WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Comparative Studies on Folate Production and Parameter Optimization in Fermented Milk from Yoghurt Starter Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the several causes reported for neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, deficiency of folate is one of the important reasons to be considered. Folate, water soluble vitamin, plays significant role in metabolic reactions. Humans cannot synthesize folate itself hence supplements and natural food sources are advisable to consume. Supplements have severe side effects on long term usage. Although milk is a poor soucrce of folate however folate producing microorganisms can enhance the folate content in the fermented milk. In this study, yogurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM No. 2904 and Lactobacillus helveticus NCIM No. 2733 were selected. Both the cultures were grown in MRS media and production was checked in reconstituted nonfat dry milk medium. Folate production was analysed by the TLC method and the modified ninhydrin assay which is not previously used on food products. Both cultures produced the folate in the fermented milk however S. thermophilus was found to be the best producer. After the production, optimization of culture condition such as temperature, pH, age of inoculum, inoculum volume and carbon source i.e. lactose concentration was carried out to obtain the enhanced folate content. S. thermophilus and L. helveticus gave the maximum production at 40°C and 37°C respectively and optimum pH was found to be 6.5 for both the cultures. Optimum age of inoculum was observed as the 15 hr while 5% inoculum volume was found to be optimum. Lactose concentration i.e. carbon source was also optimized and 2% lactose was found to be the optimum for the maximum folate production.

Prof. (Dr. Subir Kundu

2014-12-01

2

Pengaruh Kombinasi Starter Plain Yoghurt Dengan Cairan Tape Pulut Hitam Terhadap Karakteristik Yoghurt Yang Dihasilkan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoghurt is beverage that produced from fermented milk by Streptococcus thermophillus dan Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies Bulgaricus, that consist fewer lactose, so it suitable for lactose intolerance sufferer. A lot of consumer don’t like yoghurt taste due to too sour. The filtrate of black sticky rice tape is consist of lactic acid bacteria and proteolitic enzyme activity which capable to crumple milk so can be combined with yoghurt plain starter to make yoghurt more favourable becaus...

Sibarani, Ernita Dewi

2010-01-01

3

The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 109 : 109 (1 : 1, 109 : 2x109 (1 : 2 and 2x109 : 109 (2 : 1, and second factor was percentage (S of starter, with were 1, 2, 3 and 4 percent. Each treatment has three replicated. Variabels measured ware lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt after 12 hours fermented. Lactic acid content was determined by titration and lactose content by spectrofotometry. Result showed that number of Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and percentage of starter, including ther interaction, have very hight significant (P<0,01 affect on lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt. For resulted the yoghurt with the best quality (midle of lactic acid and lower lactose content recommended to used Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 1 : 2 with 4 percent starter addition. (Animal Production 8(2: 131-136 (2006 Key Words : Streptococus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, starter, yoghurt, lactic acid, lactose

Prayitno

2006-05-01

4

Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets.

Hansen, Egon Bech

2014-01-01

5

Yoghurt Production Using Soyamilk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soyamilk was extracted from soaked dehulled crushed soyabeans by mixing with water and then filtering using a muslim cloth to separate the milk from residue. The filtered soyamilk was then pasteurised to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and undesirable enzymes. The extracted soyamilk had a lower acidity (0.03%) and fat content (1.0%) than cows milk (0.14 and 3.5% acidity and fat content respectively). Organoleptic (sensory) evaluation was carried by a panel and the results were analysed using the Anova an mean separation by using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Quality attributes of soyamilk that were significant (P > 0.05) affected were consistency and flavour. A 75:25 (cow milk:soyamilk) was not significantly different from 100% cow milk. The 25:75 cow milk:soyamilk and 100% soyamilk were not acceptable because of poor consistency and objectionable flavour. The fermented soyamilk yoghurt had a higher acceptability rating than fresh soyamilk. The sensory evaluation results showed that the 75:25 and 50:50 ( cow to soyamilk) yoghurt were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control (100% cow yoghurt). The 25:75 and 0:100 (cow milk:soyamilk yoghurt) had low rating and categorised as poor. By increasing the sugar content and amount of emulsifier (gelatin), the acceptability of 25:75 and 0:100 soyamilk yoghurt was improved. Fermentation using yoghurt starter culture improved the flavour and taste

6

Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum) preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days r...

Akpan, Uduak G.; Mohammed, Abdullahi D.; Aminu, Ibrahim

2007-01-01

7

Isolation and Identification of Lactococci from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactococci isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 28 Lactococci were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional yoghurt. However, in the future can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

M.H. Zamani

2011-01-01

8

Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained) yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu...

Harun Kesenka?

2010-01-01

9

Starter cultures for cereal based foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. PMID:24230471

Brandt, Markus J

2014-02-01

10

Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:11482563

Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

2001-07-20

11

SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

Widaningrum3

2013-06-01

12

Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12% on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat. Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (water holding capacity and whey separation and sensory characteristics of yoghurt samples were determined after production and during 5 days of storage. Addition of TGase to milk (direct or after activation for probiotic yoghurt manufacture improved its overall characteristics. Activation of TG in yoghurt production increases water holding capacity as well as decreases syneresis during the storage.

Milanovi? Spasenija D.

2007-01-01

13

Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

Harun Kesenka?

2010-03-01

14

Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid to quality of raw material for yoghurt manufacture. The quality of raw milk for yoghurt production was high. Average relative density was 1,030. Acidity varied from 6.11 to 6.64oSH, with mean value of 6.28oSH. Evaporating of milk and addition of skim milk dry powder were used for dry solids adjustment required for good quality yoghurtmanufacture. Milk for yoghurt manufacture, had relative density from 1.035 to 1.036 with average value of 1.035. Acidity ranged from 7.07 to 7.59oSH. Average acidity was 7.30oSH. Fat content was in range from 1.94 to 2.00% and 1.98% in average. Yoghurt starter culture showed high acidic activity, as indicated in its acidity value before inoculation of yoghurt milk. Mean value of acidity of starter culture was 40.36oSH with variations from 38.05 to 42.64oSH. The acidity of final product varied from 37.36 to 38.81oSH or 38.26oSH in average. The acidity of yoghurt in Dairy Industry Zenica was adjusted to be somewhat lower than usual in order to keep high quality of products during distribution and consuming chain.

Sonja Bijeljac

2004-01-01

15

Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas / Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, [...] e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated [...] from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were performed: T1 - addition of commercial starters (Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mixture of isolated Staphylococcus xylosus plus commercial Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T3 - mixture of isolated Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis plus commercial Staphylococcus xylosus; and T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis both isolated. The treatments showed a significant decrease of pH and reduction in the Aw ensuring microbiological safety to the products. With regard to lipid oxidation, the treatments that contained isolated strains of Staphylococcus xylosus presented significantly lower values than the other treatments. The sausages elaborated with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, both strains isolated, presented better sensorial results than the sausages elaborated with commercial starter cultures. Therefore, the addition of native starter cultures can be used in the elaboration of fermented Italian sausages providing safe products with differentiated flavor.

Andréia, Cirolini; Leadir Lucy Martins, Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra; Liana Inês Guidolin, Milani; Diala, Urnau; Bibiana Alves dos, Santos; Giovanna Dotta, Cervo; Ana Paula de Souza, Rezer.

2010-05-01

16

Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado.The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were performed: T1 - addition of commercial starters (Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T2 - mixture of isolated Staphylococcus xylosus plus commercial Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T3 - mixture of isolated Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis plus commercial Staphylococcus xylosus; and T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis both isolated. The treatments showed a significant decrease of pH and reduction in the Aw ensuring microbiological safety to the products. With regard to lipid oxidation, the treatments that contained isolated strains of Staphylococcus xylosus presented significantly lower values than the other treatments. The sausages elaborated with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, both strains isolated, presented better sensorial results than the sausages elaborated with commercial starter cultures. Therefore, the addition of native starter cultures can be used in the elaboration of fermented Italian sausages providing safe products with differentiated flavor.

Andréia Cirolini

2010-05-01

17

The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R) of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactoba...

Prayitno

2006-01-01

18

Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

Sedarnawati Yasni

2014-03-01

19

Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

20

Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p?0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P?0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

Metin Guldas

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
21

Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

2014-01-01

22

Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experime...

Silviya Popova; Mihail Angelov; Petia Koprinkova-Hristova; Georgi Kostov

2009-01-01

23

Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P dough were confirmed by their abilities to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus from an initial inoculum concentration of 7 log cfu ml(-1)) for test bacteria and zone of inhibition of up to 1.33 cm for aflatoxigenic A. flavus. The findings of this study form a database for further studies on the development of starter cultures for sour maize bread production as an alternative bread specialty. PMID:18456117

Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

2008-06-01

24

Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

Silviya Popova

2009-10-01

25

Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C, on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added to the milk at 43°C. After milk fermentation at pH 4.5, probiotic yoghurt samples were cooled to 8°C, gently homogenized and packed in plastic containers and stored for 10 days, at +4oC. Viscosity of all samples was measured at 5°C on a Haake Rheostress 600 viscosimeter. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that yoghurt samples produced with low level of transglutaminase activated prior to fermentation have significantly better rheological properties than the samples produced without activation and yoghurt control. Generally, the application of low level transglutaminase in low - fat yoghurt production improves overall rheological properties of the final product.

Ili?i? Mirela D.

2008-01-01

26

Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy-Corn Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the recent years, research efforts in the developing countries have been geared towards the improvement of protein quality foods using blends of legume and cereal which is considered a nutritionally balanced product. Therefore, this present study is aimed at finding local substitute for milk based product with high protein content of a well balancing amino acid composition and high digestibility; determining the proximate composition, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation of soy-corn yoghurt with a view of knowing the consumer acceptability of the product. Yoghurt samples were produced from blends of soymilk and corn milk (yellow maize corn using Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. Ratio of soy milk to corn milk were 80%:20%; 70%:30% and 100% soymilk as control. The yoghurt samples produced were coded A, B and C representing 100% soy yoghurt, 80%:20% soy corn yoghurt and 70%:30% soy corn yoghurt respectively. Yoghurt samples were subjected to chemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment. The results of chemical analysis revealed protein contents of 4.30, 4.00 and 3.70% respectively for the samples. Fat contents varied between 2.10 and 2.60%, while ash contents of 0.50, 0.60 and 0.62% were obtained for the samples respectively. Total solids of between 10.98 and 8.80% were obtained with titratable acidity of 0.03, 0.05 and 0.06%, respectively. The carbohydrate contents of the samples ranged from 1.40 to 4.50% while all the samples showed fairly acidic levels. Water contents of between 89.00 and 91.20% were obtained. The microbiological examination revealed a tolerable level for all the samples.

Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

2012-06-01

27

The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug?1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug?1 for streptococci and >106 cfug?1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

Radulovi? Zorica

2014-01-01

28

Multiphasic approach to study the bacterial ecology of fermented sausages inoculated with a commercial starter culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the ability of a commercial starter culture to perform a sausage fermentation is evaluated. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of several strains of the same species contained in the starter culture with different behavior during the fermentation, and the contribution of Lactobacillus curvatus, which was only marginally isolated during the transformation.

Cocolin, Luca; Urso, Rosalinda; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cantoni, Carlo; Comi, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

29

PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU [Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%, starch (16,66%, fat (11,56%, ash (7.73%, dry matter (87.57%, dietary fibre (33.35% and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%. The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

Indratininingsih1

2004-04-01

30

Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (...

Andréia Cirolini; Leadir Lucy Martins Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento Terra; Liana Inês Guidolin Milani; Diala Urnau; Bibiana Alves dos Santos; Giovanna Dotta Cervo; Ana Paula de Souza Rezer

2010-01-01

31

Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms are incorporated to make them more valuable. This article provides an overview of the different starter cultures and health benefits of fer-mented dairy products, which can be derived by the consumers through their regular intake.

Parmjit S. Panesar

2011-01-01

32

Isolation and Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Traditional Drinking Yoghurt in Khartoum State, Sudan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to evaluate the technological characteristics of lactic acid bacteria used as lactic acid starter in the manufacturing of fermented dairy products and which are suitable to local conditions. Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), isolated from drinking yoghurt in different areas in Khartoum state, Sudan. The purification of isolates was done by transferring Gram +ve rods and c...

Asmahan Azhari Ali

2011-01-01

33

Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition improved the consistency and sensory characteristic of the products. Probiotics yoghurt had slightly higher sensory properties. After hedonic scaleevaluation the control yoghurt samples and control probiotic yoghurt samples were not acceptable. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between investigated yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt, and Duncan test showed that yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt samples with additives were significantly different from others, i.e., they proved to be better then control samples.

Rajka Božani?

2001-10-01

34

The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli [...] growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of ?s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

E., Hynes; J.C., Ogier; G., Lamberet; A., Delacroix-Buchet.

2002-12-01

35

The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of ?s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

E. Hynes

2002-12-01

36

Fermentation profile and optimization of green olive fermentationusing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 as a starter culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a strain originally isolated from an olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation. By means of a 23 (7 4) fractional factorial design, the salt concentration in brines was found to be the most important factor for producing the highest acidity and the highest initial population of the starter culture. To a lesser extent, other factors such as a high inoculum size, u...

Leal-sa?nchez, M. Vega; Ruiz-barba, Jose? Luis; Sa?nchez Go?mez, Antonio Higinio; Rejano Navarro, Luis; Jime?nez Di?az, Rufino; Garrido Ferna?ndez, A.

2003-01-01

37

Microbiological and physicochemical properties of Pecorino Romano cheese produced using a selected starter culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of a selected autochthonous starter culture made up by Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus helveticus on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of Pecorino Romano cheese during ripening was investigated. The suitability of the experimental starter culture was tested at industrial scales in cheese-making trials of Pecorino Romano. Pecorino Romano cheese manufactured by use of scotta-fermento...

Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Murgia, Marco Ambrogio; Garau, Giovanni; Deiana, Pietrino

2011-01-01

38

Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientali...

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-01-01

39

Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2010-01-01

40

Viability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in yoghurt: defining the best processing step to its addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotics are live microorganisms capable of producing beneficial effects on its host when consumed in adequate amounts. To exert these effects, foods must contain probiotic microorganisms in populations above 10(6) CFU/g or mL throughout its shelf life. One of the strategies to ensure high population of probiotics in fermented milk is to add them during or after the fermentation process separately from the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of the probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus casei added to yoghurt in different stages of production. Yoghurts with L. casei were produced at different stages: before addition of starter (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), added together with this culture and at the end of fermentation. Yoghurt without probiotic added was produced as a control. The products were stored at 4 degrees C and analyzed after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. In these periods, the populations ofprobiotic and starter cultures were enumerated and the parameters pH and acidity were analyzed. The results were evaluated using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, both at 5% significance level. L. casei remained viable in populations of more than 10(8) CFU / g during 21 days of storage, which is suitable to define the formulations as probiotics. When the different stages of the addition of probiotics in yoghurts were evaluated there was no statistical difference between the formulations (p < 0.05) for populations of L. casei except for the first day of storage. PMID:24167959

Bandiera, Nataly Simões; Carneiro, Isadora; da Silva, Alisson Santana; Honjoya, Edson Renato; de Santana, Elsa Helena Walter; Aragon-Alegro, Lina Casale; de Souza, Cínthia Hoch Batista

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
41

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

2009-01-01

42

Modelling the effect of the starter culture on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The competitive growth of a starter culture of lactic acid bacteria (Fresco 1010, Chr. Hansen, Hørsholm, Denmark) and Staphylococcus aureus was studied in milk. The lactic bacteria (LAB) were able to induce an early stationary state in S. aureus. The developed model highlights that the growth of S. aureus is inhibited when the LAB have reached a critical density. The model was tested in different conditions of temperature (from 12 degrees to 25 degrees C), for various inoculum sizes of LAB and S. aureus. The results show that the model accurately quantifies the kinetics of S. aureus as a function of the starter culture. PMID:19157613

Le Marc, Y; Valík, L; Medvedová, A

2009-02-28

43

Starter culture production in fluidized bed reactor with a flocculent strain ofL. plantarum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A lactic starter culture of a flocculentLactobacillus plantarum was produced in a fluidized bed reactor with higher cell volumetric productivities than in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The fluidized bed reactor was operated at optimised parameters obtained in batch reactor performed with and without pH control.

Barreto, M. T. O.; Melo, E. P.; Carrondo, M. J. T.

1989-01-01

44

Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. PMID:25084650

Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2014-12-01

45

Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

Lilian A Gogo

2012-04-01

46

Biochemical Properties of Some Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains from Traditional Fermented Milk Relevant to Their Technological Performance as Starter Culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented milk and to study some of their important technological properties. Five isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditionally raw cow’s fermented milk were identified using phenotypic criteria and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell proteins. Four isolates named 2, 8, 13 and 20 FM were identified as Streptococcus thermophilus while isolate 285 N was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. All these strains exhibited good acidification activity although two strains of Sc. thermophilus (2FM, 20FM and Lb. bulgaricus (285N presented the best acidification rates. In addition to their fast acid production, strains 20FM and 285N produced exopolysaccharides. Based on these characteristics, strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N were selected and used as pure or mixed cultures in the manufacture of fermented milk. In mixed cultures, the Sc. thermophilus/Lb. bulgaricus association was positive for all combination tested. The combination of strain 285N with strain 2FM or 20FM had a significant effect on acid production by Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain (285N. These bacterial associations also affected the rheological properties of fermented milk samples. Strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N presented interesting biotechnological profiles and may influence the quality of fermented milk if they are used in association as starters in yoghurt manufacture.

Zambou Ngoufack Francois

2007-01-01

47

Safety improvement and preservation of typical sensory qualities of traditional dry fermented sausages using autochthonous starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional dry fermented sausages are manufactured without addition of starter cultures in small-scale processing units, their fermentation relying on indigenous microflora. Characterisation and control of these specific bacteria are essential for the sensory quality and the safety of the sausages. The aim of this study was to develop an autochthonous starter culture that improves safety while preserving the typical sensory characteristics of traditional sausages. An autochthonous starter composed of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus isolated from a traditional fermented sausage was developed. These strains were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and their production of biogenic amines. This starter was evaluated in situ at the French traditional processing unit where the strains had been isolated. Effects of the autochthonous starter were assessed by analysing the microbial, physico-chemical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of the sausages. Inoculation with the chosen species was confirmed using known species-specific PCR assays for L. sakei and S. equorum and a species-specific PCR assay developed in this study for S. succinus. Strains were monitored by pulse-field gel electrophoresis typing. Addition of autochthonous microbial starter cultures improved safety compared with the traditional natural fermentation of sausages, by inhibiting the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, decreasing the level of biogenic amines and by limiting fatty acid and cholesterol oxidation. Moreover, autochthonous starter did not affect the typical sensory quality of the traditional sausages. This is the first time to our knowledge that selection, development and validation in situ of autochthonous starter cultures have been carried out, and also the first time that S. equorum together with S. succinus have been used as starter cultures for meat fermentation. Use of autochthonous starter cultures is an effective tool for limiting the formation of unsafe compounds in traditional sausage while preserving their original and specific sensory quality. PMID:18573561

Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Lebert, Isabelle; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Latorre-Moratalla, Mariluz; Vidal-Carou, Carmen; Zanardi, Emanuela; Conter, Mauro; Lebecque, Annick

2008-08-15

48

Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

2009-01-01

49

Classification of Swiss cheese starter and adjunct cultures using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acceptability of Swiss cheese largely depends on the flavor profile, and strain variations of cheese cultures will affect the final quality. Conventional biochemical methods to identify the cultures at the strain level are time-consuming and expensive, and require skilled labor. Our objective was to develop rapid classification methods of starter cultures at the strain level by using a combination of hydrophobic grid membrane filters and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Forty-four pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-verified strains of starter and nonstarter cultures including Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. were analyzed. The strains were grown on their respective agar media, transferred to broth media, and incubated. Then, cultures were centrifuged and the pellets were resuspended in saline solution (10 ?L). Aliquots (2 ?L) of the suspended bacterial solution were placed onto a grid of the hydrophobic grid membrane filters, having 6 grids per each strain analyzed. The dried filters were read by FTIR microspectroscopy fitted with an attenuated total reflectance probe. Collected spectra were statistically analyzed by a soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) for pattern recognition. Classification models were developed for Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. strains. The models showed major discrimination in the spectral region from 1,200 to 900 cm(-1) associated with signals from phosphate-containing compounds and various polysaccharides in the cell wall. The developed method allowed for rapid classification of several Swiss cheese starter and nonstarter cultures at the strain level. This information provides a detailed overview of microbiological status, which would enable corrective measures to be taken early in the cheese making process, limiting production of inferior quality cheese and minimizing defects. This method could be an effective tool to identify and monitor activity of cheese and other dairy starter cultures. PMID:21854910

Prabhakar, V; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N; Harper, J; Rodriguez-Saona, L

2011-09-01

50

Selection criteria for lactic acid bacteria to be used as functional starter cultures in dry sausage production: An update.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have long been used as starter cultures in the production of fermented dry sausages and other meat-derived commodities. These cultures are generally designed to meet food safety, shelf-life, technological effectiveness and economic feasibility criteria. Besides all these traditional properties, novel starter cultures should take into account the risks posed by the formation of biogenic amines in food, and the development and spreading of bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Further, 'functional starters' could protect consumers from harmful bacteria either by a rapid acidification or by the production of antimicrobials (bacteriocins). Specially-selected cultures may also provide probiotic benefits, and, if properly modified, they may even be endorsed with nutraceutical traits. The present review discusses the technological and new selection criteria that should be taken into account when selecting LAB starter cultures for the production of fermented dry sausages. PMID:22064200

Ammor, Mohammed Salim; Mayo, Baltasar

2007-05-01

51

Optimation Formula of Goat Milk Yoghurt and White Oyster Mushroom Powder with Mixture Design Methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using lactic acid bacteria as a starter. As a probiotics, Lactobacillus achidophillus was applied in the making of symbiotic yoghurt with white oyster mushroom powder as a prebiotic source. The objective of this research was to optimize goat milk yoghurt formula by mixture design with three component (white oyster mushroom, skim milk and skim goat milk) and four responses (pH, viscosity, total titrated acid and lactid ...

Yulianti Fitri Kurnia; Sedarnawati Yasni; Budi Nurtama

2014-01-01

52

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei LS25, a Commercial Starter Culture Strain for Fermented Sausage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium associated primarily with fermented meat and fish. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of L. sakei subsp. sakei strain LS25, a commercial starter culture strain for fermented sausage.

Mcleod, Anette; Brede, Dag Anders; Rud, Ida; Axelsson, Lars

2013-01-01

53

Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters that were selected on their ability to produce aroma compounds in butter. Although the heterofermentative species are present in the starters and in the cheeses made with these starters, they have not been studied to the same extent as the Lactococcus population. Heterofermentative strains isolated from DL-starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low aminopeptidase activity compared to Lactobacillus danicus and especially Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris had a low and narrow activity. Aminotransferase activity was high on aromatic amino acids for Lb. danicus, and the Leuconostoc species had an activity similar to Lb. danicus only after growth in CBM. A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria at the time. Differences were seen in the establishment of the heterofermentative bacteria in the cheese matrix, Le. pseudomesenteroides and Lb. danicus grew to a higher number and survived longer than Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. More secondary alcohols and less acetoin were found in cheeses where the heterofermentative bacteria grew and were established well. The biodiversity of heterofermentative bacteria in DL-starters was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the strains were characterizedwith 16s rRNA sequencing and carbohydrate fermentation. The sugar fermentation results indicated an ongoing adaption of Le. mesenteroides to a dairy environment. The adaption from a plant environment to a dairy environment was also indicated in the draft genome sequences of strains Le. pseudomesenteroides 1159, PS12 and Le. mesenteroides subsp. cmreoris T26. The dairy strains had, in comparison with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL-starters contained numerous of strains of heterofermentative Le. mesenteroides, whereas Le. pseudomesenteroides and  only were found in some starters. The potential of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria to effect the flavour formation in cheese seems to be dependent on how well they grow and establish themselves in the cheese matrix. Lb. danicus had metabolic activities that lead to gas formation in the cheese matrix after nine weeks of ripening, indicating that it behaved more like non-starter Lactobacillus in cheese. The genetic information obtained gave insight in the metabolism of Leuconostoc and gave rise to numerous of new topics for further research in this area.

Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

2014-01-01

54

Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enteroc...

Dora Bu?an; Ksenija Uroi?; Jasna Beganovi?; Blaženka Kos; Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Jagoda Šuškovi?

2013-01-01

55

Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cheese is among the most commonly implicated foods associated with biogenic amines poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of autochthonous starter culture and ripening time on the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, ?-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in cheeses made from pasteurized ewe's milk. 4 cheese batches were made, in duplicate, and ripened for 7 months. The biogenic amines of 40 cheeses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The predominant biogenic amines determined at the end of the ripening time were phenylethylamine, spermine and tryptamine. Together, these accounted for 81% of the total of biogenic amines studied. The type of starter culture used to make the ewe's cheese had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the content of biogenic amines throughout ripening time. It was lower in the batches made with an autochthonous starter culture made up entirely of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris or of the same in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum. PMID:25084673

Renes, E; Diezhandino, I; Fernández, D; Ferrazza, R E; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M

2014-12-01

56

Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signi?cance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

AldoCorsetti

2012-07-01

57

Inactivation mechanisms of lactic acid starter cultures preserved by drying processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation of lactic acid starter cultures by drying are of increased interest. A further improvement of cell viability is, however, still needed, and the insight into inactivation mechanisms of the cells is a prerequisite. In this present work, we review the inactivation mechanisms of lactic acid starter cultures during drying which are not yet completely understood. Inactivation is not only induced by dehydration inactivation but also by thermal- and cryo-injuries depending on the drying processes employed. The cell membrane has been reported as a major site of damage during drying or rehydration where transitions of membrane phases occur. Some drying processes, such as freeze drying or spray drying, involve subzero or very high temperatures. These physical conditions pose additional stresses to cells during the drying processes. Injuries of cells subjected to freezing temperatures may be due to the high electrolyte concentration (solution effect) or intracellular ice formation, depending on the cooling rate. High temperatures affect most essential cellular components. It is difficult to identify a critical component, although ribosomal functionality is speculated as the primary reason. The activation during storage is mainly due to membrane lipid oxidation, while the storage conditions such as temperature moisture content of the dried starter cultures are important factors. PMID:18266696

Santivarangkna, C; Kulozik, U; Foerst, P

2008-07-01

58

The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (?g kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

M. Mohsenzadeh

2008-01-01

59

Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS. PMID:20405917

Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

2010-05-12

60

Manufacturing of fermented goat milk with a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in a controlled bioreactor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: This work was undertaken to study the feasibility and the characteristics of a fermented product made of goat milk, using a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus under controlled conditions, and to determine their survival in the fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Methods and Results: Goat milk was inoculated with Lact. acidophilus and Bif. animalis mixed starter, fermented in a glass bioreactor with controlled temperatur...

Kongo, J. M.; Gomes, A. M.; Malcata, F. X.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Additives in yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

Milna Tudor

2008-02-01

62

Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Desenvolvimento e avaliação sensorial de iogurte de soja. Foram elaborados iogurtes através da fermentação de leite de soja, usando uma cultura mista de Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. O leite de soja com 9(0) Brix foi homogeinizado sob pressão (17 MPa) e fermentado com e sem [...] adição de sacarose (2,0 e 2,5 g por 100 g) por 4, 5, 6 e 7 horas. Os iogurtes obtidos foram analisados em relação as características sensoriais, pH, acidez titulável, fitatos e oligossacarídeos. Foi obtido um iogurte com ótimas qualidades sensoriais, a partir do leite de soja homogeinizado, com adição de 2% de sacarose e fermentado por 6 h. Os microrganismos utilizados não produziram fitases e a-galactosidases e, consequentemente, os teores de a-galactosídeos e de fitatos não foram alterados pelo processamento Abstract in english Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 [...] and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and a-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the process

C . S, Fávaro Trindade; S. C, Terzi; L.C, Trugo; R. C, Della Modesta; S, Couri.

2001-03-01

63

Whey valorisation: a complete and novel technology development for dairy industry starter culture production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whey is the major by-product of the dairy industry, produced in large quantities and usually disposed off causing major environmental pollution, due to its high organic load that makes treatment cost prohibitive. This paper comprises a contribution on the valorisation of this high polluting liquid waste of the dairy industry, based on research for the production of novel dairy starter cultures using whey as raw material. Starter cultures are used for cheese ripening in order to: (i) accelerate ripening, (ii) improve quality and (iii) increase shelf-life. The developed technology involves biomass production from whey followed by thermal drying of cultures. Specifically, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and kefir yeasts were thermally dried, and their efficiency in lactose and milk whey fermentations was studied. The most suitable culture regarding its technological properties was kefir, which was used for cheese ripening in freeze-dried and thermally dried form. Besides the reduction of production cost, which is an essential requirement for the food industry, the use of thermally dried kefir displayed several other advantages such as acceleration of ripening, increase of shelf-life, and improvement of hard-type cheese quality. PMID:19254836

Koutinas, Athanasios A; Papapostolou, Harris; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bosnea, Loulouda A

2009-08-01

64

Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

Blaženka Kos

2011-12-01

65

Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter) culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids) in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd) in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day) we...

Biljana Radeljevi?; Nataša Mikulec; Neven Antunac; Zvonimir Prpi?; Mirjana Maleti?; Jasmina Havranek

2013-01-01

66

Effect of starter culture and turmeric on physico-chemical quality of carabeef pastirma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Carabeef samples were sliced, pressed, cured and divided into 6 groups. Starter cultures (Micrococcus varians M483 (MV), Staphylococcus carnosus (SC), Lactobacillus sakei (LS), M. varians M483+ Lb. sakei and Staph. carnosus + Lb. sakei) were inoculated at the dose of 106–07cfu/g and stored at 10 ± 1°C for 7 days. Uninoculated samples were maintained as control. Samples were then divided into 2 treatment groups. Samples of treatment 1 (T1) were smeared with a paste of turmeric followed by ...

Maurya, P.; Borpuzari, R. N.; Nath, D. R.; Nath, N. C.

2010-01-01

67

Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

Uduak G. AKPAN

2007-09-01

68

Antibiotic resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci associated with food and used in starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resistance of 330 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) associated with food or used in starter cultures and belonging to the species Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus, against 21 antibiotics was determined using the disk diffusion method. The incidence and number of resistances was found to be species and source of isolation dependent. Most strains of S. equorum (63%), S. succinus (90%) and S. xylosus (95%) exhibited resistances against up to seven antibiotics, whereas only few strains of S. carnosus (12%) and S. piscifermentans (27%) were antibiotic resistant. Resistances to lincomycin, penicillin, fusidic acid, oxacillin, ampicillin and tetracycline were predominant. Among strains of S. xylosus, the incidence of resistance ranged from 22% for tetracycline up to 69% for penicillin. Concerning the source of isolation, resistances were often determined in strains of S. equorum, S. succinus and S. xylosus isolated from cheese (87%) and sausage (83%), and strains of S. xylosus obtained from meat starter cultures (93%). Remarkably, all CNS were sensitive to the clinically important antibiotics chloramphenicol, clindamycin, cotrimoxazol, gentamicin, kanamycin, linezolid, neomycin, streptomycin, synercid and vancomycin. The phenotypic resistances to beta-lactam antibiotics, lincomycin and tetracycline were verified by PCR amplification and could be traced back to the genes blaZ, lnuA and tetK, respectively. This study permitted a comprehensive insight into the incidence of antibiotic resistances in food-associated CNS. PMID:18625535

Resch, Marion; Nagel, Verena; Hertel, Christian

2008-09-30

69

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

Barbara Turchi

2011-05-01

70

Avaliação sensorial de pães de fermentação natural a partir de culturas starters inovadoras / Sensory evaluation of natural fermentation breads with innovative starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação sourdough para a produção de pães é fortemente motivada por seus efeitos benéficos quanto ao sabor, textura, vida de prateleira e pelas propriedades nutricionais dos produtos obtidos. Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a aplicação dos micro-organismos Kluyveromyces marxianus, Dekkera bruxellen [...] sis e Lactobacillus plantarum como culturas starters alternativas na produção de pães. A partir de sete ensaios resultantes de um delineamento de mistura simplex-centroide, foram realizadas nos pães análises sensorial e instrumental. Observou-se que pães produzidos com L. plantarum apresentaram menor volume específico, enquanto que a mistura entre K. marxianus e L. plantarum exerceu influência positiva, possibilitando obter produtos de maior volume específico. A análise sensorial demonstrou a boa aceitabilidade para os pães produzidos com a mistura entre D. bruxellensis e K. marxianus e para a mistura entre os três micro-organismos. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram a possibilidade do uso de culturas starters definidas para a fermentação sourdough, que é tradicionalmente obtida sem controle de processo. Abstract in english The sourdough fermentation in bread making is strongly motivated due to its beneficial aspects on flavor, texture, shelf life, and the nutritional properties of the obtained products. In this research, the yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Dekkera bruxellensis, and the bacterium Lactobacillus plant [...] arum were used as alternative starter cultures in bread making. Experimental designs generated from simplex-centroid mixture were used in the sensorial analyses of breads. Results have shown that bread obtained with pure cultures of L. plantarum presented the smallest specific volume, while the mixture of K. marxianus and L. plantarum positively influenced the formation of good specific volume of products. Sensorial analysis showed good acceptability for breads obtained with D. bruxellensis and K. marxianus mixture, as well as for the mixture of the three microorganisms. The results obtained in this research suggest the possibility of using defined starter cultures for sourdough fermentation, which is traditionally carried out without any process controls.

Fernanda, Martinbianco; André Rosa, Martins; Rosane, Rech; Simone Hickmann, Flôres; Marco Antônio Záchia, Ayub.

1701-17-01

71

EFFECT OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE-PRODUCING ADJUNCT STARTER CULTURES ON THE MANUFACTURE, COMPOSITION AND YIELD OF HALF-FAT CHEDDAR CHEESE  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing adjunct starter cultures on the manufacture, composition and yield of half-fat Cheddar cheeses (ca. 16%, w/w, fat) was examined. Four replicate trials were undertaken, in each of which three batches of cheese were manufactured using either a control s...

72

Experiences with the use of a starter culture in the fermentation of maize for 'kenkey' production in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Controlled fermentation of maize was carried out using six strains of Lactobacillus fermentum and one strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated from traditionally fermented maize dough as starter cultures for inoculum enrichement. The fermentations were monitored by pH, acidity, microbiological analysis and taste panel evaluation of two products, kenkey and koko, prepared from the fermented doughs. The strains of L. fermentum used as starter culture dominated the microflora during fermentation and in most inoculated doughs the required pH was attained by 24 h instead of 48 h of dough fermentation. Higher contents of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were observed in inoculated doughs at the initial stages of fermentation but the spontaneously fermented doughs attained similar lactic acid bacteria and yeasts counts by 24 h of dough fermentation. The organoleptic quality of kenkey and koko prepared from doughs fermented with starter culture for 48 h was not significantly different from the traditional products. Kenkey prepared from doughs fermented for 24 h with starter culture were found to be unacceptable by the taste panel although similarly produced koko was acceptable. PMID:24415385

Halm, M; Osei-Yaw, A; Hayford, A; Kpodo, K A; Amoa-Awua, W K

1996-09-01

73

Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-07-01

74

Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

Oktay, Yerlikaya.

2014-06-01

75

Characterization of toxin production of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from food and starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study a comprehensive analysis of toxin production of food associated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) was investigated. The strains belong to the following staphylococcal species, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus condimenti, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus piscifermentans, Staphylococcus succinus, and Staphylococcus xylosus, which were isolated from fermented food and starter cultures. A collection of 330 strains were analyzed with respect to their hemolytic activity. 59% of the strains exhibited weak to moderate hemolytic activity with human blood and 34% with sheep blood after 48 h incubation. A selection of 35 strains were tested by immunoblot analysis for their ability to produce toxins, such as the most common staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs), the toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1), and the exfoliative toxin A (ETA). 18 of the 35 strains produced at least one of the toxins with the SED and SEH being the most common. These indicate that the use of CNS in food production demands a safety evaluation. PMID:18752861

Zell, Christiane; Resch, Marion; Rosenstein, Ralf; Albrecht, Till; Hertel, Christian; Götz, Friedrich

2008-10-31

76

Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

2014-01-01

77

BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

2004-04-01

78

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

79

Studies on Organic Acids and Minerals Content of Sourdough Naans Made from Different Extraction Rate Wheat Flours and Starter Cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sourdough naans were prepared using different extraction rate wheat flours and sourdough starter cultures. Sourdough naans were analyzed to find out the effect of flour extraction rates on the production of organic acids and minerals content. It was concluded that organic acids (lactic, acetic and citric acid) increased with an increase in extraction rate and freeze dried cultures containing hetero-fermentative strains of LAB showed better performance than homo-fermentative in the production ...

Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din; Salim- ur-Rehman; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Haq Nawaz

2009-01-01

80

Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coffee fermentation is characterized by the presence of different microorganisms belonging to the groups of bacteria, fungi and yeast. The objectives of this work were to select pectinolytic microorganisms isolated from coffee fermentations and evaluate their performance on coffee pulp culture medium. The yeasts and bacteria isolates were evaluated for their activity of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) and metabolites production. Among 127 yeasts isolates and 189 bacterial isolates, 15 were pre-selected based on their ability to produce PL and organic compounds. These isolates were strains identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia caribbica, Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultivated in Coffee peel and pulp media in single culture or two by two mixed inocula, different behavior concerning to PME, PL and PG were found. The two principal components PC1 and PC2 accounted for 45.27 and 32.02 % of the total variance. UFLA CN727 and UFLA CN731 strains were grouped in the positive part of PC1 being characterized by 1,2-propanediol, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, nonanoic acid and ethyl acetate. The UFLA CN448 and UFLA CN724 strains were grouped in the negative part of PC1 and were mainly characterized by guaiacol, butyric acid and citronellol. S. cerevisiae UFLACN727, P. guilliermondii UFLACN731 and C. parapsilosis UFLACN448 isolates are promising candidates to be tested in future studies as coffee starter cultures. PMID:23054699

Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Vilela, Danielle Marques; de Souza Cordeiro, Cecília; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-09-30

82

Determination of The Effects of Different Amino Acids, Sodium Formate and Their Combinations on Some Growth Characteristics of Mixed and Single Cell Cultures of Yoghurt Bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research, different amino acids, sodium formate and their combinations were added into the milk for determining their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on some growth characteristics of mixed and single cell cultures of yoghurt bacteria. Among the added individual amino acids (each of them 100 ppm, cystein was the most stimulant agent for mixed and single cell cultures of the S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus for their acetaldehyde and volatile fatty acid contents. Histidine and glutamic acid were also stimulatory for mentioned parameters. But for the samples, inoculated with single cell culture of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, glutamic acid, cysteine and methionine were to be the most stimulatory for volatile fatty acid contents. Sodium formate added into the milk (500 ppm, as a growth factor aspecially for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, showed more stimulant effect on the growth characteristics of this single culture of this bacteria. According to different compounds and culture groups added into the milk, statistically important (p<0.01 differences were determined among the investigated parameters.

B. Kaptan

2005-05-01

83

Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

Biljana Radeljevi?

2013-03-01

84

Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

Dora Bu?an

2013-11-01

85

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames / Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltór [...] io, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo. Abstract in english The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as [...] well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

Luís César, CASTRO; Rosa Helena, LUCHESE; José Francisco P., MARTINS.

2000-04-01

86

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity pr [...] ofile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman, Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores, Rall; Margarida Júri, Saeki; Ary, Fernandes Júnior.

1147-11-01

87

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

2012-09-01

88

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam di...

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores Rall; Margarida Júri Saeki; Ary Fernandes Júnior

2012-01-01

89

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

2012-07-01

90

The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

2014-02-01

91

Application of wild starter cultures for flavour development in pilot plant cheese making  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of wild lactococci of dairy and non-dairy origin which have the ability to produce unusual new flavours in model systems were studied with regard to various characteristics important for cheese making. All strains were found to be non-lysogenic and resistant to phages affecting strains present in commercial starters. Since the overall acidifying activity of many potentially interesting strains is rather low, they were used in combination with commercial starters. Defined-strain start...

Ayad, E. H. E.; Verheul, A.; Wouters, J. T. M.; Smit, G.

2000-01-01

92

Studies on Organic Acids and Minerals Content of Sourdough Naans Made from Different Extraction Rate Wheat Flours and Starter Cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sourdough naans were prepared using different extraction rate wheat flours and sourdough starter cultures. Sourdough naans were analyzed to find out the effect of flour extraction rates on the production of organic acids and minerals content. It was concluded that organic acids (lactic, acetic and citric acid increased with an increase in extraction rate and freeze dried cultures containing hetero-fermentative strains of LAB showed better performance than homo-fermentative in the production of organic acids. Similarly, minerals content were also increased with an increase in flour extraction and 100% extraction rate sourdough naan showed the highest minerals content.

Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din

2009-01-01

93

The Effect of starter Cultures on the Portuguese Traditional Sausage "Paio do Alentejo" in Terms of its Sensory and Textural Characteristics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Profile  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Paio do Alentejo” is a Portuguese dry-cured sausage, made with meat from the Alentejano pig breed. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of starter cultures on the quality of the sausage, mainly with regard to its sensory properties, rheological characteristics and PAH profile. Three batches of the product were examined: S1-inoculated with a commercial starter comprising Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts; S2-inoculated w...

Elias M.; Potes M. E.; Roseiro L. C.; Santos C; Gomes A.; Agulheiro-Santos A. C.

2014-01-01

94

Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2014-08-01

95

Selection of functional lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this research was to find safe and suitable starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler), also known as garlic chives or Oriental garlic. This traditional herb has several functional properties and a strong flavour; its leaves are used as food material. Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from well-fermented leek kimchi. Controlled fermentation of the leek leaves was conducted with 2 strains (Weissella confusa LK4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LK8), selected as potential starter cultures on the basis of their safety properties, and on the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and viable cell numbers [colony forming units (CFUml(-1))] achieved during the fermentation. Microbial dynamics was also followed during fermentation by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) on DNA level. To analyse bioactive compounds such as thiols and allicin (diallyl thiosulfinates), the total flavonoid and polyphenolic contents were determined by colorimetric methods. Functional properties were assessed on the basis of anti-oxidative capacities by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). W. confusa LK4 rapidly increased during the first stage of leek fermentation, and was mainly responsible for accelerated fermentation during the early period in contrast to L. plantarum LK8, a stronger acid producer during the later stages of fermentation. After 48 h fermentation, leeks fermented with W. confusa LK4 showed the highest radical scavenging effects and reducing ability. The detectable amount of allicin of fermented leeks decreased relative to the change in pH, whereas the concentration of thiols significantly increased. Total flavonoid and poly-phenolic contents changed during fermentation and showed correlation with anti-oxidant effects. We therefore suggest the suitability of W. confusa LK4 as a potential starter culture for fermentation of leeks. PMID:25279760

Yang, Jaesik; Ji, Yosep; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Park, Soyoung; Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hyunkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

2014-11-17

96

Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became dominant in Daqu, and next, to assess the impact of Bacillus sp. on Daqu and its derived products. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to study the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation. Throughout the incubation, 67 presumptive Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained, 52 of which were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identified organisms belonged to 8 Bacillus species: B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. anthracis. A primer set specific for Bacillus and related genera was used in a selective PCR study, followed by a nested DGGE PCR targeting the V9 region of the 16S rDNA. Species identified from the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were related to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, B. benzoevorans, and B. foraminis. The predominant species was found to be B. licheniformis. Certain B. licheniformis strains exhibited potent antimicrobial activities. The greatest species diversity occurred at the Liangmei stage of Daqu incubation. To date, we lack sufficient knowledge of Bacillus distribution in Daqu. Elucidating the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation would enable the impact of Bacillus on Daqu to be accessed, and the quality and stabilization of Daqu-derived products to be optimized. PMID:23648849

Yan, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Han, Bei-Zhong; Han, Jian-Shu; Nout, M J Robert; Chen, Jing-Yu

2013-05-01

97

Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degradation kinetics of pesticides is first order, the rate constant of degradation and the half live period of the pesticides were calculated. The results indicated that degradation of the pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing were enhanced by one or both starters, except for malathion, and the two commercial DVS starters had different influences on the degradation kinetics of the pesticides.

LI-YING BO

2011-03-01

98

Comparative metabolic profiling to investigate the contribution of O. oeni MLF starter cultures to red wine composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research work we investigated changes in volatile aroma composition associated with four commercial Oenococcus oeni malolactic fermentation (MLF) starter cultures in South African Shiraz and Pinotage red wines. A control wine in which MLF was suppressed was included. The MLF progress was monitored by use of infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatographic analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to evaluate the volatile aroma composition and organic acid profiles, respectively. Significant strain-specific variations were observed in the degradation of citric acid and production of lactic acid during MLF. Subsequently, compounds directly and indirectly resulting from citric acid metabolism, namely diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and ethyl lactate, were also affected depending on the bacterial strain used for MLF. Bacterial metabolic activity increased concentrations of the higher alcohols, fatty acids, and total esters, with a larger increase in ethyl esters than in acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl propionate concentrations were increased by MLF. In contrast, levels of hexyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl acetate were reduced or remained unchanged, depending on the strain and cultivar evaluated. Formation of ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-methylbutryate, and ethyl isovalerate was related to specific bacterial strains used, indicating possible differences in esterase activity. A strain-specific tendency to reduce total aldehyde concentrations was found at the completion of MLF, although further investigation is needed in this regard. This study provided insight into metabolism in O. oeni starter cultures during MLF in red wine. PMID:22120647

Malherbe, Sulette; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; du Toit, Maret

2012-03-01

99

Application of Bifidobacteria as Starter Culture in Whole Wheat Sourdough Breadmaking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This investigation is aimed at developing a new cereal-based product, with increased nutritional quality, by using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 as starter in whole wheat sourdough fermentation and evaluating its performance. Four different sourdough levels (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% on flour basis) in bread dough formulation were analysed. The effects of the use of bifidobacteria in sourdough bread were comparatively evaluated with controls (yeast and/or chemically acidified sourd...

Sanz Penella, Juan Mario; Tamayo Ramos, Juan Antonio; Haros, Monika

2012-01-01

100

Effect of autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese on physicochemical, microbiological and volatile compound profiles and sensorial attributes of sucuk, a Turkish dry-fermented sausage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of adding autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese, on the physicochemical parameters and microbial counts of sucuk was investigated during the ripening period. SPME-GC/MS was used in volatile compound analysis and a trained group of panelists carried out sensory analysis of the final product. After preliminary screening, three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, which possess desirable technological properties, were used to prepare three starter cultures: LBP7, LBP10 and LBP14. The addition of LBP7 and LBP14 starter cultures had a significant effect (P<0.05) on lightness, leading to higher L values compared to control sausages during the ripening period. Both LBP7 and LBP14 sausages showed higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, lower growth of Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and greatly lowered the pH value compared to control sausages throughout the ripening process. At the end of the ripening process, lactic acid bacteria counts were affected (P<0.05) by the addition of starter culture since higher counts were observed in sausages prepared with LBP7 (9.14logCFU/g) and LBP14 (8.96logCFU/g) batches. The decrease of water activity during the ripening of sausages was not affected by the various starters. The texture profiles of all sausages were similar except for LBP10, which showed lower hardness and gumminess during ripening. Under the conditions of the study, volatile compounds were mainly from spices, and no marked differences were found among inoculated sausages. However, sensory evaluation revealed that most of the sensory attributes were scored higher for inoculated sausages than for the control ones. Therefore, LBP7 and LBP14 could be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of sucuk. PMID:24553492

Kargozari, Mina; Moini, Sohrab; Akhondzadeh Basti, Afshin; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Gandomi, Hassan; Revilla Martin, Isabel; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus), and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp) firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition imp...

Rajka Božani?; Ljubica Tratnik; Mirjana Parat

2001-01-01

102

Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

DANIELA PARASCHIV

2011-12-01

103

Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico / Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390). Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos. Abstract in english In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the g [...] rowth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390). Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

Maristela da Silva do, Nascimento; Izildinha, Moreno; Arnaldo Yoshiteru, Kuaye.

2009-03-01

104

Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390. Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos.In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390. Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

2009-03-01

105

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.

2010-01-01

106

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (P<0.05). The number of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

107

Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

Jasna Mrv?i?

2008-05-01

108

Quality Evaluation of Market Yoghurt /Dahi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was planned to evaluate and compare the quality of market yoghurt and dahi. Different samples of plant made yoghurt and dahi available in local markets of Islamabad and Rawalpindi were randomly collected and analyzed for physico- chemical, microbiological and organoleptic properties. Physico-chemical analysis revealed that plant made yoghurt samples were consistent and hardly showed any variation as compared to dahi. Microbiological examination showed that total viable count in yoghurt brands was less than dahi. The coliform count was nil or ignorable in yoghurt brands but dahi contained large number of coliform bacteria. Organoleptically, plant made yoghurt was found more suitable as compared to dahi.

Shahid Younus

2002-01-01

109

The Effect of Starter Cultures on the Portuguese Traditional Sausage “Paio do Alentejo” in Terms of Its Sensory and Textural Characteristics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Profile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available “Paio do Alentejo” is a Portuguese dry-cured sausage, made with meat from the Alentejano pig breed. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of starter cultures on the quality of the sausage, mainly with regard to its sensory properties, rheological characteristics and PAH profile. Three batches of the product were examined: S1-inoculated with a commercial starter comprising Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts; S2-inoculated with a starter comprising Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus; C-the control batch, was not inoculated. A sensory panel of 12 experts analysed samples in accordance with a descriptive analysis using a structured scale. A Texture Profile Analysis and 16 EPA priority PAHs for dry fermented sausages were performed. Both inoculated batches were well received by the judges, no significant differences being noted between them. The use of S2 led to a slight improvement in terms of cohesiveness. However, the use of starter cultures was not found to influence PAH content.

Elias M.

2014-03-01

110

Determination the number of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the combination of traditional yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Yoghurt is a milky, fermented andsemi-solid production that is produced by Microorganism starters.These microorganisms are known as lactic acid bacteria, which areresponsible for the formation of the tissue, scent and flavor of yoghurt.Their presence in digestive system makes people healthy. The aim ofthis study was determination of the number of Lactic Acid Bacteriaand Yeasts in the combination of traditional yoghurts of villages ofEast-Azerbaijan- province.Material and Methods: In this study, we gathered 90 samples oftraditional yoghurt from the villages of East- Azerbaijan province andtransferred, in a standard condition, to the laboratory ofpharmaceutical-applied research center of Tabriz medical scienceuniversity. We used 10-6dilution to measure the number of lactobacilliin MRS Agar medium and 10-3 dilution to count the Yeasts inSaborodextros Agar medium. Then, the grown colony has beenenumerated and the kind of bacteria was specified via biochemistrytests.Results: The mean number of lactobacilli in 1 ml of traditionalyoghurts is about 62 × 106 CFU/mL and the number of Yeasts 41×104CFU/mL. Delbrueckii and plantarum are the most commonLactobacilli, and Saccharomyces is with the highest frequency.Conclusion: According to findings of this research, there isconsiderable amount of microorganisms such as useful bacteria, in thetraditional yoghurts of villages of East- Azerbaijan province. Theyhave been used as a starter and probiotic in Dairy and milk factories toproduce good production in the future.Key words: Lactic acid bacteria, East-Azerbaijan, Yoghurt, Yeasts

Bonyadi M

2012-01-01

111

Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters.

Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr

2014-01-01

112

In vitro determination of volatile compound development during starter culture-controlled fermentation of Cucurbitaceae cotyledons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3, Pediococcus acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and Torulaspora delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 inoculation on the volatile compound profile of fermentation of Cucumeropsis mannii cotyledons were investigated. Different microbial associations were used as starters. All associations displayed the ability to ferment the cotyledons as judged by lowering the pH from 6.4 to 4.4-5 within 24h and increasing organic acids such as lactate and acetate. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts increased during fermentation. In the fermentation performed without inoculation (control), the LAB and yeast populations were lower than those in inoculated assays at the beginning, but they reached similar populations after 48 h. The Enterobacteriaceae population decreased during the fermentation, and they were not detected at 48 h in the L. plantarum UFLA CH3 and P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1 (LP+PA) and L. plantarum UFLA CH3, P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 (LP+PA+TD) samples. The assays inoculated with the yeast T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 exhibited the majority of volatile compounds (13 compounds) characterized by pleasant notes. The LP+PA+TD association seemed to be appropriate to ferment C. mannii cotyledons. It was able to control the Enterobacteriaceae population, and achieved high concentrations of esters and low concentrations of aldehydes and ketones. PMID:25306300

Kamda, Aristide Guillaume Silapeux; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Fokou, Elie; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Mercy, Achu; Germain, Kansci; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2015-01-01

113

Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS) starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degra...

LI-YING BO; YING-HUA ZHANG; XIN-HUAI ZHAO

2011-01-01

114

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for st...

Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Sant Anna, Ernani S.

2009-01-01

115

Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei) and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA) release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoac...

Ufuk Eren-Vapur; Tulay Ozcan

2012-01-01

116

Effect of wild strains used as starter cultures and adjunct cultures on the volatile compounds of the Pecorino Siciliano cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of six wild strains on the volatile profile of the PS cheese was investigated and compared to that generated from industrial starters generally used to produce PS cheese. All cheeses were subjected to microbiological, physicochemical, and volatile compounds analyses. The DGGE of the 16S rDNA analysis was also applied. The volatile compounds generated during ripening were studied through the SPME and the GC-MS methods. No difference was detected between the experimental and control cheeses throughout chemical and microbiological analyses, while the DGGE results showed the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus in all cheeses, and the dominance of Enterococcus durans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus casei in most of the experimental cheeses. Moreover, the presence of Lactococcus lactis species as in the control and in the experimental P2 and P4 cheeses was also revealed. The SPME results showed more pronounced volatile compounds in the experimental cheese samples than in the control ones. PMID:18281116

Randazzo, C L; Pitino, I; De Luca, S; Scifò, G O; Caggia, C

2008-03-20

117

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

118

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, A ND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOY BASED GOUDA CHEESE ANALOG MA DE FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF FA T, SODIUM CITRATE AND VARIOUS CHEESE STARTER CULTURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. Thefree fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

Abu Amar

2012-11-01

119

Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, by the DL-starter culture, and by the type strains. High and low levels of oxygen were produced by flushing milk with oxygen or nitrogen, respectively. The kinetics of milk acidification was characterized by the maximum rate and time of acidification (V(a)max and T(a)max), the maximum rate and time of reduction (V(r)max and T(r)max), the minimum redox potential (Eh7 final),and time of reaching Eh7 final (T(r)final). Variations in kinetic parameters were observed at both the species and strain levels. Two of the Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strains were not able to lower redox potential to negative values. Kinetic parameters of the DL-starter culture were comparable with the best acidifying and reducing strains, indicating their additive effects. Acidification curves were mostly diauxic at all oxygen levels, displaying 2 maxima of acidification rate: before (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had a negative effect on reduction and acidification capacity of tested LAB. Reduction was significantly delayed at high initial oxygen, exhibiting longer T(r)max, T(r)final, or both. Concurrently, anaerobic acidification rate maximum V(a)max was decreased and T(a)max was extended. Fermentation kinetics in nitrogen-flushed milk was not statistically different from that in untreated milk except for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis CHCC D2, which showed faster reduction time after nitrogen flushing. This study clarifies the relationship between the redox state in milk and acidification kinetics of the predominant subspecies in DL-starter cultures. This knowledge is important for dairies to ensure optimized, fast, and controlled milk fermentations, leading to greater standardization of dairy products.

Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit BrØsted

2015-01-01

120

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced. Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. Conclusions: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broadspectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties. They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga.

Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos / Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como áci [...] do lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos. Abstract in english Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to i [...] nhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

1999-12-01

122

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

123

Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

2009-01-01

124

Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was carried out to study the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus amylovorus) starter on traditional fermentation of sorghum flour (variety dabar). Results obtained indicated that fermentation time was reduced from 19-6 h albeit the final pH was reduced to 3.47. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the previous starter further reduced sorghum fermentation time to only 4 h and the final ...

Ali, Asmahan A.; Mustafa, Muna M.

2009-01-01

125

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

AngeloSisto

2012-05-01

126

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product "probiotic table olives".  

Science.gov (United States)

Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life. PMID:22586426

Sisto, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

2012-01-01

127

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growthmodels were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25 °C)were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates fromcottage cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07–1.10with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria fromadded starter culturewere on average predicted to grow16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aromaculturewas on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L.monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone,which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The appliedmethodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy productswhere inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie

2014-01-01

128

Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1100 as starter culture for wheat dough fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of sucrose on the fermentation balance of Lactobacillus reuteri CRL 1100 and the invertase activity of this strain in wheat dough and culture medium (MRSs) was evaluated. The enzyme activity was dependent on the environmental pH releasing glucose and fructose from sucrose hydrolysis. Glucose was used as carbon source, while fructose was mainly used as electron acceptor to produce mannitol up to 10h of fermentation. Thereafter, fructose seemed to be metabolized by the heterofermentative pathway, which determined an increase in the concentration of acetate (6 mmol l(-1)), lactate (2 mmol l(-1)) and ethanol (1 mmol l(-1)) and the lack of mannitol formation after glucose depletion. The fermentation balance of Lb. reuteri CRL 1100 during the dough fermentation resulted in lower (63%) ethanol, higher (75%) acetate production and soluble carbohydrates concentrations, like MRSs cultures. This fermentation profile would be important to obtain an optimal growth of yeast and the optimal bread flavor and taste. PMID:18206767

Gerez, C L; Cuezzo, S; Rollán, G; Font de Valdez, G

2008-04-01

129

CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

Yousef I. Hassan

2013-04-01

130

Biochemical characteristics of fermented milk produced by mixed-cultures of lactic starters and bifidobacteria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Strains of bifidobacteria of human origin (Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. breve, B. infantis and B. longum) were inoculated simultaneously with mixed cultures of lactococci, citrate- fermenting lactococci and leuconostocs to determine their impact on biochemical characteristics of fermented dairy products. Fermentations were carried out under different conditions of temperature, milk protein concentration and ratio of acidifying/aromatic lactic acid bacteria. The survival or growth of bifidobact...

Barona, Martine; Roy, Denis; Vuillemard, Jean-christophe

2000-01-01

131

Selection of Starter Culture for Yogurt Preparation and its Antibacterial Activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies on the symbiotic relationship of six combinations of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus for the preparation of yogurt in relation to its anti-microbial activity were carried out. The ratio 2:1 of L. bulgaricus: S. thermophillus in the inoculum was found best for the preparation of prime quality yogurt with maximum antibacterial activity. The ratio of the two cultures in the final product was 1:1. The yogurt samples were evaluated for curdling time, acidity, diacetyl acetoin contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the best product was comparable in 200 mcg/ml with 100 mcg/ml of Kanamycin and Ampiclox

Mujeeb ur Rahman

1999-01-01

132

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

2013-10-01

133

Use of Starter Cultures of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeasts in the Preparation of Kisra, a Sudanese Fermented Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was carried out to study the effect of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus amylovorus starter on traditional fermentation of sorghum flour (variety dabar. Results obtained indicated that fermentation time was reduced from 19-6 h albeit the final pH was reduced to 3.47. The addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the previous starter further reduced sorghum fermentation time to only 4 h and the final pH was 3.75.

Asmahan A. Ali

2009-01-01

134

The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determined lead to prevent or inhibit the growth of all pathogens. These factors clearly showed the inhibition effect of lactic acid bacteria against pathogens. The count of all pathogenic organisms decreased sharply with fermentation time until it disappeared completely after 3 days. This shows the importance of the consumption of fermented milks. Cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria shows clearly an inhibitory activity against all pathogenic organisms used. But, non-boiled extract was highly active than those of boiled ones. This means that, lactic acid bacteria produced thermolabile substances inhibit or prevent the growth of pathogens. Finally all these observations show the hygienic and nutritional importance of the consumption of fermented milks.

Shady, T. S. M

1999-01-01

135

Microbial ecology of the soppressata of Vallo di Diano, a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, and in vitro and in situ selection of autochthonous starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial ecology of "soppressata of Vallo di Diano," a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, was studied by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The ripened fermented sausages were characterized by high microbial loads of both staphylococci and lactobacilli. Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the variable V3 and V1 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and direct DNA sequencing, it was possible to identify Staphylococcus xylosus, S. succinus, and S. equorum among the staphylococci and Lactobacillus sakei and L. curvatus within the lactobacilli. Moreover, Debaryomyces hansenii was the main yeast species found by targeting the yeast 26S rRNA gene by PCR-DGGE. Selected strains of S. xylosus, L. sakei, and L. curvatus were characterized for their technological properties in the ripening conditions of the fermented sausages so as to select an autochthonous starter formulation. The selection included the determination of nitrate reductase, lipolytic, and antioxidant activity and proteolysis with myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions. Such properties were evaluated in both in vitro and in situ assays; the latter were performed by using each strain as a starter in the laboratory-scale manufacture of soppressata of Vallo di Diano and by monitoring the microbiological and chemical changes at the end of ripening. The results show differences between the in vitro and in situ selection results and indicate that in situ evaluation of the technological performance of specific strains is better suited to selecting autochthonous starter cultures for fermented-meat products than in vitro evaluation. PMID:17616625

Villani, Francesco; Casaburi, Annalisa; Pennacchia, Carmela; Filosa, Luisa; Russo, Federica; Ercolini, Danilo

2007-09-01

136

Microbial Ecology of the Soppressata of Vallo di Diano, a Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage from Southern Italy, and In Vitro and In Situ Selection of Autochthonous Starter Cultures?  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial ecology of “soppressata of Vallo di Diano,” a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, was studied by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The ripened fermented sausages were characterized by high microbial loads of both staphylococci and lactobacilli. Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the variable V3 and V1 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and direct DNA sequencing, it was possible to identify Staphylococcus xylosus, S. succinus, and S. equorum among the staphylococci and Lactobacillus sakei and L. curvatus within the lactobacilli. Moreover, Debaryomyces hansenii was the main yeast species found by targeting the yeast 26S rRNA gene by PCR-DGGE. Selected strains of S. xylosus, L. sakei, and L. curvatus were characterized for their technological properties in the ripening conditions of the fermented sausages so as to select an autochthonous starter formulation. The selection included the determination of nitrate reductase, lipolytic, and antioxidant activity and proteolysis with myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions. Such properties were evaluated in both in vitro and in situ assays; the latter were performed by using each strain as a starter in the laboratory-scale manufacture of soppressata of Vallo di Diano and by monitoring the microbiological and chemical changes at the end of ripening. The results show differences between the in vitro and in situ selection results and indicate that in situ evaluation of the technological performance of specific strains is better suited to selecting autochthonous starter cultures for fermented-meat products than in vitro evaluation. PMID:17616625

Villani, Francesco; Casaburi, Annalisa; Pennacchia, Carmela; Filosa, Luisa; Russo, Federica; Ercolini, Danilo

2007-01-01

137

Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue. PMID:25191137

Jeong, Ji-Kang; Chang, Hee-Kyung; Park, Kun-Young

2014-01-01

138

Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yoghurt: Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Enrichment of yoghurt with xylooligosaccharide (XO) at different levels was studied with physicochemical and sensory analysis. Yoghurt prepared by incorporation of XO were compared for these characteristics to the yoghurt containing stabilizer (gelatin, 0.4% w/w) in addition to XO. Moisture contents, pH, acidity and total solids were studied. These attributes were significantly affected by the use of stabilizer and rate of XO incorporation. Use of gelatin produced better results in terms of l...

Semee Mumtaz; Salim - Ur - Rehman; Nuzhat Huma; Amer Jamil; Haq Nawaz

2008-01-01

139

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, A ND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOY BASED GOUDA CHEESE ANALOG MA DE FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF FA T, SODIUM CITRATE AND VARIOUS CHEESE STARTER CULTURES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gouda cheese analog (GCA) was made using soy protein isolate (SPI), skim milk powder (SMP), fat (palm fat and butter fat), and water (W) at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA) of GCA. Thefree fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also m...

Abu Amar; Ingrid Suryanti Surono

2012-01-01

140

The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (carp meats. Practical Application: Douchi, a fermented soybean product, is a traditional food flavoring ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products. PMID:21535644

Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (? = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

Caroline Siefarth

2014-05-01

142

Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

2014-03-01

143

Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality. PMID:23442676

Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Yeo-Won; Hwang, Inyoung; Kim, Jeongho; Yoon, Sun

2012-10-15

144

Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amylase production. An antimicrobial activity was detected for 33.3%, 31.8%, 22.7% and 15.9% of the isolates towards Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A producer, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A and B producer, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. A similarity was found between the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus fermentum ferments dolo and pito wort by lowering the pH and providing organic acids, EPSs and antimicrobial compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Strains with a rapid rate of acidification, an antimicrobial activity and producing EPSs are suggested to have potential for starter cultures.

Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.

2008-01-01

145

CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesanal, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial.RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho.ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

DIOFANOR ACEVEDO

2012-06-01

146

Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

Ufuk Eren-Vapur

2012-12-01

147

The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines. These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry

Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena

2013-01-01

148

The Production of Yoghurt with Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Infants in Jordan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cultures of presumptive lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated from eight infants living in Amman, Jordan. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, three promising isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium infantis. These strains were employed to make yoghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time, a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus providing the rapid acidification. Yoghurts containing counts of > 1.0 x 108 cfu ml-1 of the individual probiotics and high counts of the traditional species from yoghurt were produced, and storage trials at 4oC showed that the viability of the probiotic cultures was retained over 15 days.

M.S.Y. Haddadin

2004-01-01

149

Starter/generator testing  

Science.gov (United States)

Sundstrand Aerospace and GE Aircraft Engines have studied the switched reluctance machine for use as an integral starter/generator for future aircraft engines. They have conducted an initial, low-power testing of the starter/generator, which is based on power inverters using IGBT-technology semiconductors, to verify its feasibility in the externally mounted version of the integral starter/generator. This preliminary testing of the 250-kW starter/generator reveals favorable results.

Anon

1994-10-01

150

Xylooligosaccharide Enriched Yoghurt: Physicochemical and Sensory Evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Enrichment of yoghurt with xylooligosaccharide (XO at different levels was studied with physicochemical and sensory analysis. Yoghurt prepared by incorporation of XO were compared for these characteristics to the yoghurt containing stabilizer (gelatin, 0.4% w/w in addition to XO. Moisture contents, pH, acidity and total solids were studied. These attributes were significantly affected by the use of stabilizer and rate of XO incorporation. Use of gelatin produced better results in terms of lowering syneresis and improved appearance, body and texture. Addition of XO upto 3.5% did not influence taste and overall acceptability but higher levels contributed aftertaste.

Semee Mumtaz

2008-01-01

151

Viscosity of stirred yoghurt during storage  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to determine the changes in viscosity of stirred yoghurt from producer A (n = 20) and producer B (n = 20) throughout 21 days of storage. The content of fat, dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactic acid, pH and viscosity of stirred yoghurt were determined on the 0, 7th, 14th and the 21st day of storage of the product at the temperature of 4 °C. Considerable change in viscosity of stirred yoghurt (p < 0,05) throughout the maintenance period was determined on the 0 and ...

Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija; Petar Mamula; Jasmina Havranek; Marija Pecina; Tomislav Poga?i?

2007-01-01

152

The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels <1log CFU/g. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C the pathogen was not detected. Thus, the strain L. rhamnosus CTC1679 is a suitable starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages. PMID:24998181

Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

2014-09-01

153

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

154

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

155

Genotypic and technological diversity of Brevibacterium linens strains for use as adjunct starter cultures in 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-two Brevibacterium linens strains isolated from 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments (natural cave and storeroom) were characterized and differentiated for features of technological interest and by genotypic methods, in order to select strains with specific features to be used as surface starter cultures. Results showed significant differences among strains on the basis of physiological and technological features, indicating heterogeneity within the species. A middle-low level of proteolytic activity was observed in 27.3 % of strains, while a small group (9.1 %) showed a high ability. Lipolytic activity was observed at three different temperatures and the highest value was detected at 20 °C with 13.6 % of strains, while an increase in temperature produced a slightly lower lipolysis in all strains. The evaluation of diacetyl production revealed that only 22.8 % of strains showed this ability, and most of them were isolated from product ripened in the natural cave. All strains exhibited only leu-aminopeptidase activity, with values more elevated in strains coming from the natural cave product. The combined analysis of genotypic results with the data obtained by the features of technological interest study established that the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) clusters obtained were composed not only of different genotypes but of different profiles based on technological properties too. This study demonstrated the importance of the ripening environment that affects the typical features of the artisanal product, leading to the selection of a specific surface microflora. Characterized strains could be associated within surface starters to standardize the production process of cheese, but preserving its typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and improving the quality of the final product. PMID:25147054

Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Cafaro, Caterina; Salzano, Giovanni

2015-01-01

156

Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

Ebrahimi H.

2012-03-01

157

Carrot Yoghurt : Sensory, Chemical, Microbiological Properties and Consumer Acceptance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from cow`s milk obtained from Fayoum district, Egypt. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice before fermentation. The sensory, rheological, chemical, and microbiological quality of yoghurt samples were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4?C for three weeks. The Sensory scores increased especially for yoghurt samples with 15% carrot juice. Chemical analysis revealed an...

Aly, Salwa A.; Galal, E. A.; Elewa, Neimat A.

2004-01-01

158

Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added to yoghurt with ratio of 4 and 6%. Chemical compositions such as pH value, titratable acidity, wheying off, ash, protein, lactose, total carbohydrate, total solid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl of the tested yoghurt with and without stabilizers were carried out using the official methods. The data concluded that the pH values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and decreased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. On the other hand, Titratable acidity values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and increased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. The Wheying off of the set yoghurt was significantly lower in the yoghurt containing inulin at 4, 6% and mucilage at 0.2% compared with control yoghurt. The reduction percentages in the wheying-off were 30, 58 and 50%, respectively compared to control. None of the stabilizers used in (p = 0.05 affect on the ash content of yoghurt However, a decrease in lactose content was observed with the increase in the storage period. There was a substantial decrease in lactose content from 2 to 0.78% on the 10th day of storage. The protein content of yoghurt treated with inulin 6%, mucilage 0.2% and control were significantly different (p = 0.05 and gave value of 4.56, 4.37 and 4.19%, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, mucilage and inulin are potential stabilizers to be used in yoghurt processing.

A.H. Zaghloul

2011-01-01

159

Potentially probiotic and bioprotective lactic acid bacteria starter cultures antagonise the Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to HT29 colonocyte-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to counteract the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to the epithelial intestinal cell line HT29 was studied. The highest adhesion ability to HT29 was achieved by the intestinal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, followed by the meat-derived strains Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 and Enterococcus faecium CTC8005. Surprisingly, the meat strains showed significantly better adhesion to HT29 than two faecal isolates of Lactobacillus casei and even significantly higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. Additionally, the anti-listerial, bacteriocin-producer starter culture L. sakei CTC494 was able to significantly reduce the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to HT29 in experiments of exclusion, competition and inhibition. The performance was better than the faecal isolate L. rhamnosus CTC1679. Our results reinforce the fact that the ability of LAB to interact with a host epithelium model, as well as to antagonise with foodborne pathogens, is a strain-specific characteristic. Additionally, it is underlined that this trait is not dependent on the origin of the bacterium, since some food LAB behave better than intestinal ones. Therefore, the search for novel strains in food niches is a suitable approach to find those with potential health benefits. These strains are likely pre-adapted to the food environment, which would make their inclusion in the formulation of probiotic foods more feasible. PMID:25488261

Garriga, M; Rubio, R; Aymerich, T; Ruas-Madiedo, P

2014-12-01

160

Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from raw seafoods and Thai fermented seafood products for their potential use as starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was analyzed from 52 samples of raw seafoods (shrimp and mussel, andThai fermented seafood products including fermented shrimp (kung-jom, mussel (hoi-dong, and fish (pla-jom. The viableLAB were 3.0?103 to 3.4?108 CFU/g. LAB were isolated and screened for their inhibitory activities against eight indicatorbacteria by agar spot test. Among all selected LAB isolates, 52 isolates showed strong inhibitory activity. They were furthercharacterized for their ability to resist hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, bile salts, and sodium chloride, and their ability toproduce bacteriocins and amino acid decarboxylase. The selected LAB isolates, 1IS11 and 4IS17, were bacteriocin-producingstrains, and showed no amino acid decarboxylase activity, which was suitable property for starter cultures. The isolate 1IS11could resist both hydrochloric and lactic acid at the lowest pH of 2.0, while the isolate 4IS17 was able to tolerate hydrochloricand lactic acid at the lowest pH of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Both isolates could grow in MRS broth containing a highconcentration of sodium chloride (10 % and bile salts (1.5%. They were identified by morphological characterization, biochemicaltest, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolate 1IS11 was found to be Enterococcus faecium, whereas the isolate4IS17 was Enterococcus faecalis.

Thitirut Jaichalad

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis. No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation.

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.

2007-01-01

162

Effect of Different Additives from Local Source on the Quality of Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is the most popular fermented milk product in the most parts of world. It involves use of specific symbiotic culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Yoghurt consists of valuable nutrients as in milk but it seems to have more than milk. In the present study different food additives from local source are used as additives and the effect is estimated for possible influence on the quality of yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using different stabilizers like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC, guar gum, gelatin, cornstarch and their combinations like CMC-gelatin, gelatin-cornstarch and CMC-cornstarch at different levels i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% at 0, 7, 14 and 21 day of storage interval. Guar gum at 0.1% gives best result for low acidity and low pH where as total solid free fatty acid, acetaldehyde contents comes best with the cornstarch. Food additives have influence on pH, acidity, total solid and acetaldehyde contents. During the storage of 21 days with increasing amounts of food additives, there was an increase in acidity, free fatty acids, total solid and acetaldehyde contents but decrease in pH.

Syed Tariq Mehmood

2008-01-01

163

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage / Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que [...] a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogurte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementação do meio RCPB pH5 com extrato de fígado desidratado e com os sais KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O, visando melhorar a diferenciação de Bifidobacterium em iogurte durante a estocagem refrigerada e também avaliou a contagem seletiva de Bifidobacterium em iogurte usando o meio MRS-LP. O meio MRS-LP apresentou a mesma recuperação de células que o meio RCPB pH5, usado como padrão, após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada do iogurte, sendo considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurtes durante a estocagem refrigerada. O meio RCPB pH5 fortificado também apresentou a mesma recuperação de células de Bifidobacterium que o meio padrão RCPB pH5; entretanto, a adição de extrato de fígado desidratado aumentou consideravelmente o diâmetro das colônias de Bifidobacterium, tornando a diferenciação destas bastante fácil e confiável quando comparadas à sua diferenciação no meio RCPB pH5 sem a fortificação. A adição dos sais (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(4)7H2O) não exerceu influência no desempenho do meio RCPB pH5. Abstract in english The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to co [...] unt them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(4)7H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(4)7H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.

Luciano, Fachin; Juliana, Moryia; Ana Lourdes Neves, Gândara; Walkiria Hanada, Viotto.

2008-06-01

164

Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

Maja Benkovi?

2008-05-01

165

Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid ...

Sonja Bijeljac; Hajrudin Skender; Zlatan Sari?

2004-01-01

166

Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

2013-01-01

167

Effects on product quality for probiotic yoghurts caused by long storage times during production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent years there has been a large increase in the worldwide sales of cultured products containing probiotics. The obstacle in the production of fermented products incubated with probiotic strains is its effect on sensory, chemical and physical properties. This Master´s Thesis investigates how extended storage times in fermentation tank as well as buffer tank during production of probiotic yoghurts affect final product quality. Through experimental studies, maximum storage times for probiot...

Larsson, Catrine

2009-01-01

168

Selection of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria isolates from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt were evaluated for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by phenol-sulphuric acid method after ethanol precipitation and dialysis. Total polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing MRS broth cultures of the selected LAB strains. Comparison of the EPS yields revealed that among tested LAB, strain 37 exhibited the highest production of 536.904 mg/L. The strain was identified as Leuconostoc citreum with ca...

Zhang Chun-lei; Li Jia-qi; Guo Hai-tao; Wang Jie; Xu Ri-hua

2014-01-01

169

Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions. Despite the importance of a properly conducted fermentation process, poor post-harvest practises, in combination with the unpredictable spontaneous nature of the fermentations, often results in sub-optimal flavour development. Our understanding of the microorganisms responsible for carrying out the fermentation of cocoa has greatly increased during the last decade. To overcome the inherited variability of spontaneous fermentations, this detailed insight into the microbial ecology has led to the development of defined inoculation cultures encompassing yeast and bacterial strains with beneficial functional properties. With the object ive of improving the volatile aroma and sensory properties of Ghanaian Forastero cocoa, the present Ph.D. study investigates the use of two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Acetobacter pasteurianus and Lactobacillus fermentum in combination with either a commercially available aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus. Fermentations were conducted in an experimental small-scale tray setup at the Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana during the main crop of 2011/12. Using a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative quantification of volatile compounds present in roasted and un-roasted cocoa liquors, as well as in finished chocolates. Sensory analyses of un-conched chocolate and finished chocolate was performed using a panel of un-trained judges and ordinary consumers. Furthermore, the present study describes the impact of acetic acid concentration on the generation of flavour precursors and volatile aroma compounds in cocoa beans subjected to incubation in acetic acid buffers. (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 26S rRNA (D1/D2 region) and actin gene sequencing revealed that during the first 12 hours offermentation, the yeast communities of both inoculated and spontaneous fermentations were dominated by Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica, with the latter being described for the first time in relation to cocoa fermentation. After 24 hours, the inoculated strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus were dominating the fermentation - composing 39.8% and 51.3% of the total yeast population, respectively. Chromosome Length Polymorphism among yeast populations belongingto the inoculation species was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis. While all K. marxianus isolates were found to be identical to the inoculation strain, four strains of P. kluyveri were identified, with the inoculation strain composing ~88% of the population. The volatile aroma profile of chocolates made from cocoa beans inoculated with P. kluyveri contained significantly higher concentrations of phenylacetaldehyde compared to a spontaneously fermented control, whereas inoculation with K. marxianus led to signifi

Crafack, Michael

2014-01-01

170

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

Ângela Maria Fiorentini

2009-03-01

171

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products / Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) apresentara [...] m crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados. Abstract in english Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Re [...] gion of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ernani S., Sant' Anna.

2009-03-01

172

Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures / Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilida [...] de das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas. Abstract in english In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at differe [...] nt pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.

Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ernani Sebastião, Sant' Anna.

2009-06-01

173

Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

2009-06-01

174

Instant Prezi starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

Ladores, Minerva M

2013-01-01

175

Instant Apache Maven starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

Turatti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

176

Instant Sinatra starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

Yates, Joe

2013-01-01

177

FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

Aijaz H. Soomro

2012-12-01

178

Instant OSGi starter  

CERN Document Server

Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

Goodyear, Jamie

2013-01-01

179

Carrot Yoghurt : Sensory, Chemical, Microbiological Properties and Consumer Acceptance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from cow`s milk obtained from Fayoum district, Egypt. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice before fermentation. The sensory, rheological, chemical, and microbiological quality of yoghurt samples were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4?C for three weeks. The Sensory scores increased especially for yoghurt samples with 15% carrot juice. Chemical analysis revealed an increase in acidity, decrease soluble nitrogen /total nitrogen ratio and curd tension with increasing carrot juice. On the other hand, high carrot juice suppressed the growth of mold and yeast, Coliform organisms while Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus were not significantly (P > 0.05 affected. Yoghurt with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in aflatoxin M1 respectively. The results of the study showed that carrot had significant effect on the acceptability of yoghurt during shelf life. The economic and public health importance of carrot in yoghurt was discussed.

Salwa A. Aly

2004-01-01

180

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.

Pradeep Singh Negi

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Microbiological evaluation of yoghurt products in Qena city, Egypt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To examined Large and small scale yoghurts for presence of microorganisms of sanitary importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 random samples from various dairy shops, street vendors and supermarkets located in Qena city were collected within 2008 - 2010. Results: The recorded results show that (92% and (70% of the examined small and large scale yoghurt samples had Psychrotrophic count with an average of 3.9 x 104 and 6.8 x103 respectively. It was found that Enterococci were detected in (58% and (40% with an average count of 1.72 x104 and 2.0 x 103 for the examined small and large scale yoghourt samples. S.aureus were detected in (72% and (36% with an average of 8.5 x 103 and 9.41 x102 for both small and large scale yoghurt samples. Regarding yeast and moulds they were found in (94% and (40% with an average counts of 1.4 x 104 for small scale and 3.9 x 102 of large scale yoghurt samples. Most probable number (MPN technique showed that [(38, (20], [(35, (17] and [(30, (6] out of the total examined small and large scale yoghurt samples were contaminated with coliform, Fecal coliform and E. coli respectively. The incidence of E. coli biotype I and II for examined small scale yoghurt samples were (63.4% and (36.6%, while for the examined large scale yoghurt samples were (16.7 and (83.3 respectively. Conclusions: Yoghurt samples obtained from Qena city markets constitute a high risk hazard to consumers. So suggestive hygienic measures to safeguard the consumer health. As well as, the recommended sanitary practices for improving quality of small and large scale yoghurt must be applied. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 400-404

L. M. El-Malt

182

Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

2014-12-01

183

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cul...

AngeloSisto

2012-01-01

184

Instant Gimp starter  

CERN Document Server

A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

Amreen, Fazreil

2013-01-01

185

Quality Attributes of Soy-yoghurt During Storage Period  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The utilization of soybean milk in manufacturing yoghurt in Sudan was investigated. Soybean milk was prepared from grinded soybean seeds. Four samples of soy yoghurt product were used, namely sample A) 100% soymilk (sample B) 1:1 soymilk: cow milk), sample C (2:1 soymilk: cow milk) and sample D (1:2 soymilk: cow milk). The prepared soy yoghurt samples were stored at refrigerator temperature (10±2oC) followed by analyses at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days intervals. The chemical compositi...

Manhal Mohammed Dafaalla Osman; Kamal Awad Abdel Razig

2010-01-01

186

Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15% of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape. Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of fruit juice. Yoghurts fortified with 10% orange juice was the best in quality among the others. The smell and taste, body and consistency and color and texture of the fruit yoghurts were equally acceptable. 10 and 15% strawberry fruit yoghurt contain more acid and its texture was cracked down in refrigeration temperature. The moisture and acidity content of fruit yoghurts were increased than plain yoghurt because of high content of these in the fruits. The fat, protein, carbohydrates and ash content of strawberry and orange fruit yoghurt were decreased than normal plain yoghurt. But the carbohydrates content of grape yoghurt were increased because grape contains more sugar than milk and other two fruits. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 10% orange juice was more acceptable than others comparing all quality characteristics. The microbiological quality of the fruit yoghurts was also acceptable because of acid content of the fruits. In case of strawberry yoghurt, fruit juice concentration more than 5% was not suitable for fruit yoghurt because that are highly acidic and curd was cracked down at refrigerated condition. The findings of this research may give an overall idea about manufacturing of fruit yoghurt incorporating different level of fruit juice and appropriate technology of fruit yoghurt preparation.

Md. Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

187

The Quality of Yoghurt on Retail in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Some physico-chemical and microbiological properties of 47 commercial yoghurt samples collected from the local market were examined to determine their consistency to current codex. Results obtained showed that, considering non-fat solids contents, the majority (87.2% of the samples were in line with the Turkish Food Codex Fermentative Milk Regulation. Nevertheless, 9 samples were found to be out of limits indicated in the relevant codex. The chemical composition of 80.9% of the samples did not match the values declared on their labels and not obey with the lower limits indicated in the codex. All samples had higher total acidity values than the upper limits given in the relevant codex. With regard to the counts of viable yoghurt bacteria, while almost half of the samples examined (49% had numbers high enough for standard yoghurt, 23 samples (51% had low counts of yoghurt bacteria.

C. Karagozlu

2005-01-01

188

EFFECT OF YOGHURT PILLARED WITH PROPOLIS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC RATS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dietary supplementation of yoghurt with plants rich in antioxidants such as propolis which is an adhesive resinous material collected by honey bees is recently recommended. This study aimed at investigating the protective effect against the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The study showed that yoghurt with propolis had a hypoglycemic effect together with reduction of the serum levels of cholesterol, low density and very low density lipoproteins with elevation of high density lipoproteins. T...

Hassan M Bukhari, Abdelghany H. Abdelghany

2012-01-01

189

On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the very important flavor compounds 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal with various growth conditions. We found that the aldehydes were present in the culture broth only as transient metabolites. They were produced in the exponential growth phase, reached a maximum concentration when the culture became anaerobic, and then they rapidly disappeared from the culture medium. This general pattern was observed for three different strains of S. xylosus and S. carnosus. Small amounts of inoculum or increased exposure to oxygen were found to favor production of the aldehydes as a result of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor affect on aldehyde production.

de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian

2004-01-01

190

Banana Frozen Yoghurt from Camel Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted in the dairy laboratory of the faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish Sciences, Al-Neelain University. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of manufacture frozen yoghurt from camel milk with banana flavor and investigate the suitable levels of banana which were 10, 12 and 14%. pH value, fat%, total solids, solids not fat, specific gravity, overrun, sensory properties and acceptability were studied. The result of chemical analysis showed no significant differences between the three levels of banana on pH value, fat %, total solids, solids not fat at p>0.05, while the differences were significant in specific gravity and overrun. The panel test showed that there was no significant differences between three levels of banana on sensory evaluations at p>0.05. 14% obtained the best score.

Mohamed O. Eisa

2010-01-01

191

Resveratrol entrapped niosomes as yoghurt additive.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanodesign of niosomes containing resveratrol (RSV) was carried out using food-grade surfactants with dodecanol to stabilise the membrane. Niosomes were prepared using a modified thin film hydration method. A factorial design analysis was carried out to reduce the number of experiments. The response factors were: mean size, polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Agitation speed and surfactant to dodecanol weight ratio were selected as key parameters for niosomes preparation. Parameter contribution was determined using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Niosomes formulated with Span 60 or Maisine 35-1 as surfactants, and dodecanol as stabiliser, were able to incorporate RSV. These niosomes exhibited a small mean size, narrow size distribution, high RSV entrapment efficiency and good stability. RSV addition did not involve changes in the textural properties of regular yoghurt demonstrating that RSV entrapped niosomes are suitable additives in these dairy products. PMID:25306346

Pando, D; Beltrán, M; Gerone, I; Matos, M; Pazos, C

2015-03-01

192

Instant Metasploit starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

Ranganath, Karthik

2013-01-01

193

Instant Spring security starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

Jagielski, Piotr

2013-01-01

194

Munin plugin starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

Brinke, Bart ten

2013-01-01

195

Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

Ma?gorzata Jasi?ska

2010-06-01

196

Polyphasic screening, homopolysaccharide composition, and viscoelastic behavior of wheat Sourdough from a Leuconostoc lactis and Lactobacillus curvatus exopolysaccharide-producing starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

After isolation from different doughs and sourdoughs, 177 strains of lactic acid bacteria were screened at the phenotypic level for exopolysaccharide production on media containing different carbohydrate sources. Two exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A) were selected through quantitative analysis on solid media containing sucrose and yeast extract. The PCR detection of homopolysaccharide (gtf and lev) and heteropolysaccharide (epsA, epsB, epsD and epsE, and epsEFG) genes showed different distributions within species and strains of the lactic acid bacteria studied. Moreover, in some strains both homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide genes were detected. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra suggest that Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 and Leuconostoc lactis 95A produced the same exopolysaccharide, which was constituted by a single repeating glucopyranosyl unit linked by an ?-(1?6) glycosidic bond in a dextran-type carbohydrate. Microbial growth, acidification, and viscoelastic properties of sourdoughs obtained by exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing lactic acid bacterial strains were evaluated. Sourdough obtained after 15 h at 30°C with exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria reached higher total titratable acidity as well as elastic and dissipative modulus curves with respect to the starter not producing exopolysaccharide, but they showed similar levels of pH and microbial growth. On increasing the fermentation time, no difference in the viscoelastic properties of exopolysaccharide-producing and nonproducing samples was observed. This study suggests that dextran-producing Leuconostoc lactis 95A and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2 can be employed to prepare sourdough, and this would be particularly useful to improve the quality of baked goods while avoiding the use of commercially available hydrocolloids as texturizing additives. PMID:22307283

Palomba, Simona; Cavella, Silvana; Torrieri, Elena; Piccolo, Alessandro; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Blaiotta, Giuseppe; Ventorino, Valeria; Pepe, Olimpia

2012-04-01

197

Natamycin content and quality evaluation of yoghurt from small- and large-scale brands in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the presence of natamycin and quality parameters of yoghurt samples manufactured by small- and large-scale dairy firms in Turkey were investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological results revealed that, except Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus counts, the majority of the yoghurts manufactured by small-scale dairy firms were found to be out of the limits. Natamycin was detected in 31 and 2 yoghurt samples from small- and large-scale brands, respectively. The levels of natamycin in small-scale brand yoghurts were higher than those in large-scale brand yoghurts. Of the analysed samples, 42.3% did not comply with the Turkish Food Codex. PMID:25295914

Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Aydemir, Oguz; Yazici, Fehmi; Kahyaoglu, Talip

2014-12-01

198

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata) / USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria [...] de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade. Abstract in english In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufa [...] cturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira, CARIONI; Anna Cláudia Simas, PORTO; José Carlos Fiad, PADILHA; Ernani Sebastião, SANT' ANNA.

2001-12-01

199

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade.In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

2001-12-01

200

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

40 CFR 405.30 - Applicability; description of the cultured products subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable discharges resulting from the manufacture of cultured products, including cultured skim milk (cultured buttermilk), yoghurt, sour cream and dips of various...

2010-07-01

202

Probiotic yoghurt with inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization: physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stability
Iogurte probiótico com frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização: características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e estabilidade ao armazenamento
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of the addition of inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stability (4°C for 28 days) of nonfat probiotic yoghurt was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared using traditional lactic culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus) and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei as probiotic. The formulations contained inulin- type fructans of DP: low (P95...

Sandra Helena Prudencio; Sandra Garcia; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel

2012-01-01

203

Quality Attributes of Soy-yoghurt During Storage Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The utilization of soybean milk in manufacturing yoghurt in Sudan was investigated. Soybean milk was prepared from grinded soybean seeds. Four samples of soy yoghurt product were used, namely sample A 100% soymilk (sample B 1:1 soymilk: cow milk, sample C (2:1 soymilk: cow milk and sample D (1:2 soymilk: cow milk. The prepared soy yoghurt samples were stored at refrigerator temperature (10±2oC followed by analyses at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 days intervals. The chemical compositions of soybean milk used were the total solids (13.15%, protein (7.64%, fat (2.75%, pH-value (6.70 and titratable acidity (0.20%.The type of milk significantly (p0.05 affected the pH-value of the soy yoghurt. Sample A was the highest (4.50, sample D the lowest (3.30 while sample B and sample C were at an intermediate position (3.50 and 3.70 respectively. Storage period significantly (p0.05 affected the pH-value of soy yoghurt, the highest value (4.30 was obtained at the beginning of the storage period, while the lowest value (3.00 at the end. The type of milk significantly (p0.05 affected the titratable acidity of the soy yoghurt. Sample A was the lowest (1.12%, Sample D was the highest (2.50%, while samples B and C were in an intermediate position. Storage period significantly (p0.05 affected the titratable acidity of soy yoghurt. The lowest titratable acidity (1.21% was obtained at the beginning of storage period and the highest (2.60% at the end. The type of milk significantly (p0.05 affected the wheying off of the soy yoghurt. Sample A was the highest (2.70 ml, sample D was the lowest (1.70 ml, while samples B and C were at an intermediate position. Storage period significantly (p0.05 affected the wheying off of soy yoghurt. The lowest wheying off (0.00 ml was obtained at the beginning of storage period and the highest (4.00 ml at the end. The chemical analyses of soy yoghurt samples at zero time processing, sample A 100% soymilk (was the highest (31.20% for total solids and protein content (16.70%,while sample D (1:2 soymilk: cow milk was the lowest (15.70% for total solids and protein content 11.25. Sample B and C were at an intermediate position. Sample A was the lowest (2.20% for fat content, sample D was the highest (3.25%,while samples Band C occupy an intermediate position. The sensory evaluation significantly (p0.05 affected by The type of milk and storage period revealed that, the best score (p0.05 in appearance (4.38, flavour (4.10, texture (4.22 and overall acceptability (4.28 in sample D(1:2 soymilk: cow milk, the worst was recorded by sample A (Soymilk 100% for appearance (2.68, flavour (3.48, texture (3.36 and overall acceptability (3.44. The other samples were at an intermediate position. It was found that 10 days storage period at refrigerator temperature (10±2oC was quite satisfactory to attain good quality soy yoghurt.

Manhal Mohammed Dafaalla Osman

2010-01-01

204

Microbial Ecology of the Soppressata of Vallo di Diano, a Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage from Southern Italy, and In Vitro and In Situ Selection of Autochthonous Starter Cultures?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The microbial ecology of “soppressata of Vallo di Diano,” a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, was studied by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The ripened fermented sausages were characterized by high microbial loads of both staphylococci and lactobacilli. Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the variable V3 and V1 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and direct DNA sequencing, it was possible to identify Staphy...

Villani, Francesco; Casaburi, Annalisa; Pennacchia, Carmela; Filosa, Luisa; Russo, Federica; Ercolini, Danilo

2007-01-01

205

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultra filtration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30, 10 and 3 kDa. The peptides in these fractions were identified by LC–MS/MS. The identified peptides comprised a few Nterminal fragments of as1-, as2-, and j-casein, and several fragments from b-casein. Almost all the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained a considerable amount of free amino acids such as His, Tyr, Thr and Lys, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties. Thus, our findings confirm that the antioxidant effects of the peptide fractions from yoghurt are due to the presence of certain peptides and free amino acids with recognised antioxidant activity in these fractions.

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

206

The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results showed that using a mixed culture of L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides could greatly reduce contamination of non-lactic acid bacteria, retaining low amount of reducing sugar, rapidly producing lactic acid and consequently decreasing pH value of the pickle, as well as giving better sensory score. After 12 d of fermentation, sample of pickle inoculated with mixed culture showed the following characters: total lactic acid content 0.5%, total lactic acid bacteria 8.46 log10 CFU mL-1, total non-lactic acid bacteria 1 log10 CFU mL-1, total reducing sugar 0.84 g L-1, texture 64.92 mm 50 g-1 s-1, and hedonic sensory score for both taste and aroma 4 (like in a scale of 5. These results indicated the potential ability of the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria to improve the quality of the pickle fermented spontaneously.

NETI YULIANA

2013-03-01

207

A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

V.D. Lushchyk

2013-10-01

208

A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

Lushchyk, V. D.; Varvansky, A. Y.

2013-01-01

209

Instant CloudFlare starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

Dickey, Jeff

2013-01-01

210

Instant Spring for Android starter  

CERN Document Server

Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

Dahanne, Anthony

2013-01-01

211

Instant OpenNMS starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

Hachey, Ghislain

2013-01-01

212

Evaluation of white lupines and triticale in calf starter diets.  

Science.gov (United States)

One hundred fifty-two Holstein calves were used to evaluate white lupines (Lupinus albus cv. Ultra) and triticale in starter diets. The basal diet contained corn, oats, minerals, and vitamins. Starter components were 1) 14% soybean meal; 2) 10% soybean meal and 27% triticale; 3) 22% lupines; 4) 16% lupines and 24.5% triticale; 5) 11% lupines and 8% soybean meal; and 6) 7% lupines, 5% soybean meal, and 26.5% triticale. Dietary CP was approximately 16% of DM. Data collection began on d 4 after birth and continued through d 56. Calves were fed 3.6 kg of fermented colostrum from d 4 to 14 and 4.5 kg of fermented whole milk from d 15 to weaning at d 28. Starter diets and water were offered for ad libitum consumption from d 4 to 56. Dietary treatment had no effect on starter intake or weight gains. Average total gains during the experimental period were 25.6, 23.0, 23.3, 23.2, 25.0, and 21.6 kg for treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, respectively. Calf health was excellent. Starter diets were examined in a dual flow continuous culture system to evaluate fermentation by rumen bacteria. Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, and total nonstructural carbohydrate did not differ among treatments. Ammonia N concentrations ranged from 11.9 to 13.8 mg/100 ml effluent. Chemical composition of bacteria, efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis, total VFA concentration in the effluent, and amino acid flow were similar for all treatments. The results indicate that lupines and triticale are satisfactory for use in calf starters when included in amounts equal to or less than those used in this experiment. PMID:2745803

Wright, K L; Otterby, D E; Linn, J G; Stern, M D; Marx, G D; Johnson, D G

1989-04-01

213

STARTER FERTILIZER IMPROVES CORN YIELD  

Science.gov (United States)

Proper fertility management in corn production is important both from an economic and environmental standpoint. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of starter fertilizer on corn yield northern Great Plains. The experiment was established within a two-year corn/soybean rotation, w...

214

[Study on the contamination level and the tolerable limit of mould and yeast in yoghurt].  

Science.gov (United States)

The results show that 67.33% of yoghurt samples collected from factories, supermarkets and retailers are contaminated by mould and yeast. The main problem of yoghurt product is yeast contamination (56.67%). The highest count of mould and yeast in the positive samples are 39,500 cft/ml and innumerable, respectively. There is a significant difference in the levels of contamination of mould and yeast between yoghurt filled in the glass bottles and that in the plastic bottles (P mould and yeast in yoghurt should be equal to or less than 50 cfu/ml. PMID:10682598

Li, F; Li, Y

1998-07-01

215

Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein. PMID:15545049

Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-08-01

216

Population heterogeneity and dynamics in starter culture and lag phase adaptation of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii to weak acid preservatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii shows great resistance to weak-acid preservatives, including sorbic acid (2, 4-hexadienoic acid). That extreme resistance was shown to be due to population heterogeneity, with a small sub-population of cells resistant to a variety of weak acids, probably caused by a lower internal pH reducing the uptake of all weak acids. In the present paper, it was found that resistant cells were extremely rare in exponential cultures, but increased by up to 8000-fold in stationary phase. Inoculation of media containing sorbic acid with a population of Z. bailii cells gave rise to what appeared to be a prolonged lag phase, suggesting adaptation to the conditions before the cells entered the period of exponential growth. However, the apparent lag phase caused by sorbic acid was largely due to the time required for the resistant sub-population to grow to detectable levels. The slow growth rate of the sub-population was identical to that of the final total population. The non-resistant bulk population remained viable for 3 days but had lost viability by 6 days and, during that time, there was no indication of any development of resistance in the bulk population. The sub-population growing in sorbic acid showed very high population diversity in colony size and internal pH. After removal of sorbic acid, the population rapidly reverted back to the normal, largely non-resistant, population distribution. The data presented suggest that a reevaluation of the lag phase in microbial batch culture is required, at least for the resistance of Z. bailii to sorbic acid. Furthermore, the significance of phenotypic diversity and heterogeneity in microbial populations is discussed more broadly with potential relevance to bacterial "persisters", natural selection and evolution. PMID:24813627

Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Avery, Simon V; Novodvorska, Michaela; Archer, David B

2014-07-01

217

Selection of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria isolates from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt were evaluated for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS by phenol-sulphuric acid method after ethanol precipitation and dialysis. Total polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing MRS broth cultures of the selected LAB strains. Comparison of the EPS yields revealed that among tested LAB, strain 37 exhibited the highest production of 536.904 mg/L. The strain was identified as Leuconostoc citreum with carbohydrate assimilation profiling, 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequencing. The Ln. citreum 37 was found to be a novel EPS producing strain. It was found that there was no direct linear relation between the colony size and EPS yield, so the colony size could not to be used to screen EPS-producing strains.

Zhang Chun-lei

2014-11-01

218

Produktstabilitet av kommersiell probiotisk syrnet melk og yoghurt under lagring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, the stability of three probiotic fermented milk products (‘Cultura Naturell’, ‘Biola Syrnet Lettmelk Naturell’ and ‘Biola Pluss Yoghurt Mild Naturell’) produced by TINE BA was studied and samples from each production were studied at three different times within designated shelf-life. The study focused mainly on the viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, which is a key criterion for quality evaluation of probiotic dairy products. Other parameters (pH, viscos...

Liu, Xiaojiao

2011-01-01

219

Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR) feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents...

Ska, Ma X. Gorzata Jasi X.; Izabela Dmytrów; Ek, Anna Mituniewicz-ma X.; Sik, Krystian W. X.

2010-01-01

220

The Quality of Yoghurt on Retail in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Some physico-chemical and microbiological properties of 47 commercial yoghurt samples collected from the local market were examined to determine their consistency to current codex. Results obtained showed that, considering non-fat solids contents, the majority (87.2%) of the samples were in line with the Turkish Food Codex Fermentative Milk Regulation. Nevertheless, 9 samples were found to be out of limits indicated in the relevant codex. The chemical composition of 80.9% of the samples did n...

Karagozlu, C.; Kilic, S.; Uysal, H.; Akbulut, N.; Kesenkas, H.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

2012-10-01

222

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos / Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a [...] freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle). A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR), °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado. Abstract in english Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necess [...] ity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control). Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars (RS), °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were

Larissa Dias de, Avila; Carlos Eugenio, Daudt.

1997-06-01

223

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle. A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR, °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control. Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Reducing sugars (RS, °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

Larissa Dias de Avila

1997-06-01

224

EFFECT OF YOGHURT PILLARED WITH PROPOLIS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of yoghurt with plants rich in antioxidants such as propolis which is an adhesive resinous material collected by honey bees is recently recommended. This study aimed at investigating the protective effect against the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The study showed that yoghurt with propolis had a hypoglycemic effect together with reduction of the serum levels of cholesterol, low density and very low density lipoproteins with elevation of high density lipoproteins. The atherosclerosis indices were affected with reduction of low density lipoproteins-cholesterol/high density lipoproteins-cholesterol and elevation of the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol/total cholesterol. This was attributed to the reduction of glucose absorption and inhibition of ?-glucosidase together with the antioxidant activity with regain of the pancreatic ?-cell function. The hypolipidemic effect and consequently protective effect against atherosclerosis was attributed to the binding, breakdown and reduction of absorption of cholesterol together with the antioxidant activity of both yoghurt and propolis. Down regulation of the expression of the angiogenic gene factors which have a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis may play a role. Thus, this dietary supplementation may be manufactured and used for its value in reducing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in cases of diabetes mellitus.

Hassan M. Bukhari 1, Abdelghany H. Abdelghany2,3, Ibrahim Saad Nada3,4 and Eslam A. Header1

2012-10-01

225

Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

2014-05-01

226

Instant MinGW starter  

CERN Document Server

This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

Shpigor, Ilya

2013-01-01

227

Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

Turner, W.C.

1987-02-01

228

Nutritive characteristics of probiotic quark as influenced by type of starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quark was manufactured, under laboratory conditions, by standard batch process, from two types of milk: I partially skimmed, with 1.6 % of fat and II whole milk, with 3.5 % of fat. As starters, two probiotic cultures were applied: I DVS-Probio-TecTM ABT- 1, Lactobacillus acidophilus-5, Bifidobacterium-12, S. thermophilus and II DVS-Probio-TecTM ABT-2, Lactobacillus acidophilus-5, Bifidobacterium-12, S. thermophilus. Also, the traditional cheese culture (CH - N22 was used. The obtained Quark samples were tested by standard methods in order to determine their nutritive characteristics. The results have shown that probiotic starter ABT-1 ensured the highest level of utilization of fat, proteins, lactose and phosphorus from partially skimmed milk. Probiotic culture ABT-2 was less effective, but combined with the traditional starter and applied to a whole milk could give Quark with acceptable nutritive characteristics. When sensory characteristics of products were tested, it has been proven that the application of ABT-2 culture and combination of probiotic starters ABT-2 and traditional culture gave good products with typical mild flavor. On the contrary, inoculation with ABT-1 probiotic starter resulted in lower-quality products in case of both kinds of milk applied. .

?uri? Mirjana S.

2007-01-01

229

Effect of natural starters used for sourdough bread in Morocco on phytate biodegradation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phytase activity was studied in natural sourdough bread starters to determine physicochemical characteristics (phytic acid hydrolysis, dough rising capacity and pH) in the flour and during sourdough fermentation. Fermentation microorganisms (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) were also characterized. Results showed a decrease of phytic acid in sourdoughs started with traditional starters, and wide variation in phytase activity. Microorganism counts were high at the end of fermentation, indicating higher fermenting activity of the starters. Yeast populations showed wide variation and lactic acid bacteria had high counts in the fermentation. Phytase activity was demonstrated in starter cultures made of lactic acid bacteria and yeast isolates, the most interesting of which were Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. PMID:15562743

Chaoui, A; Faid, M; Belhcen, R

2003-01-01

230

Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%.

Niketi? Gordana B.

2009-01-01

231

Incorporation of strawberries preparation in yoghurt: impact on phytochemicals and milk proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immediate decrease in the total antioxidant activity (23%) and total phenolic content (14%) was observed after addition of strawberry preparations to yoghurt. The total anthocyanin content did not change immediately, but decreased 24% throughout the yoghurt shelf-life. The individual compounds, (+)-catechin (60%), (-)-epicatechin (60%), kaempferol (33%) and quercetin-3-rutinoside (29%) decreased after 24h in the yoghurt made with the strawberry preparation. During the remaining period of storage these compounds increased by 47%, 6%, 4% and 18%, respectively. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside decreased 49% after 28 d. Immediately after the addition of the strawberry preparation to yoghurt, ?-lactoglobulin decreased to values lower than the limit of detection and ?-lactalbumin by approximately 34%, and was reduced further slowly throughout yoghurt self-life. An immediate interaction between the carrageenan present in the strawberry preparation and ?-LG was observed. The variations of both polyphenols and protein in the presence of carrageenan and the potential interactions were discussed. PMID:25308682

Oliveira, Ana; Alexandre, Elisabete M C; Coelho, Marta; Lopes, Cláudia; Almeida, Domingos P F; Pintado, Manuela

2015-03-15

232

Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

Khan, Joseph

2013-01-01

233

Instant forgedUI starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

Luiz, Joseandro

2013-01-01

234

SPSS for Starters, Part 2  

CERN Document Server

The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

Cleophas, Ton J

2012-01-01

235

Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-? region with primer pair ?2/?12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

Capece Angela

2014-01-01

236

The Use of Skim Milk and Essential Fatty Acids as an Alternative Method on Improving Yoghurt Nutrition Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the research was to investigate the effects of addition of different levels lemuru seafish oil on skim milk-based yoghurt in order to produce good quality and marketable yoghurt. The experiment consisted of lemuru seafish oil fractination based on its freesing point and the addition of extracted lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt at 0.50%; 1%; 1.50%; 2%. Yoghurt with 0% lemuru seafish oil was included as a control. A Completely Randomised Design was employed and each treatment has 5 replicates. Results showed that: (a the addition of lemuru seafish oil up to 2% affected lactic acid contents of yoghurt but still within the normal range, (b consumers preferred the smell and taste of yoghurt with 2% lemuru seafish oil; but they preferred the texture of yoghurt with 0.50% lemuru seafish oil, (c the addition of lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt increased the nutritional quality of the products, especially the amount of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. In order to get an ideal ratio between omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids (4:1, it was recommended to further investigate the use of lemuru seafish oil on milk products and the addition of omega 3 fatty acids from different sources as well as the shelf life of yoghurt with added lemuru seafish oil. (Animal Production 8(1: 16-21 (2006 Key Words : Yoghurt, lemuru seafish oil, essential fatty acids

Triana Yuni Astuti

2006-01-01

237

KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

238

Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator  

Science.gov (United States)

A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

2000-06-13

239

Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit  

CERN Document Server

Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

Shipside, Steve

2012-01-01

240

Magnetic soft starter for induction motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new soft starter technology has been developed to enhance the starting capability of induction motors. Flux-compensated magnetic amplifiers (FCMAs) are current control devices which provide harmonic-free soft starting of induction motors, with minimum starting current and high operational reliability. Flux compensation technology is based on the superimposition principle of two sinusoidal fluxes, one constant and one variable, on a common magnetic core. The net flux is the vector sum of the two component fluxes. The net flux is variable but always of pure sinusoidal waveform. The compensating flux increases as the motor speed increases, thereby reducing the net flux and the impedance of the FCMA. A series of schematics were presented to illustrate how the FCMA is connected. FCMA soft starters control the amplitude of the motor current without distorting the current waveform which results in zero harmonics and low starting current. The rugged magnetic design is what makes the unit reliable. Motor protections and interfaces can also be added to tailor the overall starter to customize specific systems. FCMA starters also offer other advantages such as increased motor life, improved performance, the ability to start large motors on limited power supply, captive power system optimization, and reductions in life cycle costs. In addition, FCMA starters do not affect the operation of other running loads in the system. FCMA starters have been used in pumps, compressors, fans conveyors, crushers and machine tools at petrochemical plants, steel plants, mines, quarries and thermal power plants. 4 figs.

Chickermane, A. [Avaco International, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Deo, P. [Technomics Ltd., (India)

2001-04-01

 
 
 
 
241

Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion of viable cells of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in all fermented samples was comparable 40 : 33 : 27, respectively. During the storage viable count of streptococci and bifidobacteria have not decreased. In supplemented samples viable counts of bifidobacteria were increased and during 28th day of storage were higher for 0.6 logarithms compared to the non supplemented samples. Surviving of lactobacilli was poorer in fermented goat's milk than in fermented cow's milk during storage. The addition of inulin improved the firmness of fermented goat’s and cow’s milks products. Inulin addition partly masked the goat’s flavour of produced yoghurt. During storage the fermented goat's samples were scored better in comparison with cow's samples. Goat’s milk fermented with probiotic bacteria and fortified with inulin complies with the requirements of functional food.

Rajka Božani?

2002-04-01

242

[The microflora of sour dough. IV. Communication: bacterial composition of sourdough starters genus Lactobacillus beijerinck (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The bacterial composition of three so called pure culture sourdough starters of varying origin was investigated. 245 isolates were obtained all belonging to the genus Beijerinck. According to their morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics they were classified into the subgroups: Thermobacterium (L. acidophilus), Streptobacterium (L. casei, L. plantarum, L. farciminis, L. alimentarius) and Betabacterium (L. brevis, L. brevis var. lindneri, L buchneri, L. fermentum, L. fructi vorans). In the three sourdough starters the identified lactic organisms varied in number and proportion. In starter preparation "A" only the varieties L. fructi vorans and L. fermentum were present. Preparation "B" contained a great variety of microorganisms with L. brevis and L. brevis L. lindneri predominating. In starter "C" L. brevis, L. plantarum and L. alimentarius predominated. PMID:735416

Spicher, G; Schröder, R

1978-11-28

243

Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

2013-01-01

244

Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. PMID:24290824

Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

2014-02-01

245

Evaluation of sensory properties and their correlation coefficients with physico-chemical indices in Turkish set-type yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sensory properties and physico-chemical parameters of 10 most popular brands of commercial set-type Turkish yoghurts were evaluated and correlation coefficients between the two indices were investigated. The results indicated that increases in volatile compounds (acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, 2-nanonane, ethyl acetate, titratable acidity, ash and fat contents inversely correlated with the overall acceptability score of the yoghurt. However, diacetyl, C4 to C12 free fatty acids, pH, whiteness index and texture positively correlated with overall acceptability of the yoghurt products. It was concluded that the acceptability of the Turkish set-type yoghurts is mainly governed by the fifteen volatile compounds as well as the physico-chemical properties determined. Thus, the overall acceptability of the yoghurts was not influenced by a single characteristic, but rather by complex in nature.

Young W. Park

2011-04-01

246

Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter  

CERN Document Server

A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

Volpe, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

247

Discussion Starters. Technical Note No. 25.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion starters, the result of collaboration between the Indonesian Directorate General of Nonformal Education, Youth, and Sports, and World Education, Inc., are simple learning tools used to generate discussion among community groups involved in nonformal education. Appropriate in and adaptable to a variety of settings, content areas, and…

Yunus, Ibrahim; Dilts, Russ

248

Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis) and Quality of Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis) and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was ...

Izhar Hussain Athar; Mohammad Amin Shah; Ulfat-un-Nabi Khan

2000-01-01

249

Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermo...

Astawan, M.; Wresdiyati, T.; Suliantari*; Arief, I. I.; Septiawan, R.

2012-01-01

250

Characteristics of physico-chemical properties, volatile compounds and free fatty acid profiles of commercial set-type Turkish yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten most popular brands of commercial Turkish set-type yoghurts were collected from local retail outlets in Hatay, Turkey for two separate periods, and analyzed for basic nutrients, physico-chemical properties, volatile aroma compounds and free fatty acid profiles to compare their differences among the yoghurt products. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05, 0.01, or 0.001 and variations in physico-chemical indices, volatile aroma compounds and volatile free fatty acid profiles among the yoghurt brands, which ultimately influence the flavor quality of the product. Acetaldehyde was predominant volatile compound in yoghurts, which followed by acetone, acetoin, diacetyl and ethanol. The level of diacetly was inversely related to titratable acidity, acetaldehyde and ethanoic acid. From ketones with high carbones 2-undecanone and 2-pentadecanone were higher than 2-butanone, 2-nanonane and 2-tridecanone. These ketones are related to fat content of yoghurt. Among short chain free fatty acids, ethanoic (acetic acid was the most abundant in yoghurts, followed by hexanoic, octanoic and butanoic acids. These differences in detected chemical compositions of volatile compounds and free fatty acids would be applicable to predict flavor, nutritional value, quality control or shelf-life of the commmercial set-type Turkish yoghurts.

Young W. Park

2011-04-01

251

Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A and 70% goat - 30% cow (B, 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF and skim milk powder addition (MP were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration method and storage period on physico-chemical and microbiological properties of samples were investigated statistically.

Gokhan Kavas

2003-01-01

252

Stability of Two Probiotics Bacteria of Goat Milk Yoghurt in Rat Digestive Tract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Increased age will affect the bacterial population of the human digestive tract, in which many bacteria will adapt and colonize different sites. Combining probiotics and prebiotics in what has been called a synbiotic could beneficially affect the host by improving survival and implantation/adhesion of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora. Probiotic bacteria are expected to survive in the digestive tract to give health effects to the host by balancing the intestinal microflora. The addition of fructo-oligosaccharides is expected to increase viability and growth of probiotics in the digestive tract. The objective of the current research is to investigate the effect of probiotic yoghurt and synbiotic yoghurt of Etawa Breed Cross Saanen (PESA goats together with fructo-oligosaccharides, on female rats and to study the stability of probiotic bacteria in the digestive tracts. The results showed that synbiotic yoghurt intake had no significant influence (p>0.05 on ration consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, final body weight and mortality. The synbiotic intake significantly increased the population of Bifidobacterium longum (p<0.01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (p<0.05, but in contrast decreased (p<0.05the population of Escherichia coli. The yoghurt synbiotic treatment over 14 days influenced probiotic bacteria’s stability asshown by the reduced population of B. longum and L. acidophilus.

RARAH RATIH ADJIE MAHESWARI

2008-12-01

253

Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12, fruit (14 and cereal yoghurt (4 produced with cow (8 and goat milk (22.The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

Simonetta Amatiste

2013-04-01

254

The Influence of Transglutaminase Treatment on Functional Properties of Strained Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of Transglutaminase (TG on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of strained yoghurt. Strained yoghurt samples were produced with four different enzyme concentrations; C (Control, T1 (0.74 Unit TG g-1 protein, T2 (1.29 Unit TG g-1 protein and T3 (1.85 Unit TG g-1 protein. The samples were evaluated regarding chemical composition, proteolysis, texture profile, viscosity, water holding capacity, microbiological counts and sensory properties. Cross linking of milk proteins by TG enzyme improved the physical properties of the yoghurts before straining. Surprisingly the textural parameters of the strained yoghurts were not affected by the enzyme but the water holding capacity was improved. Higher treatments of the TG enzyme decreased the proteolytic activity and acidity with increasing storage time. On the contrary enzymatic cross linking had no significant effect on the microbiological properties and the sensory attributes were not unfavorable affected.

Nayil Dinkci

2012-01-01

255

Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not s>-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

256

Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for milk, yoghurt, and dressing. Yoghurt and dressing enriched with neat fish oil were more stable than those enriched with afish-oil-in-water emulsion, whereas milk enriched with neat fish oil was less stable than milk enriched with the fish-oil-in-water emulsion. Overall, it seemed that application of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad dressing.

Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

257

Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin) behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was ...

Liliana Albertengo; María Susana Rodríguez; Mirta Montero; Marina Dello Staffolo; Miriam Martino; Alicia Bevilacqua

2011-01-01

258

The Use of Tiger-Nut (Cyperus esculentus), Cow Milk and Their Composite as Substrates for Yoghurt Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Yoghurt was produced from skimmed cow milk and tiger nut milk. The pH of the yoghurt was found to increase with increasing tiger nut milk in the composite. From the comparison made of the sensory attributes of the three samples of yoghurt composite, the yoghurt produced from the combination of cow milk and tiger nut milk had the highest mean score in all the parameters even though the difference between the means of cow milk-tiger nut composite and that of pure cow milk was insignificant. Thu...

Sanful, Rita E.

2009-01-01

259

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

2011-08-01

260

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12. The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12. Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas.

Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
261

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages / Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo [...] e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12). Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas. Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and ca [...] talase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12). The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.

Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi, Brod; Caroline, Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave, Arisi; Ernani Sebastião, Sant' Anna.

2007-09-01

262

The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of FOS and decrease in syneresis of obtained bio-yoghurts.  

Waldemar Gustaw

2011-12-01

263

Electronic starter device for fluorescent lamps. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to silicon supplier failures to produce the 03/04 triac silicon as specified in the original proposal, the direction of the starter program was migrated to use available off the shelf power semiconductors. This had unexpected positive side effects including a reduction in component price, improved quality, and the refocus of engineering efforts to concentrate on the Super ASIC core technology. The starter program has begun shipments employing this new architecture, and is being well received both in the US and abroad. In its present form, the starter meets original cost projections within 20%. Work is continuing on the 0.8 micron ASIC, which will allow for the starter to sell below $1.00 in volume. Even at the slightly higher price, interest is strong in replacing the low performance glow starter for small fluorescent applications with a high performance alternative.

NONE

1998-06-01

264

[Acceptance of yoghurt with different functional ingredients among consumers in supermarkets in southern Chile].  

Science.gov (United States)

In view of the interest in the role of foodstuffs in improving wellbeing and health, the object of this study is to distinguish consumer typologies in Temuco, La Araucanía Region, Chile, according to their preferences for different functional ingredients, flavouring, colouring and price in yoghurt. A semi-structured survey was applied to 400 supermarket customers. The respondents ordered eight alternative yoghurts according to their preferences, with different functional ingredients (fibre, antioxidants), flavourings (sugar, sweetener), colouring (natural, artificial) and three price options, for a conjoint analysis with fractional factorial design. Variables affecting knowledge of "functional food" were evaluated using a binomial logit model. It was determined by conjoint analysis that in general a preference existed for yoghurt containing fibre, sweetener, natural colouring, and at the lowest price. Three typologies were distinguished by analysis of hierarchical conglomerates: the majority segment (48.8%) displayed a greater preference for fibre; the second (41.7%) also preferred fibre, but gave first priority to artificial colouring and preferred a higher price. The minority (9.5%) was the only segment to prefer antioxidants. The typologies differed significantly in satisfaction with their food-related life, knowledge of the function of fibre and presence of cancer and obesity in some member of the respondent's family. The binomial logit model was significant (P < 0.01), indicating that if the consumer has a job or has had access to information on functional foods, the probability increased of knowledge of what these mean. There was thus majority acceptance of yoghurt enriched with fibre and with added sweetener. PMID:21866689

Schnettler, Berta; Shene, Carolina; Rubilar, Mónica; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Lobos, Germán

2010-12-01

265

Commercial Ripening Starter Microorganisms Inoculated into Cheese Milk Do Not Successfully Establish Themselves in the Resident Microbial Ripening Consortia of a South German Red Smear Cheese?  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the “old-young” smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary. PMID:18281427

Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C.; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M.; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

2008-01-01

266

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Rodrigo Santana Toledo

2011-10-01

267

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environmen [...] ts (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively) were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Rodrigo Santana, Toledo; Horacio Santiago, Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Albino; Marli Arena, Dionizio; Débora Cristine de Oliveira, Carvalho; Eduardo Terra, Nogueira.

2205-22-01

268

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30 kDa, 10 kDa and 3 kDa. The fractions were tested for antioxidant activity by investigating the inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles, tocopherol and sensory characteristics, the lower molecular weight fractions 3–10 kDa and

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

269

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00...

Rodrigo Santana Toledo; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino; Marli Arena Dionizio; Débora Cristine Oliveira Carvalho; Eduardo Terra Nogueira

2011-01-01

270

Ripening of ovine milk cheeses: effects of plant rennet, pasteurization, and addition of starter on lipolysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influences of type of rennet (from animal sources or from flowers of Cynara cardunculus), pasteurization (or not) of the milk, and addition (or not) of starter cultures prior to cheesemaking, on the release of major fatty acid residues of ovine milk cheese were evaluated throughout the ripening period. The long-chain saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) free fatty acids (FFA) were the most abundant types at all stages of ripening. The overall concentrations...

Sousa, Maria J.; Malcata, F. Xavier

1997-01-01

271

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 ?mol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 ?mol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 ?mol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

Frane Delaš

2012-09-01

272

Contribution of starter lactococci and adjunct lactobacilli to proteolysis, volatile profiles and sensory characteristics of washed-curd cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Washed-curd cheeses manufactured with either Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL416 or Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2 were used to test the role of six Lactobacillus strains from the CNRZ collection as adjunct cultures. Proteolysis and volatile profile determinations were performed on all cheeses after 28 days of ripening; a trained panel assessed sensory characteristics. We observed that overall, the lactococcal starter strains had a major influence on cheese taste and texture. Contr...

Hynes, Erica; Bach, Cyrille; Lamberet, Gilles; Ogier, Jean-claude; Son, Olivier; Delacroix-buchet, Agne?s

2003-01-01

273

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength wer...

Marques, M. C.; Marinho, D. A.

2009-01-01

274

Application of specific starters for the manufacture of Venaco cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The application of defined specific starter strains and their influence on microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics were studied during ripening of Venaco cheese, a traditional Corsican raw milk cheese manufactured with goat's or ewe's milk. Three defined starter blends, composed of wild strains of lactic acid bacteria, were tested. The first blend was composed of 2 strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (ratio 1:1) and was used as a control. The second was composed of 3...

Casalta, Erick; Cachenaut, Jean-marc; Aubert, Ce?cile; Dufrene, Franck; Noe?l, Yolande; Beuvier, Eric

2005-01-01

275

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dehydroacetic acid (DHA) and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(ptolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT) and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(p-tolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT) were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0...

Frane Delaš; Lejla Durakovi?; Alma Tudi?; Katarina Hui?-Babi?; Sulejman Redžepovi?

2012-01-01

276

Pengaruh Perbandingan Yoghurt Dengan Ekstrak Buah Jambu Biji Merah Dan Perbandingan Zat Penstabil Terhadap Mutu Permen Jelly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was conducted to find the effect of ratio of yoghurt with red fleshed guava extract and stabilizer ratio on the quality of soft candy. The research had been performed using factorial completely randomized design with two factors, i.e ratio of yoghurt with red fleshed guava extract (Y): (40%:60%), (30%:70%), (20%:80%), and (10%:90%), and stabilizer ratio (seaweed:carrageenan) (A) : (1:4), (2:3), (3:2), and (4:1). Parameters analyzed were moisture content, vitamin C content, total...

Wijaya, Andi

2012-01-01

277

Aislamiento e identificación de cepas del género Bifidobacterium presentes en productos lácteos fermentados tipo yogur / Isolation and identification of strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus found in fermented yoghurt type milk products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La identificación de microorganismos probióticos del género Bifidobacterium es de gran importancia por su uso como suplemento que favorece la salud del consumidor. En Venezuela son pocos los estudios sobre caracterización microbiológica de estas bacterias y no existen métodos oficiales para su estud [...] io en alimentos. Esta investigación reporta la estandarización de técnicas microbiológicas y moleculares para el aislamiento e identificación de bifidobacterias aisladas de dos productos tipo yogur, I con probiótico y II sin probiótico. Se analizaron 10 muestras de cada yogur, una por semana, aislando 3 colonias por muestra. Los resultados mostraron que de los 60 aislados analizados, 27 colonias del Yogur I y 11 del Yogur II concordaron con las características de bifidobacterias. Se comparó el crecimiento bacteriano en dos medios de cultivo (MRS-m, RCA), sembrando por profundidad en placas y en tubos Miller-Pricket, obteniéndose mejores resultados con el medio MRS-m y las siembras por profundidad en tubos. De las extracciones de ADN se obtuvieron los patrones de ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR, determinándose que 34 aislados eran clones indistinguibles, mostrando el patrón de B. lactis utilizado como control positivo. Esta metodología puede ser utilizada por la industria y los entes encargados del control de la calidad de los productos probióticos Abstract in english The identification of probiotic microorganisms belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus is very important due to their use as supplements favorable for consumer’s health. In Venezuela there have been few studies of the microbiological characterization of these bacteria and there are no official method [...] s for their study in food. This investigation reports the standardization of microbiological and molecular techniques for the isolation and identification of bifidobacteria isolated from two yoghurt type products: I with probiotic and II without probiotic. Ten samples from each yoghurt type product were analyzed, one per week, and 3 colonies were isolated per sample. Results showed that of the 60 isolates analyzed, 27 colonies of Yoghurt I and 11 of Yoghurt II coincided with the characteristics of bifidobacteria. Bacterial growth was compared in two culture media (MRS-m, RCA), inoculating in-depth in plates and Miller-Pricket tubes; the best results were obtained with MRS-m medium and in-depth inoculations in tubes. By DNA extraction we obtained ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns, determining that 34 isolates were indistinguishable clones, showing the same pattern of the B. lactis used as positive control. This methodology can be used by the industry and the institutions in charge of quality control of probiotic products

Indira, Pérez; Aura, Falco; María Soledad, Tapia; Guillermina, Alonso.

2012-06-01

278

Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under ...

Panesar, Parmjit S.

2011-01-01

279

Selection of yeasts as starter cultures for table olives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-nine yeasts were isolated from Bella di Cerignola table olives; first, the strains were studied in relation to their ability to produce biogenic amines in a laboratory medium and 49 strains were positive to this assay and cut off from the research. The remaining 50 strains were characterized for their enzymatic traits (?-glucosidase, catalase, pectolytic, xylanolytic, and lipolytic activities) and for their ability to grow at different temperatures, pHs, with salt or lactic/acetic acids added. Data were used for the evaluation of growth index and submitted to cluster and principal component analyses to choose the most promising 4 strains. In the final step of the research, the strains were inoculated as a cocktail in a model brine, containing different amounts of salt (4% to 12%) and glucose (0% to 3%), and adjusted to different pHs (4.0 to 9.0). Data analysis through a multiple regression procedure highlighted that salt, glucose, and pH acted in a different way within the storage and NaCl affected yeast growth only for few days, and then glucose and pH played a major role. PMID:23574538

Bevilacqua, Antonio; Beneduce, Luciano; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

2013-05-01

280

Biosynthesis of metal and oxide nanoparticles using Lactobacilli from yoghurt and probiotic spore tablets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green, low-cost, and reproducible Lactobacillus-mediated biosynthesis of metal and oxide nanoparticles are reported. Silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles are synthesized using Lactobacillus sp. procured from yoghurt and probiotic tablets. The synthesis is performed akin to room temperature in the laboratory ambience. X-ray and transmission electron microscopy analyses are performed to ascertain the formation of metallic and oxide nanoparticles. Individual nanoparticles having the dimensions of 10-25 nm (n-Ag) and 10-70 nm (n-TiO(2)) are found. The mechanism involved for the synthesis of metallic and oxide nanoparticles has also been discussed. PMID:20108273

Jha, Anal K; Prasad, K

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administered as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most clinical studies of probiotics use freeze-dried, powdered bacteria or bacteria packed in capsules. However, probiotics are commercially available in various food matrices, which may affect their persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the study was to compare oral and faecal recovery during and after administration of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial (n=36) included a 4-week run-in, 2-week intervention, and 3-week follow-up period. Participants consumed 10(10)cfu/day of probiotic combination and provided saliva and faecal samples before, during, and after the intervention. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to quantify the strains. L. rhamnosus GG was the only probiotic strain regularly recovered in saliva samples. During the intervention period it was recovered in the saliva of 88% of the volunteers at least once. No difference was found between the yoghurt and cheese groups. At the end of the intervention, L. rhamnosus GG and LC705 counts were high in faecal samples of all product groups (8.08 and 8.67log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). There was no matrix effect on strain quantity in faeces or the recovery time after ceasing the intervention. For P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12, a matrix effect was found at the end of the intervention (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and in the recovery time during follow-up (P<0.05 for both). Yoghurt yielded the highest faecal quantity of JS and Bb12 strains (8.01 and 9.89log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). The results showed that the administration matrix did not influence the faecal quantity of lactobacilli, but affected faecal counts of propionibacteria and bifidobacteria that were lower when consumed in cheese. Thus, the consumption of probiotics in yoghurt matrix is highly suitable for studying potential health benefits and capsules provide a comparable means of administration when the viability of the strain in the capsule product is confirmed. PMID:21074284

Saxelin, Maija; Lassig, Anna; Karjalainen, Heli; Tynkkynen, Soile; Surakka, Anu; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Mutanen, Marja; Hatakka, Katja

2010-12-15

282

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength wer...

Marques, M. C.; Marinho, D. A.

2009-01-01

283

Quantifying the spoilage and shelf-life of yoghurt with fruits.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to develop a predictive model to quantify the spoilage of yoghurt with fruits. Product samples were stored at various temperatures (5-20 °C). Samples were subjected to microbiological (total viable counts, lactic acid bacteria-LAB, yeasts and moulds) and physico-chemical analysis (pH, titratable acidity and sugars). LAB was the dominant micro-flora. Yeasts population increased at all temperatures but a delay was observed during the first days of storage. Titratable acidity and pH remained almost constant at low temperatures (5 and 10 °C). However, at higher temperatures (>10 °C), an increase in titratable acidity and reduction in pH was observed. Sugar concentration (fructose, lactose and glucose) decreased during storage. A mathematical model was developed for shelf-life determination of the product. It was successfully validated at a temperature (17 °C) not used during model development. The results showed that shelf-life of this product could not be established based only on microbiological data and use of other parameters such as sensory or/and physico-chemical analysis is required. Shelf-life determination by spoilage tests is time-consuming and the need for new rapid techniques has been raised. The developed model could help dairy industries to establish shelf-life predictions on yoghurt with fruits stored under constant temperature conditions. PMID:21356472

Mataragas, M; Dimitriou, V; Skandamis, P N; Drosinos, E H

2011-05-01

284

Assessment of Quality Parameters in Curd and Yoghurt of Small Scale Processors in North Central Province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a very high potential to produce processed dairy products in NorthCentral Province (NCP. But the lack of knowledge, technical support andless market demand are major constraints that this industry faces today. Toassess the quality parameters in curd and yoghurt of small scale processorswith respect to the Sri Lankan Standards and to give suggestions to improvethe quality and hygienic condition of their products are major objectives ofthis study. Therefore, a total of 28 small scale processors of curd and yoghurtwere selected randomly throughout the NCP, as 14 for each and analysedtheir products with respect to the Sri Lanka Standard Institution (SLSIstandards by using Sri Lanka Standard Institution (SLSI referencemethods. In curd, Milk solids not fat (MSNF, percent by mass and pH wereup to the level of SLSI (P0.05. Hygienic quality was moderate. In yoghurt,MSNF, percent by mass and milk fat, percent by mass were not up to thelevel of SLSI (P>0.05. Titratable acidity as lactic acid, percent by mass waspresented up to the standard (P<0.05. Hygienic quality was poor. As awhole the qualities of products are below the expected levels of SLSI,especially milk fat%, MSNF% and hygienic quality. It can be improved byusing high quality raw milk, proper storage, reducing the time between milkcollection and processing, paying much attention to the hygienic quality ofprocessing area as well as the processor and proper cleaning andsanitization.

Weerasekara, W.M.S.I.M.

2010-06-01

285

High Torque Low Current Starter System for Synchronous Motor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Torque Low Current (HTLC Starter is the new innovative motor soft starter system. This is a motor starting method for high inertia loads using a low voltage drive with input and output transformers to control motor torque and limit current when starting a medium/high voltage motor. The HTLC is a solution to motor starting problems where Direct on Line (DOL or “Across the Line” starting is not feasible due to high in-rush current causing problems on the distribution system or where a reduced voltage starter cannot provide enough torque to achieve breakaway and accelerate the motor to full speed. The main features of HTLC starter system are reduction of starting inrush current from 600% to 10% and over 60% breakaway torque available during starting, significantly less costly than a fully rated VFD and multiple motors can be started from a single HTLC. This innovative motor soft starter system used in BPCL-Kochi Refinery for starting of 6MW Synchronous motor.

Dr.K.Ayyar

2014-01-01

286

Robustness of Lactobacillus plantarum starters during daily propagation of wheat flour sourdough type I.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at investigating the robustness of selected sourdough strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Seven strains were singly used as sourdough type I starters under daily back-slopping propagation (ten days) using wheat flour. Cell numbers of presumptive lactic acid bacteria varied slightly (median values of 9.13-9.46 log cfu g(-1)) between and within started sourdoughs, as well as the acidifying activity (median values of 1.24-1.33). After three days also the control sourdough (unstarted) had the same values. As shown by RAPD-PCR analysis, five (DB200, 3DM, G10C3, 12H1 and LP20) out of seven strains maintained elevated cell numbers (ca. 9 log cfu g(-1)) throughout ten days. The other two strains progressively decreased to less than 5 log cfu g(-1). As identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and recA genes, L. plantarum (11 isolates), pediococci (7), Lactobacillus casei (3) and Lactobacillus rossiae (2) dominated the flour microbiota. Monitoring of lactic acid bacteria during sourdough propagation was carried out by culture dependent approach and using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Except for the sourdough started with L. plantarum LP20, in all other sourdoughs at least one autochthonous strain of L. plantarum emerged. All emerging strains of L. plantarum showed different RAPD-PCR profiles. L. rossiae and Pediococcus pentosaceus were only found in the control and sourdough started with strain 12H1. The characterization of the catabolic profiles of sourdoughs (Biolog System) showed that sourdoughs containing persistent starters behaved similarly and their profiles were clearly differentiated from the others. One persistent strain (DB200) of L. plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LS44, previously shown to be persistent (Siragusa et al., 2009), were used as the mixed starter to produce a wheat flour sourdough. Both strains cohabited and dominated during ten days of propagation. PMID:20688231

Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pinto, Daniela; Siragusa, Sonya; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

2010-10-01

287

Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

DilekHeperkan

2013-06-01

288

High Torque Low Current Starter System for Synchronous Motor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

High Torque Low Current (HTLC) Starter is the new innovative motor soft starter system. This is a motor starting method for high inertia loads using a low voltage drive with input and output transformers to control motor torque and limit current when starting a medium/high voltage motor. The HTLC is a solution to motor starting problems where Direct on Line (DOL) or “Across the Line” starting is not feasible due to high in-rush current causing problems on the distribution system or where ...

Ayyar, Dr K.; Ann Mary Abraham

2014-01-01

289

Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 m...

Maja Benkovi?; Blaženka Kos; Katarina Tonkovi?; Andreja Leboš; Jagoda Šuškovi?; Ljerka Gregurek

2008-01-01

290

Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

2011-12-01

291

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro, com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente, e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente, em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC, cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia.Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm, varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias

2013-03-01

292

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais / Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Fo [...] ram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were u [...] sed and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos, Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva, Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva, Rosa; Bárbara Amorim, Silva.

2013-03-01

293

Fingerprint based bio-starter and bio-access  

CERN Document Server

In the paper will be presented a safety and security system based on fingerprint technology. The results suggest a new scenario where the new cars can use a fingerprint sensor integrated in car handle to allow access and in the dashboard as starter button.

Iovane, G; Iovane, C; Rotulo, F

2003-01-01

294

A Z-Source Inverter for an Integrated Starter Alternator  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overview of an integrated starter alternator system used in mild hybrid electric vehicles. Inverter configurations that are used in HEV are assessed with an emphasis on the novel Zsource inverter topology. The final part presents a simulation model of a bi-directional Z-source inverter, developed in AMESim, and the simulation results.

Hangiu, Radu-petru; Filip, Andrei-toader; Mart?is?, Claudia Stelut?a; Biro?, Ka?roly A?goston

2012-01-01

295

Peanut Response to Starter Fertilizer across Tillage Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

The benefits of conservation systems have been documented across the Southeast, however, the widespread adoption of conservation systems for peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) lags behind other crops. Starter fertilizers, which supply soluble fertilizer near the root zone of young plants, have been succes...

296

STARTER FERTILIZER EFFECTS ON SOYBEAN GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Fertilizing soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is not an entirely new concept; for a number of years, scientists have investigated the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on yield and quality of soybeans. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of starter fertilizer N rates and ...

297

Peanut response to starter fertilizer, tillage, and planting date interactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Starter fertilizers are used in some crops for rapid early season establishment and growth. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), fast growth beyond emergence may allow for earlier planting, especially in strip-till management, and the ability to quickly grow through early season thrips feeding, thus po...

298

Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0. The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2 and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work.

Liliana Albertengo

2011-07-01

299

Pengaruh Perbandingan Sari Biji Nangka Dengan Sari Buah Naga Merah Dan Perbandingan Zat Penstabil Terhadap Mutu Yoghurt Buah Naga  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of jackfruit seed extract comparison with the red dragon fruit juice and types of stabilizers suitable to produce the quality and organoleptic yoghurt mixture of jackfruit seed extract and red dragon fruit juice. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e ratio of jackfruit seed extract and red dragon frui...

Manurung, Dewi Fahrunisa

2014-01-01

300

Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA) was detected form human’s recourses many yea...

Ebrahimi H; Pourshahidi S.; Amanat D.; Khaleghi V.; Andisheh Tadbir A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Fibers from fruit by-products enhance probiotic viability and fatty acid profile and increase CLA content in yoghurts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the effect of the supplementation of total dietary fiber from apple, banana or passion fruit processing by-products on the post-acidification, total titratable acidity, bacteria counts and fatty acid profiles in skim milk yoghurts co-fermented by four different probiotics strains: Lactobacillus acidophilus L10 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BL04, HN019 and B94. Apple and banana fibers increased the probiotic viability during shelf-life. All the fibers were able to increase the short chain and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of yoghurts compared to their respective controls. A synergistic effect between the type of fiber and the probiotic strain on the conjugated linoleic acid content was observed, and the amount of ?-linolenic acid was increased by banana fiber. The results of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that fruit fibers can improve the fatty acid profile of probiotic yoghurts and point out the suitability of using fibers from fruit processing the by-products to develop new high value-added fermented dairy products. PMID:22264421

do Espírito Santo, Ana Paula; Cartolano, Nathalie S; Silva, Thaiane F; Soares, Fabiana A S M; Gioielli, Luiz A; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; Oliveira, Maricê N

2012-03-15

302

Effect of Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent on Growth and Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for Production of Probiotic Herbal Milk and Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40° Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 109. All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.

P. Gholami

2013-01-01

303

Effect of denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on growth and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities. PMID:24517020

Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M

2013-12-15

304

SPARKLING WINE PRODUCTION BY CHAMPENOISE METHOD IN LOMBARDY REGION: YEAST POPULATION BIODIVERSITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INDIGENOUS SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AS POTENTIAL STARTERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sparkling wine obtained through the Champenoise method represents a relevant cultural and outstanding economical fact in Italy. There are two Lombardy sparkling wines belonging to DOCG: (Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita) Franciacorta DOCG and Oltrepò Pavese Metodo Classico which high quality production is remarkable. Commercial starters belonging to Saccharomyces species currently used in Italy for sparkling wine production have been isolated from French territories on the ba...

Barrera Cardenas, Shirley Mireya

2012-01-01

305

Isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous identification and quantification of beta-casomorphin 5 and beta-casomorphin 7 in yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of beta-casomorphin 5 (BCM5) and beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) in yoghurt. The method used deuterium labelled BCM5-d10 and BCM7-d10 as surrogate standards for confident identification and accurate and quantification of these analytes in yoghurt. Linear responses for BCM5 and BCM7 (R(2)=0.9985 and 0.9986, respectively) was observed in the range 0.01-10ng/?L. The method limits of detection (MLDs) in yoghurt extracts were found to be 0.5 and 0.25ng/g for BCM5 and BCM7, respectively. Analyses of spiked samples were used to provide confirmation of accuracy and precision of the analytical method. Recoveries relative to the surrogate standards of these spikes were in the range of 95-106% for BCM5 and 103-109% for BCM7. Precision from analysis of spiked samples was expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD) and values were in the range 1-16% for BCM5 and 1-6% for BCM7. Inter-day reproducibility was between 2.0-6.4% for BCM5 and between 3.2-6.1% for BCM7. The validated isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was used to measure BCM5 and BCM7 in ten commercial and laboratory prepared samples of yoghurt and milk. Neither BCM5 nor BCM7 was detected in commercial yoghurts. However, they were observed in milk and laboratory prepared yoghurts and interestingly their levels decreased during processing. BCM5 decreased from 1.3ng/g in milk to 1.1ng/g in yoghurt made from that milk at 0day storage and yoghurts immediately after processing. These preliminary results indicate that fermentation and storage reduced BCM5 and BCM7 concentration in yoghurt. PMID:24176353

Nguyen, D D; Solah, V A; Johnson, S K; Charrois, J W A; Busetti, F

2014-03-01

306

Effects of daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components on chronic stress responses: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic stress has a negative influence on health. The aim was to determine stress reducing effects of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components as compared to normal yoghurt. High-trait anxiety individuals (n?=?67) aged 18-63 years participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded intervention with parallel groups. They received either yoghurt enriched with alpha-lactalbumin, casein tripeptides and B vitamins (active) or isoenergetic standard yoghurt (control). To detect changes in psychological and physiological stress, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, salivary cortisol, inflammatory markers, blood pressure, heart rate variability (HRV) and actigraphy were monitored. We observed higher ratings of vigor (p?=?0.047) and reduced feeling of inefficiency (p?=?0.048) in the active group. HRV (baseline adjusted mean 49.1?±?2.3?ms) and recovery index (106.6?±?33.4) were higher in the active group than in controls (42.5?±?2.2?ms and 80.0?±?29.3) (p?=?0.046 and p?=?0.02, respectively). In conclusion, daily intake of yoghurt enriched with bioactive components may aid in stress coping. PMID:24490888

Jaatinen, Nora; Korpela, Riitta; Poussa, Tuija; Turpeinen, Anu; Mustonen, Sari; Merilahti, Juho; Peuhkuri, Katri

2014-06-01

307

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C. Marques

2009-09-01

308

Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health. PMID:24463208

Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

2014-03-01

309

Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with benefic [...] ial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and in the fermented product have been studied by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results show that XRF technique has been successfully used for determination of minerals content in dairy products, still for trace species. The minerals measures were validated with other analytical techniques with high accuracy and versatility as inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and atomic emission spectrometry (EEA). Furthermore the proteins content was increased 13 % and lactose content has been reduced in 30 %, in compared with some commercial products.

A.N., Rinaldoni; M.E., Campderrós; A., Pérez Padilla; E., Perino; J.E., Fernández.

2009-04-01

310

Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the ...

Demarigny Yann; Gerber Pauline

2014-01-01

311

Starter strain related effects on the biochemical and sensory properties of Cheddar cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A detailed investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of four single starter strains, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis 303, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris HP, Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris AM2, and Lactobacillus helveticus DPC4571 on the proteolytic, lipolytic and sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheese. Cheeses produced using the highly autolytic starters 4571 and AM2 positively impacted on flavour development, whereas cheeses produced from the poorly autolytic starters ...

Hickey, Dara K.; Kilcawley, Kieran N.; Beresford, Tom P.; Sheehan, Elizabeth M.; Wilkinson, Martin G.

2007-01-01

312

Fate of Bacillus anthracis during production of laboratory-scale cream cheese and homemade-style yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The viability of Bacillus anthracis during production and storage of cream cheese and yoghurt was evaluated. Experimental cheeses were manufactured from whole milk inoculated with a suspension of B. anthracis vegetative cells and spores at a final concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lab ferment were used to induce milk ripening and milk coagulation. The pH-value of the contaminated milk dropped below 4.5 within the first 6 h and the amount of LAB increased by approximately 2-logs. During cheese production and storage at 5-9 °C for 24 days no growth of B. anthracis was observed. The amount of vegetative cells and spores fluctuated by 1-log. Inoculation of whole milk with heat-treated spores at 10(4) cfu/ml resulted in a slight increase of vegetative cell counts during the first 6 h. This indicated that germination occurred, but replication of vegetative cells was still inhibited in the produced cheese. Incubation of cheeses at room temperature or heating after milk coagulation strongly reduced the amount of LAB but had no effect on the growth behaviour of B. anthracis. The vegetative cell and spore content remained steady at 10(4) cfu/100 mg. During yoghurt production the pH-value decreased within 5 h below 5 and growth of B. anthracis was inhibited throughout storage. A pH-value of 5 or less is likely a critical factor to control the growth of B. anthracis. However, spores remained viable in experimental cream cheeses and yoghurts and are a potential risk of infection. PMID:25475304

Mertens, Katja; Schneider, Oda; Schmoock, Gernot; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy C

2015-04-01

313

Effects of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Inflammatory Factors in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (107 CFU g-1 for each or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation. Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-a, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.441.56 to 7.441.03 g mL-1 (p = 0.041. There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.551.57 to 14.511.62 g mL-1, p = 0.202. The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-a (from 73.756.59 to 77.915.61 pg mL-1, p = 0.633. Serum TNF-a did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134. In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-a.

Abbas Rahim Foroushani

2011-01-01

314

Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

WL Bryden

2010-01-01

315

Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

316

Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ design verification activities are being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

317

Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1), L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2), L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3) and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B...

Taufik, E.

2005-01-01

318

Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

?.?. ??????

2004-04-01

319

Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt / Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho avaliou a estabilidade de Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) e de Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) nas formas livre e imobilizada em alginato de cálcio, em leite e leite acidificado (pHs 5.0, 4.4 e 3.8), e a estabilidade de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte (fermentado até pH 4.2), durante [...] 28 dias de estocagem refrigerada. Também foi estudada a eficiência de dois meios de cultura (ágar MRS modificado e Reinforced Clostridial Agar, acrescido de Prussian Blue) para enumerar B. lactis em iogurte. Ágar Lee foi usado para enumeração de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus quando B. lactis era enumerado no meio MRS. Ambos os microrganismos, nas formas livre e imobilizada, apresentaram uma taxa de sobrevivência adequada nos leites acidificados, uma vez que houve redução de apenas um ciclo log, após 21 dias de estocagem refrigerada. O número de células viáveis de B. lactis imobilizado mostrou um declínio gradual durante o período de armazenamento do iogurte, passando de 10(8) ufc/ml até não ter mais contagem na diluição 10-1. Quando as culturas não estavam em equilíbrio, o meio MRS modificado foi mais eficiente para a contagem de B. lactis em iogurte. Em vista destes resultados pode-se concluir que ambos os microrganismos podem ser incorporados em leite e leite acidificados, haja visto que a redução na população foi pequena durante o período de armazenagem estudado. A presença da cultura tradicional de iogurte parece ter afetado negativamente a sobrevivência de B. lactis e a imobilização não proveu proteção às células, em nenhum dos tratamentos estudados. Abstract in english This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of [...] refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determined. Lee's agar was used to count Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus when B. lactis were counted in the MRS medium. B. lactis and L. acidophilus in both free and immobilized forms presented satisfactory rates of survival in milk and acidified milk because the average reduction of the population was only one log cycle after 21 days of storage. The number of viable cells of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt presented a gradual decline throughout the storage period, passing from 10(8) cfu/ml to no count after 28 days of storage. When the cultures were not in equilibrium just the selective medium was efficient in counting B. lactis in yoghurt. The results showed that both microorganisms can be added to milk and acidified milk, because their population was only slightly affected during storage. The presence of traditional culture of yoghurt seems to be harmful for survival of immobilized B. lactis and the immobilization in calcium alginate failed as an effective barrier to protect the cells in all analysed treatments.

Carlos Raimundo Ferreira, Grosso; Carmen Sílvia, Fávaro-Trindade.

2004-06-01

320

Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter) with possible early weaning and ground starter (control), were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males). Animals [...] were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05), despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P

Amália Saturnino, Chaves; Suely de Fátima, Costa; Leandra Queiroz de, Melo; Marcos Neves, Pereira.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

NIST energy related inventions - electronic starter device for fluorescent lamps. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to silicon supplier failures to produce the 03/04 triac silicon as specified in the original proposal, the direction of the starter program was migrated to use available off the shelf power semiconductors. This had unexpected positive side effects including a reduction in component price, improved quality, and the refocus of engineering efforts to concentrate on the Super ASIC core technology. The starter program has begun shipments employing this new architecture, and is being well received both in the US and abroad. In its present form, the starter meets the original cost projections within 20%. Work is continuing on the 0.8 micron ASIC, which will allow for the starter to sell below $1.00 in volume. Even at the slightly higher price, interest is strong in replacing the low performance glow starter for small fluorescent applications with a high performance alternative.

NONE

1998-06-01

322

Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB. The occurrence of cracks was higher in cheeses with more hydrolyzed ?(S1)- and ?-casein, higher content of free amino acids, lower strain at fracture (shorter texture), and a greater number of PAB. PMID:21338776

Rehn, U; Vogensen, F K; Persson, S-E; Hallin Saedén, K; Nilsson, B F; Ardö, Y

2011-03-01

323

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C. Marques

2009-01-01

324

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players particip [...] ated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C., Marques; D.A., Marinho.

325

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H Malik

2012-12-01

326

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige [...] was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H, Malik; L, Holm; E, Johansson.

2012-12-01

327

Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO) and tallow (T) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to det [...] ermine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P

VB, Fascina; AS, Carrijo; KMR, Souza; AML, Garcia; C, Kiefer; JR, Sartori.

2009-12-01

328

Efecto de la concentración de cultivos iniciadores y dextrosa sobre la calidad de la maduración y vida útil sensorial del pepperoni / Effect of the concentration of starter cultures and dextrose on the quality of the maturation and the sensory life of pepperoni / Efeito da concentração de cultivos iniciadores e dextrose sobre a qualidade da maturação e vida útil sensorial do pepperoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Introdução. A automatização dos processos na indústria cárnica, e a combinação entre cultivos de rápida fermentação e substratos fermentables que permitam elaborar produtos madurados secos de alta qualidade em curto tempo e com novas características sensoriais são os fatores a ter em conta para melh [...] orar, estandarizar e diminuir o tempo de elaboração tradicional deste tipo de alimentos, permitindo às empresas cárnicas diversificar seus produtos e proporcionar ao consumidor alimentos com novos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demonstrar as vantagens de controlar os parâmetros de temperatura e umidade, em câmara de estufaje e a incorporação de diferentes dosificações de cultivo iniciador e dextrose nas etapas de fermentação, maturação, e na conservação do pepperoni. Materiais e métodos. Para avaliar o efeito das concentrações de dextrose e cultivos iniciadores sobre a maturação do pepperoni, avaliaram-se 4 combinações entre as concentrações 0.03% e 0.05% do cultivo Bactoferm LHP, e 0.5% e 1% de dextrose. A fermentação e maturação se realizou em condições controladas de umidade e temperatura. O tempo de vida útil foi avaliado num período de 100 dias, analisando as características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais do alimento cada 30 dias, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. As principais diferenças encontradas, durante o armazenamento, nos pepperoni com percentagens maiores de 0,5 de dextrose, foi a aparição de defeitos no produto final como cores marrons, sabor ácido e gorduroso nos produtos finais. Pelo contrário, concentrações de 0,03% de cultivo starter e 0,5% de dextrose permitiram obter produtos com maior retenção de umidade, melhorando a aparência e textura do produto. O estudo de vida útil do pepperoni determinou que os tratamentos avaliados garantiram a inocuidad do produto por 94 dias a 26° C, como resultado do efeito sinérgico dos metabólitos das bactérias ácido-lácticas, que evitaram o desenvolvimento de microorganismos alterantes e patogênicos. Conclusão. A utilização de dextrose como substrato fermentable para os cultivos iniciadores foi essencial para controlar a velocidade de acidificación do pepperoni durante a fermentação, e evitar assim o rápido descenso do PH e a formação de defeitos sensoriais no produto final; desta maneira, consegue-se a estabilidade sensorial do produto em condições de armazenamento ao ambiente. Abstract in spanish Introducción. La automatización de los procesos en la industria cárnica, y la combinación entre cultivos de rápida fermentación y sustratos fermentables que permitan elaborar productos madurados secos de alta calidad en corto tiempo y con nuevas características sensoriales son los factores a tener e [...] n cuenta para mejorar, estandarizar y disminuir el tiempo de elaboración tradicional de este tipo de alimentos, permitiendo a las empresas cárnicas diversificar sus productos y proporcionar al consumidor alimentos con nuevos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demostrar las ventajas de controlar los parámetros de temperatura y humedad, en cámara de estufaje, y la incorporación de diferentes dosificaciones de cultivo iniciador y dextrosa en las etapas de fermentación, maduración, y en la conservación del pepperoni. Materiales y métodos. Para evaluar el efecto de las concentraciones de dextrosa y cultivos iniciadores sobre la maduración del pepperoni, se evaluaron 4 combinaciones entre las concentraciones 0.03% y 0.05% del cultivo Bactoferm LHP, y 0.5% y 1% de dextrosa. La fermentación y maduración se realizó en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura. El tiempo de vida útil fue evaluado en un período de 100 días, analizando las características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales del alimento cada 30 días, durante el almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. Las principales diferencias encontradas, durante el almacenamiento, en los pepper

Julio, Montes Álvarez; Claudia, Restrepo Flórez; Jairo, Patiño Gómez; Jaime Andrés, Cano Salazar.

2013-01-01

329

Characterisation of microbial communities in Chinese liquor fermentation starters Daqu using nested PCR-DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, characterises of the microbial community structures of three typical Chinese liquor Daqu, as well as different kinds of light flavour Daqu were investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that microbial diversity was considerably different, and the microfloral compositions were highly variable among various Daqu. Lactic acid bacteria, which accounted for 30.95 % of all identified bacteria, were dominant in all Daqu samples, whereas Bacillus species were also predominant in the Luzhou (14.8 %) and Langjiu Daqu (18.2 %). Citrobacter and Burkholderia were first identified in light flavour Daqu. Aspergillus was the dominant moulds, and the non-Saccharomyces yeast species, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Pichia subpelliculosa, were the dominant yeasts. Rasamsonia, Galactomyces, Geotrichum and Wallemia were first identified using nested PCR-DGGE. Cluster analysis indicated that the microbial community structures of different Daqu samples exhibited some differences. These may be ascribed to the different peak production temperatures, raw material constituents and microhabitats around the liquor enterprises. The current study provides insights into the microbial community structures of three typical Daqu samples, and may facilitate the development of starter cultures for manufacturing Chinese liquor. PMID:25193747

Zhang, Liqiang; Wu, Chongde; Ding, Xiaofei; Zheng, Jia; Zhou, Rongqing

2014-12-01

330

Use of exopolysaccharide-producing cultures to improve the functionality of low fat cheese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactic acid bacteria may produce exopolysaccharide (EPS) that is tightly associated with the bacterial cell wall (capsular EPS) or liberated into the growth medium (ropy EPS). Because EPS have viscosity enhancing and stabilizing properties, exopolysaccharide-producing (EPS+) starter cultures are commonly used to enhance water binding and viscosity in yogurt and fermented milks. Previous work has shown that low fat Mozzarella cheese manufactured with an EPS+ starter pair, Streptococcus thermop...

Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Mcmahon, D. J.; Oberg, C. J.; Welker, D. L.

2001-01-01

331

The effects of marketing activities on fast moving consumer good purchases: the case of yoghurt Italian market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.

Sergio Brasini

2007-10-01

332

49 CFR 571.102 - Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission...  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect. 571.102 Section... § 571.102 Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence,...

2010-10-01

333

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

2014-01-01

334

Results of starter diet development for sturgeon larvae by use of spart protein hydrolysate and probiotic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of these studies is to develop and biologically test a sturgeon larvae starter diet which includes fish disrupted protein component and probiotic “Bifitrilak” (Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.). Six pilot batches of larvae feed are produced. Larvae of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser güldenstädtii) have been grown for 24 days until they reached the young fish sdevlop-ment stage. While using the probiotic “Bifitrilak” in the structure of sturgeon larvae starter diet...

Alamdari Hojatollah; Dolganova Natalia Vadimovna; Ponomarev Sergey Vladimirovich; Vinnov Alexey Sergeevich

2013-01-01

335

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition w...

Malik, A. H.; Holm, L.; Johansson, E.

2012-01-01

336

The role of developmental networks in career starters' meaning of work  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined how career starters (age: 26-33 years) experience work meaning and how their developmental network influences this sense of work meaning. Accordingly, we interviewed 16 career starters about how they sense purpose, values, self-efficacy, and positive self-worth in their work. Moreover, they shared how both work and non-work developers influence these work meaning processes. This study contributes to the discussion on how meaning of work contributes to “the good life” i...

Janssen, S.; Alberts, M.; Vuuren, Mark

2014-01-01

337

Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the production of local cheeses or sourdough breads. The beginning of this new millennium has witnessed a deep change in consumer demand, in pursuit of quality, safety and pleasure. In this context, natural starters could, in the future, play an important role in the development of fermented products. However, food producers and researchers have first to cope with fundamental problems in the understanding of these complex ecosystems. The dynamic evolution of the microbial population inside the natural starter (its resilience, its genetic and physiological aptitudes and the consequences on the product are still partially unknown. This document reviews a broad range of articles concerning the use of natural starters with a specific focus on cheeses and breads, and discusses the major stakes for local food production and the consumption of typical products.

Demarigny Yann

2014-09-01

338

Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O) and a thermophilic strain of Lactobacillus plus O-culture (OLb) having different abilities to release amino acids, contribute to the structure and flavour development in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Cheeses manufactured using the four combinations of coagulants and cultures were analysed during a 28-week ripening period for the composition of casein, peptides, free amino acids, rheological properties and for sensory properties at end of ripening. Cheeses with CC, showed less extensive primary proteolysis, lower levels of bitterness and higher stress at fracture, which correlates to a harder structure. Whereas cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb-culture had a higher amount of free amino acids and lower strain at fracture, which correlates to a shorter structure, and the peptide profiles of cheeses produced with BC and CC were rather similar after 28 weeks in contradiction to cheeses with O-culture. Replacing the traditional coagulant BC with CC reduced bitterness but increased hardness of the reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Replacing O- with OLb-culture also reduced bitterness but resulted in a shorter structure. The results highlight tools which could be employed to alter primary proteolysis and amino acid release, respectively, for the optimisation of flavour and structure of reduced-fat cheese.

Borsting, M. W.; Qvist, K. B.

2012-01-01

339

Method validation for aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt using immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yoghurt is a popular dairy product in Iran because of its beneficial influence on human health and nutritional value. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the metabolite of potential carcinogen aflatoxin B1, which can contaminate milk through the feed and is not eliminated by common processing heat treatment. An analytical method using immunoaffinity column for extraction and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification was developed for AFM1 in this study. An HPLC method with fluorimetric detection for the determination of AFM1 in yoghurt milk has been optimized and validated according to Commission Decision BS EN ISO 14501: 2007 by using the conventional validation approach. The procedure for determining selectivity, recovery, precision, decision limit (CC?) and detection capability (CC?) of the method has been reported. The results of the validation process demonstrate the agreement of the method with the provisions of Commission Regulation 401: 2006:EC. A new HPLC method with fluorescence detection was developed to determine aflatoxin M1. The detection limit was 1 ng/kg for yoghurt. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 3.0 ?g l?¹ injected. The method includes a preliminary clean-up and the average recoveries determined on three different days at the concentration levels of 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 ?g kg?¹ were in the range of 72.57%-86.66% with RSD in the range of 2.56%-8.41%. The interday and interlevel mean recovery value, which has been used to correct routine analysis results, was 80%. The method is rapid, easily automatable and therefore useful for accurate and precise screening of aflatoxin M1 in yoghurt. PMID:21385770

Tabari, Mahsa; Karim, Guity; Ghavami, Mehrdad; Chamani, Mohammad

2011-08-01

340

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh) and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservat...

Zahra Esfandiari; Mohammad Badiey; Pooya Mahmoodian; Reza Sarhangpour; Elham Yazdani; Maryam Mirlohi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

Stojkovic?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamoc?lija, Jasmina; C?iric?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Griensven, Leo J. I. D.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Sokovic?, Marina

2014-01-01

342

Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el c...

Peña Aurora; Edwin, Zarate G.; Escobar G. Jorge A.

1988-01-01

343

Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. PMID:25129500

Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

2014-10-01

344

Learning Opportunities And Learning Behaviours Of Small Business Starters: Relations With Goal Achievement, Skill Development, And Satisfaction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning is a vital issue for small business starters, contributing to short term and long term business performance, as well as to personal development. This study investigates when and how small business starters learn. It specifies the situations that offer learning opportunities, as well as the learning behaviours that small business starters can employ in order to learn from these opportunities. In a cross-sectional, quantitative study of recently started small business founders, learnin...

Gelderen, A. M.; Sluis, L.; Jansen, P.

2004-01-01

345

Diagnostik af kræft hos børn starter i almen praksis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hvert år får mellem 150 og 170 børn i Danmark konstateret kræft. Almen praksis spiller en central rolle i vurderingen af syge børn – også af de få børn, der viser sig at have kræft. Denne artikel ser nærmere på, hvornår og hvordan en begrundet mistanke om kræftsygdom hos børn opstår, og hvordan forløbene er i Danmark. En af kernekompetencerne for den praktiserende læge er at kunne skelne de relativt få alvorligt syge fra de mange patienter med forbi¬gående symptomer. Mange symptomer på banal og alvorlig sygdom ligner nemlig hinanden. Udenlandske studier viser, at der tit går lang tid, fra barnet får de første symptomer, til behandlingen starter. Samtidig kan en hurtig diagnose være afgørende for udviklingen af sygdommen. Der er behov for mere viden om børn, der henvender sig i almen praksis med vage eller vedvarende symptomer. Måske kan lægesøgning ses som en markør for debut af symptomer og dermed anvendes som indikator for eventuel kræftsygdom? Viden om symptomer er relevant både for uddannelse af alment praktiserende læger og for udviklingen af kliniske retningslinjer, herunder kræftpakker for børn.

Ahrensberg, Jette MØller; Vedsted, Peter

2013-01-01

346

Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a texturized starter feed containing rolled barley, corn, and oats (with or without straw provision) was not able to maintain rumen pH or promote growth and intake compared with offering a pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. However, when whole corn was used in the texturized starter feed, rumen pH was equivalent to that obtained with a pelleted starter feed and straw supplementation. PMID:25497821

Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

2015-02-01

347

Antibacterial Activities of Nisin Z Encapsulated in Liposomes or Produced In Situ by Mixed Culture during Cheddar Cheese Ripening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated both the activity of nisin Z, either encapsulated in liposomes or produced in situ by a mixed starter, against Listeria innocua, Lactococcus spp., and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and the distribution of nisin Z in a Cheddar cheese matrix. Nisin Z molecules were visualized using gold-labeled anti-nisin Z monoclonal antibodies and transmission electron microscopy (immune-TEM). Experimental Cheddar cheeses were made using a nisinogenic mixed starter culture, containi...

Benech, R. -o; Kheadr, E. E.; Lacroix, C.; Fliss, I.

2002-01-01

348

Effects of feeding levels of starter on weaning age, performance, nutrient digestibility and health parameters in holstein dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (pcalves received 800 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (pCalves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter were weaned earlier (pmilk consumption (kg, DM) compared with other treatments whereas no significant difference was observed between calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter (p>0.05). Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05).Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05). Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM) intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05). PMID:25049856

Nejad, J Ghassemi; Hosseindoust, A; Shoae, A; Ghorbani, B; Lee, B H; Oskoueian, E; Hajilari, D; Amouzmehr, A; Lohakare, J D; Sung, K I

2013-06-01

349

The Optimum Protein Content in High-Energy Starter Diet for Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar chukar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimum protein content in high-energy starter diet was investigated in the experiment. The birds were fed one of the 6 isocaloric (3200 kcal/kg Metabolizable energy diets containing 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, and 28 % protein from hatch to 8 weeks of age. Body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio of partridges were examined in the experiment. There were no significant effects of the protein content in high-energy starter diet on the body weight at any age. According to the result of the present experiment chukar chicks does not need high protein in high-energy starter diet when with supplemented methionine and lysine. The best results of feed conversion and feed consumption were observed in partridges fed 24 % protein.

Kasim Ozek

2006-01-01

350

Design of an Interior Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine for an Integrated Starter-Alternator System Used on an Hybrid-Electric Vehicle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, to reduce fuel consumption, weuse more often vehicles with hybrid propulsion usingfor traction an electric motor and the regularcombustion engine. There are three types of hybridvehicles: serial, parallel and mixed propulsion.Hybrid vehicles use Integrated Starter Alternator(ISA) system instead of usual starter and alternator.This article points out the advantages of using anIntegrated Starter Alternator System in comparisonwith the classical starter and alternator. This systemsaves...

Filip, Andrei-toader; Hangiu, Radu-petru; Mart?is?, Claudia; Biro, Karoly-agoston

2011-01-01

351

Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186

Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh

2008-12-10

352

Microbiota dynamics related to environmental conditions during the fermentative production of Fen-Daqu, a Chinese industrial fermentation starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chinese Daqu is used as a starter for liquor and vinegar fermentations. It is produced by solid state fermentation of cereal-pulse mixtures. A succession of fungi, lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. was observed during the production of Daqu. Mesophilic bacteria followed by fungi, dominated the first phase of fermentation. Next, lactic acid bacteria increased in relative abundance, resulting in an increase of the acidity of Daqu. At the final stages of fermentation, Bacillus spp. and thermophilic fungi became the dominant groups, possibly due to their tolerance to low water activity and high temperature. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses confirmed that Bacillus spp. were ubiquitous throughout the process. Yeast species such as Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Pichia kudriavzevii were present throughout almost the entire fermentation process, but the zygomycetous fungus Lichtheimia corymbifera proliferated only during the final stages of fermentation. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed the significance of acidity, moisture content and temperature in correlation with the composition of the microbial communities at different stages. PMID:24863368

Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Nout, M J Robert; Smid, Eddy J; Zwietering, Marcel H; Boekhout, Teun; Han, Jian-Shu; Han, Bei-Zhong

2014-07-16

353

Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis of Transients of Induction Motor with Soft Starter Startup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the parameters of the machine and of the soft starter on the dynamics of the induction machine start. In order to evaluate the effects of this variation we have used a design of experiments (DOE. The situations may reproduce actual situations occurred in practice, for example the variation of initial voltage Ui , modification of the start time and load value. In the present paper we have investigated the relation between the inrush current, voltage dip at the startup of one industrial soft starter. Using an already predefined fire angle characteristic the influence of the initial voltage was also evaluated.

POPA, G. N.

2010-08-01

354

Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

M. Astawan

2012-04-01

355

Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1, L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2, L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3 and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4 and stored at low temperatures (refrigerator for 0, 7 and 14 days. The observed variables were viscosity, total lactic acid bacteria, total Bifidobacterium bifidum and organoleptic properties (color, aroma, taste and firmness. The result showed that combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly (P>0.05 viscosity and total Bificobacterium bifidum of dadih at H-0 (before storage, but affect significantly (P<0.05 total lactic acid bacteria. The characteristics of dadih during 14 days of storage in low temperature showed that combinations of starter did not significantly affect viscosity but storage time affect significantly (P<0.05. Total Bificobacterium bifidum was not affected significantly by either starter combination or storage time.Total lactic acid bacteria was significantly affected (P<0.05 by storage time and very significantly affected (P<0.01 by starter combinations. A4 starter combination (L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum has the most preference modus value for firmness, color, flavor and aroma according to panelist test result. Among those four organoleptic parameters, only aroma was affected significantly by starter combination.

E. Taufik

2005-04-01

356

Inhibition of Listeria innocua in Cheddar Cheese by Addition of Nisin Z in Liposomes or by In Situ Production in Mixed Culture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of addition of purified nisin Z in liposomes to cheese milk and of in situ production of nisin Z by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL719 in the mixed starter on the inhibition of Listeria innocua in cheddar cheese was evaluated during 6 months of ripening. A cheese mixed starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis UL719 was selected for high-level nisin Z and acid production. Experimental cheddar cheeses were produced on a...

Benech, R. -o; Kheadr, E. E.; Laridi, R.; Lacroix, C.; Fliss, I.

2002-01-01

357

Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7 cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.Setenta e duas embalagens de iogurtes de quatro indústrias diferentes foram analisadas durante três épocas diferentes com intervalo mensal. A população microbiana total encontrada foi em torno de 6 x 10(7 células g-1 de iogurte. A contagem de leveduras variou entre 1 a 2.700 células g-1. Não foi possível observar uma sistemática contaminação, mas este estudo longitudinal revelou que contaminação ad hoc e armazenamento impróprio pode levar a elevadas populações de leveduras. De modo geral foi detectada uma contaminação maior nos meses mais quentes do ano mas em valores inferiores aos encontrados em outros países. Um total de 577 isolados de leveduras foram identificados como pertencentes a 10 espécies. As leveduras mais abundantes foram, em ordem, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii e Candida maltosa. A levedura psicrófila, Mrakia frigida foi pela primeira vez mencionada como isolada a partir de iogurtes. Foi encontrada em algumas amostras uma pequena contaminação por espécies de Monilia e Penicillium. Os testes utilizados para crescimento sugeriram que habilidade para fermentar sacarose, crescimento a 5ºC e na presença de 300 µg g-1 de sorbato foram as três propriedades fisiológicas mais importantes para a presença destas leveduras em iogurtes. Os dados também sugerem que clima mais quente e refrigeração inadequada são as principais causas de alta nível de contaminação, aumento da diversidade e mudança na microbiota presente.

Silvia Regina Moreira

2001-06-01

358

Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

2011-01-01

359

Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with small impact on the power quality. A small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator is an attractive choice for an isolated grid hybrid power system in remote areas because of its low cost, compactness, ruggedness, high reliability, low inertia and ease in control. In this work, a SCR based soft starter for limiting the high inrush current during the connection of the small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator to an isolated weak grid has been proposed. Soft-starter is designed to reduce inrush current or surge in current while achieving a proper synchronism between the generator and the grid.

Sanjay Mishra

2013-10-01

360

Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs – capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

The AskA Starter Kit: How To Build and Maintain Digital Reference Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

This Starter Kit is designed to help organizations and individuals who wish to offer human-mediated information services via the Internet to users in the K-12 community. A six-step process is proposed for organizations to follow in creating an "AskA" service. This process addresses all aspects involved in building and maintaining an AskA service…

Lankes, R. David; Kasowitz, Abby S.

362

Viability of Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus in Starter Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the viability of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium infantis in starter milk, using time and temperature as variables, as well as to evaluate the viability of these micro-organisms over other bacteria normally found in milk, such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis.

Maldonado L.

2003-01-01

363

FACTORS AFFECTING N AND P NEEDS IN STARTERS: FORMULATIONS AND PLACEMENT FOR REDUCED-TILLAGE CORN  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has shown that application of starter fertilizer may alleviate nutrient stress associated with poor root growth early in the season, which often results in a yield response. To investigate, field plots were established on a Canisteo silty clay loam soil in Boone County, Iowa. Befor...

364

Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion...

Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj; Ljubica Tratnik

2002-01-01

365

Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacill...

Blaženka Kos; Jasna Beganovi?; Lina Juraši?; Martina Šva?umovi?; Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Ksenija Uroi?; Jagoda Šuškovi?

2011-01-01

366

CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

Hassan, Yousef I.; Bullerman, Lloyd B.

2013-01-01

367

Multivariate analysis of buckwheat sourdough fermentations for metabolic screening of starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the metabolic activity of 35 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which were able to grow in buckwheat sourdoughs and delivers a detailed explanation of LAB metabolism in that environment. To interpret the high-dimensional dataset, descriptive statistics and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used. Heterofermentative LAB showed a clear different metabolism than facultative (f.) heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB, which were more similar. Heterofermentative LAB were mainly characterized by high free SH groups and acetic acid production; they were also able to consume arabinose and glucose. Homofermenters were mainly characterized by lower free amino nitrogen content and they did not show a good capacity to consume arabinose and fructose. Except for the heterofermentative Weissella cibaria strain, only homofermentative strains showed high ornithine yields. Some f. heterofermentative strains differed from homofermentative due to the high lactic acid production as well as low glucose and arginine consumption. LAB containing more genes encoding peptidase activities and genes involved in aroma production showed a high consumption of free amino acids. Strain-dependent activities could be clearly distinguished from group dependent ones (homofermentative, f. heterofermentative and heterofermentative), e.g., some Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed the highest carbohydrate consumption. However, some microbial activities were more strain-dependent than group-dependent. Multivariate analysis of raw data delivered a detailed and clear explanation of LAB metabolism in buckwheat sourdough fermentations. PMID:24992519

Capuani, Alessandro; Stetina, Mandy; Gstattenbauer, Anja; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

2014-08-18

368

Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best...

Jasna Mrv?i?; Damir Stanzer; Dragana Boži?; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas

2008-01-01

369

A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughput...

Bachmann, H.; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, J. E. T.

2009-01-01

370

The selection of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starter cultures for Ting production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most of the traditional foods in Africa are fermented before consumption. Fermentation is an old technology; however, during this process, especially in traditional fermented cereal based products with special emphasis on Ting, there is very little control involved during the processes. Fermentation is thus left to chance inoculation from the environment. Ting is a sorghum based product that is a result of LAB fermentation and has 0.6-0.7% lactic acid with a final pH of 3.5-4.0. However, ther...

Ramaite, Rudzani Aletta Alinah

2005-01-01

371

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

Zahra Esfandiari

2013-08-01

372

Novel optimal temperature profile for acidification process of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in yoghurt fermentation using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acidification behavior of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus for yoghurt production was investigated along temperature profiles within the optimal window of 38-44 degrees C. For the optimal acidification temperature profile search, an optimization engine module built on a modular artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was used. Fourteen batches of yoghurt fermentations were evaluated using different temperature profiles in order to train and validate the ANN sub-module. The ANN captured the nonlinear relationship between temperature profiles and acidification patterns on training data after 150 epochs. This served as an evaluation function for the GA. The acidification slope of the temperature profile was the performance index. The GA sub-module iteratively evolved better temperature profiles across generations using GA operations. The stopping criterion was met after 11 generations. The optimal profile showed an acidification slope of 0.06117 compared to an initial value of 0.0127 and at a set point sequence of 43, 38, 44, 43, and 39 degrees C. Laboratory evaluation of three replicates of the GA suggested optimum profile of 43, 38, 44, 43, and 39 degrees C gave an average slope of 0.04132. The optimization engine used (to be published elsewhere) could effectively search for optimal profiles of different physico-chemical parameters of fermentation processes. PMID:17476540

Gueguim-Kana, E B; Oloke, J K; Lateef, A; Zebaze-Kana, M G

2007-07-01

373

Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli From Cheese, Yoghurt and Silage by 16S rDNA Gene and Study of Bacteriocin and Biosurfactant Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Background: The Lactobacilli belong to lactic acid bacteria, whose primary fermentation end product from sugars is lactic acid and that is why foods are conserved. Lactic acid bacteria have been used for millennia in the production of silage. Therefore, they are an indispensable part of intestinal microflora in human and animals. .Objectives: This research meant to isolate lactic acid bacteria with significant effects from different environments. .Materials and Methods: In this study, heterofermentative LAB were isolated from cheese, yoghurt and corn silage in Broujerd ,Iran. The standard biochemical methods were applied. Acid tolerance was studied by exposure to acidic PBS and growth in bile salt was measured by the spectrophotometric method. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on environment isolated E.coli, bacteriocin and biosurfactant production. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and amplified by PCR method. .Results: The 3 isolates from cheese, yoghurt and silage were effective against isolated E.coli and could produce biosurfactants. Phylogenic relationships of the 3 potential candidates were determined comparing the 16Sr DNA gene sequences, they were found to be as 3 isolates of Lactobacillus buchneri, L.brevis and L.kefiri that were effective on the isolated E.coli from environment. .Conclusions: It was found that the isolated bacteria produced biosurfactants that had a great potential for different industries.

Sharareh Peymanfar

2012-09-01

374

Aplicación de la metodología de superficie de respuesta para evaluar el efecto de la concentración de azúcar y de cultivos iniciadores comerciales sobre la cinética de fermentación del yogurt / Application of response surface methodology to evaluate the effect of the concentration of sugar and commercials starters on the fermentation kinetics of yogurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo, mediante la metodología de diseño experimental de superficie de respuesta de optimización (MSRO) se evaluó la concentración de dos cultivos iniciadores comerciales (YO-MIX TM 204 (L) y YOFLEX® (Y)) y el porcentaje de azúcar añadido (5, 7.5 y 10 %) como factores influyentes sobre el [...] proceso de fermentación de yogurt, con el fin de identificar la tasa de acidificación más alta. De igual forma, se planteó la caracterización del crecimiento microbiano durante el proceso de acidificación. Las condiciones óptimas de acidificación para L se dan a los porcentajes de azúcar más bajos y concentraciones de inóculo más altas, mientras que para Y se dan a los porcentajes de azúcar medios y concentraciones de inóculos más altas para tiempos totales de proceso de 4.4 y 4.2 horas, respectivamente. Se determinó la tasa de crecimiento para cada cultivo iniciador dando como resultado menores tasas de crecimiento para estreptococos (0.705 h?1 para L y 0.367 h?1 para Y) que para lactobacilos (0.733 h?1 para L y 0.389 h?1 para Y) en cada cultivo iniciador. Finalmente se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tiempo en el que se alcanzó la máxima tasa de acidificación para los cultivos iniciadores evaluados a una misma concentración de azúcar. Abstract in english In this work, the concentration of two commercials starters (YO-MIX TM (L) 204 and YOFLEX® (Y)) and sugar percentage (5, 7.5 and 10%) were evaluated by optimization response surface methodology (ORSM), in order to identify the higher acidification rate. The starters growth was followed during the ac [...] idification process. The results showed that optimal acidification conditions for L were at the lowest value of sugar and the highest value of the starter concentration. In the case of Y the optimal acidification conditions were with the highest starter concentration but at medium sugar levels. Total acidification times were 4.4 and 4.2 hours, respectively. The growth rate for each starter culture was determined by nonlinear regression resulting lower growth rates for streptococcus (0.705 h?1 for L and 0.367 h?1 for Y) than for lactobacillus (0.733 h?1 for L and 0.389 h?1 for Y) in each starter. Finally, significant differences were found in the time necessary to reach the maximum acidification rate for starter cultures evaluated at the same concentration of sugar. This kind of studies should continue because it offers the possibility of growth in the dairy sector by standardizing production processes.

J.M., Rodríguez-Bernal; J. A., Serna-Jiménez; M.A., Uribe-Bohórquez; B., Klotz; M. X., Quintanilla-Carvajal.

375

A simple and rapid confirmatory assay for analyzing antibiotic residues of the macrolide class and lincomycin in bovine milk and yoghurt: hot water extraction followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid and simple sample preparation procedure for determining residues of antibiotics of the class of macrolides and lincomycin in whole milk and yoghurt by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique with hot water as extractant. After dispersing samples of milk and yoghurt on sand, target compounds were eluted from the MSPD column by passing through it 5 mL of water acidified with 30 mmol/L formic acid and heated at 70 degrees C. After pH adjustment and filtration, a volume of 200 microL of the aqueous extract was directly injected into the LC column. MS data acquisition was generally performed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, selecting two precursor ion to product ion transitions for each target compound. Hot water appeared to be an efficient extracting medium, since absolute recoveries of the analytes in milk and yoghurt were respectively 68-86% and 82-96%. The method proved to be robust as matrix effects, even though present, did not affect significantly the accuracy of the method, as evidenced by analyzing six different batches of both milk and yoghurt. Using roxithromycin (a macrolide antibiotic not used in veterinary medicine) as surrogate internal standard, the accuracy of the method at three different spike levels of the analytes in milk and yoghurt was 86-107% (RSDs not larger than 10%) and 97-117% (RSDs not larger than 13%), respectively. On the basis of a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, we estimated this method can quantify a few ppb of the analytes in milk and yoghurt. These concentrations are well below the tolerance levels of macrolides and lincomycin in milk set by both the European Union and the US Food and Drug Administration. On analyzing six yoghurt samples, we found evidence for the fact that one of the six samples was contaminated with erythromycin B. PMID:17171776

Bogialli, Sara; Di Corcia, Antonio; Laganà, Aldo; Mastrantoni, Veronica; Sergi, Manuel

2007-01-01

376

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performa...

Onu P.N.

2012-01-01

377

Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success on their markets. 3. When aggregated, 16 potential key success factors were derived: High product quality, attractive packaging, high quality of raw material, possession of advanced technology and know-how, competent management and competent staff, wide product range, extensive product development activities/high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions, three direct determinants lead to high perceived value: attractive packaging, high product quality, and extensive marketing activities. High product quality is in turn determined by high raw material quality, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and competent management and indicating an emphasis on an objective concept of quality. 5. According to managers' perceptions, extensive market knowledge is the main determinant of good relations with trade, supplemented by extensive product development activities, good logistics management, and extensive marketing activities. Competent management and staff is a major second-order determinant. 6. According to managers' perceptions, scale production, possession of advanced technology and know-how, and good logistics management are regarded as the main direct determinants of low relative costs, with competent management and staff and financial resources as second-order determinants. 7. Managers' perceptions seem to be fairly correct with regard to the determinants of consumer perceived value and good relations with trade. They do not seem to be correct with regard to the determinants of low relative costs.

Grunert, Klaus G.; SØrensen, Elin

1996-01-01

378

Fuzzy and ANFIS based soft starter fed induction motor drive for high performance applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soft starters are used with induction motors in blowers, fans, pumps and the crane hoist drives. AC voltage controllers are used as soft starters in induction motors for starting and to adjust its speed. This paper highlights the intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy and Neuro fuzzy based ac voltage controllers to generate the firing pulses for appropriate thyristors for any given operating torque, speed of the motor and the load. FUZZY and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System models have been designed to achieve the proposed algorithm. MATLAB/SIMULINK package was used to simulate the proposed methods. Simulation results presented in this paper explain the advantages of proposed soft starting methods over conventional method. The advantages of intelligent methods proposed in this paper are its simplicity, stability, accuracy and fast response.

L. Rajaji

2008-08-01

379

Quantitative Substitution of Raw Baobab (Adansonia digitata Seed Meal for Soyabean Meal in Broiler Starter Diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 28-day feeding trial involving 150 day old Anak broiler chicks was carried out to study the effect of quantitative substitution of raw baobab (Adansonia digitata seed meal (RBSM for soyabeans meal in broiler starter diet. The birds were grouped into five dietary treatments of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 levels of inclusion of Raw Baobab Seed Meal (RBSM, in a completely randomized design. Feed and water were offered to birds ad libitum. Result of productive performance shows significant differences (p<0.05 between treatments for all the parameters considered. Feed intake, final body weight increased with increase in level of inclusion of the test ingredient. 10% level of inclusion of RBSM give better productive performance among the inclusion levels. This indicate that 10% RBSM can be used in broiler starter diet without negative effect on productive performance.

L.A. Saulawa

2014-01-01

380

A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
381