofte.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cig kofte, raw meatball is a traditionally produced meat product in Turkey and some other Middle East countries. It is prepared from mixtures of finely minced raw beef, bulgur, onions, various spices and tap water. Cig kofte is an uncooked product and popularly consumed with lettuce and lemon juice. In this study, yoghurt or yoghurt serum (YS) were added to the mixtures of cig kofte instead of tap water to reduce microbial risks of the raw meatball. Additionally, the effects of yoghurt and YS on some physicochemical characteristics of cig kofte were investigated. Cig kofte is generally consumed within a few hours after the preparation because of its raw nature. Also, it is generally sold under unhygienic conditions in restaurants and restaurant-like places. For this purpose, reducing of the microbial load of cig kofte is important. In the results, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any samples. While lactic acid bacteria count increased by addition of yoghurt and YS, the number of other microorganisms except for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) were decreased. The aw values and% moisture contents of the samples were varied between 0.88-0.94 and 46.25-49.72, respectively. The pH values of the samples were slightly changed during the storage of 24 h while no changes detected in the control samples during the storage. In conclusion, it can be suggested that using the yoghurt or YS instead of tap water in the preparation of cig kofte might ensure the microbial safety, increase the nutritional value and its flavour or aroma. PMID:24966438

Dogan, Mahmut; Cankurt, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Yetim, Hasan; Sagdic, Osman

2014-07-01

140

Instant Gimp starter  

CERN Document Server

A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

Amreen, Fazreil

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.

Pradeep Singh Negi

2013-03-01

142

Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v). Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing ?-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with lit...

2008-01-01

143

Microbiological evaluation of yoghurt products in Qena city, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To examined Large and small scale yoghurts for presence of microorganisms of sanitary importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 random samples from various dairy shops, street vendors and supermarkets located in Qena city were collected within 2008 - 2010. Results: The recorded results show that (92% and (70% of the examined small and large scale yoghurt samples had Psychrotrophic count with an average of 3.9 x 104 and 6.8 x103 respectively. It was found that Enterococci were detected in (58% and (40% with an average count of 1.72 x104 and 2.0 x 103 for the examined small and large scale yoghourt samples. S.aureus were detected in (72% and (36% with an average of 8.5 x 103 and 9.41 x102 for both small and large scale yoghurt samples. Regarding yeast and moulds they were found in (94% and (40% with an average counts of 1.4 x 104 for small scale and 3.9 x 102 of large scale yoghurt samples. Most probable number (MPN technique showed that [(38, (20], [(35, (17] and [(30, (6] out of the total examined small and large scale yoghurt samples were contaminated with coliform, Fecal coliform and E. coli respectively. The incidence of E. coli biotype I and II for examined small scale yoghurt samples were (63.4% and (36.6%, while for the examined large scale yoghurt samples were (16.7 and (83.3 respectively. Conclusions: Yoghurt samples obtained from Qena city markets constitute a high risk hazard to consumers. So suggestive hygienic measures to safeguard the consumer health. As well as, the recommended sanitary practices for improving quality of small and large scale yoghurt must be applied. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 400-404

L. M. El-Malt

144

Milk and yoghurt do not impair the absorption of ofloxacin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of milk and yoghurt on the oral absorption of ofloxacin were studied in seven healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over trial. After an overnight fast, 200 mg ofloxacin was given with 300 ml water, milk or yoghurt. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of ofloxacin were determined up to 24 h. Values of total plasma AUC and 24 h urinary excretion of ofloxacin were not affected by milk or yoghurt. Plasma ofloxacin concentrations from 0.5 to 1.5 h and the peak concentration...

Neuvonen, P. J.; Kivisto?, K. T.

1992-01-01

145

Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15% of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape. Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of fruit juice. Yoghurts fortified with 10% orange juice was the best in quality among the others. The smell and taste, body and consistency and color and texture of the fruit yoghurts were equally acceptable. 10 and 15% strawberry fruit yoghurt contain more acid and its texture was cracked down in refrigeration temperature. The moisture and acidity content of fruit yoghurts were increased than plain yoghurt because of high content of these in the fruits. The fat, protein, carbohydrates and ash content of strawberry and orange fruit yoghurt were decreased than normal plain yoghurt. But the carbohydrates content of grape yoghurt were increased because grape contains more sugar than milk and other two fruits. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 10% orange juice was more acceptable than others comparing all quality characteristics. The microbiological quality of the fruit yoghurts was also acceptable because of acid content of the fruits. In case of strawberry yoghurt, fruit juice concentration more than 5% was not suitable for fruit yoghurt because that are highly acidic and curd was cracked down at refrigerated condition. The findings of this research may give an overall idea about manufacturing of fruit yoghurt incorporating different level of fruit juice and appropriate technology of fruit yoghurt preparation.

Md. Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

146

Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

Belewu, Moshood Adewale

2013-12-01

147

Extended life starter motor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A starter motor is described comprising: a housing; an armature shaft having front and rear opposite ends mounted in the housing; armature means mounted on the armature shaft; coil means for causing rotation of the armature shaft, the coil means including coils connected in series and shunt coil, all positioned in proximity to the armature means; an inertia style drive including a clutch section slidably mounted along the armature shaft and a pinion gear slidable with the clutch section for engaging with an engine flywheel during rotation of the armature shaft; a center plate connected to the housing and mounted on the armature shaft between the inertia style drive and the armature means.

De Bello, R.J.

1987-05-12

148

Munin plugin starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

Brinke, Bart ten

2013-01-01

149

Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some ...

Michal Magala; Zlatica Kohajdová; Jolana Karovi?ová

2013-01-01

150

On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the very important flavor compounds 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal with various growth conditions. We found that the aldehydes were present in the culture broth only as transient metabolites. They were produced in the exponential growth phase, reached a maximum concentration when the culture became anaerobic, and then they rapidly disappeared from the culture medium. This general pattern was observed for three different strains of S. xylosus and S. carnosus. Small amounts of inoculum or increased exposure to oxygen were found to favor production of the aldehydes as a result of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor affect on aldehyde production.

de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian

2004-01-01

151

Banana Frozen Yoghurt from Camel Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted in the dairy laboratory of the faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish Sciences, Al-Neelain University. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of manufacture frozen yoghurt from camel milk with banana flavor and investigate the suitable levels of banana which were 10, 12 and 14%. pH value, fat%, total solids, solids not fat, specific gravity, overrun, sensory properties and acceptability were studied. The result of chemical analysis showed no significant differences between the three levels of banana on pH value, fat %, total solids, solids not fat at p>0.05, while the differences were significant in specific gravity and overrun. The panel test showed that there was no significant differences between three levels of banana on sensory evaluations at p>0.05. 14% obtained the best score.

Mohamed O. Eisa

2010-01-01

152

Improved creaminess in stirred yoghurt through amylomaltase-treated starch domains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amylomaltase-treated starch (ATS) has been described as an excellent fat-replacer in set yoghurt. Its functionality as a creaminess enhancer relates to the ability to form domains, which have melting and yielding characteristics in the mouth. This study was intended to understand the functionality of ATS in stirred yoghurt. Sensory evaluation of reduced fat stirred yoghurt samples showed that the creaminess perception of stirred yoghurt with 1.5% fat and 0.5% ATS was comparable with the refer...

2012-01-01

153

Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt) Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15%) of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape). Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of...

Md. Nur Hossain; Md. Fakruddin; Md. Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

154

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata) / USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria [...] de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade. Abstract in english In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufa [...] cturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira, CARIONI; Anna Cláudia Simas, PORTO; José Carlos Fiad, PADILHA; Ernani Sebastião, SANT' ANNA.

155

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade.In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

2001-12-01

156

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

2007-01-01

157

Increased CLA content in organic milk fermented by bifidobacteria or yoghurt cultures
---
Teneur en acide linoléique conjugué accrue dans des laits biologiques fermentés par des bifidobactéries et des levains à yaourt
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the kinetics of acidification, fatty acid (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2 c9, t11) content in fermented milks prepared from organic and conventional milk. Fermented milks were manufactured with five mixed cultures: four different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BL04, B94, BB12 and HN019) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340, in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040. The composition of milk was evaluat...

2009-01-01

158

A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

V.D. Lushchyk

2013-10-01

159

Instant PrimeFaces starter  

CERN Multimedia

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

Hlavats, Ian

2013-01-01

160

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy-yoghurt with Different Colours and Fruit Flavours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different flavouring/colouring agents and fruits on the quality and acceptability of stirred soy-yoghurt were studied. Soy-yoghurts flavoured with strawberry, vanilla, orange, orange fruit, pineapple fruit and pawpaw fruit were compared for protein, pH, percentage lactic acid, soluble solids, percentage syneresis, total solids and microbial count with plain soy-yoghurt. Sensory evaluation was conducted in order to determine the acceptability of the samples. The pH and percent lactic acid ranged from 4.4-4.7 and 0.9-1.08%, respectively on the first day of storage while the values were 4.1-4.3 and 1.44-1.71%, respectively on the eighth day of storage at 6°C. Soluble solids of yoghurt samples ranged from 18.4-27.9% on the first day and were between 18.4-25.4% on the eight day of storage. The average percent syneresis of flavoured and fruit soy-yoghurts were 42.03 and 46.3%, respectively. The values increased with increasing storage days. The average protein content of fruit Soy-yoghurts was 5.01% while the average for flavoured soy-yoghurts was 3.93%. The total solids of plain yoghurt was 14.5%, flavoured soy-yoghurt was 13.5% and fruit soy-yoghurts was 12.5%. Microbiological examination revealed that the samples were within the acceptable minimum standards. The sensory evaluation showed that there was no significant difference in taste among all the samples. However, there were significant difference in the colour, aroma, consistency and overall acceptability of soy-yoghurts samples. The sensory evaluation revealed that there was preference for strawberry, vanilla, plain, orange flavoured, pineapple fruit flavoured yoghurts relative to pawpaw and orange fruit flavoured-yoghurts.

O.F. Osundahunsi

2007-01-01

162

The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results showed that using a mixed culture of L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides could greatly reduce contamination of non-lactic acid bacteria, retaining low amount of reducing sugar, rapidly producing lactic acid and consequently decreasing pH value of the pickle, as well as giving better sensory score. After 12 d of fermentation, sample of pickle inoculated with mixed culture showed the following characters: total lactic acid content 0.5%, total lactic acid bacteria 8.46 log10 CFU mL-1, total non-lactic acid bacteria 1 log10 CFU mL-1, total reducing sugar 0.84 g L-1, texture 64.92 mm 50 g-1 s-1, and hedonic sensory score for both taste and aroma 4 (like in a scale of 5. These results indicated the potential ability of the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria to improve the quality of the pickle fermented spontaneously.

NETI YULIANA

2013-03-01

163

Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates comp...

2006-01-01

164

Concentration changes of aroma components in plain and probiotic yoghurt during storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, two types of yoghurt, plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt purchased from Croatian and Slovenian market, were stored for up to 25 days at two different temperatures (+4 ºC, +20 ºC. Samples were analyzed every 5 days and changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and diacetyl content were determined. At the same time sensory evaluation was carried out. The aim of this study to show changes in concentrations of some flavor compounds and sensory quality in both yoghurt types during storage as a function of storage time and temperature. The results indicate that the equal changes in aroma compounds in both yoghurt types were result of the same microorganisms present in both yoghurt types (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus which have the greatest influence on the aroma, while the addition of other microorganisms has mostly probiotic effect.

Mirjana Hruškar

2005-01-01

165

Formulating Fruit Yoghurt by Concentrated Milk and Evaluating its Quality During Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effect of “Osmodehydrofrozen” fruit addition on sensory, physical, chemical and microbiological properties of concentrated yoghurt and its quality during storage was evaluated. This research was done in two stages. At the first stage, fruit percentage, type and addition time (before and after fermentation was determined. The results indicated yoghurts containing 10% apple or 13% strawberry, which was added before fermentation had a better quality. Because of high osmotic activity of apple, the synersis was lower in apple yoghurt in comparison with strawberry yoghurt. According to osmotic activity of both fruits, the synersis value was much lower than that of fruit yoghurts, which contained untreated fruits. Taste value was higher in strawberry yoghurt and texture and mouth feel values were higher at low percentages of fruit. The results of the second stage (quality evaluation during storage indicated that storage had a significant effect on pH, acidity, synersis, taste and texture (P

N Vahedi

2009-07-01

166

Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein. PMID:15545049

Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-08-01

167

Population heterogeneity and dynamics in starter culture and lag phase adaptation of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii to weak acid preservatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii shows great resistance to weak-acid preservatives, including sorbic acid (2, 4-hexadienoic acid). That extreme resistance was shown to be due to population heterogeneity, with a small sub-population of cells resistant to a variety of weak acids, probably caused by a lower internal pH reducing the uptake of all weak acids. In the present paper, it was found that resistant cells were extremely rare in exponential cultures, but increased by up to 8000-fold in stationary phase. Inoculation of media containing sorbic acid with a population of Z. bailii cells gave rise to what appeared to be a prolonged lag phase, suggesting adaptation to the conditions before the cells entered the period of exponential growth. However, the apparent lag phase caused by sorbic acid was largely due to the time required for the resistant sub-population to grow to detectable levels. The slow growth rate of the sub-population was identical to that of the final total population. The non-resistant bulk population remained viable for 3days but had lost viability by 6days and, during that time, there was no indication of any development of resistance in the bulk population. The sub-population growing in sorbic acid showed very high population diversity in colony size and internal pH. After removal of sorbic acid, the population rapidly reverted back to the normal, largely non-resistant, population distribution. The data presented suggest that a reevaluation of the lag phase in microbial batch culture is required, at least for the resistance of Z. bailii to sorbic acid. Furthermore, the significance of phenotypic diversity and heterogeneity in microbial populations is discussed more broadly with potential relevance to bacterial "persisters", natural selection and evolution. PMID:24813627

Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Avery, Simon V; Novodvorska, Michaela; Archer, David B

2014-07-01

168

Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v. Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing ?-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with little or no whey at the top, respectively. Yoghurt containing the other five stabilizers (High methoxy pectin, Propylene glycole alginate, Carboxy methyl cellulose, Xanthan gum and Guar gum all formed weak gels with little or excessive whey at the top. The yoghurt containing gelatin had higher sensory scores for all the three sensory attributes (Appearance, texture and overall acceptability as compared to the other stabilizers assessed in this study. Therefore, gelatin was found to be the most appropriate stabilizer compatible to a peanut milk based yoghurt system.

Guo-Nong Zhang

2008-01-01

169

Instant MinGW starter  

CERN Document Server

This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

Shpigor, Ilya

2013-01-01

170

Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The form...

Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Quasem, Jihad M.; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

2011-01-01

171

Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to ...

Siddiki Mohammad Shohel; Ueda Shunsaku; Maeda Isamu

2012-01-01

172

Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Material and methods. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability. Results. Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Conclusion. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid. Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

Michal Magala

2013-09-01

173

Encapsulation of probiotic bacteria with alginate-starch and evaluation of survival in simulated gastrointestinal conditions and in yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A modified method using calcium alginate for the microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria is reported in this study. Incorporation of Hi-Maize starch (a prebiotic) improved encapsulation of viable bacteria as compared to when the bacteria were encapsulated without the starch. Inclusion of glycerol (a cryo-protectant) with alginate mix increased the survival of bacteria when frozen at -20 degrees C. The acidification kinetics of encapsulated bacteria showed that the rate of acid produced was lower than that of free cultures. The encapsulated bacteria, however, did not demonstrate a significant increase in survival when subjected to in vitro high acid and bile salt conditions. A preliminary study was carried out in order to monitor the effects of encapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt over a period of 8 weeks. This study showed that the survival of encapsulated cultures of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp. showed a decline in viable count of about 0.5 log over a period of 8 weeks while there was a decline of about 1 log in cultures which were incorporated as free cells in yoghurt. The encapsulation method used in this study did not result in uniform bead size, and hence additional experiments need to be designed using uniform bead size in order to assess the role of different encapsulation parameters, such as bead size and alginate concentration, in providing protection to the bacteria. PMID:11139021

Sultana, K; Godward, G; Reynolds, N; Arumugaswamy, R; Peiris, P; Kailasapathy, K

2000-12-01

174

Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

2014-05-01

175

Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%.

Niketi? Gordana B.

2009-01-01

176

Physicochemical, nutritional and sensory quality of stirred 'dwarf' golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) yoghurts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dwarf golden apple (Spondias cytherea Sonn) is an exotic fruit which is mainly consumed in its fresh form but could be processed. The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of adding golden apple nectar on the physicochemical and sensory quality of stirred yoghurts from cow's milk. Yoghurts with 15% and 20% golden apple nectar were more (P>0.01) liked than the control (0% nectar) yoghurt in all sensory attributes. The appearance and body attribute differed (P0.05) changes, in pH, lactic acid, consistency, colour, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and moulds on storage at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks. By week 4 of storage, yoghurts developed a buttery smell and were less dark and yellow. A 226 g yoghurt serving provided an excellent source of phosphorus and was good in protein. PMID:16361184

Ann Bartoo, Shelly; Badrie, Neela

2005-09-01

177

Development of buckwheat and teff sourdoughs with the use of commercial starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the suitability of commercial starters for the production of gluten free sourdoughs. For this purpose, four different laboratory scale sourdoughs were developed from the flours buckwheat or teff. Two different starters (SA, SB) were used to start the fermentations, which were carried out under two technological conditions. Sourdoughs were propagated by back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable sourdoughs was investigated by culture dependent techniques and the development of the dominant biota was monitored by PCR-DGGE. Unique and complex LAB and yeasts communities were detected in each sourdough, comprising strains which originated from the flours. The competitiveness of the starter LAB varied according to the substrate and the fermentation conditions applied. Among the LAB present in both SA and SB, L. helveticus and L. paracasei strains did not persist in buckwheat or teff sourdoughs. Lc. argentinum was competitive only in buckwheat sourdoughs, whereas L. reuteri persisted only in teff sourdough. L. fermentum and L. helveticus present in both starters dominated only the sourdoughs fermented at the higher temperature. Remarkably, the starter yeasts were outcompeted by spontaneous yeast strains, i.e. Kazachstania barnetti and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in teff sourdoughs, whereas no yeasts were isolated from buckwheat sourdoughs. The isolation of autochthonous LAB and yeasts from the stable teff and buckwheat sourdoughs indicates that both flours represent an important reservoir for the isolation of novel and competitive starters for the production of gluten free sourdough bread. PMID:20643489

Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Morrissey, John P; Dal Bello, Fabio

2010-08-15

178

Effect of Yoghurt and Protexin Boost on Broiler Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of yoghurt and protexin boost on broiler growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability and profitability production was studied from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 120 day-old Arbor Acres commercial broiler chicks were distributed randomly into five dietary treatments. Each treatment had 3 replications each of 8 birds. The experimental treatments T1 considered as control and T2, T3, T4 received 3.0g, 4.0g, 5.0g sour yo...

Aftahi, A.; Munim, T.; Hoque, M. A.; Ashraf, M. A.

2006-01-01

179

Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of 0 to 50% renneted skim milk (RSM as a fat mimetic upon the physico-chemical, physical, rheological and sensory characteristics of nonfat yoghurt in comparison to control samples (full fat and skim yoghurt. By increasing RSM content, the chemical characteristics (titratable acidity, pH as well as the content of fat and total protein of yoghurts did not alter except decrease of total solid in sample with 50% RSM. The yoghurts with more content of RSM exhibited higher b*and a* values, while the highest L* value, viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC, firmness and lowest syneresis were found in sample containing 30% RSM. It seems that new interaction in gel network of yoghurts containing RSM, exhibited greater ability to bind water than control skim yoghurt. In addition, probably new bridges between milk proteins (interacting partially hydrolyzed casein with casein can increase the number of bounds between protein particles leading to lower syneresis. However, excessive RSM content (higher than 30% did not increase the L* value, viscosity and WHC of samples probably because of too much aggregation of casein. Sensory results revealed that sample containing 30% RSM was exactly alike to full fat yoghurt in terms of overall sensory attributes. New formulation of palatable skim yoghurt was developed using 3% RSM successfully.

Marjan Nouri

2011-08-01

180

KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the remainder is a mixture of butterlike flavor compounds. Diacetyl is the major flavor component, constituting as much as 80 to 90 percent of the mixture of organic flavor compounds. Besides diacetyl, starter distillate contains minor amounts of...

2009-04-01

182

Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determi...

Carlos Raimundo Ferreira Grosso; Carmen Sílvia Fávaro-Trindade

2004-01-01

183

Physico-chemical and Sensory Evaluation of Market Yoghurt in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the quality of some yoghurts made and sold in the Nigerian market. Nine commercially available brands of yoghurt drinks which represent seven different manufacturers were randomly selected. The samples included seven plain yoghurt and two fruit yoghurt samples. All yoghurt samples were analyzed for chemical properties (moisture%, ash %, total solids, SNF, fat, pH and titratable acidity and the organoleptic tests (color, thickness, appearance, body, texture, taste, smell, flavor and over all acceptability. The results of the study showed that the physico-chemical composition of the manufactured yogurts was different. The pH values of the samples ranged between 3.70-4.33 which were reasonably suitable for yoghurt marketed in tropical areas. No direct relationship was observed between pH values and titratable acidity. There was marked variation in the % fat content of the products. The results of the sensory evaluation revealed that flavor with respect to taste and smell had significant influence (p<0.05 on overall acceptability of yogurt product. So, the yogurt manufacturers need to improve on the sensory properties in particular flavor and taste for better consumer acceptability. Also, they may improve on packaging by labeling to specifications that precisely represent the content and type.

Joseph A.O. Olugbuyiro

2011-01-01

184

Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

Katarina Lisak

2011-09-01

185

Autochthonous fermentation starters for the industrial production of Negroamaro wines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to establish a new procedure for the oenological selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from natural must fermentations of an important Italian grape cultivar, denoted as "Negroamaro". For this purpose, 108 S. cerevisiae strains were selected as they did not produce H(2)S and then assayed by microfermentation tests. The adopted procedure made it possible to identify 10 strains that were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide and showed that they completed sugar consumption during fermentation. These strains were characterized for their specific oenological and technological properties and, two of them, strains 6993 and 6920, are good candidates as industrial starter cultures. A novel protocol was set up for their biomass production and they were employed for industrial-scale fermentation in two industrial cellars. The two strains successfully dominated the fermentation process and contributed to increasing the wines' organoleptic quality. The proposed procedure could be very effective for selecting "company-specific" yeast strains, ideal for the production of typical regional wines. "Winery" starter cultures could be produced on request in a small plant just before or during the vintage season and distributed as a fresh liquid concentrate culture. PMID:21691795

Tristezza, Mariana; Vetrano, Cosimo; Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Tufariello, Maria; Quarta, Angela; Mita, Giovanni; Spano, Giuseppe; Grieco, Francesco

2012-01-01

186

Protection by fungal starters against growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal spoilers of cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of fungal starter cultures on growth and secondary metabolite production of fungal contaminants associated with cheese was studied on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. Isolates of the species Penicillium nalgiovense, P. camemberti, P. roqueforti and Geotrichum candidum were used as fungal starters. The species P. commune, P. caseifulvum, P. verrucosum, P. discolor, P. solitum, P. coprophilum and Aspergillus versicolor were selected as contaminants. The fungal starters showed different competitive ability on laboratory media and Camembert cheese. The presence of the Penicillium species, especially P. nalgiovense, showed an inhibitory effect on the growth of the fungal contaminants on laboratory media. G. candidum caused a significant inhibition of the fungal contaminants on Camembert cheese. The results indicate that G. candidum plays an important role in competition with undesirable microorganisms in mould fermented cheeses. Among the starters, P. nalgiovense caused the largest reduction in secondary metabolite production of the fungal contaminants on the laboratory medium. On Camembert cheese no significant changes in metabolite production of the fungal contaminants was observed in the presence of the starters. PMID:9706802

Nielsen, M S; Frisvad, J C; Nielsen, P V

1998-06-30

187

Characterization of new exopolysaccharides produced by coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with yoghurt strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project was designed to study the coculturing affect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strains Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens (L.k) ZW3, with non EPS producing strains L. bulgaricus (L.b) and Streptococcus thermophilus (S.t) in three different combinations: L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, and L.k+L.b+S.t. FTIR analysis revealed presence of strong stretch in regions of 3400, 2900 and 1647cm(-1) which is characteristic of a typical polysaccharide. Co-cultured EPSs were composed of glucose, galactose, arabinose and xylose; and their sugar compositions were different from ZW3 polysaccharide that was mainly composed of gluco-galactan. Peak temperature for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers were 90.59, 87.61, 95.18 and 97.38°C, respectively. Thermal analysis revealed degradation temperature of 326.44, 294.6, 296.7 and 299.62°C for L.k+L.b, L.k+S.t, L.k+S.t+L.b and ZW3 polymers, respectively. SEM and AFM analysis divulged that three cocultured EPSs had different surface morphology than ZW3 polymer. Since co-cultured polymers have different structure than the polymer produced exclusively by EPS producing strain, it can be safely concluded from the study that co-culturing can be one way to change the structure of polymers. Coculturing of L. kefiranofaciens with non-EPS producing strains resulted in yoghurt with increased viscosity and delayed syneresis. PMID:23664933

Ahmed, Zaheer; Wang, Yanping; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Ahmad, Asif; Raza, Mohsin

2013-08-01

188

Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

1975-01-01

189

Evaluation of sensory properties and their correlation coefficients with physico-chemical indices in Turkish set-type yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensory properties and physico-chemical parameters of 10 most popular brands of commercial set-type Turkish yoghurts were evaluated and correlation coefficients between the two indices were investigated. The results indicated that increases in volatile compounds (acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, 2-nanonane, ethyl acetate, titratable acidity, ash and fat contents inversely correlated with the overall acceptability score of the yoghurt. However, diacetyl, C4 to C12 free fatty acids, pH, whiteness index and texture positively correlated with overall acceptability of the yoghurt products. It was concluded that the acceptability of the Turkish set-type yoghurts is mainly governed by the fifteen volatile compounds as well as the physico-chemical properties determined. Thus, the overall acceptability of the yoghurts was not influenced by a single characteristic, but rather by complex in nature.

Young W. Park

2011-04-01

190

Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter  

CERN Document Server

A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

Volpe, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

191

Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and ?-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8x104 to 1.85x107 cfu mL-1. Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis. Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

M. Rasdhari

2008-01-01

192

Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis) and Quality of Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis) and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was ...

Izhar Hussain Athar; Mohammad Amin Shah; Ulfat-un-Nabi Khan

2000-01-01

193

Characteristics of physico-chemical properties, volatile compounds and free fatty acid profiles of commercial set-type Turkish yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten most popular brands of commercial Turkish set-type yoghurts were collected from local retail outlets in Hatay, Turkey for two separate periods, and analyzed for basic nutrients, physico-chemical properties, volatile aroma compounds and free fatty acid profiles to compare their differences among the yoghurt products. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05, 0.01, or 0.001 and variations in physico-chemical indices, volatile aroma compounds and volatile free fatty acid profiles among the yoghurt brands, which ultimately influence the flavor quality of the product. Acetaldehyde was predominant volatile compound in yoghurts, which followed by acetone, acetoin, diacetyl and ethanol. The level of diacetly was inversely related to titratable acidity, acetaldehyde and ethanoic acid. From ketones with high carbones 2-undecanone and 2-pentadecanone were higher than 2-butanone, 2-nanonane and 2-tridecanone. These ketones are related to fat content of yoghurt. Among short chain free fatty acids, ethanoic (acetic acid was the most abundant in yoghurts, followed by hexanoic, octanoic and butanoic acids. These differences in detected chemical compositions of volatile compounds and free fatty acids would be applicable to predict flavor, nutritional value, quality control or shelf-life of the commmercial set-type Turkish yoghurts.

Young W. Park

2011-04-01

194

Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A) and 70% goat - 30% cow (B), 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c) mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF) and skim milk powder addition (MP) were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentra...

2003-01-01

195

Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A and 70% goat - 30% cow (B, 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF and skim milk powder addition (MP were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration method and storage period on physico-chemical and microbiological properties of samples were investigated statistically.

Gokhan Kavas

2003-01-01

196

Entwicklung eines Nachweisverfahrens für gentechnische Veraenderungen im Genom von Mikroorganismen aus Starter- und Schutzkulturen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work a system for the detection of genetically modified microorganisms is presented, that may be applied for an all-purpose, resp. non-specific identification of starter and protective cultures, which are modified by means of genetic engineering.The detection system is based on an equalization of the genome of the strain, that might be genetically modified with the genome of a near relative reference-strain, which is not genetically modified. For that purpose Representational Differen...

2000-01-01

197

The Influence of Transglutaminase Treatment on Functional Properties of Strained Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Transglutaminase (TG on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of strained yoghurt. Strained yoghurt samples were produced with four different enzyme concentrations; C (Control, T1 (0.74 Unit TG g-1 protein, T2 (1.29 Unit TG g-1 protein and T3 (1.85 Unit TG g-1 protein. The samples were evaluated regarding chemical composition, proteolysis, texture profile, viscosity, water holding capacity, microbiological counts and sensory properties. Cross linking of milk proteins by TG enzyme improved the physical properties of the yoghurts before straining. Surprisingly the textural parameters of the strained yoghurts were not affected by the enzyme but the water holding capacity was improved. Higher treatments of the TG enzyme decreased the proteolytic activity and acidity with increasing storage time. On the contrary enzymatic cross linking had no significant effect on the microbiological properties and the sensory attributes were not unfavorable affected.

Nayil Dinkci

2012-01-01

198

Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12, fruit (14 and cereal yoghurt (4 produced with cow (8 and goat milk (22.The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

Gilberto Giangolini

2013-04-01

199

The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of batches C, A and B. (control : not added the kefir starter, added the kefir starter 1 and 7 ml. respectively). The odour, flavor and overall acceptab...

2007-01-01

200

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases) to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th day...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, ?-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of ?-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology. PMID:22449748

Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

2012-01-01

202

Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for milk, yoghurt, and dressing. Yoghurt and dressing enriched with neat fish oil were more stable than those enriched with afish-oil-in-water emulsion, whereas milk enriched with neat fish oil was less stable than milk enriched with the fish-oil-in-water emulsion. Overall, it seemed that application of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad dressing.

Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

203

Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was ...

Marina Dello Staffolo; Miriam Martino; Alicia Bevilacqua; Mirta Montero; María Susana Rodríguez; Liliana Albertengo

2011-01-01

204

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases) to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. Th [...] e experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2) was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days) is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days), the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes, Xavier; José Henrique, Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de, Brito; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Marcos Barcellos, Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca, Leandro.

205

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

2011-08-01

206

Starter for inductively coupled plasma tube  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A starter assembly is provided for use with an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) tube to reliably initate a plasma at internal pressures above about 30 microns. A conductive probe is inserted within the inductor coil about the tube and insulated from the tube shield assembly. A capacitive circuit is arranged for momentarily connecting a high voltage radio-frequency generator to the probe while simultaneously energizing the coil. When the plasma is initiated the probe is disconnected from the generator and electrically connected to the shield assembly for operation.

Hull, Donald E. (969 Nambe Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Bieniewski, Thomas M. (285 Donna Ave., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

1988-01-01

207

Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

208

Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are {sup 85}Kr, {sup 147}Pm, {sup 3}H and {sup 232}Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

Sadagopan, Geetha [Radiological Physics and Advisory Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shukla, V.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

2000-05-01

209

Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85Kr, 147Pm, 3H and 232Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

2000-05-01

210

Evaluation of a single and combined inoculation of a Lactobacillus pentosus starter for processing cv. Arbequina natural green olives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The production of Arbequina naturally green olives is a traditional and spontaneous process in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts are present. To better control the fermentation of olives, strains of LAB and yeasts that had been isolated from brines were used in this study. A strain of Lactobacillus pentosus selected from an industrial olive fermentation was used as a starter culture for the traditional fermentation of Arbequina naturally green olives. Three more strains isolated from Arbequina olive brines were selected: one yeast, (Candida diddensiae), and two Lactobacillus (one L. plantarum and the other L. pentosus). The individual fermentation profile of all the strains and the co-inoculation profile of each one of the three with the first selected L. pentosus were studied in pilot-scale fermentations. The results showed that all the strains used as a starter, and particularly the yeast C. diddensiae, reduced the Enterobacteriaceae survival period in comparison with the spontaneous process. Only when a L. pentosus strain was inoculated were the LAB counts above 10(6) cfu ml(-1) throughout the process. The C. diddensiae starter failed to colonize the brine until the end of the process and no LAB were detected. Results of rep-PCR using the primer GTG(5) showed that both L. pentosus starters were able to colonize the brine by the end of the process but when they were co-inoculated only one strain was dominant. The L. plantarum starter failed to colonize the brine. In the control fermentation, various autochthonous strains of L. pentosus and L. plantarum were detected. The pH only reached desirable levels when a L. pentosus strain was inoculated. From the results of the sensory evaluation, panellists found significant differences between the different starters used for fermenting olives. PMID:20630314

Hurtado, Albert; Reguant, Cristina; Bordons, Albert; Rozès, Nicolas

2010-09-01

211

Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

2011-01-01

212

Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with beneficial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and in the fermented pro...

Rinaldoni, A. N.; Campderro?s, M. E.; Pe?rez Padilla, A.; Perino, E.; Ferna?ndez, J. E.

2009-01-01

213

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior

2012-01-01

214

Microbiological and fermentative properties of baker's yeast starter used in breadmaking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the levels of microbial contaminants in liquid, compressed and dry commercial baker's yeasts used as starters in breadmaking. Eumycetes, Enterobacteriaceae, total and fecal coliforms, Bacillus spp., and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in particular enterococci, were quantified. Results obtained in this study highlighted that baker's yeast could represent a potential vehicle of spoilage and undesirable microorganisms into the baking environment, even if these do not influence the leavening activity in the dough, as ascertained by rheofermentometer analysis. Different microbial groups, such as spore-forming bacteria and moulds, were found in baker's yeast starters. Moreover, different species of LAB, which are considered the main contaminants in large-scale yeast fermentations, were isolated and identified by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most recurrent species were Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus durans, isolated from both compressed and dry starters, whereas strains belonging to Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera were found only in dry ones. Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) were also used to highlight the biodiversity of the different commercial yeast strains, and to ascertain the culture purity. PMID:23957411

Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Succi, M; Tremonte, P; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E

2013-08-01

215

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by piscicolin 126 in milk and Camembert cheese manufactured with a thermophilic starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of bacteriocin, piscicolin 126, on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and cheese starter bacteria was investigated in milk and in Camembert cheese manufactured from milk challenged with 10(2) cfu ml(-1) L. monocytogenes. In milk incubated at 30 degrees C, piscicolin 126 added in the range of 512-2,048 AU ml(-1) effectively inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes for more than 20 d when challenged with approximately 10(2) cfu ml(-1) L. monocytogenes. At higher challenge levels (10(4) and 10(6) cfu ml(-1)), piscicolin 126 reduced the viable count of L. monocytogenes by 4-5 log units immediately after addition of the bacteriocin; however, growth of Listeria occurred within 24 h. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of piscicolin 126 against lactic acid cheese starter bacteria was generally greater than 204,800 AU ml(-1) , and the viable count and acid production of these starter cultures in milk were not affected by the addition of 2,048 AU ml(-1) piscicolin 126. Camembert cheeses made from milk challenged with L. monocytogenes and with added piscicolin 126 showed a viable count of L. monocytogenes 3-4 log units lower than those without piscicolin 126. Inactivation of piscicolin 126 by proteolytic enzymes from cheese starter bacteria and mould together with the emergence of piscicolin 126-resistant isolates was responsible for the recovery of L. monocytogenes in the cheeses during ripening. PMID:12455889

Wan, J; Harmark, K; Davidson, B E; Hillier, A J; Gordon, J B; Wilcock, A; Hickey, M W; Coventry, M J

1997-03-01

216

Marine Phytoplankton Culture Collection: Resources for Algal Biotechnology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The tasks outlined in the ONR Grant entitled 'Marine Phytoplankton Culture Collection: Resources for Algal Biotechnology' have been completed. The Provasoli-Guillard National Center for culture of Marine Phytoplankton (CCMP) has provided both starter cult...

R. A. Andersen

1997-01-01

217

The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

Marisa Jatupornpipat

2007-07-01

218

New Series of Low-Voltage Magnetic Motor Starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic motor starters are in widespread use as components for automatic, energy-efficient equipment in a variety of industrial facilities. Recent rapid growth in the fields of electronics and mechatronics has stimulated calls for high reliability, low p...

F. Matsumoto S. Nishizako S. Otsuka

1984-01-01

219

Application of specific starters for the manufacture of Venaco cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application of defined specific starter strains and their influence on microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics were studied during ripening of Venaco cheese, a traditional Corsican raw milk cheese manufactured with goat's or ewe's milk. Three defined starter blends, composed of wild strains of lactic acid bacteria, were tested. The first blend was composed of 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ratio 1:1) and was used as a control. The second was composed of 3...

Casalta, Erick; Cachenaut, Jean-marc; Aubert, Ce?cile; Dufrene, Franck; Noe?l, Yolande; Beuvier, Eric

2005-01-01

220

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30 kDa, 10 kDa and 3 kDa. The fractions were tested for antioxidant activity by investigating the inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles, tocopherol and sensory characteristics, the lower molecular weight fractions 3â??10 kDa and

Farvin, Sabeena

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt produced in Guilan province of Iran using immunoaffinity column and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was aimed to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in 120 natural yoghurt samples consisting of 80 samples of commercial and 40 samples of traditional yoghurt in Guilan province in the north of Iran. The occurrence and concentration range of AFM(1) in samples were determined by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of yoghurts showed that all the samples were contaminated with AFM(1) in concentration levels ranging from 4.2 to 78.9 ng/kg. In general, 16 samples (13.33%) had higher AFM(1) level than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/kg) accepted by European Union, but the contamination level was lower than 500 ng/kg in all the samples, which is accepted by Codex Alimentarius and National Standard. The concentration of AFM(1) in 26 samples (21.66) was lower than 10 ng/kg. The range of contamination of AFM(1) was comparatively higher in traditional yoghurt (average concentration of 32.9 ng/kg) than that in commercial yoghurt (average concentration of 21.6 ng/kg; p < 0.01). Because yoghurt is the most popular dairy product consumed in Iran, the AFM(1) contamination is a serious problem for public health. This study reports the data of a first survey on the presence of AFM1 in yoghurt in Guilan, Iran. PMID:22637575

Tabari, Mahsa; Tabari, Khashayar; Tabari, Orod

2013-02-01

222

High Torque Low Current Starter System for Synchronous Motor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Torque Low Current (HTLC Starter is the new innovative motor soft starter system. This is a motor starting method for high inertia loads using a low voltage drive with input and output transformers to control motor torque and limit current when starting a medium/high voltage motor. The HTLC is a solution to motor starting problems where Direct on Line (DOL or “Across the Line” starting is not feasible due to high in-rush current causing problems on the distribution system or where a reduced voltage starter cannot provide enough torque to achieve breakaway and accelerate the motor to full speed. The main features of HTLC starter system are reduction of starting inrush current from 600% to 10% and over 60% breakaway torque available during starting, significantly less costly than a fully rated VFD and multiple motors can be started from a single HTLC. This innovative motor soft starter system used in BPCL-Kochi Refinery for starting of 6MW Synchronous motor.

Dr.K.Ayyar

2014-01-01

223

Assessment of Quality Parameters in Curd and Yoghurt of Small Scale Processors in North Central Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a very high potential to produce processed dairy products in NorthCentral Province (NCP. But the lack of knowledge, technical support andless market demand are major constraints that this industry faces today. Toassess the quality parameters in curd and yoghurt of small scale processorswith respect to the Sri Lankan Standards and to give suggestions to improvethe quality and hygienic condition of their products are major objectives ofthis study. Therefore, a total of 28 small scale processors of curd and yoghurtwere selected randomly throughout the NCP, as 14 for each and analysedtheir products with respect to the Sri Lanka Standard Institution (SLSIstandards by using Sri Lanka Standard Institution (SLSI referencemethods. In curd, Milk solids not fat (MSNF, percent by mass and pH wereup to the level of SLSI (P0.05. Hygienic quality was moderate. In yoghurt,MSNF, percent by mass and milk fat, percent by mass were not up to thelevel of SLSI (P>0.05. Titratable acidity as lactic acid, percent by mass waspresented up to the standard (P<0.05. Hygienic quality was poor. As awhole the qualities of products are below the expected levels of SLSI,especially milk fat%, MSNF% and hygienic quality. It can be improved byusing high quality raw milk, proper storage, reducing the time between milkcollection and processing, paying much attention to the hygienic quality ofprocessing area as well as the processor and proper cleaning andsanitization.

Weerasekara, W.M.S.I.M.

2010-06-01

224

Probiotic yoghurt with inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization: physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stabilityIogurte probiótico com frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização: características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e estabilidade ao armazenamento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of the addition of inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization (DP on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stability (4°C for 28 days of nonfat probiotic yoghurt was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared using traditional lactic culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei as probiotic. The formulations contained inulin- type fructans of DP: low (P95 oligofructose, DP 5, medium (ST inulin, DP 10 or high (HP inulin, DP 23 in a concentration of 2g 100g of milk-1, meeting the current Brazilian legislation and, thus their claim of functional properties could be utilized; and were compared to a Normal formulation (without inulin-type fructans addition. The addition of inulin-type fructans with different DP did not alter the L*, a* and b* color parameters, the syneresis and the viability of the probiotic culture in yoghurts. Yoghurts with inulin-type fructans of low DP were more acidic (lower pH values and higher values of acidity. The high DP inulin caused a reduction in the firmness of yoghurt. The products contained Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei at concentrations higher than that recommended to consider them as probiotic foods throughout the storage period. The refrigerated storage resulted in decreased pH and viability of the probiotic culture and increased acidity and syneresis of yoghurt, regardless of the use of inulin-type fructans. It can be concluded that the addition of inulin-type fructans of different DP does not adversely affect the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of yoghurts and their stability to storage, thus, the selection of the type to be used depend on the purpose of the manufacturer and the intended use.Investigou-se o efeito da adição de frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização (DP nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e na estabilidade ao armazenamento (4oC por 28 dias de iogurtes probióticos desnatados. Os iogurtes foram preparados usando cultura lática tradicional (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus e Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei como probiótico. As formulações continham frutanos tipo inulina de DP: baixo (oligofrutose P95, DP 5, médio (inulina ST, DP 10 ou alto (inulina HP, DP 23, em uma concentração de 2g 100g de leite-1, de modo a atender a legislação brasileira vigente e assim, utilizar sua alegação de propriedade funcional; e foram comparadas a uma formulação Normal (sem adição de frutanos tipo inulina. A adição de frutanos tipo inulina com diferente DP não alterou os parâmetros L*, a* e b* de cor, a sinérese e a viabilidade da cultura probiótica dos iogurtes. Iogurtes com frutanos tipo inulina de baixo DP foram mais ácidos (menores valores de pH e maiores valores de acidez titulável. A inulina de alto DP ocasionou redução na firmeza dos iogurtes. Os produtos continham Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei em concentrações superiores às recomendadas para considerá-los como sendo probióticos durante todo o período de armazenamento. O armazenamento refrigerado resultou em diminuição do pH e da viabilidade da cultura probiótica e aumento da acidez titulável e da sinérese dos iogurtes, independentemente da utilização de frutanos tipo inulina. Conclui-se que a adição de frutanos tipo inulina de diferente DP não afeta negativamente as características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos iogurtes e sua estabilidade ao armazenamento; sendo assim, a seleção do tipo a ser utilizado dependerá do objetivo do fabricante e da intenção de uso.

Sandra Helena Prudencio

2012-06-01

225

Modeling of soft-starters for wind turbine applications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gurrently, the directly connected squirrelcage induction generator is the most widely used in wind turbine applications. They are normally equipped with a soft-starter in order to avoid inrush currents. A new method, which uses switching functions to simulate different connection types for soft-starter-fed induction generators, is presented in this paper. An ABC/abc model of the induction machine including the deep-bar effect is also shown. Based on the proposed method some simulation results during the grid connection of a large induction machine in wind turbine applications are finally shown and demonstrates the new tools. (au)

Iov, F.; Hansen, A.D. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Blaabjerg, F.; Teodorescu, R. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)

2003-07-01

226

INHIBITION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND / OR BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS DURING MILK FERMENTATION AND STORAGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Survival and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture (Sterptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrukii subsp. bulgaricus) and/ or probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis during milk fermentation to yoghurt and storage up to 12 days was studied. Adding S. aureus (initial count log 6.64/ ml) with LAB (initial count log 6.8/ ml) in milk during yoghurt processing and storage resulted in no significant change in the counts of both S. aureus an...

Al-delaimy, Khalaf S.; Hamamdeh, Yaser M.

2013-01-01

227

Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

DilekHeperkan

2013-06-01

228

Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) activities were estimated before and afte...

Al-wabel, N. A.; Mousa, H. M.; Omer, O. H.; Abdel-salam, A. M.

2008-01-01

229

Effect of Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on Growth and Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for Production of Probiotic Herbal Milk and Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactob...

2013-01-01

230

Starter with planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A starter is described for an internal combustion engine having a ring gear, the starter comprising: a starter motor having an armature shaft; a drive shaft extending in coaxial relation to the armature shaft, the drive shaft having a projection extending radially outwardly from an axial end of the drive shaft adjacent the armature shaft; a pinion in spline engagement with an outer periphery of the drive shaft and adapted to be in mesh with the ring gear of the internal combustion engine; a planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism comprising a sun gear formed on an outer periphery of an axial end portion of the armature shaft of the starter motor, Planetary gears rotatably mounted on the projection of the drive shaft so as to be in meshing engagement with the sun gear, and an internal gear disposed radially outwardly of the planetary gears so as to be in meshing engagement with the planetary gears. The planetary gear type speed reducing mechanism is operative to reduce the rotational speed of the armature shaft and transmit the rotation of the armature shaft to the drive shaft through the sun gear, the planetary gears and the internal gear; a center bracket comprising a cylindrical portion supported through a bearing by an outer periphery of one of the drive shaft and the armature shaft, and a disc-shaped portion extending radially outwardly from an axial end of the cylindrical portion; and a shock absorber unit.

Imamura, T.; Yukawa, Y.

1987-01-13

231

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais / Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Fo [...] ram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were u [...] sed and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos, Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva, Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva, Rosa; Bárbara Amorim, Silva.

232

Comparative Study on the Physico-chemical Composition of Industrial Yoghurt and Indigenous Dahi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of industrial yoghurt and conventional made dahi. According to the statistical analysis non-significant differences were observed in pH values and acidity percentage amongst all types of dahi samples, but significant differences were observed in fat and total solids percentages. The highest total solids and fat percentage was recorded from the sample C with an average of 13.81150 ± 0.20178 and 5.071 ± 0.123364, respectively where as lowest total solids and fat percentage was recorded from sample A with an average of 12.348 ± 0.1202419 and 2.48 ± 0.0504891, respectively. According to the results of organoleptic evaluation the maximum score was given by the panel of judges to sample C.

A.H. Soomro

2003-01-01

233

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro, com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente, e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente, em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC, cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia.Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm, varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias

2013-03-01

234

Oxalate Content of Stir Fried Silver Beet Leaves (Beta Vulgaris Var. Cicla with and without Additions of Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total and soluble oxalic acids were extracted and analysed by HPLC chromatography following Asian cooking methods, which involved soaking, boiling and stir frying of silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla leaves. Autumn-grown silver beet leaves contained 1658 ± 114 mg/100 g dry matter (DM of total oxalates, 954 ± 49 mg/100 g DM of soluble oxalates and 704 ± 98 mg/ 100 g DM insoluble oxalates. Soaking and boiling before stir frying reduced the soluble oxalate contents to a mean of 455 mg/100 g DM. Addition of standard or low fat yoghurt following the pre-treatments of soaking, boiling, stir frying and soaking, boiling and stir frying further reduced the soluble oxalate content to a mean of 190.8 ± 49.8 and 227.5. ± 47.0, respectively, for the standard and low fat yoghurt mixes.

Evelyn Teo

2012-01-01

235

Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0. The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2 and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work.

Liliana Albertengo

2011-07-01

236

Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

2011-01-01

237

Low-fat yoghurt intake in pregnancy associated with increased child asthma and allergic rhinitis risk: a prospective cohort study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dairy products are important sources of micronutrients, fatty acids and probiotics which could modify the risk of child asthma and allergy development. To examine the association of dairy product intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years in the Danish National Birth Cohort, data on milk and yoghurt consumption were collected in mid-pregnancy (25th week of gestation) using a validated FFQ (n 61 909). At 18 months, we evaluated asthma and wheeze us...

Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

2012-01-01

238

Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of ?-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

2012-03-15

239

Partial identification of water-soluble peptides released at early stages of proteolysis in sterilized ovine cheese-like systems: influence of type of coagulant and starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cheese-like systems were manufactured from sterilized ovine milk, using crude aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus or cardosin A isolated therefrom as clotting agent. The effect of adding a commercial starter culture was also assessed. The impact of the type of coagulant used during the initial 24 h of proteolysis was evaluated via separation of peptides in the water-soluble extracts by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by partial sequencing via Edman degradation. Cardosin A accounted for most events of primary proteolysis. The major cleavage sites were Phe105-Met106 in kappa-casein, and Leu127-Thr128, Ser142-Trp143, Leu165-Ser166, and Leu190-Tyr191 in beta-casein. The starter culture did not play an active role during the initial stages of ripening. PMID:15905424

Silva, S V; Malcata, F X

2005-06-01

240

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C. Marques

2009-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

SPARKLING WINE PRODUCTION BY CHAMPENOISE METHOD IN LOMBARDY REGION: YEAST POPULATION BIODIVERSITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INDIGENOUS SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AS POTENTIAL STARTERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sparkling wine obtained through the Champenoise method represents a relevant cultural and outstanding economical fact in Italy. There are two Lombardy sparkling wines belonging to DOCG: (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) Franciacorta DOCG and Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico which high quality production is remarkable. Commercial starters belonging to Saccharomyces species currently used in Italy for sparkling wine production have been isolated from French territories on the ba...

2012-01-01

242

Partial identification of water-soluble peptides released at early stages of proteolysis in sterilized ovine cheese-like systems: Influence of type of coagulant and starter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cheese-like systems were manufactured from sterilized ovine milk, using crude aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus or cardosin A isolated therefrom as clotting agent. The effect of adding a commercial starter culture was also assessed. The impact of the type of coagulant used during the initial 24 h of proteolysis was evaluated via separation of peptides in the watersoluble extracts by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by partial sequencing via Edman degradation. Cardosin A accounted fo...

Silva, S. V.; Malcata, F. X.

2005-01-01

243

Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n?=?67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p?=?0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p?=?0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1?±?2.3?ms) and recovery index (106.6?±?33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5?±?2.2?ms and 80.0?±?29.3) (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping. PMID:24490888

Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

2014-06-01

244

Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with benefic [...] ial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and in the fermented product have been studied by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results show that XRF technique has been successfully used for determination of minerals content in dairy products, still for trace species. The minerals measures were validated with other analytical techniques with high accuracy and versatility as inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and atomic emission spectrometry (EEA). Furthermore the proteins content was increased 13 % and lactose content has been reduced in 30 %, in compared with some commercial products.

A.N., Rinaldoni; M.E., Campderrós; A., Pérez Padilla; E., Perino; J.E., Fernández.

245

Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST activities were estimated before and after alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Obtained results showed that blood glucose levels in sera of treated rats fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture decreased with mean values of 135.0 ± 26.85 mg/100 mL serum compared with the treated rat fed on basal diet (positive control with mean value of 237.66 ± 14.43 mg/100 mL serum. Data showed that ALT and AST activities in sera of treated rat fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were nearest to the level of un-treated rats fed basal diet (negative control. The means values of ALT and AST level in treated group fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were 57.33 ± 20 and 189.33 ± 48.85 compared with the positive control 90 ± 31.76 and 260.00 ± 57.27 and negative control 44.66 ± 9.5 and 180.66 ± 23.58 U L-1, respectively. Data concluded that mixture of medicinal plant extracts and stirred yoghurt filtrate may play a role in protection against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rat.

N.A. Al-Wabel

2008-01-01

246

Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: Karakteristik Kimiawi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was designed to improve quality of dadih in a process which was more controlled. The use of cow milk was to replace buffalo milk utilization due to its availability was very limited; the use of probiotic starter combination was to conduct fermentation process of dadih more controlled, and the specific characteristics of dadih could be measured. Therefore the aim of this experiment was to evaluate the best starter concentration that will be used in fermentation process of dadih and to investigate chemical characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combination of probiotic starter bacteria (L. plantarum (A1, L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2, L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3 and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4 and stored at low temperatures for 0, 7 and 14 days. The results showed that the best starter concentration was 3% with similar comparison among starters and the combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly moisture, protein, fat, ash contents, pH and titratable acidity of dadih at H-0 (before storage. The characteristics of dadih after storing for 14 days at low temperature showed that combinations of starter affected significantly pH and titratable acidity (P<0.01. However these variables were not affected by storage time. Protein, moisture and fat contents were not affected by starter combinations and storage time; ash content was affect significantly by storage time but not by starter combination. It is concluded that all dadih produced by different starter combinations have no significant differences in chemical characteristics, but dadih produced by starter combination A4 has more advantages in probiotic content.

E. Taufik

2004-12-01

247

Instant Django 1.5 application development starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

Rocco, Mauro

2013-01-01

248

Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

1994-05-22

249

Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ design verification activities are being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

1994-05-22

250

Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Serial Wound Starter Motor with Learning Vector Quantization Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a Graphical User Interface (GUI software for real time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of serial wound starter motors has been developed using Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ neural network. The starter motors are serial wound dc motors which enable the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE to run. When the starter motor fault occurs, the ICE cannot be run. Therefore, condition monitoring and pre-diagnosis of starter motor faults are important. The information of voltages and currents is acquired from the starter motor via data acquisition card and transferred to the program. With this program using LVQ network, six faults observed in the starter motors were successfully detected and diagnosed in real time. The GUI software makes it possible to condition monitoring and diagnose the faults in starter motors before they occur by keeping fault records of the past occurrences. This system can be used in service shops and in test departments of starter motor manufacturers. In addition, this system has potential to be used for real time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of vehicles with the help of industrial computers.

R. Bayir

2008-01-01

251

Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains to use as starters in fermented table olives: Oleuropeinase activity and phage sensitivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented table olives (Olea europaea L.) are largely diffused in the Mediterranean area. Olives are picked at different stages of maturity and after harvesting, processed to eliminate the characteristic bitterness caused by the presence of the oleuropein glucoside and to become suitable for human consumption. The spontaneous fermentation of table olives mainly depends on lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and in particular on Lactobacillus plantarum which plays an important role in the degradation of oleuropein. The hydrolysis of oleuropein is attributed to the ?-glucosidase and esterase activities of the indigenous LAB microflora. This study investigated the potential of L. plantarum strains isolated from dairy products and olives to be used as starters for fermented table olives. Forty-nine strains were typed by RAPD-PCR and investigated for the presence of the ?-glucosidase (bglH) gene. The full sequence of the bglH gene was carried out. All the 49 L. plantarum strains were also tested for phage resistance. A total of six strains were selected on the basis of genotypic polymorphism, bglH gene sequence analysis, and phage resistance profile. These strains were further characterized to assess the acidifying capability, the growth at different temperatures, the tolerance to different NaCl concentrations, and the oleuropeinolytic activity. Although further characterizations are required, especially concerning the influence on sensory properties, L. plantarum proved to have the potential to be used as a debittering and fermentative agent in starter culture for fermented table olives. PMID:23498181

Zago, Miriam; Lanza, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

2013-05-01

252

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C. Marques

2009-01-01

253

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players particip [...] ated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

Marques, M.C.; Marinho, D.A..

254

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H Malik

2012-12-01

255

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige [...] was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

Malik, A.H; Holm, L; Johansson, E.

256

Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO) and tallow (T) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to det [...] ermine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P

VB, Fascina; AS, Carrijo; KMR, Souza; AML, Garcia; C, Kiefer; JR, Sartori.

257

Evaluation of wheat gluten in milk replacers and calf starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two trials were conducted to evaluate wheat gluten as an ingredient in calf feeds. In one trial, Holstein bull calves (n = 120) were assigned for 6 wk to one of five milk replacers, which contained different percentages of CP and different percentages of protein furnished from soluble wheat gluten. Within a given protein percentage, BW gains of calves were not affected by the percentage of protein that was supplied as wheat gluten. Calves fed milk replacer containing 18% CP with 33% wheat gluten gained as much as calves fed replacers containing 20% CP. In another trial, newborn Holstein calves (n = 62) were used. Protein supplements of the calf starters used until 7 wk of age were either soybean meal or spray-dried wheat gluten and soybean meal. No significant differences were observed between the two treatments. Also, no significant carry-over effect occurred when all calves received a common diet from 7 to 10 wk of age. PMID:8872721

Terui, H; Morrill, J L; Higgins, J J

1996-07-01

258

Controlled mixed culture fermentation: a new perspective on the use of non-Saccharomyces yeasts in winemaking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mixed fermentations using controlled inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter cultures and non-Saccharomyces yeasts represent a feasible way towards improving the complexity and enhancing the particular and specific characteristics of wines. The profusion of selected starter cultures has allowed the more widespread use of inoculated fermentations, with consequent improvements to the control of the fermentation process, and the use of new biotechnological processes in wine...

2010-01-01

259

Redox Interactions between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces uvarum in Mixed Culture under Enological Conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wine yeast starters that contain a mixture of different industrial yeasts with various properties may soon be introduced to the market. The mechanisms underlying the interactions between the different strains in the starter during alcoholic fermentation have never been investigated. We identified and investigated some of these interactions in a mixed culture containing two yeast strains grown under enological conditions. The inoculum contained the same amount (each) of a strain of Saccharomyc...

Cheraiti, Naoufel; Guezenec, Ste?phane; Salmon, Jean-michel

2005-01-01

260

Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

Stojkovi?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; Ciri?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Sokovi?, Marina

2014-07-25

 
 
 
 
261

Method validation for aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt using immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yoghurt is a popular dairy product in Iran because of its beneficial influence on human health and nutritional value. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the metabolite of potential carcinogen aflatoxin B1, which can contaminate milk through the feed and is not eliminated by common processing heat treatment. An analytical method using immunoaffinity column for extraction and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification was developed for AFM1 in this study. An HPLC method with fluorimetric detection for the determination of AFM1 in yoghurt milk has been optimized and validated according to Commission Decision BS EN ISO 14501: 2007 by using the conventional validation approach. The procedure for determining selectivity, recovery, precision, decision limit (CC?) and detection capability (CC?) of the method has been reported. The results of the validation process demonstrate the agreement of the method with the provisions of Commission Regulation 401: 2006:EC. A new HPLC method with fluorescence detection was developed to determine aflatoxin M1. The detection limit was 1 ng/kg for yoghurt. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 3.0 ?g l?¹ injected. The method includes a preliminary clean-up and the average recoveries determined on three different days at the concentration levels of 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 ?g kg?¹ were in the range of 72.57%-86.66% with RSD in the range of 2.56%-8.41%. The interday and interlevel mean recovery value, which has been used to correct routine analysis results, was 80%. The method is rapid, easily automatable and therefore useful for accurate and precise screening of aflatoxin M1 in yoghurt. PMID:21385770

Tabari, Mahsa; Karim, Guity; Ghavami, Mehrdad; Chamani, Mohammad

2011-08-01

262

Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep milk production systems. PMID:22004605

Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

2011-11-01

263

Anti-Listeria starters: in vitro selection and production plant evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-Listeria bacterial starters are highly demanded by the meat industry. Novel bioprotective anti-Listeria starters were searched among Lactobacillus species strains isolated from artisanal sausages. The screening confirmed that anti-Listeria activity is a strain-specific property and yielded only 1 strain (of 36) exhibiting a satisfactory level of inhibition, L. delbrueckii WC0286. This strain was compared with two commercial bioprotective starters, SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20, in a model simulating in vitro the first step of the fermentation process. The presence of the bioprotective starters did not modify the pH in such a way that could affect the safety or organoleptic properties of the product. Both SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20 effected an important reduction of Listeria counts (0.56 and 0.72 log CFU g(-1), respectively, in 72 h), while the anti-Listeria effect of L. delbrueckii WC0286 was minor (0.15 log CFU g(-1)). These results discouraged the utilization of L. delbrueckii WC0286 for a challenge test in a pilot salami production, in favor of the best-performing bioprotective starter, SafePro B-LC-20. The test confirmed that SafePro B-LC-20 did not alter the acidification trend of sausages and was capable of inhibiting Listeria, which decreased by 1.21 log CFU g(-1). This information is relevant to address research activity toward the development of new bioprotective starters. The data herein presented demonstrate that the efficacy in Listeria control of potentially bioprotective bacterial starters requires further validation in real meat matrixes, possibly by using in vitro meat fermentation experiments to narrow down the list of candidates before pilot scale challenge tests. PMID:24780342

Raimondi, Stefano; Popovic, Mina; Amaretti, Alberto; Di Gioia, Diana; Rossi, Maddalena

2014-05-01

264

The Optimum Protein Content in High-Energy Starter Diet for Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar chukar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimum protein content in high-energy starter diet was investigated in the experiment. The birds were fed one of the 6 isocaloric (3200 kcal/kg Metabolizable energy diets containing 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 % protein from hatch to 8 weeks of age. Body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of partridges were examined in the experiment. There were no significant effects of the protein content in high-energy starter diet on the body weight at any age. According to the result of the present experiment chukar chicks does not need high protein in high-energy starter diet when with supplemented methionine and lysine. The best results of feed conversion and feed consumption were observed in partridges fed 24 % protein.

Kasim Ozek

2006-01-01

265

Rheology of spreadable goat cheese made with autochthonous lactic cultures differing in their ability to produce exopolysaccharides  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to compare the rheology of spreadable cheeses elaborated with autochthonous lactic starter cultures without the addition of exopolysaccharide-producing strain in the same starter with exopolysaccharide-producing strain. From a rheological standpoint, both samples were characterized as weak viscoelastic gels and pseudoplastic products. It was concluded that cheese made with exopolysaccharide-producing strain showed smaller G', G", and ?* values over the range of ...

Frau Silvia Florencia

2013-01-01

266

Antibacterial Activities of Nisin Z Encapsulated in Liposomes or Produced In Situ by Mixed Culture during Cheddar Cheese Ripening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated both the activity of nisin Z, either encapsulated in liposomes or produced in situ by a mixed starter, against Listeria innocua, Lactococcus spp., and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and the distribution of nisin Z in a Cheddar cheese matrix. Nisin Z molecules were visualized using gold-labeled anti-nisin Z monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (immune-TEM). Experimental Cheddar cheeses were made using a nisinogenic mixed starter culture, containi...

Benech, R. -o; Kheadr, E. E.; Lacroix, C.; Fliss, I.

2002-01-01

267

Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186

Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh

2008-12-10

268

How Does "Time-on-Task" Affect the Achievement of Early and Late Starters of Indonesian in Schools?  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Australian education context, there are typically two cohorts of language learners at the secondary school level, those who commence their study of the target language early in their primary schooling (early starters), and those who commence their study later, at the beginning of secondary school (late starters). The two groups may have…

Kohler, Michelle

2012-01-01

269

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

Am, Kessler; Ds, Lubisco; Mm, Vieira; Aml, Ribeiro; Am, Penz Jr

2009-01-01

270

Effect of Diet Dilution in the Starter Period on Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chicks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of energy and protein dilution in the starter period (8 to 14 days) of age, on performance and carcass characteristics of 360 Arian male chicks was studied in a completely randomized design. This experiment consisted of 6 treatments, 4 replicates, with 15 chicks per replicate. In order to dilute the diets six levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20) percent of ground wood charcoal was used. Chicks were fed with starter and grower diet from 15 to 21 and 22 to 42 days of age respectiv...

Teimouri, A.; Rezaei, M.; Pourreza, J.; Sayyahzadeh, H.; Waldroup, P. W.

2005-01-01

271

EFFECT OF DIET DILUTION IN THE STARTER PERIOD ON PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of energy and protein dilution in the starter period (8 to 14 days) of age, on performance and carcass characteristics of 360 Arian male chicks was studied in a completely randomised design. This experiment consisted of 6 treatments, 4 replicates, with 15 chicks per replicate. In order to dilute the diets six levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20) percent of ground wood charcoal was used. Chicks were fed with starter and grower diet from 15 to 21 and 22 to 42 days of age respectively. Du...

Rezaei, M.; Teimouri, A.; Pourreza, J.; Sayyahzadeh, H.; Waldroup, P.

2006-01-01

272

Selection and use of autochthonous mixed starter for lactic acid fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella soli/Weissella koreensis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus fermentum were identified from raw carrots, French beans and marrows by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. L. plantarum M1, Leuc. mesenteroides C1 and P. pentosaceus F4 were selected based on the rates of growth and acidification in vegetable juice media, and used as the autochthonous mixed starter for the fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows. An allochthonous starter, consisting of the same species, was also used for fermentation. A two-step fermentation process (1 day at 25 degrees C and 7 days at 15 degrees C) in brine (1% w/v) followed by storage at room temperature in olive oil until 40 days was set up. Unstarted vegetables subjected to the same treatments were used as the controls. Cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the started vegetables were ca. 10,000 (autochthonous starter) and 1000 (allochthonous starter) times higher than unstarted samples throughout the process. When fermented with the autochthonous starter, carrots, French beans or marrows were characterized by the rapid decrease of pH (<4.5), marked consumption of fermentable carbohydrates, and inhibition of Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts. Fermentation with the allochthonous starter did not acidify and inhibit bacteria and yeasts so rapidly. After 40 days, carrots, French beans and marrows fermented with the autochthonous starter had significantly (P<0.05) higher total concentration of vitamin C (ascorbate+dehydroascorbate) with respect to those fermented with the allochthonous starter and, especially unstarted vegetables. The same was found for the indexes of color. Firmness of both started vegetables was higher than unstarted vegetables. Sensory analysis differentiated started vegetables. Carrots and French beans fermented with the autochthonous starter were, especially, appreciated for fragrance. Appearance was the sensory attribute that mainly distinguished marrows fermented with the autochthonous starter. PMID:18710789

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda F; Siragusa, Sonya; De Angelis, Maria; Paradiso, Annalisa; Minervini, Fabio; De Gara, Laura; Gobbetti, Marco

2008-10-31

273

Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the first phase of fermentation. Next, lactic acid bacteria increased in relative abundance, resulting in an increase of the acidity of Daqu. At the final stages of fermentation, Bacillus spp. and thermophilic fungi became the dominant groups, possibly due to their tolerance to low water activity and high temperature. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses confirmed that Bacillus spp. were ubiquitous throughout the process. Yeast species such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii were present throughout almost the entire fermentation process, but the zygomycetous fungus Lichtheimia corymbifera proliferated only during the final stages of fermentation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the significance of acidity, moisture content and temperature in correlation with the composition of the microbial communities at different stages. PMID:24863368

Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

2014-07-16

274

Microbial diversity of the traditional Iranian cheeses Lighvan and Koozeh, as revealed by polyphasic culturing and culture-independent approaches  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbiota of two traditional Iranian cheeses (Lighvan and Koozeh) made of raw ewe's milk or mixtures of ewe's and goat's milk without starter addition was explored by culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Three batches of Lighvan and one of Koozeh were subjected to culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through manufacturing ...

Edalatian, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Bagher Habibi; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali; Alegri?a, A?ngel; Nassiri, Mohammad Reza; Reza Bassami, Mohammad; Mayo, Baltasar

2012-01-01

275

Genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1, isolated from Chinese vinegar fermentation starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China. PMID:21551293

Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

2011-07-01

276

Synbiotic synthesis of oligosaccharides during milk fermentation by addition of leuconostoc starter and sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Synthesis of oligosaccharides during milk fermentation was attempted by inoculating Leuconostoc citreum with Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus as starters. Dextransucrase of Ln. citreum worked as a catalyst for the transglycosylation reaction of sugars; sucrose was added as the glucose donor, and lactose or maltose acted as the acceptor compound for the reaction. When 4% sucrose was added in milk, glucosyl-lactose was synthesized (about 1%, w/v) after 1-2 days of fermentation at 15 or 25 degrees C. Alternatively, when sucrose and maltose (2% each, w/v) were added, panose (about 1%, w/v) and other isomaltooligosaccharides were made in a day at 15-35 degrees C. Growth patterns of lactobacilli and streptococci starters were not affected by the coculture of leuconostoc starter, but the rate of acid synthesis was slightly slowed at every temperature. Addition of sugars in milk did not give any adverse effect on the lactate fermentation. Accordingly, the use of leuconostoc starter and addition of sugars in milk allowed the production of oligosaccharides-containing fermented milk, and application of this method will facilitate the extensive development of synbiotic lactate foods. PMID:18092458

Seo, Dong Mi; Kim, So-Young; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Han, Nam Soo

2007-11-01

277

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter  

Science.gov (United States)

Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26.

Kot, W. P.; Hansen, L. H.; S?rensen, S. J.; Broadbent, J. R.; Vogensen, F. K.; Ardo, Y.

2014-01-01

278

Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs - capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-01-01

279

Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

2011-01-01

280

Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs – capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter.

Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Adjunct starter properties affect characteristic features of Swiss-type cheeses.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of microorganisms, both starter microorganisms and non-starter lactic acid bacteria originating from the base milk, or from various contamination sources during cheese manufacture, is associated with cheese ripening and the formation of flavour, texture and aroma. Under controlled conditions, Emmental and Bergkäse, a Gruyère-type cheese variety, were produced from pasteurised milk with standard starters and defined strains of facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli (FHL), and partly with addition of a defined mixture of enterococci. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and L. rhamnosus (two strains each) were selected with respect to their potential for the utilisation of citric acid and ribose as sole energy source. The FHL developed up to 10(8) cfu/g within the first weeks of ripening, and viable counts in mature cheeses were 10(7) cfu/g, independent of the cheese variety. Bergkäse made with addition of L. rhamnosus strains showed a more pronounced proteolysis, resulting in reduced firmness and elasticity values of the cheese body, and FHL strains able to utilise citric acid improved the appearance of the cheeses by increasing the number of small eyes to the desired level. In Emmental cheese, the citric acid (+) strains reduced the intensity of propionic acid formation as the FHL apparently competed with the propionibacteria, and enterococci disappeared completely during maturation. Although further work is needed the study shows that, depending on the cheese variety, particular properties of FHL adjunct starters significantly affect important quality attributes of the resulting cheeses. PMID:15053357

Weinrichter, Brigitte; Sollberger, Heinz; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

2004-02-01

282

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26. PMID:24903867

Pedersen, T B; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, S J; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

2014-01-01

283

Dallas area rapid transit LRT starter line assessment study design. Final research report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Light rail transit (LRT) systems have recently been implemented in a number of urban areas throughout the United States and additional projects are in various stages of planning and development. Questions have been raised concerning the impact of these systems on ridership levels, transit operating costs, regional mobility, land use, economic development, energy, air quality, congestion levels, and other factors. The implementation of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) LRT starter line provides the opportunity to assess the impact of an LRT system in a Southwestern city in the United States. This research project was undertaken to assist with the development of a comprehensive study design for assessing the effects of the DART LRT starter line. To accomplish this objective, a review was conducted of before-and-after studies of recent LRT, heavy rail, and high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) projects. The goals and objectives of the DART system were also reviewed and existing transportation-related data collection activities in the Dallas area were examined. This information was used to develop a preliminary study design for assessing the effects of the DART LRT starter line. This report documents the review of recent before-and-after studies and presents the preliminary study design for assessing the effects of the DART LRT starter line.

Shunk, G.A.; Turnbull, K.F.; Lindquist, N.F.

1995-03-01

284

Viability of Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus in Starter Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the viability of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium infantis in starter milk, using time and temperature as variables, as well as to evaluate the viability of these micro-organisms over other bacteria normally found in milk, such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis.

Maldonado L.

2003-01-01

285

Inhibition of Listeria innocua in Cheddar Cheese by Addition of Nisin Z in Liposomes or by In Situ Production in Mixed Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of addition of purified nisin Z in liposomes to cheese milk and of in situ production of nisin Z by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL719 in the mixed starter on the inhibition of Listeria innocua in cheddar cheese was evaluated during 6 months of ripening. A cheese mixed starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL719 was selected for high-level nisin Z and acid production. Experimental cheddar cheeses were produced on a...

Benech, R. -o; Kheadr, E. E.; Laridi, R.; Lacroix, C.; Fliss, I.

2002-01-01

286

Probiotics Bacteria from Egyptian Infants cause Cholesterol Removal in Media and Survive in Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the most significant groups of probiotic organisms are the lactic acid bacteria, commonly used in fermented dairy products. In this study, cultures were isolated from two infants. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, four promising isolates were identified as two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (P106, P110), strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (P164) and Lactobacillus. pentosus (P191)which were tested for capability to remove cholesterol and to deconjug...

Hoda Mahrous

2011-01-01

287

Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strain 4882, Isolated from a Dairy Starter Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The nonstarter lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides is a species widely found in the dairy industry and plays a key role in the formation of aromatic compounds. Here, we report the first genome sequence of a dairy strain of Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, which is 2 Mb.

Meslier, Victoria; Loux, Valentin; Renault, Pierre

2012-01-01

288

Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains for their use as starter cultures in Algerian olive fermentations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate some technological traits of L. plantarum strains previously isolated from fermented olives. For this purpose, 11 strains were tested for their in vitro antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH values, acidifying activity, proteolytic activity, haemolytic activity, lactic acid and exopolysaccharide production and resistance to freeze-drying .Collectively, the strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested and showed survival at pH 2. Most strains showed high (1.035 ± 0.29 to 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l ± sd of lactic acid or medium (0.556 ± 0.29 to 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l ±sd acidification activity with good proteolytic activity (1.49 ± 0.25 to 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tyrosine. None of the strains produced exopolysaccharides or haemolysis in sheep's blood.El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunos aspectos tecnológicos de cepas de L. plantarum previamente aisladas de aceitunas fermentadas. Para este propósito, 11 cepas fueron usadas para estudiar su susceptibilidad a antibióticos in vitro, resistencia a valores de pH bajos, actividad acidificante, proteolítica, y hemolítica, producción de ácido láctico y exopolisacáridos, y resistencia a la liofilización. En general, las cepas fueron susceptibles a la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados y mostraron supervivencia a pH 2. La mayoría de las cepas mostraron una actividad de acidificación alta (1.035 ± 0.29 a 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l de ácido láctico o media (0.556 ± 0.29 a 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l con una buena actividad proteolítica (1.49 ± 0.25 a 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tirosina. Ninguna de las cepas produjo exopolisacáridos o hemolisis en sangre de oveja.

Mokhbi, Abdelouahab

2009-03-01

289

Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns.

Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

1980-01-01

290

The selection of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starter cultures for Ting production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the traditional foods in Africa are fermented before consumption. Fermentation is an old technology; however, during this process, especially in traditional fermented cereal based products with special emphasis on Ting, there is very little control involved during the processes. Fermentation is thus left to chance inoculation from the environment. Ting is a sorghum based product that is a result of LAB fermentation and has 0.6-0.7% lactic acid with a final pH of 3.5-4.0. However, ther...

2005-01-01

291

Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion...

2002-01-01

292

Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

Aran H-Kittikun

2008-04-01

293

Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli From Cheese, Yoghurt and Silage by 16S rDNA Gene and Study of Bacteriocin and Biosurfactant Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Background: The Lactobacilli belong to lactic acid bacteria, whose primary fermentation end product from sugars is lactic acid and that is why foods are conserved. Lactic acid bacteria have been used for millennia in the production of silage. Therefore, they are an indispensable part of intestinal microflora in human and animals. .Objectives: This research meant to isolate lactic acid bacteria with significant effects from different environments. .Materials and Methods: In this study, heterofermentative LAB were isolated from cheese, yoghurt and corn silage in Broujerd ,Iran. The standard biochemical methods were applied. Acid tolerance was studied by exposure to acidic PBS and growth in bile salt was measured by the spectrophotometric method. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on environment isolated E.coli, bacteriocin and biosurfactant production. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and amplified by PCR method. .Results: The 3 isolates from cheese, yoghurt and silage were effective against isolated E.coli and could produce biosurfactants. Phylogenic relationships of the 3 potential candidates were determined comparing the 16Sr DNA gene sequences, they were found to be as 3 isolates of Lactobacillus buchneri, L.brevis and L.kefiri that were effective on the isolated E.coli from environment. .Conclusions: It was found that the isolated bacteria produced biosurfactants that had a great potential for different industries.

Sharareh Peymanfar

2012-09-01

294

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

Zahra Esfandiari

2013-08-01

295

Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG) with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC) adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70%) of adults living in Québec (Canada) m...

Diane Bélanger; Pierre Gosselin; Pierre Valois; Stéphane Germain; Belkacem Abdous

2009-01-01

296

Non starter lactic acid bacteria during cheese ripening: survival, growth and production of molecules potentially involved in aroma formation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I batteri lattici (LAB) costituiscono un gruppo eterogeneo di batteri tradizionalmente utilizzati nella produzione di formaggi. Essi possono svolgere diversi ruoli durante la caseificazione, gli starter LAB (SLAB) sono i protagonisti del processo di fermentazione, mentre i non starter LAB (NSLAB) esplicano il loro ruolo durante la maturazione del formaggio. Il lavoro di ricerca di questo dottorato si è focalizzato sullo studio del contributo dei NSLAB durante la stagionatura del formaggio. I...

2012-01-01

297

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performa...

2012-01-01

298

Differences between Cheddar cheese manufactured by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods using different commercial starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, Cheddar cheese is made by the milled-curd method. However, because of the mechanization of cheese making and time constraints, the stirred-curd method is more commonly used by many large-scale commercial manufacturers. This study was undertaken to evaluate quality differences during ripening (at 2 and 8 degrees C) of Cheddar cheese made by the milled-curd and stirred-curd methods, using 4 different commercial starters. Twenty-four vats (4 starters x 2 methods x 3 replicates) were made, with approximately 625 kg of pasteurized (72 degrees C x 16 s) whole milk in each vat. Fat, protein, and salt contents of the cheeses were not affected by the starter. Starter cell densities in cheese were not affected by the method of manufacture. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria counts at 90, 180, and 270 d were influenced by the manufacturing method, with a higher trend in milled-curd cheeses. Proteolysis in cheese (percentage of water-soluble N) was influenced by the starter and manufacturing method (270 d). Sensory analysis by a trained descriptive panel (n = 8) revealed differences in cooked, whey, sulfur, brothy, milk fat, umami, and bitter attributes caused by the starter, whereas only brothy flavor was influenced by storage temperature. The method of manufacture influenced diacetyl, sour, and salty flavors. PMID:18096927

Shakeel-ur-Rehman; Drake, M A; Farkye, N Y

2008-01-01

299

Effects of lasalocid in milk replacer of calf starter on health and performance of calves challenged with Eimeria species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Holstein bull calves (n = 48) were purchased from local sale barns at 3 to 7 d of age and were assigned randomly to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of lasalocid in milk replacer (0 or 80 mg/kg) and in calf starter (3 or 44 mg/kg of dry matter). On d 10 after arrival, calves were orally dosed with 100,000 Eimeria oocysts. Intakes of calf starter and milk replacer, body weight (BW), BW gain, excretion of fecal oocysts, and fecal scores were determined. Calves fed lasalocid in milk replacer consumed more calf starter, had greater BW gain, shed fewer oocysts in feces, and scoured less frequently and less severely than did calves fed no lasalocid or those fed lasalocid in calf starter alone. The combination of lasalocid in milk replacer and in calf starter did not improve performance above that of calves fed lasalocid in milk replacer alone. Low intake of calf starter prior to weaning may provide an insufficient amount of lasalocid to control effectively the effects of coccidiosis when calves are infected with Eimeria at an early age. Use of coccidiostats in milk replacers may reduce the effects of coccidiosis in young calves that are infected with Eimeria at an early age. PMID:9406090

Quigley, J D; Drewry, J J; Murray, L M; Ivey, S J

1997-11-01

300

Effect of Rhizobia Inoculation and Starter-N on Nodulation, Shoot Biomass and Yield of Grain Legumes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted in Kenya at the University of Nairobi’s Field Station in 2004 long and short rains to determine the effect of rhizobia inoculation and starter-N on nodulation, shoot biomass and yield of selected grain legumes. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., green gram (Vigna radiata L., pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. and lablab (Lablab purpureus L. were uninoculated, inoculated with appropriate rhizobia, or supplied with 26 kg N ha-1 as starter-N. Rhizobia inoculation had no effect on nodule numbers in both seasons. Starter-N suppressed nodule numbers only in the long rains at 4 weeks after emergence. In general, common bean had higher nodule numbers and nodule biomass than other legumes while lima bean registered fewest nodules. Rhizobia inoculation improved nodule biomass in short rains at 6 weeks after emergence, while starter-N had no effect on nodule biomass in both seasons. Inoculation and starter-N had no effect on shoot biomass and grain yield in both seasons. Lablab, common bean and lima bean had higher shoot biomass than other legumes in both seasons. In long rains, lima bean produced highest grain yield followed by common bean while the converse was the case in short rains. Pigeon pea and green gram performed poorest in short rains. It was concluded that it might not be necessary to inoculate or apply starter-N to legumes under soil conditions prevailing in the current study.

George N. Chemining`wa

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Fuzzy and ANFIS based soft starter fed induction motor drive for high performance applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soft starters are used with induction motors in blowers, fans, pumps and the crane hoist drives. AC voltage controllers are used as soft starters in induction motors for starting and to adjust its speed. This paper highlights the intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy and Neuro fuzzy based ac voltage controllers to generate the firing pulses for appropriate thyristors for any given operating torque, speed of the motor and the load. FUZZY and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System models have been designed to achieve the proposed algorithm. MATLAB/SIMULINK package was used to simulate the proposed methods. Simulation results presented in this paper explain the advantages of proposed soft starting methods over conventional method. The advantages of intelligent methods proposed in this paper are its simplicity, stability, accuracy and fast response.

L. Rajaji

2008-08-01

302

A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

2013-10-01

303

Determination of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cheddar cheese produced without starter activity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three variants of the chloramine-T radioiodination method were used to iodinate staphylococcal enterotoxin A with 125I. Only one method consistently produced usable labels for radioimmunoassay. The iodine incorporation was 55 to 76%; the specific activity was 3.5 to 5.5 muCi/microgram of enterotoxin, and the label was extremely stable on storage at -20 degrees C. Determinations of the enterotoxin in extracts of cheddar cheese produced without starter activity were carried out with the radioim...

Ibrahim, G. F.; Radford, H. M.; Fell, L. R.

1980-01-01

304

THE RESPONSE OF ACETOBACTER SENEGALENSIS TO STRESSORS: A STUDY TOWARDS IMPROVEMENT OF VINEGAR STARTER PRODUCTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acetic acid bacteria encounter various harsh conditions during acetic acid fermentation. Ethanol as the main substrate and acetic acid as the major product at low pH can influence deeply on the cellular functions of acetic acid bacteria. In previous studies in CWBI, Acetobacter senegalensis was used for production of dried vinegar starters; however the impact of stressors (ethanol and acetic acid) on A. senegalensis remained unclear. In this study, different techniques...

Shafiei, Rasoul; Thonart, Philippe

2012-01-01

305

Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneo...

2005-01-01

306

Investigation of hazards associated with plastic bonded starter mix manufacturing processes  

Science.gov (United States)

An investigation to determine the hazards potential evaluation of plastic bonded starter mix (PBSM) production processes and the application to the M18 and M7A3 grenades is reported. The investigation indicated: (1) the materials with the greatest hazards characteristics, (2) process operating stations most likely to initiate hazardous conditions, (3) the test program required to examine ignition characteristics and process hazards, and (4) the method of handling the accumulated information from testing and safety analyses.

1971-01-01

307

Exogenous enzymes in pre-starter broiler diets based on corn and soybean meal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fibrolytic enzyme complex was added to the pre-starter diet. Broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments, consisting of a diet with no enzyme addition and four test diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 and 400g/T of an enzyme complex. The dietary inclusion of the enzyme complex increased weight gain, and the dose of 300g/T improved weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio.

RB Lima

2011-09-01

308

GAME RELATED STATISTICS DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN STARTERS AND NONSTARTERS PLAYERS IN WOMEN'S NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATION LEAGUE (WNBA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women's basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women's National Basketball Association League (WNBA. The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful, free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful, defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47, successful free-throws (SC = 0.44, fouls (SC = -0.41, assists (SC = 0.37, and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37. When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37, successful free-throws (SC = 0.45, assists (SC = 0.58, and steals (SC = 0.35. The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters' players shooting and passing ability during competitions

Miguel. A Gómez

2009-06-01

309

Comparison between two selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as fermentation starters in the production of traditional cachaça  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were tested as the starter yeasts in a traditional cachaça distillery. The strains used were S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolated from a cachaça fermentation process, and S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, obtained from the wine industry. The permanence of each strain in the fermentation must was determined by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, with primer M13. Both yeast strains were prevalent in the vats for approximately 30 days. Indigenous non-Saccharomyces and indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were isolated in lower counts during the fermentation period. Indigenous S. cerevisiae strains were molecularly distinct when compared to the starter yeasts. The two yeasts appeared promising starter yeasts in the fermentation process to produce traditional cachaça.Duas linhagens de Saccharomyces cerevisiae foram testadas como iniciadoras em uma destilaria de cachaça. Foram utilizadas as linhagens de S. cerevisiae UFMG-A829, isolada de fermentação de cachaça, e S. cerevisiae K1-V1116, de origem vinícola. A permanência de cada linhagem durante a fermentação foi determinada por RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR, utilizando o iniciador M13. As duas linhagens predominaram nas dornas de fermentação por aproximadamente 30 dias. Leveduras não-Saccharomyces e S. cerevisiae indígenas foram isoladas em menor proporção durante o experimento. As linhagens de S. cerevisiae indígenas apresentaram perfis moleculares distintos em relação às linhagens iniciadoras. As duas linhagens foram promissoras para serem utilizadas como iniciadoras do processo fermentativo para a produção da cachaça.

Fátima de Cássia Oliveira Gomes

2009-04-01

310

Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success on their markets. 3. When aggregated, 16 potential key success factors were derived: High product quality, attractive packaging, high quality of raw material, possession of advanced technology and know-how, competent management and competent staff, wide product range, extensive product development activities/high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions, three direct determinants lead to high perceived value: attractive packaging, high product quality, and extensive marketing activities. High product quality is in turn determined by high raw material quality, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and competent management and indicating an emphasis on an objective concept of quality. 5. According to managers' perceptions, extensive market knowledge is the main determinant of good relations with trade, supplemented by extensive product development activities, good logistics management, and extensive marketing activities. Competent management and staff is a major second-order determinant. 6. According to managers' perceptions, scale production, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and good logistics management are regarded as the main direct determinants of low relative costs, with competent management and staff and financial resources as second-order determinants. 7. Managers' perceptions seem to be fairly correct with regard to the determinants of consumer perceived value and good relations with trade. They do not seem to be correct with regard to the determinants of low relative costs.

Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

1996-01-01

311

Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves energy by using the stop/start function andproviding assistance during driving. For the study, apermanent magnet synchronous motor was chosen,due to its high efficiency.

FILIP Andrei-Toader

2011-10-01

312

An improved process of isomaltooligosaccharide production in kimchi involving the addition of a Leuconostoc starter and sugars.  

Science.gov (United States)

Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) are ?-(1?6)-linked oligodextrans that show a prebiotic effect on Bifidobacterium spp. This study sought to improve IMO synthesis during lactate fermentation in kimchi by inoculating the kimchi fermentation mix with a starter and sugars; the psychrotrophic Leuconostoc citreum KACC 91035 strain with high dextransucrase activity was used as a starter and sucrose (58 mM) and maltose (56 mM) were added as the donor and acceptor for the glucose-transferring reaction of the dextransucrase, respectively. With the addition of both the starter and the sugars and incubation at 10°C, IMOs were produced in kimchi after 3d. Without the starter, the IMO production rate and maximal concentration in kimchi were 15.05 mM/d and 75.27 mM, respectively, whereas with the starter, the rate and concentration increased to 22.04 mM/d and 110.19 mM, respectively. In addition, the sucrose-maltose mix gave an appropriate level of sweetness by releasing fructose and prevented unfavorable polymer synthesis by IMO production. This result suggests that lactic acid bacteria expressing a highly active glycosyltransferase can be used for the synthesis of beneficial oligosaccharides in various fermented foods. PMID:24291182

Cho, Seung Kee; Eom, Hyun-Ju; Moon, Jin Seok; Lim, Sae-Bom; Kim, Yong Kook; Lee, Ki Won; Han, Nam Soo

2014-01-17

313

Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation Levels for Broilers in Pre-Starter Ration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Performance, ether extract, dry matter and protein digestibility and enzymatic activities of broilers fed different Crude Protein (CP) and amino acid levels in pre-starter ration were evaluated. 560 MPK male day-old chicks were raised until 21 days of age in heated brooders and allotted in a complete randomized design with eight treatments and five replicates each: A. 20% CP non-supplemented; B. 20% CP supplemented with Met, Lys and Thr; C. 20% CP supplemented with Met, Lys, Thr and Trp for 2...

Jose Henrique Stringhini; Michelle Lobo Andrade; Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier; Maria Auxiliadora Andrade; Cibele Silva Minafr; Marcos Barcellos Cafe

2009-01-01

314

Variability of the microbial abundance of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The variability of the abundance in lactobacilli, lactic acid streptococci and yeasts of a kefir grain starter cultivated in partially controlled conditions – milk renewal at room temperature and incubation at defined temperature - was quantified. Expressed by the geometric relative standard deviations of counts repeated over time, it was respectively of 28%, 443% and 35% for each of the three microbial groups. The origin of the microbial variability observed was ascribed to the heterogeneous medium developed around the grains during fermentation and, for the lactic acid streptococci, even more to the initial conditions of fermentation, probably to parameters linked to milk renewal (room temperature, waiting time at room temperature before incubation.

Oger R.

2005-01-01

315

Starter dietary lysine level and strain cross effects on performance and carcass traits of broiler females  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dietary lysine has been shown to impact the performance of broilers, particularly with aspect of breast meat accretion and yield. There have been studies that suggest that early dietary lysine has an effect on breast meat yield in male broilers. A study was designed to evaluate starter dietary lysine (1.20 vs 1.35% of diet as achieved by the addition of L-lysine at the expense of a filler) effect on performance of female broilers from three different genetic strain crosses, and monitor subseq...

2004-01-01

316

Exogenous enzymes in pre-starter broiler diets based on corn and soybean meal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A fibrolytic enzyme complex was added to the pre-starter diet. Broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five treatments, consisting of a diet with no enzyme addition and four test diets supplemented with 100, 200, 300 and 400g/T of an enzyme complex. The dietary inclusion of the enzyme complex [...] increased weight gain, and the dose of 300g/T improved weight gain and worsened feed conversion ratio.

RB, Lima; CBV, Rabello; SBP de, Lima; DF, Figueiredo-Lima; JC de, Siqueira; JH, Vilar da Silva; EP da, Silva.

317

Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

Belkacem Abdous

2009-02-01

318

A very high speed switched-reluctance starter-generator for aircraft engine applications  

Science.gov (United States)

An electric direct-drive gearless starter-generator has been designed and built for an aircraft engine application. The system is based on a switched-reluctance motor, which was chosen for its simplicity, robustness, high-speed capability, and efficiency. The overall system configuration and the design of the switched-reluctance motor and its solid-state power converter are described. When operating as engine starter, the motor produces torque to spin the engine up to its light-off speed. Following light-off, the motor continues to produce torque to assist the engine in accelerating to idle speed. When the engine is running, the machine generates electrical power to supply engine and vehicle loads up to a peak operating speed of 50,000 rev/min. Key issues in the machine design are reliability, high speed, power density, and cost. Test results have verified that the system can meet the torque and generated-power requirements over its entire operating range.

MacMinn, Stephen R.; Jones, William D.

319

Physical, Chemical and Performance Evaluation of Different Commercial Brands of Layers, Broilers Starter and Finisher Feeds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In completely randomized design that comprised two studies, physical, chemical and performance evaluations were conducted to determine the quality of commercial four layers feeds, three broiler starter and three broiler finisher feeds. In study 1, eighty 20-week in–lay black harco hens were used in four replicate groups to evaluate the effects of the selected layer feeds on their laying performance for twelve weeks. While in study 2, seventy two broiler chicks were used (0-8 weeks in three replicate groups to evaluate the broiler feeds. All feeds were packaged in standard polyethylene woven bags with no presence of insects or mould. All feeds were in mash form except two layers feeds in crumbled form and one pelleted feed. There were also variations in crude protein, crude fat and crude fibre contents of the various feeds as analyzed. There were no significant differences in Hen Day Production and egg diameters. However, total number of eggs laid and egg weight were significantly reduced among hens on two treatments. The highest cost of producing a dozen eggs was recorded with the pelleted feed. There were significant differences in feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio among broilers on the different treatments, with the poorest performance recorded among broilers fed starter and finisher feeds from same producer. Percentage mortality was however not significant. It was concluded that none of the feeds investigated met all the requirements of an ideal feed either for broilers or layers.

Johnson O. Oyedeji

2013-05-01

320

Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favourable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes, a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, Kluyveromyces lactis, among others, have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

Francisco NoéArroyo López

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. PMID:24010599

Poga?i?, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

2013-12-01

322

Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

2009-06-08

323

Effects of high non-phytate phosphorus starter diet on subsequent growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trial was performed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in the starter and grower (with phytase inclusion) periods on carcass characteristics, organ weight and weekly variations of growth performance in the grower period. Seven hundred and twenty-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 12 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chickens received two dietary treatments (4.5 g/kg and 6 g/kg nPP) in the starter (0-21 days) and six experimental diets (4 g/kg, 3.1 g/kg, 2.3 g/kg and 2.3 g/kg + 1000 FTU/Kg of feed phytase, 1.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg nPP + 1000 FTU/Kg of feed phytase) in the grower period (22-42 days). Results showed that phytase inclusion in the second and third weeks of grower period could increase feed intake significantly. Also, decrease in the concentrations of nPP to 1.5 g/kg caused to decline body weight gain markedly. Moreover, there is a significant difference between 4.5 g/kg and 6 + 4 g/kg nPP (starter+grower) and 1.5 g/kg nPP. Phytase inclusion increased carcass yield and declined liver weight significantly. Dietary treatment of 4.5 + 1.5 g/kg nPP enhanced heart and liver weight markedly. It is concluded that starter diets with increased concentration of nPP (6 g/kg nPP) had no beneficial effects on growth performance in the starter and grower period in the total (0-42 days). Also, it is possible to decrease nPP concentration of grower diets to 1.5 and 2.3 g/kg with and without phytase inclusion respectively. PMID:23957471

Baradaran, N; Shahir, M H; Asadi Kermani, Z; Waldroup, P W; Sirjani, M A

2014-08-01

324

Descriptive sensory profile of cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese prepared using indigenous cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to compare the sensory profile of Cheddar cheese prepared from cow and buffalo milk using indigenous and commercial cultures. Commercially available and locally isolated, indigenous starter cultures were used to prepare cow and buffalo milk Cheddar cheese. The cheese was ripened at 4 and 12°C and analyzed for descriptive sensory profile by a panel of 10 assessors after 60 and 120 d of ripening. On evaluation, the mean scores for odor, flavor, and texture attributes obtained for buffalo milk cheese were significantly higher than those obtained for cow milk cheese. For most of the traits, cheese samples prepared from indigenous cultures and ripened at higher temperature received higher descriptive scores compared with those of commercial cultures and ripened at lower degrees. Milk sources highly significantly affected the "creamy" and "sour" traits of odor; the "creamy," "smoky," and "soapy" flavors; and all the texture attributes except "maturity." Starter cultures considerably influenced the production of "acidic," "bitter," "sweet," and "sour" characteristics. The use of elevated ripening temperature showed noticeable effect on all the characteristics except the "creamy" odor and flavor. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis also showed that milk sources, starter cultures, and ripening temperatures significantly influenced the sensory characteristics. PMID:23332853

Murtaza, M A; Rehman, S U; Anjum, F M; Huma, N

2013-03-01

325

Maize-Sorghum Based Brewery By-Product as an Energy Substitute in Broiler Starter: Effect on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Organs and Muscle Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maize-Sorghum brewers` dried grains (MSBDG) is a by-product of beer production. Proximate composition studies were conducted as a prelude to MSBDG incorporation in broiler starter diet. Four broiler starter diets were formulated such that MSBDG were fed at 0, 10, 20 and 30% inclusion levels at the expense of maize. A batch of 240 starter-chicks was randomly assigned in triplicate to these dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to 60 birds/treatment from day old for 35 days. The final weight, a...

2005-01-01

326

Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial / Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias) e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade), foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp) em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada expe [...] rimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4) + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial), quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial) mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial) ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial). Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn) das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS). Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases. Abstract in english Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days) and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age), were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP) in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experimen [...] t consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4) + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase), four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase) plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase) or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase). In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC) were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

Luziane Moreira dos, Santos; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Antônio Gilberto, Bertechini; Elias Tadeu, Fialho; Elisangela Minati, Gomide; Luciana de Paula, Naves.

327

Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade, foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada experimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4 + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial, quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial. Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS. Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases.Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age, were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experiment consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4 + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase, four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase. In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

Luziane Moreira dos Santos

2011-11-01

328

Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference treatments were banded next to the seed row. Plants were harvested on nine dates with 4-6 days interval and an exponential growth function was fitted to the recordings. The P-uptake from acidified cattle slurry was clearly increased compared to raw slurry, and comparable to the mineral P-reference treatment. The effect of untreated raw slurry was similar to the mineral reference without P.

Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla

329

Final report for the 1996 Engineer Starters Program (Pre-Freshmen Enrichment Program)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been developed for the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University College of Engineering, Department of Energy and other foundations/corporations sponsoring the 1996 Engineer Starters Program and for general information. The College of Engineering conducted its Annual outreach program for Middle and High School students from July 8 to August 2, 1996. The continuing primary goal of this program is to expose youth to the various challenging opportunities in the Mathematics and Science based careers, Engineering and Technology. The curriculum for the summer of 1996 included: Mathematics; Science; Computers; Graphics; Problem Solving; Career Explorations; Communications; Field Trips to Manufacturing Plants/Industries; and Engineering Projects/Designs. The 1996 program included rising seventh through tenth graders. Parental involvement was instituted as a vital component of the summer experiences. The primary objective is to increase the number of minorities entering engineering and science professions.

Sharpe, L. Jr.

1996-08-15

330

Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation Levels for Broilers in Pre-Starter Ration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Performance, ether extract, dry matter and protein digestibility and enzymatic activities of broilers fed different Crude Protein (CP and amino acid levels in pre-starter ration were evaluated. 560 MPK male day-old chicks were raised until 21 days of age in heated brooders and allotted in a complete randomized design with eight treatments and five replicates each: A. 20% CP non-supplemented; B. 20% CP supplemented with Met, Lys and Thr; C. 20% CP supplemented with Met, Lys, Thr and Trp for 22% CP; D. 20% CP supplemented with Met, Lys, Thr and Trp for 24% CP; E. 22% CP non-supplemented; F. 22% CP supplemented with Met, Lys and Thr; G. 22% CP supplemented with Met, Lys, Thr and Trp for 24% CP; H. 22% CP supplemented with Met, Lys, Thr and Trp for 26% CP: All diets attended amino acid requirements of Rostagno et al. (2000 for corn-soybean rations with 2.900 Kcal/kg ME from 1-7 days. From 8-21 days, broilers received the same starter ration with 21.1% CP and 2900 Kcal/kg ME. The weight gain, feed intake and feed-to-gain ratio for total period and digestibility index and retention for Dry Matter (DM, CP (CP and Ether Extract (EE and digestibility parameters were measured from 4-7 days. In the 4th, 7th, 10th and 14th days of age, the pancreas of four birds was collected to amylase and tripsin analysis. The means were calculated and the Tukey test (p<0.05 was used to compare treatments. Low protein diets supplemented to attend 22 or 24% CP amino acid levels, were indicated for better results in performance, nutrient digestibility and retention. Amylase and Trypsin activities were affected with amino acid supplementation and reduced with birds age.

Jose Henrique Stringhini

2009-01-01

331

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

AM Kessler

2009-03-01

332

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconu [...] t fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and dry matter (DMM), crude protein (CPM), and crude fat (CFM) metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS), acid soybean oil (ASO), or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO). Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

AM, Kessler; DS, Lubisco; MM, Vieira; AML, Ribeiro; AM, Penz Jr.

333

Risk assessment of staphylococcal poisoning due to consumption of informally-marketed milk and home-made yoghurt in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the study were twofold: to prove that participatory risk assessment can be applied to informally-marketed foods, and to assess the risk of staphylococcal poisoning through consumption of raw milk and home-made yoghurt in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. Rapid urban appraisals were combined with conventional interviews to identify and quantify formal and informal milk value chains and to collect information on consumers' food preparation and consumption behavior. Milk was sampled in 170 dairy farms and 5 milk collection centers and microbiological tests were conducted. Published data on milk fermentation in Ethiopia was combined with a growth model of Staphylococcus aureus to develop a stochastic risk model. The annual incidence rate of staphylococcal poisoning was estimated to be 20.0 (90% CI: 13.9-26.9) per 1000 people. When the effect of fermentation was removed from the model, the annual incidence rate increased to 315.8 (90% CI: 224.3-422.9) per 1000 people, showing the importance of traditional food preparation methods in risk mitigation; traditional milk fermentation reduced the risk by 93.7%. Improving the safety of milk and dairy products could be achieved through supporting appropriate traditional food preparation and consumption where an industrial risk mitigation system is not feasible. Participatory risk assessment was shown to be applicable to informal food value chain. PMID:22104122

Makita, Kohei; Desissa, Fanta; Teklu, Akafete; Zewde, Girma; Grace, Delia

2012-02-01

334

Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 against Listeria innocua when used as an adjunct starter in the manufacture of cheese  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)\\/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products.

2011-08-30

335

Desenvolvimento de bebida láctea sabor morango utilizando diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo obtidos com leite de búfala / Development of strawberry-flavored milk drink using different yoghurt levels and whey obtained from buffalo's milk  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de bebidas lácteas elaboradas com leite de búfala e diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo. Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações à base de leite de búfala, soro de queijo tipo [...] frescal e iogurte. Os tratamentos foram: T1=10% leite, 10% soro e 80% iogurte; T2=10% leite, 20% soro e 70% iogurte; T3=10% leite, 30% soro e 60% iogurte; T4=10% leite, 40% soro e 50% iogurte; e T5=10% leite, 50% soro e 40% iogurte. Para o leite e soro, foram determinadas acidez titulável (°D), densidade a 15°C, gordura, EST e ESD. As bebidas lácteas foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável, gordura, proteína, viscosidade, cor (CIEL*a*b*), teste de aceitação sensorial com escala hedônica de cinco pontos, ordenação da preferência, enumeração de coliformes a 35 e 45°C e contagem de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios. Os resultados obtidos, submetidos ao teste de ANOVA e teste de médias com nível de significância a 5%, revelaram que os níveis de soro influenciaram os valores de pH, acidez, gordura, proteína, viscosidade e L* das bebidas lácteas, enquanto as coordenadas de cromaticidade a* e b* não sofreram influência. As formulações com 10 e 20% de soro foram as mais aceitas no teste de aceitação sensorial, bem como na preferência pelos julgadores. Abstract in english This research was carried out to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of dairy beverages elaborated with buffalo milk and different levels of yoghurt and whey. Five formulations were developed based on buffalo's milk, cheese whey and yogurt. The treatments we [...] re: T1=10% milk, 10% whey and 80% yoghurt; T2=10% milk, 20% whey and 70% yoghurt; T3=10% milk, 30% whey and 60% yoghurt; T4=10% milk, 40% whey and 50% yoghurt; T5=10% milk, 50% whey and 40% yoghurt. It was determined the acidity (°D), density at 15°C, fat, total solids (TS) and non-fat solids (SNF). The dairy beverage was evaluated on: pH, titratable acidity, percentages of fat and protein, viscosity, color (CIEL*a*b*), sensorial acceptance test with hedonic scale of five points and preference ordination, coliforms enumeration s at 35°C and 45°C, count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. The obtained results, submitted to ANOVA and Tukey Test with significance level of 5% revealed that the whey rates of the dairy beverage influenced pH, acidity, fat, protein, viscosity, L*, and water activity, while the chromaticity coordinates a* and b* did not suffer influence. The formularizations with 10% and 20% whey were the most accepted in the sensorial acceptance test, as well as in the preference of the judges.

Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Sibelli Passini Barbosa, Ferrão; Sérgio Augusto De Albuquerque, Fernandes; Ana Prudência Assis, Magnavita; Tayse Dantas Rebouças, Santos.

336

Desenvolvimento de bebida láctea sabor morango utilizando diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo obtidos com leite de búfala Development of strawberry-flavored milk drink using different yoghurt levels and whey obtained from buffalo's milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de bebidas lácteas elaboradas com leite de búfala e diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo. Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações à base de leite de búfala, soro de queijo tipo frescal e iogurte. Os tratamentos foram: T1=10% leite, 10% soro e 80% iogurte; T2=10% leite, 20% soro e 70% iogurte; T3=10% leite, 30% soro e 60% iogurte; T4=10% leite, 40% soro e 50% iogurte; e T5=10% leite, 50% soro e 40% iogurte. Para o leite e soro, foram determinadas acidez titulável (°D, densidade a 15°C, gordura, EST e ESD. As bebidas lácteas foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável, gordura, proteína, viscosidade, cor (CIEL*a*b*, teste de aceitação sensorial com escala hedônica de cinco pontos, ordenação da preferência, enumeração de coliformes a 35 e 45°C e contagem de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios. Os resultados obtidos, submetidos ao teste de ANOVA e teste de médias com nível de significância a 5%, revelaram que os níveis de soro influenciaram os valores de pH, acidez, gordura, proteína, viscosidade e L* das bebidas lácteas, enquanto as coordenadas de cromaticidade a* e b* não sofreram influência. As formulações com 10 e 20% de soro foram as mais aceitas no teste de aceitação sensorial, bem como na preferência pelos julgadores.This research was carried out to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of dairy beverages elaborated with buffalo milk and different levels of yoghurt and whey. Five formulations were developed based on buffalo's milk, cheese whey and yogurt. The treatments were: T1=10% milk, 10% whey and 80% yoghurt; T2=10% milk, 20% whey and 70% yoghurt; T3=10% milk, 30% whey and 60% yoghurt; T4=10% milk, 40% whey and 50% yoghurt; T5=10% milk, 50% whey and 40% yoghurt. It was determined the acidity (°D, density at 15°C, fat, total solids (TS and non-fat solids (SNF. The dairy beverage was evaluated on: pH, titratable acidity, percentages of fat and protein, viscosity, color (CIEL*a*b*, sensorial acceptance test with hedonic scale of five points and preference ordination, coliforms enumeration s at 35°C and 45°C, count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. The obtained results, submitted to ANOVA and Tukey Test with significance level of 5% revealed that the whey rates of the dairy beverage influenced pH, acidity, fat, protein, viscosity, L*, and water activity, while the chromaticity coordinates a* and b* did not suffer influence. The formularizations with 10% and 20% whey were the most accepted in the sensorial acceptance test, as well as in the preference of the judges.

Luciana Albuquerque Caldeira

2010-10-01

338

Effect of a probiotic mixed culture on texture profile and sensory performance of Minas fresh cheese in comparison with the traditional products  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of a mixed probiotic culture on instrumental texture, and on sensorial and related properties of Minas fresh cheese during refrigerated storage was investigated. Three cheese-making trials were prepared: T1, with the traditional type O starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis + L. lactis subsp. cremoris), T2 with only lactic acid and T3, with lactic acid and the probiotic ABT culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 + Bifidobacterium animalisBb-12 + Streptococcus thermophil...

Buriti, Fla?via C. A.; Okazaki, Tania Y.; Alegro, Joa?o H. A.; Saad, Susana M. I.

2007-01-01

339

Efecto del Salvado de Trigo en las Propiedades Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales del Yogurt de Leche de Búfala / Effect of Bran Wheat on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Buffalo Milk Yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de salvado de trigo (en concentraciones 0, 1, 3 y 5% p/v) y el tiempo de almacenamiento en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del yogurt de leche de búfala. Al producto obtenido se le realizaron pruebas fisicoquímicas (acidez, pH, materia grasa, sólidos to [...] tales, sinéresis y densidad) y análisis de aceptación sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos con 50 catadores. La adición de salvado de trigo influyó de manera directamente proporcional sobre la acidez, sinéresis, sólidos totales y densidad, e inversamente sobre el pH y la aceptación sensorial del producto. Durante el tiempo de almacenamiento se observó un aumento de la acidez y sinéresis, lo cual evidenció pérdida de calidad del producto. El análisis sensorial mostró que el yogurt de leche de búfala con 1% de adición de salvado de trigo presenta características organolépticas similares al yogurt con leche de búfala sin adición de fibra. Abstract in english The effect of adding wheat bran (at concentrations of 0, 1, 3 and 5% w/v) and of the storage time on physicochemical and sensory properties of buffalo milk yoghurt were evaluated. Physicochemical tests, such as acidity, pH, fat, total solids, syneresis and density were done and sensory acceptance an [...] alysis using the 9-point hedonic scale with 50 tasters were performed. The addition of wheat bran directly influenced acidity, syneresis, total solids and density, and inversely influenced pH and sensory acceptance of the product. During the storage period there was an increase in acidity and syneresis, which showed loss of product quality. Sensory analyses showed that buffalo milk yoghurt with 1% of wheat bran presented organoleptic characteristics similar to that of yoghurt without bran addition.

Mónica M, Simanca; Ricardo D, Andrade; Margarita R, Arteaga.

340

Efecto del Salvado de Trigo en las Propiedades Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales del Yogurt de Leche de Búfala Effect of Bran Wheat on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Buffalo Milk Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de salvado de trigo (en concentraciones 0, 1, 3 y 5% p/v y el tiempo de almacenamiento en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del yogurt de leche de búfala. Al producto obtenido se le realizaron pruebas fisicoquímicas (acidez, pH, materia grasa, sólidos totales, sinéresis y densidad y análisis de aceptación sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos con 50 catadores. La adición de salvado de trigo influyó de manera directamente proporcional sobre la acidez, sinéresis, sólidos totales y densidad, e inversamente sobre el pH y la aceptación sensorial del producto. Durante el tiempo de almacenamiento se observó un aumento de la acidez y sinéresis, lo cual evidenció pérdida de calidad del producto. El análisis sensorial mostró que el yogurt de leche de búfala con 1% de adición de salvado de trigo presenta características organolépticas similares al yogurt con leche de búfala sin adición de fibra.The effect of adding wheat bran (at concentrations of 0, 1, 3 and 5% w/v and of the storage time on physicochemical and sensory properties of buffalo milk yoghurt were evaluated. Physicochemical tests, such as acidity, pH, fat, total solids, syneresis and density were done and sensory acceptance analysis using the 9-point hedonic scale with 50 tasters were performed. The addition of wheat bran directly influenced acidity, syneresis, total solids and density, and inversely influenced pH and sensory acceptance of the product. During the storage period there was an increase in acidity and syneresis, which showed loss of product quality. Sensory analyses showed that buffalo milk yoghurt with 1% of wheat bran presented organoleptic characteristics similar to that of yoghurt without bran addition.

Mónica M Simanca

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

The Production Performance of Broiler Birds as Affected by the Replacement of Fish Meal by Maggot Meal in the Starter and Finisher Diets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal in the starter and grower-finisher diets on the production performances of broiler chickens was studied. For both the starter and the grower-finisher periods, total weight gain in the control group receiving exclusively fish meal was significantly (P< 0.05) lower than that of birds receiving the diet containing the largest amount of maggot meal. No significant difference (P> 0.05) was detected among treatment groups for feed conversion ...

Te?guia, A.; Mpoame, M.; Okourou Mba, Ja

2002-01-01

342

Summary report of the 3. research co-ordination meeting on development of reference input parameter library for nuclear model calculations of nuclear data (Phase 1: Starter File)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report contains the summary of the third and the last Research Co-ordination Meeting on ''Development of Reference Input Parameter Library for Nuclear Model Calculations of Nuclear Data (Phase I: Starter File)'', held at the ICTP, Trieste, Italy, from 26 to 29 May 1997. Details are given on the status of the Handbook and the Starter File - two major results of the project. (author)

1997-05-26

343

Partial Substitution of Soyabean Meal with Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) Seed Meal in Broiler Starter Diets: Effects on Performance, Water Consumption and Carcass Characteristics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was initiated to ascertain the effect of partial substitution of soyabean meal with breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) meal in broiler starter chickens diets reared in a tropical environment. 300 broilers chicks were used for the study and they were divided into 15 replicate groups such that three replicates were allocated to a diet. Five broiler starter diets (3000 Kcal MEKg-1 and 24% CP) were formulated such that the Soya bean meal in the diet were replaced w...

2006-01-01

344

The Soft-Starters Modeling, Simulations and Control Implementation for 2 MW Constant-Speed Wind Turbines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper a soft-starter model and its control strategy for connecting solutions to the grid of different modes for a wind turbine generator of 2 MW are evaluated The thyristors switching,for different functions of the firing angle are discussed. A complete simulation model of a constant speed wind turbine with cage rotor and double stator windings induction generator is also presented. The system model proposed in this paper is developed in the dedicated power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, which gives access to an extensive library, but requires implementation of the relevant wind turbine model. The model can be used to study alternative control strategies for wind turbines and additional equipments such as soft-starter, compensation units and storage systems. Copyright (C) 2008 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l - All rights reserved.

Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Prostean, O.

2008-01-01

345

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

P N, Onu

2012-01-01

346

Pengaruh Konsentrasi Starter Saccharomyces Cereviceae Dan Waktu Fermentasi Terhadap Hasil Dan Mutu Minyak Kelapa Virgin Coconut Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this research was to obtain the concentration of S. cereviceae and the duration of the optimum fermentation in the fermentation of VCO coconut oil. The research had been performed using factorial completely rendomized design with two factors i.e : starter consentration of S. cereviceae (C) : 0,5, 10, 15, 20% and fermentation time (T) : 12,24,36,48 hours. Parameter analyzed were rendemen of oil, moisture content, free fatty acid content, lauric acid, peroxi...

2011-01-01

347

Growth Indices and Economy of Feed Intake of Broiler Chickens Fed Changing Commercial Feed Brands at Starter and Finisher Phases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growth and feed intake data obtained from broiler chickens were analyzed to determine the effect of changing commercial feed brands on broiler performance. Mean total weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and growth efficiency (GE) were influenced by treatment at both starter and finisher phases with birds receiving changing feed brands having higher values. Economics of feed intake showed that feed cost/kg, feed cost/bird and feed cost/kg gain were higher for birds fed changing comm...

Orheruata, A. M.; Nwokoro, S. O.; Alufohai, G. O.; Omagbon, B. I.

2006-01-01

348

System-level Modeling and Simulation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for an Integrated Starter Alternator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper first presents an overview of various hybrid electric vehicle architectures with an emphasis on the Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA hybrid architecture. The operation modes of an ISAsystem and the constraints for an electric machine acting as an ISA are detailed. Finally a model for a ISA hybrid vehicle, developed in AMESim is presented and the results of a simulated drive cycle are assessed.

HANGIU Radu-Petru

2012-10-01

349

BEGA Starter/Alternator—Vector Control Implementation and Performance for Wide Speed Range at Unity Power Factor Operation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobiles (BEGA) is proposed as a solution for integrated starter/alternator systems used in hybrid electric vehicles. This paper demonstrates through experiments and simulations that BEGA has a very large constant power speed range. A vector control structure is proposed for BEGA operation during motoring and generating, at unity power factor with zero d-axis current (id) and zero q-axis flux (?q) control. In such conditions, BEGA behaves like a separa...

2010-01-01

350

Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. PMID:23796063

Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

2014-06-01

351

Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in traditionally produced home-made Radan cheese during ripening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two hundred thirteen non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Radan cheese during ripening were identified with both a classical biochemical test and rep-PCR with (GTG)5 primer. For most isolates, which belong to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Enterococcus faecium, a phenotypic identification was in good agreement with rep-PCR identification. Lactococeus lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus fa...

Jokovic Natasa; Vukasinovic Maja; Veljovic Katarina; Tolinacki Maja; Topisirovic L.

2011-01-01

352

Effect of Rhizobia Inoculation and Starter-N on Nodulation, Shoot Biomass and Yield of Grain Legumes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study was conducted in Kenya at the University of Nairobi’s Field Station in 2004 long and short rains to determine the effect of rhizobia inoculation and starter-N on nodulation, shoot biomass and yield of selected grain legumes. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.), green gram (Vigna radiata L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) and lablab (Lablab purpureus L.) were unino...

Chemining Wa, George N.; Muthomi, J. W.; Theuri, S. W. M.

2007-01-01

353

Decoquinate, lasalocid and monensin for starter feeds and the performance of holstein calves to 20 weeks of age  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The large utilization of coccidiostats in dairy herds has raised the question regards the best product to use, based on better animal performance. Sixty-four Holstein calves were randomly assigned to four treatments at 10 (±4) d of age to evaluate calf performance when fed approved coccidiostats available on the market in Arizona, USA. Calves received a dry calf starter without (control) or with one of the following coccidiostats: lasalocid, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinate, 19 mg kg-1; and monensin,...

2002-01-01

354

Effect of Fermentation of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis Fruit Peel on its Phytonutrients and the Performance of Broiler Starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 5-week feeding trial to determine the effect of fermentation of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis fruit peel on its maize replacement value in broiler starter diet was conducted. Sweet orange fruit peels were collected from peeled orange sellers and divided into three portions. The first portion was not fermented (SP0, while the second and third portions were fermented for 24hrs (SP24 and 48hrs (SP48, respectively. They were separately sun-dried, milled and samples screened and analyzed for phytonutrients. Four different diets namely the control (CD and three test diets SP0D, SP24D and SP48D in which SP0, SP24D and SP48 replaced maize in the control diet (CD at 30% level in that order were compounded. Seven-day old one hundred and twenty Anak 2000 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to these diet groups to evaluate their performance. There was a decrease in the concentration of each of oxalate, flavonoid, tannin, saponin and phytate detected in the peels as the duration of fermentation increased from 0 to 48hrs. Thirty percent replacement of maize by the fermented sweet orange fruit peel meal depressed body weight gain (p<0.01, feed intake (p<0.05 and live weight (p<0.01 of broiler starter. The fermentation technique used in this study did not improve the nutritive value of the sweet orange fruit peels to enhance its suitability as a feed resource in broiler starter production.

A.Y. Adenkola

2010-01-01

355

Kefir grains as a starter for whey fermentation at different temperatures: chemical and microbiological characterisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report here a comparative analysis of the growth, acidification capacity, and chemical and microbiologic composition between kefir grains after 20 subcultures in whey at 20, 30, and 37°C and the original kefir grains coming from milk along with a determination of the microbiological composition of the fermented whey as compared with that of traditional fermented milk. When fermentation was carried out repeatedly at 30 or 37°C, kefir grains changed their kefir-like appearance, exhibited reduced growth rates, had a lower diversity of yeasts and water content, and a higher protein-to-polysaccharide ratio compared with the original kefir grains. In contrast, at 20°C kefir grains could remain in whey for prolonged periods without altering their acidification capacity, growth rate, macroscopic appearance or chemical and microbiologic composition-with the only difference being a reduction in certain yeast populations after 20 subcultures in whey. At this incubation temperature, the presence of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lb. kefir, Lb. parakefir, Lactococcus lactis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces unisporus, and Sac. cerevisiae was detected in kefir grains and in fermented whey by denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis (DGGE). In whey fermented at 20°C the number of lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) was significantly lower (Pkefir grains as whey-fermentation starters. PMID:22717048

Londero, Alejandra; Hamet, María F; De Antoni, Graciela L; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G

2012-08-01

356

Effect of Inoculating Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter in Low-Salt Pickle Process of Zhacai  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional pickle process of Zhacai was thought unsafely and unstable, because of the high salt and nitrite contents. The study has shown a method to solve these problems. One Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB strain, Lactobacillus plantarum was used as starter in the low salt pickle process of Chinese Zhacai. The LAB inoculation amounts were 2, 5, 8%, respectively and the group without LAB inoculation was set as the control. The inoculation groups were added with 8% salt, while the control group 10%. The dynamic changes of physical and chemical parameters of two groups were detected during the pickle process. The results showed that: pH value of the inoculated groups declined rapidly, the lowest pH value was 3.61; the LAB became the predominant bacteria strains during the pickle and the colony amounts of the inoculated groups could be up to 6.32 log10 cfu/mL; the nitrite content of each group kept rising and the nitrite peaks of the inoculated groups appeared 3 days in advance, but the peak values were nearly half of the control group; amino nitrogen contents were lower but finally higher than control group and the highest value could reach 0.46 g/100 mL finally. Therefore, the inoculated groups with the lower salt could be more safety and better flavor. This study provided important reference to optimize the pickle fermentation process of Chinese Zhacai.

Shiyang Gao

2012-10-01

357

Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross) was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46%) and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl) (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg) in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based di [...] ets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

A, Maiorka; N, Magro; HAS, Bartels; AM, Kessler; AM, Penz Jr.

358

Different sodium levels and electrolyte balances in pre-starter diets for broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment with 400 one-day-old male chicks (Ross was conducted to evaluate the effects of different Na levels (0.10, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.46% and different cation/anion balances (Na+K-Cl (100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 meq/kg in pre-starter diets on broiler performance. The corn and soybean-based diets had 22% crude protein and 2,900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy and were fed ad libitum. Performance data showed a positive quadratic effect of increasing Na levels on feed and water consumption, weight gain and feed conversion. Na+K-Cl also had a quadratic influence on feed intake and weight gain. None of the effects tested affected the amount of water measured in excreta. Derivatives of obtained regression equations pointed to optimal Na levels of 0.45% for water consumption, 0.40% for feed intake and weight gain and 0.38% for feed conversion. As to the effect of dietary Na+K-Cl balances on performance, regression equation values were 174 meq/kg for feed consumption and 163 meq/kg for weight gain. These results show that both Na level and Na+K-Cl balance interfere on broiler performance.

A Maiorka

2004-09-01

359

Digestible Lysine and Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements of Young Male Broilers in the Starter Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digestible lysine and sulfur amino acid (SAA requirements of Ross male broilers were determined during the starter period in two experiments. Broilers were fed a control corn-soy diet (3200 kcal MEn/kg and 23% CP for 6 days and then randomly assigned to dietary treatments until 16 days of age. The basal diet containing 19% CP was prepared in order to be deficient in lysine for experiment 1 and SAA for experiment 2. Seven graded increment levels of L-lysine HCl or Dl-methionine were added in absences of starch in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. All diets contained 3200 kcal MEn/kg and all essential amino acids, except for the test amino acid, were 10% higher than the NRC (1991 recommendations. The digestible lysine requirements of broilers based on broken-line and exponential models were 1.04 and 1.01%, respectively. The digestible SAA requirements for the mentioned models were 0.846 and 0.841%, respectively.

H. Kermanshahi

2005-01-01

360

The effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 sources of protein in starter on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein neonatal calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 protein sources in starter on the performance and blood metabolite responses of Holstein neonatal calves from birth to 6 wk of age. Calves (20 males and 20 females) based on sex were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, including soybean meal (SBM) and meat and bone meal (MB) with either fermented colostrum (or fresh milk. Although sex and liquid feed had no significant effect on feed intake, calves consumed more feed intake on the diet containing SBM (15 ± 0.2 kg) than MB (13 ± 0.2 kg) during the experimental period; also, weight gain was affected by both liquid feed and starter. Liquid feed and starter had significant effects on calf body size, including pin width, hip width, withers height, hip height, and stomach size, but no significant effects were observed on calf body size between the sexes. Plasma glucose concentration was not affected by sex, liquid feed, or starter. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration decreased in the first 3 wk and then started to increase during the last 3 wk, but it was only affected by starter and calves receiving SBM (10.18 mg/dL) had a higher concentration of plasma urea nitrogen than calves receiving MB (9.6 mg/dL) at the end of the experiment. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations decreased in all treatment groups from d 0 to the end of the study. No significant effects were observed on plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations between the 2 sexes, but they were significantly affected by both liquid feed and starter. Results of the present study provide useful information to apply to Holstein neonatal calves during the first 6 wk of life when liquid feed and 2 sources of protein in starter are considered. PMID:24239083

Tahmasbi, A M; Heidari Jahan Abadi, S; Naserian, A A

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Production of fermented cheese whey-based beverage using kefir grains as starter culture : evaluation of morphological and microbial variations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whey valorization concerns have led to recent interest on the production of whey beverage simulating kefir. In this study, the structure and microbiota of Brazilian kefir grains and beverages obtained from milk and whole/deproteinised whey was characterized using microscopy and molecular techniques. The aim was to evaluate its stability and possible shift of probiotic bacteria to the beverages. Fluorescence staining in combination with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy showed dis...

Magalha?es, Karina Teixeira; Pereira, M. A.; Nicolau, Ana; Dragone, Giuliano; Domingues, Luci?lia; Teixeira, J. A.; Silva, Joa?o B. Almeida E.; Schwan, Rosane F.

2010-01-01

362

The selection of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starter cultures for Ting production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the traditional foods in Africa are fermented before consumption. Fermentation is an old technology; however, during this process, especially in traditional fermented cereal based products with special emphasis on Ting, there is very little control involved during the processes. Fermentation is thus left to chance inoculation from the environment. Ting is a sorghum based product that is a result of LAB fermentation and has 0.6-0.7% lactic acid with a final pH of 3.5-4.0....

2008-01-01

363

Protein and Digestible Threonine Levels in Pre Starter Diets for Broiler Chicks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in experimental poultry facilities of University of Goias to estimate digestible threonine (Thr requirement for broiler from 1 to 21 days of age. 384 AgRoss-508 broiler chicks were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement, with two protein levels (205 and 221 g/kg and four digestible threonine levels (6.1, 7.1, 8.1 and 9.1 g/kg with four replications of 12 birds each. The performance, nutrient digestibility and morfometrical index were evaluated. The polynomial regression and linear response plateau (LRP model was used to estimate digestible, had been the Minimum Square of Deviations (MSD utilized for choice criterion. Used polynomial regression, the results showed that a quadratic effect (p2/21 days - Y = 510.08 + 508.91x - 324.61x2 which estimates a 7.9 and 7.1 g/kg of digestible Thr, but LRP model showed low MSD and smaller estimates for digestible Thr levels (7.7 and 6.7 g/kg in seven and 21 days, respectively. The results showed a tendency if lower levels of digestible Thr (below to 7.1 g/kg reduced intestinal length. The digestible Thr levels recommended for pre-starter phase vary from 7.7 at 6.7 g/kg, estimated by LRP model and 7.9 at 7.1 g/kg estimated by polynomial regression for mean body weight at seven and 21 days of age, respectively, but the LRP values presented smaller minimum square of deviations.

Nadja Susana Mogyca Leandro

2013-01-01

364

Studies on the Effects of Reducing the Period of Using Starter Mesh and Application of Probiotics to Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two sets of 150 day old broiler chickens were fed with starter mesh for 14 and 21 days respectively and there after given grower mesh until day 35 after which both were fed on finisher until day 42. There was no significant difference in the final carcass mass of both (p>0.05). Another trial was set up to investigate the effect of application of probiotics as liquid and as powder on 2500 birds per treatment and a control with no probiotics was also set up. The results showed that probiotics a...

Dube, S.; Mwenje, E.; Gora, K.; Dube, C.

2009-01-01

365

Protein Replacement Value of Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) Leaf Protein Concentrate (CLPC) in Broiler Starter : Effect on Performance, Muscle Growth, Haematology and Serum Metabolites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) was used to replace a known and conventional source of protein in broiler starter diets 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% respectively. The reference diet 1 was one where fish meal was the major source in the diet without CLPC. The inclusion level of CLPC was 1.61, 3.22, 4.82, 6.43 and 8.04 respectively for diets 2 to 6. A batch of 120 starter chicks was randomly assigned in triplicate to these dietary treatments (...

Fasuyi, A. O.; Aletor, V. A.

2005-01-01

366

Effect of Different Levels of Seaweed in Starter and Finisher Diets in Pellet and Mash Form on Performance and Carcass Quality of Ducks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two trials were run to assess the nutritional value of seaweed as a feedstuff in starter and finisher diets for ducks. The first trial (starter period): 96, one-day old commercial ducks were weighed, wing banded and randomly distributed to battery brooders into 8 treatment groups (3 replicates x 4 ducks each). The ducks were fed the experimental diets contained 0, 4, 8 and 12% seaweed, the diets were offered ad-libitum in pellet and mash form from one day to 5 wks of age. The second tr...

El-deekx, A. A.; Mervat Brikaa, A.

2009-01-01

367

Diacetyl levels and volatile profiles of commercial starter distillates and selected dairy foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starter distillates (SDL) are used as ingredients in the formulation of many food products such as cottage cheese, margarine, vegetable oil spreads, processed cheese, and sour cream to increase the levels of naturally occurring buttery aroma associated with fermentation. This buttery aroma results, in part, from the presence of the vicinal dicarbonyl, diacetyl, which imparts a high level of buttery flavor notes and is a key component of SDL. Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a volatile product of citrate metabolism produced by certain bacteria, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum. In the United States, SDL are regarded as generally recognized as safe ingredients, whereby usage in food products is limited by good manufacturing practices. Recently, diacetyl has been implicated as a causative agent in certain lung ailments in plant workers; however, little is published about the volatile composition of SDL and the levels of diacetyl or other flavoring components in finished dairy products. The objective of this work was to characterize the volatile compounds of commercial SDL and to quantitate levels of diacetyl and other Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association-designated high-priority flavoring components found in 18 SDL samples and 24 selected dairy products. Headspace volatiles were assessed using a solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition to diacetyl (ranging from 1.2 to 22,000 ?g/g), 40 compounds including 8 organic acids, 4 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 7 esters, 3 furans, 10 ketones, 2 lactones, 2 sulfur-containing compounds, and 1 terpene were detected in the SDL. A total of 22 food samples were found to contain diacetyl ranging from 4.5 to 2,700 ?g/100g. Other volatile compounds, including acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, benzaldehyde, butyric acid, formic acid, furfural, 2,3-heptanedione, 2,3-pentanedione, and propanoic acid, were also identified and quantified in SDL or food samples, or both. The results obtained in this work summarize the volatile composition of commercial SDL and the approximate levels of diacetyl and other Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association-designated high-priority flavoring components found in SDL and selected dairy foods. PMID:22365196

Rincon-Delgadillo, M I; Lopez-Hernandez, A; Wijaya, I; Rankin, S A

2012-03-01

368

Decoquinate, lasalocid and monensin for starter feeds and the performance of holstein calves to 20 weeks of age  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The large utilization of coccidiostats in dairy herds has raised the question regards the best product to use, based on better animal performance. Sixty-four Holstein calves were randomly assigned to four treatments at 10 (±4 d of age to evaluate calf performance when fed approved coccidiostats available on the market in Arizona, USA. Calves received a dry calf starter without (control or with one of the following coccidiostats: lasalocid, 30 mg kg-1; decoquinate, 19 mg kg-1; and monensin, 30 mg kg-1. Calves received 3.6 kg d-1 of a commercial 22% CP:20% fat milk replacer until 6 wk of age. Calves were offered starter "ad libitum" up to 2 kg d-1, and calves had free access to water throughout the trial. Alfalfa hay was offered "ad libitum" after weaning. Performance and dry matter intake (DMI were monitored for 20 weeks and broken down in different periods of measurement (0-6, 7-12 and 13-20 weeks, respectively. Despite the lower dry matter intake and weight gain for females on monensin treatment during the whole period, differences among coccidiostats were seldom observed under the conditions of this study. Good calf management and the dry, hot climate of Arizona perhaps diminished the chances for subclinical and chronic disease appearance which negated potential differences and differences in calf performances.

Nussio Carla Maris Bittar

2002-01-01

369

Viability of Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus in Starter Milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study is to evaluate the viability of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium infantis in starter milk, using time and temperature as variables, as well as to evaluate the viability of these micro-organisms over other bacteria normally found in milk, such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis.

Maldonado L.; Calvo Ma A.; Shiva C.

2003-01-01

370

Evaluation of mannan-oligosaccharides offered in milk replacers or calf starters and their effect on performance and rumen development of dairy calves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the route of administration of mannan-oligosaccharides in the diet of dairy calves and their effects on performance and plasma parameters indicative of rumen development. Following birth, twenty-four male Holstein calves were used in a completely randomized design and assigned to the following treatments: Control; 4 g/d Bio-Mos® (Alltech Biotech. added to starter concentrate; and 4 g/d Bio-Mos® mixed into milk replacer. Animals were housed in individual hutches with free access to water, and fed 4L/d of milk replacer until weaning at six weeks. Calves also received 23g/kg crude protein of starter concentrate ad libitum. Fecal scores were evaluated daily. Body weights, growth measurements and blood samples for glucose, urea-N and ?-hidroxibutyrate analyses were taken weekly until 8 weeks of age. There were no significant effects of treatment or treatment × age interactions for mean starter concentrate intake, weight gain or body growth. However, there was a significant age effect for all parameters. Fecal scores were not affected by treatments. Also, plasma concentration of glucose, urea-N or ?-hidroxibutyrate were not affected by treatment or the treatment × age interaction. However, urea-N and ?-hidroxibutyrate concentrations significantly increased with age, suggesting adequate rumen development. Under the conditions of this study, there were no calf performance benefits when mannan-oligosaccharides were incorporated into milk replacer or calf starter concentrate.

Jackeline Thaís da Silva

2012-03-01

371

Yogurt, living cultures, and gut health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria used to ferment milk to obtain yogurt belong to thermophilic, bile-sensitive species of lactic acid bacteria, which are not ideally suited for survival into the human gut. However, assessing the viability of these bacteria through the digestive tract may be relevant to evaluate their potential to deliver some beneficial effects for the well-being of the consumer. The well-known reduction in the symptoms caused by lactose maldigestion is not the only benefit provided by yogurt starter cultures; some additional effects will be reviewed here, with special attention paid to data that may suggest a strain-dependent effect, features that are not present with lactose hydrolysis. PMID:24695895

Morelli, Lorenzo

2014-05-01

372

Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical subs...

2011-01-01

373

Studies on the Effects of Reducing the Period of Using Starter Mesh and Application of Probiotics to Broiler Chickens  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two sets of 150 day old broiler chickens were fed with starter mesh for 14 and 21 days respectively and there after given grower mesh until day 35 after which both were fed on finisher until day 42. There was no significant difference in the final carcass mass of both (p>0.05. Another trial was set up to investigate the effect of application of probiotics as liquid and as powder on 2500 birds per treatment and a control with no probiotics was also set up. The results showed that probiotics applied as liquid had the best effect on PEF and FCR. The experiment to determine the best time to apply probiotics was conducted on 2000 birds per treatment. The results showed that the best performance was obtained when application of probiotics was started at 14 days The PEF was also highest on birds which started probiotics on day 14.

S. Dube

2009-01-01

374

Characterization of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in traditionally produced home-made Radan cheese during ripening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred thirteen non-starter lactic acid bacteria isolated from Radan cheese during ripening were identified with both a classical biochemical test and rep-PCR with (GTG5 primer. For most isolates, which belong to the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus paraplantarum and Enterococcus faecium, a phenotypic identification was in good agreement with rep-PCR identification. Lactococeus lactis subsp. lactis, Enterococcus faecium and subspecies from the Lenconostoc mesenteroides group were the dominant population of lactic acid bacteria in cheese until 10 days of ripening and only one Streptococcus thermophilus strain was isolated from the 5-day-old cheese sample. As ripening progressed, Lactobacillus plantarum became the predominant species together with the group of heterofermentative species of lactobacilli that could not be precisely identified with rep-PCR.

Jokovic Natasa

2011-01-01

375

Effect of different protein sources on satiation and short-term satiety when consumed as a starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because the source of protein may play a role in its satiating effect, we investigated the effect of different proteins on satiation and short-term satiety. Methods Two randomized single-blind cross-over studies were completed. In the first study, we investigated the effect of a preload containing 20 g of casein, whey, pea protein, egg albumin or maltodextrin vs. water control on food intake 30 min later in 32 male volunteers (25 ± 4 yrs, BMI 24 ± 0.4 kg/m2. Subjective appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales at 10 min intervals after the preload. Capillary blood glucose was measured every 30 min during 2 hrs before and after the ad libitum meal. In the second study, we compared the effect of 20 g of casein, pea protein or whey vs. water control on satiation in 32 male volunteers (25 ± 0.6 yrs, BMI 24 ± 0.5 kg/m2. The preload was consumed as a starter during an ad libitum meal and food intake was measured. The preloads in both studies were in the form of a beverage. Results In the first study, food intake was significantly lower only after casein and pea protein compared to water control (P = 0.02; 0.04 respectively. Caloric compensation was 110, 103, 62, 56 and 51% after casein, pea protein, whey, albumin and maltodextrin, respectively. Feelings of satiety were significantly higher after casein and pea protein compared to other preloads (P Conclusion Casein and pea protein showed a stronger effect on food intake compared to whey when consumed as a preload. However, consuming the protein preload as a starter of a meal decreased its impact on food intake as opposed to consuming it 30 min before the meal.

Abou-Samra Rania

2011-12-01

376

MANAGEABLE AGRONOMIC PRACTICES IN ORGANIC PRODUCTION OF COWPEA (VIGNA UNGUIDULATA [L. WALP] IN A MIXED CULTURE WITH SORGHUM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A three year (2002, 2003 and 2004) field experiment was conducted with the main objective of achieving optimum cowpea grain yield without starter mineral nitrogen and inorganic pesticides. Three spatial arrangements were tested against three weeding frequency. The experiment was a factorial design with a Completely Randomized Block layout. The treatments were replicated three times. The effects of these cultural interventions were observed on cowpea srtiga count nodulation, net assimilatio...

Tenebe, Vincent A.; Petu-ibikunle, Abiona M.

2012-01-01

377

Safeguards Culture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2012-07-01

378

Effect of Replacing Dietary Fish Meal with Silkworm (Anaphe infracta) Caterpillar Meal on Growth, Digestibility and Economics of Production of Starter Broiler Chickens  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of one hundred and fifty day-old anak broiler chicks were used to investigate the replacement value of silkworm caterpillar meal (SCM) for fish meal (FM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and cost benefit of starter broilers. The birds were randomly allotted to five treatment groups of 30 birds with each treatment having two replicates of 15 birds each. Five isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were formulated such that diet 1 which served as the control had 100% FM:0% SCM ...

Ijaiya, A. T.; Eko, E. O.

2009-01-01

379

Performance of Starter Broilers Fed Raw Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal Diets Supplemented with Lysine and or Methionine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Performance of starter broilers fed raw Pigeon Pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] Seed Meal (PSM) diets supplemented with lysine and or methionine was determined with 270 unsexed broilers. The experimental design was 2 x 4 factorial in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with each dietary treatment replicated three times and 10 broilers per replicate. The factors were inclusion level of raw PSM (30 and 40%) and amino acid supplementation (no supplementation, lysine, methionine and lysi...

Amaefule, K. U.; Ukpanah, U. A.; Ibok, A. E.

2011-01-01

380

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Primary Starters for African Traditional Bread Production and Characterization of the Bacitracin Operon and Bacitracin Biosynthesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacillus spp. are widely used as feed additives and probiotics. However, there is limited information on their resistance to various antibiotics, and there is a growing concern over the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The MIC for 8 antibiotics was determined for 85 Bacillus species strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (n = 29), Bacillus licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strai...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Effect of Fermentation of Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Fruit Peel on its Phytonutrients and the Performance of Broiler Starter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 5-week feeding trial to determine the effect of fermentation of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel on its maize replacement value in broiler starter diet was conducted. Sweet orange fruit peels were collected from peeled orange sellers and divided into three portions. The first portion was not fermented (SP0), while the second and third portions were fermented for 24hrs (SP24) and 48hrs (SP48), respectively. They were separately sun-dried, mill...

2010-01-01

382

Characterization of Non-Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria from Italian Ewe Cheeses Based on Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Cell Wall Protein Analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) were isolated from 12 Italian ewe cheeses representing six different types of cheese, which in several cases were produced by different manufacturers. A total of 400 presumptive Lactobacillus isolates were obtained, and 123 isolates and 10 type strains were subjected to phenotypic, genetic, and cell wall protein characterization analyses. Phenotypically, the cheese isolates included 32% Lactobacillus plantarum isolates, 15% L. brevis isolates, 12% L. p...

Angelis, M.; Corsetti, A.; Tosti, N.; Rossi, J.; Corbo, M. R.; Gobbetti, M.

2001-01-01