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Sample records for yoghurt starter cultures

  1. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

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    Ma?gorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  2. Dosage of starter culture influences gel formation and physico-chemical properties of yoghurt made from zebu milk

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    Olusola A. Olorunnisomo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the optimum dosage of starter culture for yoghurt produced from zebu milk, fresh milk was inoculated with 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25g/L of freeze-dried starter culture. Proximate composition, gel formation, pH, sensory properties and acceptance of yoghurts inoculated with different dosage of starter culture were evaluated after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h of incubation. Total solids, protein and carbohydrate content of yoghurts increased significantly (p20>15>10>5 g/L. Increasing dosage of starter culture improved physico-chemical properties of yoghurt and shortened time of gel formation.

  3. Microstructure and Textural Properties of Yoghurts Produced by Exopolysaccharides- Producing Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lanjun

    moderate mechanical treatment post-fermentation (i.e. 1 bar) was able to further improve the textural properties, possibly due to structural rearrangements causing improved protein-protein interactions and/or a better distribution of EPS. A total 286 of CLSM micrographs acquired from the four types of...... of pixel counting and fractal analysis, but also highlighted the significant differences affected by the yoghurt types and the mechanical treatment pressures. Moreover, ASCA models discovered that yoghurts highly correlated with EPS visualized by ConA exhibited heterogeneous gel structures, whereas...... the yoghurts positively correlated with the EPS visualized by WGA displayed uniform protein networks with higher self-similarity. Irrespective of yoghurt types, the yoghurts were shown to become more homogenous as pressure was increased. However, the yoghurt without EPS was more susceptible to whey...

  4. Producing Yoghurt with the Rumex Acetocella (RA) Plant as the Starter and Comparing its Certain Characteristics with That Yoghurt Produced with the Yoghurt Starter

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Uysal; Gokhan Kavas; Ozer Kimik

    2003-01-01

    In this study, two separate portions of yoghurt was produced from the yoghurt starter (YC) and the Rumex acetocella extract (RE). Then they were stored at ?4?C for 10 days. Some properties of both yoghurts were analysed on the 1st, 5th and 10th day of storage. According to the results, the effect of starter kinds a whey-off values and the number of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus were not significant. So when studied with respect to its sensory properties, RE yoghurts were liked as...

  5. Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayendra, S. V. N.; R. C. Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p?

  6. Wine starters cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Santos; Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.

  7. Wine starters cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.

  8. The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria

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    Prayitno

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 109 : 109 (1 : 1, 109 : 2x109 (1 : 2 and 2x109 : 109 (2 : 1, and second factor was percentage (S of starter, with were 1, 2, 3 and 4 percent. Each treatment has three replicated. Variabels measured ware lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt after 12 hours fermented. Lactic acid content was determined by titration and lactose content by spectrofotometry. Result showed that number of Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus and percentage of starter, including ther interaction, have very hight significant (P<0,01 affect on lactic acid and lactose content of yoghurt. For resulted the yoghurt with the best quality (midle of lactic acid and lower lactose content recommended to used Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 1 : 2 with 4 percent starter addition. (Animal Production 8(2: 131-136 (2006 Key Words : Streptococus thermophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, starter, yoghurt, lactic acid, lactose

  9. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with t...

  10. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with t...

  11. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    OpenAIRE

    Metin Guldas

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w) %) and withou...

  12. Yoghurt Production Using Soyamilk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyamilk was extracted from soaked dehulled crushed soyabeans by mixing with water and then filtering using a muslim cloth to separate the milk from residue. The filtered soyamilk was then pasteurised to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and undesirable enzymes. The extracted soyamilk had a lower acidity (0.03%) and fat content (1.0%) than cows milk (0.14 and 3.5% acidity and fat content respectively). Organoleptic (sensory) evaluation was carried by a panel and the results were analysed using the Anova an mean separation by using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Quality attributes of soyamilk that were significant (P > 0.05) affected were consistency and flavour. A 75:25 (cow milk:soyamilk) was not significantly different from 100% cow milk. The 25:75 cow milk:soyamilk and 100% soyamilk were not acceptable because of poor consistency and objectionable flavour. The fermented soyamilk yoghurt had a higher acceptability rating than fresh soyamilk. The sensory evaluation results showed that the 75:25 and 50:50 ( cow to soyamilk) yoghurt were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control (100% cow yoghurt). The 25:75 and 0:100 (cow milk:soyamilk yoghurt) had low rating and categorised as poor. By increasing the sugar content and amount of emulsifier (gelatin), the acceptability of 25:75 and 0:100 soyamilk yoghurt was improved. Fermentation using yoghurt starter culture improved the flavour and taste

  13. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures...... provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from...

  14. Influence of fat content and starter cultures on the quality of fermented dairy products

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    Iličić Mirela D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat content and type of the starter culture (traditional or probiotic on physico-chemical quality, rheological and textural characteristics of the fermented dairy products during 14 days of storage. Seven different fermented dairy products of two different groups: stirred and set yoghurts were used in this study. The rheological and textural characteristics of the analyzed type of fermented dairy products after the production and during storage are dependent on the chemical composition, particularly fat content. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  15. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

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    Elok Zubaedah1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

  16. Isolation and Identification of Lactococci from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

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    M.H. Zamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactococci isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 28 Lactococci were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional yoghurt. However, in the future can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

  17. Improving Quality of Yoghurt By Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was carried out to study the possibility to utilize gamma irradiation to activate starter culture during incubation period and prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt. Starter culture of yoghurt was subjected to gamma irradiation with 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Gy to activate the starter then yoghurt was made. Effect of irradiation dose on titratable acidity and the sensory evaluation of all samples were evaluated during incubation period. The obtained results indicated that the irradiation doses 30, 35 and 40 Gy activated the starter and caused significant decreased of incubation period from 4 h to 3.5 h while irradiation doses that less than 30 Gy and more than 40 Gy did not significantly effect. Yoghurt samples were subjected to gamma irradiation with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy to prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt samples. The sensory, microbial and chemical properties of yoghurt samples were evaluated during cold storage. The obtained results indicated that the counts of total viable bacteria, molds and yeasts were decreased by applying gamma irradiation. Irradiation treatment caused significant decrease in acidity. The overall acceptability scores, total solid and ph value of all treatments were gradually decreased as the storage period proceeded while total nitrogen of all treatments was not affected. In addition, treatments of yoghurt with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy prolonged the shelf-life to 20, 28 and 36 days as compared to 12 days for control treatment

  18. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akabanda, Fortune; Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Parkouda, Charles; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities). Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL) was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures. PMID:26904646

  19. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained) yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Harun Kesenka?

    2010-01-01

    The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g i...

  20. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Saerens, Sofie; Blennow, Andreas; Skovmand-Larsen, Mathias; Swiegers, Jan H.; Petersen, Gert B.; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile...

  1. SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan

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    Widaningrum3

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

  2. The Production of Set-Type-Bio-Yoghurt with Commercial Probiotic Culture

    OpenAIRE

    L. Yilmaz-Ersan; E. Kurdal

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the yoghurt and bio-yoghurt were produced using different commercial probiotic combinations of S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium ssp., L. lactis and L. casei. The samples were analyzed for microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties at a 5-day interval during storage. Culture combinations and storage time significantly influenced some properties of the samples. While titratable acidity and lactic acid (%) increased, syneresis, pH, la...

  3. Isolation and Identification of Leuconostocs from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

    OpenAIRE

    N Taarof; M.H. Zamani; M. Karimi Jashni; M. Shah Ahmad Ghasemi; A. Khalegh Babaki; P. Azadnia

    2011-01-01

    Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Leuconostocs isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 34 Leuconostoc were determined. Additionally, our biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures in order to protect the t...

  4. Isolation and Identification of Lactococci from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun

    OpenAIRE

    M.H. Zamani; M. Karimi Jashni; M. Davanian Mohaghegh; M. Shah Ahmad Ghasemi; P. Azadnia; A. Khalegh Babaki; N Taarof

    2011-01-01

    Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactococci isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 28 Lactococci were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical ...

  5. IMPACT OF FORTIFICATION WITH HONEY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF BIO-YOGHURT

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    El-Tahra M. A. Ammar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation with honey on yoghurt quality was studied. Five treatments of yoghurt were made from buffaloe's and cow's milk mixture (1:1. Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture, whereas the other four treatments were made by ABT culture and milk fortified with 0, 2, 4, and 6% honey. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that addition of honey to milk had no significant effect on ABT starter activity. A curd tension increased, whereas curd syneresis decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with honey. Acidity, TS, WSN and TVFA contents of yoghurt supplemented with honey were higher than those of control. The contents of fat, ash and TN were similar in both. Addition of honey to yoghurt improved the viability of bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria counts were similar to accepted threshold (106 cfu g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, addition of honey improved the body, texture and flavour of the yoghurt.

  6. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt

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    Harun Kesenkaş

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

  7. Effect of Some Selected Processing Routes on the Nutritional Value of Soy Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    O. A. Adetunji; E. Betiku; A Ojo; B.O. Solomon

    2006-01-01

    The processing methods of soymilk were investigated with major focus on their effects on the nutritional values of soy yoghurt. Various chemicals such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and deionized water were used for treating different samples of soybeans. Soy yoghurt was prepared from the soymilk obtained from all the samples using a mixed starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The yoghu...

  8. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  9. The Content of Lactic Acid and Lactose of Yoghurt Fermented with Different Number and Percentage Starter Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Prayitno

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to study rate of lactose fermentation and production of lactic acid by Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Yoghurt was made from skim milk 10 percent inoculated with Streptococus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus different number and percentage. The research was conducted in a completely randomzed design factorial pattern 3 x 4. The first factor was different (R) of Strepcocus thermophillus and Lactoba...

  10. Probiotic Yoghurts From Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Kozludzhova Siyka; Goranov Bogdan; Boyanova Petya; Yanakieva Velichka; Dushkova Mariya; Dinkov Kolyo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, yoghurts from ultrafiltered concentrated whole milk with a volume reduction ratio 0, 2 and 3 with three different probiotic yoghurt starters were obtained. Their physiological, microbiological and rheological properties were examined. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts had high concentration of viable cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (over 1010cfu/cm3). For the preparation of concentrated probiotic yoghurts the most appropriate volume red...

  11. Optimization of the process parameters for the preparation of synbiotic yoghurt-cheese

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    Pratima Khandelwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese having functional attributes of both prebiotics and probiotics. Firstly, the conditions for the preparation of prebiotic yoghurt were optimized in order to determine the optimal level of prebiotic ingredients - raftiline (the fat replacer, raftilose (the sugar replacer, oat fiber and honey as an enricher and combinations thereof; by means of sensory evaluation. Incorporation of raftiline, raftilose, honey @ 4, 4 and 3 percent respectively, and combinations of oat fiber with raftiline or raftilose (0.5%+4% and honey (0.5%+3% in pre-standardized low fat (0.5% fat and 11 % SNF buffalo milk resulted in acceptable yoghurt. The yoghurt-cheese was then made by centrifuging the set yoghurt at pre-optimized centrifugation conditions (9000 rpm for 15 min. In order to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese, optimized level of prebiotic ingredients/enricher and the combinations thereof were added to standardized milk and the fermentation was carried out by different combinations of probiotic cultures namely L. acidophilus with yoghurt culture (C2, 1:1:1, B. bifidum with yoghurt starter (C3, 1:1:1 and combination of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum with yoghurt culture (C4, 1:1:1:1 taking yoghurt culture as control (C1, 1:1. Each culture combination was added @ 3% and incubation was carried out at 42±1 0C. It was concluded on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory evaluation that a quite acceptable quality synbiotic yoghurt-cheese could be prepared using C3 culture combination with raftiline, raftilose and combinations of oat fiber with raftiline, raftilose and honey.

  12. Strain diversity and phage resistance in complex dairy starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spus, M; Li, M; Alexeeva, S; Wolkers-Rooijackers, J C M; Zwietering, M H; Abee, T; Smid, E J

    2015-08-01

    The compositional stability of the complex Gouda cheese starter culture Ur is thought to be influenced by diversity in phage resistance of highly related strains that co-exist together with bacteriophages. To analyze the role of bacteriophages in maintaining culture diversity at the level of genetic lineages, simple blends of Lactococcus lactis strains were made and subsequently propagated for 152 generations in the absence and presence of selected bacteriophages. We first screened 102 single-colony isolates (strains) from the complex cheese starter for resistance to bacteriophages isolated from this starter. The collection of isolates represents all lactococcal genetic lineages present in the culture. Large differences were found in bacteriophage resistance among strains belonging to the same genetic lineage and among strains from different lineages. The blends of strains were designed such that 3 genetic lineages were represented by strains with different levels of phage resistance. The relative abundance of the lineages in blends with phages was not stable throughout propagation, leading to continuous changes in composition up to 152 generations. The individual resistance of strains to phage predation was confirmed as one of the factors influencing starter culture diversity. Furthermore, loss of proteolytic activity of initially proteolytic strains was found. Reconstituted blends with only 4 strains with a variable degree of phage resistance showed complex behavior during prolonged propagation. PMID:26026763

  13. Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei

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    Sedarnawati Yasni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

  14. Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovi? Spasenija D.; Cari? Marijana ?.; ?uri? Mirjana S.; Ili?i? Mirela D.; Durakovi? Katarina G.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12%) on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat). Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark) ...

  15. Isolation and Identification of Thermophilic Lactobacilli from Traditional Yoghurts of Tribes of Kazerun

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    M. Karimi Jashni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify thermophilic lactobacilli isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city, Fars province, Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 99 thermophilic Lactobacilli were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed Lactobacillus helveticus 25 (25.25%, Lactobacillus fermentum 20 (20.20% and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus 54 (54.55%. So, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were found to be the more dominant species. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of thermophilic lactobacilli starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of yoghurt. However, in the future can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

  16. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

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    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  17. The effects of cultivating lactic starter cultures with bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumer, A; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    2001-01-01

    The effects of bacteriocins produced by six strains of lactic acid bacteria on 9 mesophilic and 11 thermophilic commercial starter cultures were investigated in mixed cultures of commercial starters with bacteriocin-producing strains in milk. The bacteriocins produced by the test organisms were nisin A, nisin Z, lacticin 481, enterocin AS-48, a novel enterocin, and a novel plantaricin. Mesophilic commercial starters were in most cases tolerant of bacteriocins, with only two of the starters being partially inhibited, one by four and the other by two bacteriocins. The aminopeptidase activities of mesophilic starters were generally low, and only one of the combinations of mesophilic starter-bacteriocin producer gave double the aminopeptidase activity of the starter culture without the bacteriocin producer. Thermophilic commercial starters were more sensitive to bacteriocins than mesophilic starters, with six thermophilic starters being partially inhibited by at least one of the bacteriocins. Their aminopeptidase activities were generally higher than those of the mesophilic starters. The aminopeptidase activities of seven thermophilic starters were increased in the presence of bacteriocins, by factors of up to 9.0 as compared with the corresponding starter cultures alone. Bacteriocin-producing strains may be used as adjunct cultures to mesophilic starters for the inhibition of pathogens in soft and semihard cheeses, because mesophilic starters are rather tolerant of bacteriocins. Bacteriocin producers may also be used as adjunct cultures to thermophilic starters of high aminopeptidase activity, more sensitive to lysis by bacteriocins than mesophilic starters, for the acceleration of ripening in semihard and hard cheeses. PMID:11198445

  18. YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS

    OpenAIRE

    V.Jayalalitha; R.Palani Dorai; B Dhanalakshmi; Elango, A.; C.Naresh kumar

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion) by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with contr...

  19. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

    OpenAIRE

    O?uz GÜRSOY; KAYAARDI, Semra

    1999-01-01

    Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria) was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and...

  20. Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation

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    Silviya Popova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

  1. YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Jayalalitha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with control yoghurt (P<0.05 in every week interval of storage period. In control yoghurt at 21 days of storage, lactobacillus survived four log units and bifidobacterium survived six log units. Extrusion method of encapsulation using alginate (2.0 % w/v +gelatin (2.0 % w/v +starch (0.5 w/v as wall materials provides maximum viability (9 log units for probiotics in yoghurt throughout the storage period of 21 days.

  2. Towards the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi (edible starch: Screening for potential starters

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    Kubrat A. Oyinlola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented cassava products like fufu and usi are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starters are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence, this study aimed at screening for potential starters in the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi.Fresh, peeled, chipped and grated cassava tubers were spontaneously fermented and lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the fermenting mash at 24 hour intervals. Ninety eight (98 isolates were randomly picked. Lactobacillus plantarum had highest occurrence (50.0% in both fermentations.All selected isolates did not hydrolyze starch, but produced linamarase and pectinase. Fermenting pH ranged between 6.50 and 3.58 during 72 hours fermentation. Lactic acid concentration ranged from 1.10 g/L to 1.78 g/L at 24 hours, 1.22 g/L to 2.45 g/L at 48 hours and 0.57 g/L to 2.55 g/l at 72 hours. The highest hydrogen peroxide concentration produced was 629 µg/L at 24 hours while the least was 136 µg/L at 72 hours. 1.08 g/L of diacetyl was the least concentration produced at 24 hours while the highest was 2.86 g/L at 48 hours.Five potential starters were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus F2A, L. plantarum subsp. argentolarensis F2B, L. plantarum F2C, L. plantarum U2A and L. paraplantarum U2C.

  3. Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage

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    Iličić Mirela D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C, on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added to the milk at 43°C. After milk fermentation at pH 4.5, probiotic yoghurt samples were cooled to 8°C, gently homogenized and packed in plastic containers and stored for 10 days, at +4oC. Viscosity of all samples was measured at 5°C on a Haake Rheostress 600 viscosimeter. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that yoghurt samples produced with low level of transglutaminase activated prior to fermentation have significantly better rheological properties than the samples produced without activation and yoghurt control. Generally, the application of low level transglutaminase in low - fat yoghurt production improves overall rheological properties of the final product.

  4. Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy-Corn Yoghurt

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    Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research efforts in the developing countries have been geared towards the improvement of protein quality foods using blends of legume and cereal which is considered a nutritionally balanced product. Therefore, this present study is aimed at finding local substitute for milk based product with high protein content of a well balancing amino acid composition and high digestibility; determining the proximate composition, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation of soy-corn yoghurt with a view of knowing the consumer acceptability of the product. Yoghurt samples were produced from blends of soymilk and corn milk (yellow maize corn using Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. Ratio of soy milk to corn milk were 80%:20%; 70%:30% and 100% soymilk as control. The yoghurt samples produced were coded A, B and C representing 100% soy yoghurt, 80%:20% soy corn yoghurt and 70%:30% soy corn yoghurt respectively. Yoghurt samples were subjected to chemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment. The results of chemical analysis revealed protein contents of 4.30, 4.00 and 3.70% respectively for the samples. Fat contents varied between 2.10 and 2.60%, while ash contents of 0.50, 0.60 and 0.62% were obtained for the samples respectively. Total solids of between 10.98 and 8.80% were obtained with titratable acidity of 0.03, 0.05 and 0.06%, respectively. The carbohydrate contents of the samples ranged from 1.40 to 4.50% while all the samples showed fairly acidic levels. Water contents of between 89.00 and 91.20% were obtained. The microbiological examination revealed a tolerable level for all the samples.

  5. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

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    O?uz GÜRSOY

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of these products were determined and compared. Generally, except the consistency sensed in mouth, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties were approximately same. Finally, these products were healthier than other yoghurt products, because of the amount of low fat and containing therapeutic bacteria.

  6. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

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    Radulovi? Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug?1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug?1 for streptococci and >106 cfug?1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  7. Microbial community dynamics in thermophilic undefined milk starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Matera, Attilio; De Filippis, Francesca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-18

    Model undefined thermophilic starter cultures were produced from raw milk of nine pasta-filata cheesemaking plants using a selective procedure based on pasteurization and incubation at high temperature with the objective of studying the microbial community dynamics and the variability in performances under repeated (7-13) reproduction cycles with backslopping. The traditional culture-dependent approach, based on random isolation and molecular characterization of isolates was coupled to the determination of pH and the evaluation of the ability to produce acid and fermentation metabolites. Moreover, a culture-independent approach based on amplicon-targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. The microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3 regions), while the microdiversity of Streptococcus thermophilus populations was explored by using novel approach based on sequencing of partial amplicons of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB). In addition, the occurrence of bacteriophages was evaluated by qPCR and by multiplex PCR. Although it was relatively easy to select for a community dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) within a single reproduction cycle, final pH, LAB populations and acid production activity fluctuated over reproduction cycles. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods showed that the cultures were dominated by either S. thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis or by both species. Nevertheless, subdominant mesophilic species, including lactococci and spoilage organisms, persisted at low levels. A limited number of serB sequence types (ST) were present in S. thermophilus populations. L. delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages were below the detection limit of the method used and high titres of cos type S. thermophilus bacteriophages were detected in only two cases. In one case a high titre of bacteriophages was concurrent with a S. thermophilus biotype shift in the culture. This study largely confirms previous data on the composition of undefined thermophilic starters used for the production of traditional cheeses in Italy but it is the first one to systematically address the dynamics of the cultures under a repeated reproduction regime with backslopping. PMID:26490650

  8. Goat Milk Yoghurt by Using Lacto-B Culture Modulates the Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-10 in Malnourished Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nurliyani; Kandarina, BJ. Istiti; Kusuma, Sari; Trisnasari, Yunita Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Total spleen lymphocytes, lymphocyte proliferation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in spleen lymphocyte culture were studied in malnourished Wistar rats fed with goat milk yoghurt. Malnourished rats were created by using standard feed restriction as much as 50% of normal rats for 21 d. Goat milk yoghurt containing three types of microorganism e.g., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Sterptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium longum derived from Lacto-B culture in powd...

  9. PRODUKSI YOGHURT SHITAKE (YOSHITAKE SEBAGAI PANGAN KESEHATAN BERBASIS SUSU [Production of Yoghurt Shiitake (Yoshitake as a Dairy-Based Nutraceutical Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indratininingsih1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to produce shiitake-containing yoghurts as nutraceutical food. Preliminary analysis was conducted to measure nutrient contents of shiitake followed by evaluation of shiitake’s addition on the growth of yoghurt bacteria and probiotics. Yoghurt fermentation was conducted at 420C until pH reached 4.5. Culture starter used were Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus casei with proportion of 1:1:1. During fermentation, acidification rate, pH, titratable acidity, total of yoghurt bacteria, total of probiotics, and concentration of lentinan in the products were measured. The result showed that shiitake powder contains crude protein (22.35%, starch (16,66%, fat (11,56%, ash (7.73%, dry matter (87.57%, dietary fibre (33.35% and unsoluble dietary fibre (5.45%. The result also showed that supplementation of 4% shiitake powder support the growth of probiotics L. casei and resulting in growth optimum at 1.26 x 109 cells/ml and 2.86 x 109 cells/ml after incubation of 6 and 10 hours respectively. Time needed to reach pH 4.5 of yoghurt supplemented with 4% shiitake powder was achieved after 7 hours of incubation as compared to 8 hours for the unsupplemented one. Total number of probiotics after fermentation of yoghurt with 4% shiitake was higher (7.16 x 109 cells/ml as compared to the control at 5.3 x 109 cells/ml. Lentinan analysis in yoghurt showed that supplementation 4% of shiitake powder resulted in the highest lentinan accumulation at 22.8% compared with 2.3% for control and 2.9% for 2% shiitake supplementation. It can be concluded that yoghurt shiitake could be applied as nutrient food due to its high nutritious and lentinan content in the product.

  10. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

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    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  11. Comparative Studies on Folate Production and Parameter Optimization in Fermented Milk from Yoghurt Starter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. (Dr.) Subir Kundu; *, Shipra Deep

    2014-01-01

    Among the several causes reported for neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, deficiency of folate is one of the important reasons to be considered. Folate, water soluble vitamin, plays significant role in metabolic reactions. Humans cannot synthesize folate itself hence supplements and natural food sources are advisable to consume. Supplements have severe side effects on long term usage. Although milk is a poor soucrce of folate however folate producing micro...

  12. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  13. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

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    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  14. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Lee, Hyo Jung; Seo, Hye-Young; Park, Wan-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok

    2012-02-15

    Kimchi fermentation usually relies upon the growth of naturally-occurring various heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This sometimes makes it difficult to produce kimchi with uniform quality. The use of Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a starter has been considered to produce commercial fermented kimchi with uniform and good quality in Korea. In this study, a combination of a barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and a (1)H NMR technique was used to investigate the effects of Leu. mesenteroides strain B1 as a starter culture for kimchi fermentation. Baechu (Chinese cabbage) and Chonggak (radish) kimchi with and without Leu. mesenteroides inoculation were prepared, respectively and their characteristics that included pH, cell number, bacterial community, and metabolites were monitored periodically for 40 days. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the numbers of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) in starter kimchi decreased more quickly than that in non-starter kimchi. Members of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were dominant LAB regardless of the kimchi type or starter inoculation. Among the three genera, Leuconostoc was the most abundant, followed by Lactobacillus and Weissella. The use of Leu. mesenteroides as a starter increased the Leuconostoc proportions and decreased the Lactobacillus proportions in both type of kimchi during kimchi fermentation. However, interestingly, the use of the kimchi starter more highly maintained the Weissella proportions of starter kimchi compared to that in the non-starter kimchi until fermentation was complete. Metabolite analysis using the (1)H NMR technique showed that both Baechu and Chonggak kimchi with the starter culture began to consume free sugars earlier and produced a little greater amounts of lactic and acetic acids and mannitol. Metabolite analysis demonstrated that kimchi fermentation using Leu. mesenteroides as a starter was completed earlier with more production of kimchi metabolites compared to that not using a starter, which coincided with the decreases in pH and the increases in bacterial cell number. The PCA strategy using all kimchi components including carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, and others also showed that starter kimchi fermented faster with more organic acid and mannitol production. In conclusion, the combination of the barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and the (1)H NMR technique was used to effectively monitor microbial succession and metabolite production and allowed for a greater understanding of the relationships between the microbial community and metabolite production in kimchi fermentation. PMID:22189023

  15. Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

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    Rajka Božanić

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition improved the consistency and sensory characteristic of the products. Probiotics yoghurt had slightly higher sensory properties. After hedonic scaleevaluation the control yoghurt samples and control probiotic yoghurt samples were not acceptable. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between investigated yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt, and Duncan test showed that yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt samples with additives were significantly different from others, i.e., they proved to be better then control samples.

  16. Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung; Rombouts, F.M.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were examined. Amylomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisae were shown to be compatible in mixed cultures, and the herbs ¿Tieu Hoi¿ (Fennel: Foeniculum vulgare Miller) and ¿Dinh Huong¿ (Clove: Syzygium a...

  17. Assessment of high hydrostatic pressure and starter culture on the quality properties of low-acid fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Dolors Guardia, M; Garriga, Margarita

    2007-05-01

    The addition of starter culture and high pressure processing after ripening improved the microbial quality of low-acid fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). The use of Lactobacillus sakei CTC6626 and Staphylococcus xylosus CTC6013 as starter culture significantly reduced Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus levels in the finished sausages. Moreover, the addition of starter culture produced sausages of similar quality to traditional low-acid fermented sausages. Slightly lower pH values and higher cohesiveness were obtained for both fuet and chorizo with starter culture. Sensory analysis showed no differences between lots of chorizo whereas starter fuet was more acid and gummy. High pressure induced an additional reduction of Enterobacteriaceae in non-starter sausages. An increase of textural properties was observed after pressurization. No other differences were observed between non-treated and pressurized sausages. PMID:22064190

  18. Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model

    OpenAIRE

    A. de Moreno de LeBlanc; Perdigón, G.

    2005-01-01

    Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucur...

  19. IMPACT OF FORTIFICATION WITH HONEY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF BIO-YOGHURT

    OpenAIRE

    El-Tahra M. A. Ammar; Magdy M. Ismail; Abd El-Wahab E. Khalil; Mohamed Z. Eid

    2015-01-01

    The effect of supplementation with honey on yoghurt quality was studied. Five treatments of yoghurt were made from buffaloe's and cow's milk mixture (1:1). Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture, whereas the other four treatments were made by ABT culture and milk fortified with 0, 2, 4, and 6% honey. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C) of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that additi...

  20. The Effect of Starter Culture Use in Past?rma Production on the Properties of End Product

    OpenAIRE

    AKSU, Muhammet ?rfan; KAYA, Mükerrem

    2001-01-01

    The effects of three different starter preparations (Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus carnosus + Lactobocillus pentosus and Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus sakei) on the end product of past?rma were investigated. In the production of past?rma samples, dry curing was performed using NaCl, KNO3, glucose and saccarose, and starter culture was added together with curing compounds to the meat. The starter culture used affected the counts of total aeophilic mesophilic Micrococcus/Stap...

  1. Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Moreno de LeBlanc

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase. Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

  2. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

  3. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  4. Starter culture production in fluidized bed reactor with a flocculent strain ofL. plantarum

    OpenAIRE

    Barreto, M.T.O.; Melo, E. P.; Carrondo, M.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A lactic starter culture of a flocculentLactobacillus plantarum was produced in a fluidized bed reactor with higher cell volumetric productivities than in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The fluidized bed reactor was operated at optimised parameters obtained in batch reactor performed with and without pH control.

  5. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. PMID:26150457

  6. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. PMID:25084650

  7. It's Gettin' Hot in Here: Breeding Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2016-03-01

    Cocoa beans have to undergo post-harvest fermentation and drying to develop the typical 'cocoa flavor' associated with chocolate. Yeasts play a pivotal role during the fermentation but are generally outcompeted early in the process. Meersman and colleagues describe an elegant breeding-based approach to generate robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa fermentation. PMID:26803379

  8. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the survival of some strains, as pasteurized yogurts had no effect on their survival. In particular, the inhibitory effect exerted by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus on L. acidophilus NCFM was highly pronounced than by S. thermophilus, nevertheless, the same effect was not observed on SBT2062. The inhibition against stationary-phase NCFM cells might be caused by the elevated level of hydrogen peroxide produced by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Delineating factors driving the differences in survival trait among probiotic strains will lead to a more efficacious delivery of health benefits in fermented dairy products through targeted technological interventions. PMID:21196060

  9. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z.; Marcela P. Castro; María E. Cayré; Garro, Oscar A.; Vignolo, Graciela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausag...

  10. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla, Santa; Renata Ernlund Freitas de, Macedo; Herta Stutz Dalla, Santa; Cristina Maria, Zanette; Renato João Sossela de, Freitas; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as [...] starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to

  11. Biochemical Properties of Some Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains from Traditional Fermented Milk Relevant to Their Technological Performance as Starter Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambou Ngoufack Francois

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented milk and to study some of their important technological properties. Five isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditionally raw cow’s fermented milk were identified using phenotypic criteria and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell proteins. Four isolates named 2, 8, 13 and 20 FM were identified as Streptococcus thermophilus while isolate 285 N was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. All these strains exhibited good acidification activity although two strains of Sc. thermophilus (2FM, 20FM and Lb. bulgaricus (285N presented the best acidification rates. In addition to their fast acid production, strains 20FM and 285N produced exopolysaccharides. Based on these characteristics, strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N were selected and used as pure or mixed cultures in the manufacture of fermented milk. In mixed cultures, the Sc. thermophilus/Lb. bulgaricus association was positive for all combination tested. The combination of strain 285N with strain 2FM or 20FM had a significant effect on acid production by Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain (285N. These bacterial associations also affected the rheological properties of fermented milk samples. Strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N presented interesting biotechnological profiles and may influence the quality of fermented milk if they are used in association as starters in yoghurt manufacture.

  12. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  13. The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added (10% w/w to the processed cow’s milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profi le analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive fl avour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. Results. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper fl avours were dominating in the fermented milks fortifi ed with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin fl avours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not infl uenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Conclusions. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable fl avour.

  14. Effect of Some Selected Processing Routes on the Nutritional Value of Soy Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Adetunji

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The processing methods of soymilk were investigated with major focus on their effects on the nutritional values of soy yoghurt. Various chemicals such as: sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and deionized water were used for treating different samples of soybeans. Soy yoghurt was prepared from the soymilk obtained from all the samples using a mixed starter culture containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The yoghurt produced from the soymilk formed from soybeans sample treated with sodium carbonate solution recorded the highest mineral content (potassium-136.6 ppm, calcium-179.7 ppm, magnesium-652.2 ppm, sodium-495.0 ppm. Samples A and D with additional nutrient recorded pH value of 4.76 and 3.90 after 2 h of fermentation, respectively. This observation was due to the rapid increase in acid formation in the course of product formation. Sensory test evaluation revealed that soy yoghurt produced from soybeans sample treated with sodium hydroxide solution had the highest ratings in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability.

  15. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  16. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines. PMID:22063802

  17. Correlation between volatile profiles of Italian fermented sausages and their size and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Aldo; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Magnani, Rudy; Gardini, Fausto; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    The aroma profiles of 10 traditional Italian fermented sausages were evaluated. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA allowed an acceptable separation but some sausage typologies were not well separated. On the other hand, the supervised approach of LDA allowed a clear grouping of the samples in relation to sausage size and starter culture. In spite of the extreme variability of the volatile profiles of the sausage typologies, this work showed the influence of diameter on VOC profile. The differences observed can be related to the effects that some fundamental physicochemical characteristics (such as water loss kinetics and oxygen availability) have on the results of ripening processes. Differences in VOC profiles were also observed due to the lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures, with differences mainly attributable to compounds deriving from pyruvate metabolism. PMID:26304405

  18. Low molecular weight peptides derived from sarcoplasmic proteins produced by an autochthonous starter culture in a beaker sausage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza M. López

    2015-06-01

    Significance: The selection of a specific autochthonous starter culture guarantees the hygiene and typicity of fermented sausages. The identification of new peptides as well as new target proteins by means of peptidomics represents a significant step toward the elucidation of the role of microorganisms in meat proteolysis. Moreover, these peptides may be further used as biomarkers capable to certify the use of the applied autochthonous starter culture described here.

  19. Molecular studies on bacteriophages of the food starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Yahya Hasan Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play divergent and important roles for human beings: On the one hand they include major bacterial pathogens like Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae and on the other hand many species are used as starter cultures for the manufacture of fermented food (i.e., dairy products, meat, vegetables, wine, sour dough, cocoa) and silage. S. thermophilus is one of the most important lactic acid bacteria required for the manufacture of yogurt, mozzarella and other cheese varietie...

  20. Ziziphus mauritiana (masau) fruits fermentation in Zimbabwe: from black-box to starter culture development

    OpenAIRE

    Nyanga, L.K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis reports on studies of microbiological and biochemical properties of masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit fermentation and the development of starter cultures for the production of masau beverages. A survey to document the traditional processing techniques was conducted using a questionnaire and focus group discussions in each of the three districts, i.e., Mudzi, Mt Darwin and Muzarabani in Zimbabwe. The survey results showed that the masau fruit is usually gathered by women and child...

  1. Viability and Acidification by Promising Yeasts Intended as Potential Starter Cultures for Rice-based Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bevilacqua; Leonardo Petruzzi; Francesco Pio Casanova; Maria Rosaria Corbo

    2015-01-01

    Over the last years, some innovative cereal-based beverages were designed using beneficial lactic acid bacteria; however, few data are available on the potential role of yeasts. The main topic of this research was to investigate the suitability of four promising yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Kazachstania exigua) as potential starter cultures for rice-based beverages. This aim was achieved through some intermediate s...

  2. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  3. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and p...

  4. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AldoCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  5. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe, and level of anti-microbial compounds) and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability, and salt concentration) factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion as it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages). This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level. PMID:22833739

  6. Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage

    OpenAIRE

    Fachin, Luciano; Moryia, Juliana; Neves Gândara, Ana Lourdes; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada

    2008-01-01

    The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrate...

  7. Manufacturing of fermented goat milk with a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in a controlled bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Kongo, J. M.; A.M. Gomes; Malcata, F. X.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: This work was undertaken to study the feasibility and the characteristics of a fermented product made of goat milk, using a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus under controlled conditions, and to determine their survival in the fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Methods and Results: Goat milk was inoculated with Lact. acidophilus and Bif. animalis mixed starter, fermented in a glass bioreactor with controlled temperatur...

  8. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortada Mohammed Salih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p≤0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p≤0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p≤0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p≤0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p≤0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded that camel milk yoghurt showed high coagulation time and the addition of skim milk powder to camel milk improved some physical properties of the yoghurt.

  9. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  10. Additives in yoghurt production

    OpenAIRE

    Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija; Jasmina Havranek

    2008-01-01

    In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory at...

  11. The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsenzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (μg kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

  12. Effect of starter culture and turmeric on physico-chemical quality of carabeef pastirma

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, P.; Borpuzari, R. N.; Nath, D. R.; Nath, N.C

    2010-01-01

    Carabeef samples were sliced, pressed, cured and divided into 6 groups. Starter cultures (Micrococcus varians M483 (MV), Staphylococcus carnosus (SC), Lactobacillus sakei (LS), M. varians M483+ Lb. sakei and Staph. carnosus + Lb. sakei) were inoculated at the dose of 106–07cfu/g and stored at 10 ± 1°C for 7 days. Uninoculated samples were maintained as control. Samples were then divided into 2 treatment groups. Samples of treatment 1 (T1) were smeared with a paste of turmeric followed by appl...

  13. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N'Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h(-1) for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. PMID:26243947

  14. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  15. Viability and Acidification by Promising Yeasts Intended as Potential Starter Cultures for Rice-based Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bevilacqua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, some innovative cereal-based beverages were designed using beneficial lactic acid bacteria; however, few data are available on the potential role of yeasts. The main topic of this research was to investigate the suitability of four promising yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Kazachstania exigua as potential starter cultures for rice-based beverages. This aim was achieved through some intermediate scientific aims, i.e., by assessing cell viability and acidification in different cereal substrates (malt extract, soft wheat, rice and kamut flours; thereafter by studying acidification and persistence in an organic rice drink during a prolonged storage at 25 and 4°C. Rice flour provided appropriate growth for all the strains. K. exigua and S. pastorianus experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (ΔpH of ca. 2.7 at 25°C and ca. 1.2-1.4 at 4°C in the organic rice drink. The evaluation of viability and acidification by promising candidates should be a simple procedure to screen yeast strains for potential use as starter cultures to design new rice-fermented functional beverages.

  16. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  17. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to <4.5. This decrease in pH and the water activity of < 0.90 of sausages ensures the safety and preservation of this product. Sausages produced with these lactic cultures fulfill the requirements for microbiological quality and composition of Italian sausage type. Our results suggest the possibility of using these starter cultures for the production of sausages with peculiar characteristics that contribute to the identity of the product.

  18. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  19. Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production

    OpenAIRE

    Henshaw, E. E.; Ikpoh, I. S

    2010-01-01

    Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titra...

  20. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, H; Kruijswijk, Z; Molenaar, D; Kleerebezem, M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T

    2009-12-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughputs required for systematic screening programs. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the parallel manufacturing of approximately 600 cheeses in individual cheese vats each with individual process specifications. Protocols for the production of miniaturized Gouda- and Cheddar-type cheeses have been developed. Starting with as little as 1.7 mL of milk, miniature cheeses of about 170 mg can be produced and they closely resemble conventionally produced cheese in terms of acidification profiles, moisture and salt contents, proteolysis, flavor profiles, and microstructure. Flavor profiling of miniature cheeses manufactured with and without mixed-strain adjunct starter cultures allowed the distinguishing of the different cheeses. Moreover, single-strain adjunct starter cultures engineered to overexpress important flavor-related enzymes revealed effects similar to those described in industrial cheese. Benchmarking against industrial cheese produced from the same raw materials established a good correlation between their proteolytic degradation products and their flavor profiles. These miniature cheeses, referred to as microcheeses, open new possibilities to study many aspects of cheese production, which will not only accelerate product development but also allow a more systematic approach to investigate the complex biochemistry and microbiology of cheese making. PMID:19923591

  1. On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2012-06-01

    Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

  2. Rheology and Microstructure of Strained Yoghurt (Labneh) Made From Cow's Milk by Three Different Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tamime, A. Y.; Kalab, M; Davies, G

    1989-01-01

    Labneh is the name for strained yoghurt, i.e., yoghurt made with an elevated solids content, which has originated in the Middle East. For this study , three types of Labneh were made from cow' s milk: (a) "Traditional Labneh" was produced by straining yoghurt in a cloth bag, (b) "UF Labneh" was made by ultrafiltration of warm yoghurt , and , (c) "UF Retentate Labneh" was obtained by culturing homogenised ultrafiltration (UF) milk retentate. A 11 products were passed through a lactic curd homo...

  3. Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast Starter Cultures on the Soaking Time and Quality of “Ofada” Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola Oyewol; Mojisola Edema; Olusegun Atanda; Oluwafunmilayo Adeniran

    2012-01-01

    Freshly harvested paddy rice was randomly obtained from three different farms in “Ofada” town, Ogun State, Nigeria and processed according to the traditional parboiling method. The rice was inoculated singly with cultures of Lactobacillus amylophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae which were isolated from the soak-water. In order to assess the effect of starter cultures on the soaking time of the rice, the pH and titratable acidity were determine...

  4. Screening and Characterization of Potential Bacillus Starter Cultures for Fermenting Low-Salt Soybean Paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Baek, Seong Yeol; Moon, Ji Young; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-04-28

    The bacterial strains were screened as potential starters for fermenting low-salt doenjang (a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste) using Korean doenjang based on proteolytic and antipathogenic activities under 6.5-7.5% NaCl conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they all belonged to the genus Bacillus. Proteolytic and antipathogenic activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Aspergillus flavus, as well as fibrinolytic, amylase, and cellulase activities of the 10 strains were quantitatively evaluated. Of these, strains D2-2, JJ-D34, and D12-5 were selected, based on their activities. The functional, phenotypic, and safety-related characteristics of these three strains were additionally investigated and strains D2-2 and D12-5, which lacked antibiotic resistance, were finally selected. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 produced poly-γ-glutamic acid and showed various enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Growth properties of strains D2-2 and D12-5 included wide temperature and pH ranges, growth in up to 16% NaCl, and weak anaerobic growth, suggesting that they facilitate low-salt doenjang fermentation. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 were not hemolytic, carried no toxin genes, and did not produce biogenic amines. These results suggest that strains D2-2 and D12-5 can serve as appropriate starter cultures for fermenting low-salt doenjang with high quality and safety. PMID:26718466

  5. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z.; Castro, Marcela P.; Cayré, María E.; Garro, Oscar A.; Vignolo, Graciela M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages.

  6. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Castro, Marcela P; Cayré, María E; Garro, Oscar A; Vignolo, Graciela M

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages. PMID:26955636

  7. Genome Sequences of Two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides Strains Isolated from Danish Dairy Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, Søren J.; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

    2014-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters....

  8. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  9. Growth inhibition of selected microorganisms by an association of dairy starter cultures and probiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several growth curves for selected pathogens and hygiene indicators alone and vs selected dairy starter cultures (LAB and commercial probiotics have been performed. All strains for LAB and commercial probiotics were inoculated as pure cultures into skim milk to get an initial cocci:bacilli:enterocci ratio of 2:1:1 and a concentration of approximately 107 cfu mL–1 until challenge vs selected pathogens and hygiene indicators. Selected pathogens came from the collection of the Laboratorio di Ispezione degli Alimenti di O.A. or were reference strains (Escherichia coli, CSH26 K12, Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Salmonella Derby 27, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090. Each strain was inoculated into skim milk to get an initial concentration of approximately 106 cfu mL–1. Growth curves in skim milk for the following challenges were studied: i sterility control; ii association LAB; iii association of LAB vs each selected pathogen or hygiene indicator; iv selected pathogen or hygiene indicator alone. The challenges were carried out in BHI broth and in skim milk at 37°C. The highest reduction was observed in milk but in general the association of LAB and the probiotic was able to limit the growth of pathogens and hygiene indicators.

  10. Combined use of starter cultures and preservatives to control production of biogenic amines and improve sensorial profile in low-acid salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloretti, Fabio; Chiavari, Cristiana; Armaforte, Emanuele; Carri, Simone; Castagnetti, Gian Battista

    2008-12-10

    The combined effect of starter culture, nitrites, and nitrates has been studied in low-acidity salamis, typical products of northern Italy. Nine batches have been prepared, combining three different inoculations of starter cultures (control, Lactobacillus plantarum , and Lactobacillus plantarum together with Kocuria varians ) with three different preservatives (control, sodium nitrate, and sodium nitrite). All of the batches showed a good fermentation process with a proper pH decrease, which was quicker in batches inoculated with L. plantarum. The use of starter cultures and in particular the use of nitrites allowed the control of the proliferation of Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci. The accumulation of biogenic amines, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, and tyramine, in salami ready for consumption (60 days of ripening) was strongly affected by the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci. Results obtained showed that the combined use of adequate preservatives and starter cultures allows the production of safer products with improved sensorial profile. PMID:18986149

  11. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Florencia Frau; Graciela Font Valdez; Nora Pece

    2014-01-01

    The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific...

  12. A Whole New Generation of Milk Kefir Grains Formed From Freeze-dried Starter Cultures A Fascinating Insight Into a Hidden World

    OpenAIRE

    Richard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Milk kefir grains (KGs) are composed of a complex symbiotic microbial mixture of bacteria and yeasts growing in kefiran, an extracellular polysaccharide substance of bacterial origin. This is the first report documenting a successful attempt at reforming KGs using pure mixed starter-cultures of microorganisms isolated from KGs, and gain insight into an otherwise hidden world. A milk pouch system designed to concentrate the starter-cultures for 72 h, made this transformation possible. The smal...

  13. Effectiveness of Chemometric Techniques in Discrimination of Lactobacillus helveticus Biotypes from Natural Dairy Starter Cultures on the Basis of Phenotypic Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Monica; Contarini, Giovanna; Neviani, Erasmo

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is the dominant organism in natural starter cultures used for the production of typical Italian cheeses. In this study, 74 L. helveticus strains, isolated from grana and provolone cheese natural whey starters, were distinguished with respect to their origin by using both cell wall protein profiles and chemometric evaluation of some phenotypic parameters, such as the ability to acidify cultures and the presence of nonspecific proteolytic and peptidase activities. Cell ...

  14. Application' and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, D; Bernaert, N; Anno, N; Van Droogenbroeck, B; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; De Vuyst, L

    2013-07-15

    Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is one of Belgium's most important outdoor vegetables, mainly cultivated for its white shaft. Fermentation of leek offers opportunities in view of biomass valorization and product diversification. This study deals with the implementation and validation of starter cultures to perform controlled leek fermentations and to ensure a high quality of the end-products. Therefore, a thorough study of the fermentation microbiology and the influence of three starter culture strains (Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788, Lactobacillus sakei IMDO 1358, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IMDO 1347) on the metabolite kinetics of leek fermentation and antioxidant properties of leek was performed. Overall, the application of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures resulted in a fast prevalence of the species involved, coupled to an accelerated acidification. Of the three starter cultures tested, the mixed starter culture of L. plantarum IMDO 788 and L. mesenteroides IMDO 1347 was most promising, as its application resulted in fermented leek of good microbiological quality and in a more extensive carbohydrate consumption, whereby diverse end-metabolites were produced. However, high residual fructose concentrations allowed yeast outgrowth, resulting in increased ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and indicated the lack of a prevailing strictly heterofermentative LAB species. The antioxidant capacity of fermented leek samples, as measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, increased when starter cultures were used, whereas with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, only leek fermented with L. sakei IMDO 1358 scored higher than spontaneously fermented leek. The total phenolic content was not influenced by the use of starter cultures, while the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides content decreased strongly. A preliminary sensory analysis revealed that the spontaneously fermented leek and the one obtained with the mixed starter culture were preferred by consumers, emphasizing again the importance of microbial successions in vegetable fermentations. PMID:23728429

  15. The effect of nitrite and starter culture on microbiological quality of "chorizo"-a Spanish dry cured sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, B; Díez, V

    2002-03-01

    The effect of nitrite and starter culture on the survival of Enterobacteriaceae, Micrococcaceae, Lactic acid bacteria and other microorganisms was evaluated during ripening of "chorizo", a Spanish dry sausage. Sodium nitrite 50 and 150 ppm and Lactobacillus sake CL35 added to the "chorizo" have a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts but did not on Micrococcaceae. The use of Lact. sake could be an adequate safety factor in this product. PMID:22063401

  16. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    OpenAIRE

    Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam di...

  17. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  18. Biodiversity among Lactobacillus helveticus Strains Isolated from Different Natural Whey Starter Cultures as Revealed by Classification Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Gatti, Monica; Trivisano, Carlo; Fabrizi, Enrico; Neviani, Erasmo; Gardini, Fausto

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a homofermentative thermophilic lactic acid bacterium used extensively for manufacturing Swiss type and aged Italian cheese. In this study, the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of strains isolated from different natural dairy starter cultures used for Grana Padano, Parmigiano Reggiano, and Provolone cheeses was investigated by a classification tree technique. A data set was used that consists of 119 L. helveticus strains, each of which was studied for its physiol...

  19. Contribution of starter cultures to the proteolytic process of a fermented non-dried whole muscle ham product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannell, Amalia G M; Kenneally, Paul M; Arendt, Elke K

    2004-06-01

    Porcine longissimus dorsi muscles were cured by brine injection. Curing brine containing 15% (w/v) NaCl, 1.33% (w/v) glucose, 750 ppm sodium nitrite, and appropriate levels of either Lactobacillus sakei LAD, L. sakei LAD plus Kocuria varians FT4 (formally Micrococcus varians), L. sakei LAD plus papain and GDL (glucono-delta-lactone) plus K. varians FT4, was injected to the muscle at a pumping rate 15% w/v. The effect of these treatments on the proteolysis in the ham system was compared to a control ham, produced without starter culture and containing GDL acidulant to control pH and antibiotics to reduce the contribution of background microflora. Hydrolysis of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and reverse phase-HPLC. Hams with different treatments were also investigated for differences in amino acid profile, protein and non-protein nitrogen level, colour, pH, water activity and moisture and microbiological evolution. There was no significant difference in the gross compositional analysis of any of the treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the protein content, non-protein nitrogen level, SDS-PAGE and free amino acid analysis between the control ham and ham inoculated with proteolytic starter culture. However, it was observed that hams containing starter cultures exhibited decreases in certain peptide fractions and corresponding increases in some free amino acids compared to the uninoculated control. It can be concluded that, while the principle mechanisms resulting in the proteolysis of this non-dried ham product involve the activity of endogeneous cathepsins, the addition of proteolytic starter cultures influence the amino acid profile thereby potentially enhancing the sensorial attributes of the ham. PMID:15135960

  20. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Dias, Disney R.; Pereira, Gilberto V. de Melo; Oliveira, J.M.; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Schwan, Rosane F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, i...

  1. Quality indices of the set-yoghurt prepared from bovine milk treated with horseradish peroxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Yan; Kong, Bao-Hua; Zhao, Xin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, EC 1.11.1.7) was applied to treat whole bovine milk in the presence or absence of ferulic acid (FA). The treated milk exhibited different rheological properties from the control milk, and was used to prepare set-yoghurt with commercial direct vat set starter. Some chemical, textural and rheological properties of the yoghurt prepared were measured and compared. Compared to that prepared with the control milk, the yoghurt prepared with the HRP- or HRP and FA-treated...

  2. Evaluation of an autochthonous starter culture on the production of a traditional dry fermented sausage from Chaco (Argentina) at a small-scale facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palavecino Prpich, Noelia Z; Garro, Oscar A; Romero, Mara; Judis, María A; Cayré, María E; Castro, Marcela P

    2016-05-01

    The performance of a mixed starter culture, SAS-1, comprised of the autochthonous strains Lactobacillus sakei ACU-2 and Staphylococcus vitulinus ACU-10, was evaluated into the production process of a traditional dry sausage. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory analyses were carried out to accomplish this goal. Results showed an improvement in performance through the introduction of SAS-1; adding mixed starter culture rapidly decreased pH, inhibited the growth of contaminant microorganisms and enhanced the beneficial ones, diminished TBARS, and highlighted color and aroma attributes. However, most influential organoleptic descriptors among consumer acceptance were not affected by the addition of the starter. This starter culture would represent a valuable tool to improve the homogeneity of artisanal manufacture of this traditional food. PMID:26820805

  3. Phenolic trend and hygienic quality of green table olives fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Muccilli, Serena; Amenta, Margherita; Perri, Enzo; Romeo, Flora V

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, four different olive cultivars from Southern Italy, Carolea, Cassanese, Nocellara del Belice, Nocellara Messinese table olives, produced according to traditional fermentation processes, were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of selected starter cultures on growth of bacterial population and on olive phenols during fermentation. Only Cassanese and Nocellara del Belice inoculated samples reached a safe pH value under 4.6 after 90 days while maintaining it until the end of storage. The most representative phenols in brine samples analysed by HPLC-MS/MS were hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside. Among the analysed phenols, only hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid and ferulic acid always increased during fermentation, while the others increased up to 90-120 days and then decreased. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on pH and phenol values highlighted three clusters of olive cultivars. Throughout the brining period, lactic acid bacteria were always present while staphylococci and coliform bacteria disappeared after 30 and 90 days, respectively. PMID:25976821

  4. Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, S; Petäjä, E; Eerola, S; Lilleberg, L; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Suihko, M L

    2001-06-01

    Probiotic or bioprotective Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, LC-705 and E-97800 as well as Pediococcus pentosaceus E-90390 and Lactobacillus plantarum E-98098 were studied for their ability to act as main fermenting organisms in the manufacturing process of dry sausages. In the preliminary tests, their abilities to produce lactic acid and biogenic amines, histamine or tyramine, were studied in MRS broth and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The strains produced higher or equal amounts of lactic acid compared to control and were amine negative. During the actual fermentation process of dry sausages the numbers of inoculated bacteria increased from the level 6.5-7.0 log cfu/g to 8.0-9.0 log cfu/g. The most fast growing strains were P. pentosaceus E-90390 and the control while the growth of L. plantarum E-98098 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were the slowest. The pH value of the sausages decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The presence of these experimental strains as major organisms in the sausages after fermentation and ripening was confirmed on the bases of their genetic fingerprints. The flavour profiles of the experimental sausages produced by these probiotic or protective strains were similar with that produced by the commercial meat starter culture and commercial North European dry sausage recipe. PMID:22062105

  5. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

  6. Ultrastructure of biofilms formed on barley kernels during malting with and without starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Laitila, Arja

    2009-06-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. In the malting process, dry barley kernels are steeped in water which initiates germination and invigorates microbial growth on the kernels. In the present study, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to visualize the microbial community within the tissues of barley kernels before and after the steeping, with and without Lactobacillus plantarum E76 added as a starter culture. The results show that the community of 10(8)cfu g(-1) on dry, stored barley kernels increased 5-10 fold during the steeping forming a dense biofilm of bacteria and fungi with slimy exopolymeric matrix. FESEM revealed that crevices between the outer epidermis and the testa of sound barley kernels were heavily colonized with microbes, whereas there were only few microbes on the outer surface of the husks, in the aleurone layer or in the endosperm underneath an intact testa layer. The microbes frequently possessed appendages forming bridging them to the kernel and the individual microbial cells to each other. The L. plantarum added to the steeping water reduced the amount of exopolymeric matrix in the biofilm and improved the wort filterability. PMID:19376468

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTHY VALUES OF YOGHURT BY FORTIFICATION WITH RUTUB DATE

    OpenAIRE

    Magdy M. Ismail

    2015-01-01

    As is well known, the date fruits are good sources of many nutrients. Also, yoghurt especially bio-yoghurt has a lot of nutritional and healthy benefits. The aim of this study was to combine the benefits of date and bio-yoghurt in one product which can be made by simple manner. Six treatments of yoghurt were made from cow's milk fortified with 10 and 15% rutub date and using classic or ABT-5 cultures. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were moni...

  8. Functional Starter Cultures for Meat: A Case Study on Technological and Probiotic Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bevilacqua; Maria Rosaria Corbo; Barbara Speranza; Barbara Di Maggio; Mariangela Gallo; Milena Sinigaglia

    2015-01-01

    The selection of a starter is a complex process, involving different steps, like a preliminary characterization under laboratory conditions, the selection of the most promising strains, a lab validation and the final validation in a large-scale fermentation; the selection of a functional starter includes a further step, dealing with the assessment of the functional traits. This paper proposes a case study on how use a step-by-step approach, based on some rapid protocols, to select promising s...

  9. Determination of The Effects of Different Amino Acids, Sodium Formate and Their Combinations on Some Growth Characteristics of Mixed and Single Cell Cultures of Yoghurt Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kaptan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, different amino acids, sodium formate and their combinations were added into the milk for determining their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on some growth characteristics of mixed and single cell cultures of yoghurt bacteria. Among the added individual amino acids (each of them 100 ppm, cystein was the most stimulant agent for mixed and single cell cultures of the S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus for their acetaldehyde and volatile fatty acid contents. Histidine and glutamic acid were also stimulatory for mentioned parameters. But for the samples, inoculated with single cell culture of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, glutamic acid, cysteine and methionine were to be the most stimulatory for volatile fatty acid contents. Sodium formate added into the milk (500 ppm, as a growth factor aspecially for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, showed more stimulant effect on the growth characteristics of this single culture of this bacteria. According to different compounds and culture groups added into the milk, statistically important (p<0.01 differences were determined among the investigated parameters.

  10. Effect of starter culture and turmeric on physico-chemical quality of carabeef pastirma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, P; Borpuzari, R N; Nath, D R; Nath, N C

    2010-01-01

    Carabeef samples were sliced, pressed, cured and divided into 6 groups. Starter cultures (Micrococcus varians M483 (MV), Staphylococcus carnosus (SC), Lactobacillus sakei (LS), M. varians M483+ Lb. sakei and Staph. carnosus + Lb. sakei) were inoculated at the dose of 10(6)-0(7)cfu/g and stored at 10 ± 1°C for 7 days. Uninoculated samples were maintained as control. Samples were then divided into 2 treatment groups. Samples of treatment 1 (T1) were smeared with a paste of turmeric followed by application of a thick layer of the paste of garlic, cumin, black pepper and red pepper whereas, samples of treatment 2 (T2) were applied with a thick layer of spices as above without turmeric. With the gradual fall in pH there was a reduction in water-holding capacity (WHC) of samples. The WHC of samples treated with SC+LS of T1 reduced to 6.3 ± 0.03 cm(2) and those inoculated with MV+LS of T2 to 6.2 ± 0.03 cm(2). The extract release volume (ERV) increased in all samples during storage. The least ERV of 11.7 and 11.6 ml were recorded in samples inoculated with MV of T1 and T2, respectively. The tyrosine (TV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) number of turmeric treated samples were significantly lower than non turmeric treated samples. The samples inoculated with LS had the least TV of 30.9 mg tyrosine/100 g of meat and TBA number of 0.06 mg manoladehyde/kg of meat. Samples inoculated with MV and LS of both T1 and T2 were better in physico-chemical qualities. PMID:23572607

  11. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters...... strains had low aminopeptidase activity compared to Lactobacillus danicus and especially Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris had a low and narrow activity. Aminotransferase activity was high on aromatic amino acids for Lb. danicus, and the Leuconostoc species had an activity similar to Lb. danicus only...... heterofermentative bacteria at the time. Differences were seen in the establishment of the heterofermentative bacteria in the cheese matrix, Le. pseudomesenteroides and Lb. danicus grew to a higher number and survived longer than Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. More secondary alcohols and less acetoin were found...

  12. The effect of sugar concentration and starter culture on instrumental and sensory textural properties of chorizo-Spanish dry-cured sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Consuelo; Santos, Eva M; Rovira, Jordi; Jaime, Isabel

    2006-11-01

    In this study, instrumental and sensory textural properties of chorizo with different levels of glucose (0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0%) and with different starter cultures (Lactobacillus sakei K29, Pediococcus sp. P22 and Pediococcus sp. P208) were studied as well as the relationship between them. The ripening process was followed by physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. Starter culture and concentration of glucose had a highly significant effect on pH, moreover an interactive effect of both factors was found; and also of day of ripening and both starter culture and concentration of glucose. In general terms, changes of pH over time are influenced by the presence of sugar and starter culture even if all chorizos showed at first a rapid decrease, a stay or slow decrease, and a final rise. Texture profile analysis (TPA) proved that hardness and chewiness differ significantly among chorizos with or without starter cultures, except in the batch with 0.1% sugar. Furthermore, the highest values in both textural parameters were found in batches with 0.5% and 1% sugar. The texture differences between chorizos just described were also noticeable in the sensorial evaluation. Likewise, instrumental textural attributes showed significant correlations with sensorial analysis. PMID:22063051

  13. Role of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the sensory and safety properties of a traditional Iberian dry-fermented sausage "salchichón".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, Rocío; Benito, María J; Martín, Alberto; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Córdoba, Juan J; Córdoba, María G

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of dry-fermented sausage ''salchichon" was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as starter culture (P200S34), separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared with a control batch. Dry-fermented sausages ripened with EPg222 and starter culture showed higher amounts of AN and volatile compounds derived from amino acid catabolism than the control, especially in samples in which was added the association of enzyme and starter culture (P200S34+EPg222). There were clear differences shown by the texture analysis, with the P200S34+EPg222 batch being less hard. Especially important was the result found in biogenic amines, since the association P200S34+EPg222 reduced their accumulation compared to the EPg222 batch. The use of EPg222 may be of great interest to improve the sensory characteristics of dry-fermented sausages, but its association with the selected starter culture with low decarboxylase activity is necessary to guarantee healthiness and homogeneity. PMID:21925025

  14. Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 starter added to brine as freeze-dried and as culture in the nutritive media for Spanish style green olive production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peres, Cidália

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366, a strain originally isolated from olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for "Azeiteira" the preparation of Spanish style green olives. Inoculum was added to the fermentors as a freezedried starter culture or as a culture in the nutritive media. Lactic acid fermentation induction produced a more rapid acidification of brines and reduced the survival period of Enterobacteriaceae compared with the uninoculated process. The best results were obtained using the nutritive media as a culture carrier rather than the freeze-dried starter.En este trabajo se empleo el inóculo Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 liofilizado y en caldo nutritivo para preparación de aceitunas "Azeiteira" tipo verde, estilo sevillano. En las salmueras inoculadas se observó una acidificación más rápida y reducción del periodo de supervivencia de las Enterobacteriaceae, especialmente cuando se aplicó el inóculo en caldo nutritivo.

  15. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

  16. Brettanomyces as a starter culture in rice-steamed sponge cake: a traditional fermented food in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yongxia; Chen, Qingchan; Pan, Siyi

    2011-11-01

    The potential use of Brettanomyces anomalus PSY-001 as an additional starter culture for the production of Rice-steamed sponge cake (RSSC), a traditional fermented food in China, was investigated. Two productions of RSSC, each containing batches of experimental cakes with Brettanomyces added and reference cakes with the leavened liquid added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cakes, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out during the fermentation period. The results showed that experimental cakes had desirable aroma and taste. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of RSSC by B. anomalus PSY-001. PMID:21882006

  17. Genotypic identification of some lactic acid bacteria by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis and investigation of their potential usage as starter culture combinations in Beyaz cheese manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, A G; Ba?yi?it Kiliç, G; Kart, A; Sanlidere Alo?lu, H; Oner, Z; Aydemir, S; Erku?, O; Harsa, S

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 2 different starter culture combinations were prepared for cheesemaking. Starter culture combinations were formed from 8 strains of lactic acid bacteria. They were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (2 strains), Lactobacillus plantarum (5 strains), and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (1 strain) by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis. The effects of these combinations on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of Beyaz cheeses were investigated. These cheeses were compared with Beyaz cheeses that were produced with a commercial starter culture containing Lc. lactis ssp. lactis and Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris as control. All cheeses were ripened in brine at 4 degrees C for 90 d. Dry matter, fat in dry matter, titratable acidity, pH, salt in dry matter, total N, water-soluble N, and ripening index were determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns of cheeses showed that alpha(S)-casein and beta-casein degraded slightly during the ripening period. Lactic acid bacteria, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast, molds, and coliforms were also counted. All analyses were repeated twice during d 7, 30, 60, and 90. The starter culture combinations were found to be significantly different from the control group in pH, salt content, and lactobacilli, lactococci, and total mesophilic aerobic bacteria counts, whereas the cheeses were similar in fat, dry matter content, and coliform, yeast, and mold counts. The sensory analysis of cheeses indicated that textural properties of control cheeses presented somewhat lower scores than those of the test groups. The panelists preferred the tastes of treatment cheeses, whereas cheeses with starter culture combinations and control cheeses had similar scores for appearance and flavor. These results indicated that both starter culture combinations are suitable for Beyaz cheese production. PMID:20059897

  18. Production of Italian Dry Salami: Effect of Starter Culture and Chemical Acidulation on Staphylococcal Growth in Salami Under Commercial Manufacturing Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxopoulos, J.; Genigeorgis, C.; Fanelli, M. J.; Franti, C.; Cosma, E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of starter culture and chemical acidulation on the growth and enterotoxigenesis of Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 in Italian dry salami under commercial manufacturing conditions was studied. The experimental design included two levels of S. aureus (104 and 105/g), three levels of starter culture (0, 105, and 106/g), three levels of initial pH (pH0) (6.1, 5.5, and 4.8), two manufacturing plants, and three replications. S. aureus growth in the salami was affected significantly (P <...

  19. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: A Step-by-Step Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The selection of yeasts intended as starters for table olives is a complex process, including a characterization step at laboratory level and a validation at lab level and factory-scale. The characterization at lab level deals with the assessment of some technological traits (growth under different temperatures and at alkaline pHs, effect of salt, and for probiotic strains the resistance to preservatives), enzymatic activities, and some new functional properties (probiotic traits, production ...

  20. STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT Исследование совместного влияния арабиногалактана и лактулозы на развитие закваски для йогурта

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavezenova I. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

  1. Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390. Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos.In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390. Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

  2. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

  3. Improving quality in Iberian ”Chouriço grosso” using autochthonous starter cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Miguel; Agulheiro-Santos, Ana Cristina; Carrascosa, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    “Chouriço Grosso“ is a traditional and high quality Portuguese sausage made with meat from Alentejano pig breed, a rustic and fatty Portuguese breed. At a traditional factory, 4 batches with 25 kg, each one, were prepared to produce “Chouriço Grosso” using different starter inoculations: 1 - with 108 cells/g of Lactobacillus sakei and 108 cells/g of Staphylococcus xylosus, 2 - with 108 cells/g of Lactobacillus sakei, 3 - with 108 cells/g of Staphylococcus xylosus, 4 - control, not inocu...

  4. Interaction between Lactococcus lactis and Lactococcus raffinolactis during growth in milk: development of a new starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto-Nira, H; Aoki, R; Mizumachi, K; Sasaki, K; Naito, H; Sawada, T; Suzuki, C

    2012-04-01

    Many milk fermentations use mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. To select a new mixed starter culture, 100 acid-producing bacterial strains were isolated from raw cow milk. Of these, 13 strains identified as belonging to the genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, or Weissella (based on phenotypic and genotypic tests) were assessed for a symbiotic effect between pairs of isolated strains during growth in milk. Among the strains tested, a mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis strain 54 and Lactococcus raffinolactis strain 37 stimulated greater acid production during fermentation than occurred with pure fermentation. This stimulatory effect was not observed in milk supplemented with yeast extract or glucose or in constituted medium. Addition of a cell-free filtrate from milk fermented by strain 54 increased acid production by strain 37; however, the converse effect was not observed. The increased acid production by this mixed culture was, therefore, due to stimulation of strain 37 by metabolic products of strain 54, suggesting that the interaction between strains 54 and 37 is commensal. Analysis with a taste-sensing system indicated that fermented milk containing the mixed culture was more acidic, had more anionic bitterness, had greater aftertastes of anionic bitterness and astringency, and was less salty and umami than milk containing the individual cultures. This study identifies a new commensal relationship between 2 lactococcal strains that are commonly used for making dairy products. PMID:22459863

  5. Comparative genome analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80 for controlled cocoa bean fermentation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Weckx, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80, isolates from a spontaneous Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation process, proved to be interesting functional starter culture strains for cocoa bean fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum 222 is a thermotolerant strain, able to dominate the fermentation process, thereby converting citrate and producing mannitol. Lactobacillus plantarum 80 is an acid-tolerant and facultative heterofermentative strain that is competitive during ...

  6. Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus starter cultures as a tool for microflora management in malting and for enhancement of malt processability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitila, Arja; Sweins, Hannele; Vilpola, Arvi; Kotaviita, Erja; Olkku, Juhani; Home, Silja; Haikara, Auli

    2006-05-31

    Lactobacillus plantarum VTT E-78076 (E76) and Pediococcus pentosaceus VTT E-90390 (E390) starter cultures were added to the steeping water of normal malting barley in order to balance the microbial community and to enhance malt processability. In this study, we also investigated the effects of lactic acid-acidified MRS-spent medium (MRS-LA) on malting performance. Malting trials with five different two-row barley varieties were carried out in 25 kg pilot scale. The starter cultures promoted yeast growth during malting and restricted the growth of harmful bacteria and Fusarium fungi. Furthermore, they had positive effects on malt characteristics. Reduction in wort viscosity and beta-glucan content and enhanced xylanase and microbial beta-glucanase activities were observed. Starter cultures notably improved lautering performance. Some of the beneficial effects were due to the lactic acid and low pH, as similar effects were obtained with MRS-LA. Starter cultures offer a tool for tailoring of malt properties. PMID:16719505

  7. Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Traoré, A.S.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and......: Lactobacillus fermentum ferments dolo and pito wort by lowering the pH and providing organic acids, EPSs and antimicrobial compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Strains with a rapid rate of acidification, an antimicrobial activity and producing EPSs are suggested to have potential for starter...

  8. Antifungal starter culture for packed bread: influence of two storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla L Gerez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyzed the conservation of a semi-liquid bio-preserver (SL778 developed with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB having antifungal activity. The characteristics of the SL778 starter remained stable during a 14-day storage at 4 °C. At ?20 °C, cell viability and organic acid concentration showed a significant (p < 0.05 decrease after 7 days. These differences observed between the storage temperatures tested were reflected in the acidification activity of SL778 during dough fermentation. However, SL778 maintained its antifungal efficacy up to a 14-day storage at both temperatures. Sensory attributes (acidic and spicy tastes and acidic smell of breads manufactured with starter SL778 (stored at 4 or ?20 °C were evaluated. No undesirable difference was detected with respect to bread control without SL778 and bread manufactured with SL778 (stored at 4 or ?20 °C. In conclusion, the SL778 semi-liquid bio-preserver can be stored at 4 or ?20 °C without modifying its antifungal activity during 14 days.

  9. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in......H, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S....... cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter...

  10. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite....../ascorbate. Emphasis was laid on volatile compounds originating from degradation of branched-chain amino acids. Volatile compounds were collected using dynamic headspace sampling and were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Development in water activity, water loss and pH was monitored...... throughout maturation. Curing salts had a pronounced effect on the level of volatile compounds. In particular, curing with nitrate instead of nitrite resulted in a striking difference. Generally, nitrate increased the level of volatile compounds compared to nitrite, whereas ascorbate had only a small...

  11. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis. PMID:26616963

  12. Dried Yoghurts: Kurut and Kashk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Say

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The removal of water from the foods by the drying process is a known method since ancient times. Among drying methods, drying under sun is a method that cheap, quite easily implemented, needing less labour and equipment. Drying yoghurt (Kurut is a form of dried yoghurt or buttermilk. Kurut is made with plenty of milk in summer seasons and consumed in winter in eastern and southeastern region of our country. Dried yoghurt is consumed with pasting after softened thoroughly by into hot water or granulating. Drying yoghurt (Kashk is manufactured traditionally in dried form and produced industrially in liquid form in Iran and it is used flavoring agents as a food ingredient in the preparation of various food. According to Institute of Standard and Industrial Researches of Iran, dried kashk is obtained by heating of homemade yoghurt, yoghurt drink or the remaining buttermilk. Traditional liquid kashk is produced by milling of dried kashk and industrial liquid kashk is also produced by industrially produced yoghurt. Kurut and dried kashk as dried milk products are high in protein and mineral contents, but their fat and water content are low level. With this study it was summarized some characteristics of these products with the production methods of dried yoghurt produced in Turkey and Iran.

  13. Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Božanić; Ljubica Tratnik; Mirjana Parat

    2001-01-01

    From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus), and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp) firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition impro...

  14. Method for the specific simultaneous identification and detection of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented milks and starter cultures for fermented milks

    OpenAIRE

    Tabasco Rentero, Raquel; Paarup, Torsten; Janer Otero, Carolina; Peláez Martínez, María Carmen; Requena Rolanía, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the specific simultaneous identification and detection of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria in fermented milks and starter cultures for fermented milks. The method can be used for the rapid and simultaneous detection and identification of different species of lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. casei, L. acidophilus) in mixed cultures with B. lactis, species usually found in yogurt and fermented milks containing probiotics. The ...

  15. Characterisation and biochemical properties of predominant lactic acid bacteria from fermenting cassava for selection as starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinek, M; Specht, I; Edward, V A; Pinto, C; Egounlety, M; Sossa, C; Mbugua, S; Dortu, C; Thonart, P; Taljaard, L; Mengu, M; Franz, C M A P; Holzapfel, W H

    2007-03-20

    A total of 375 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermenting cassava in South Africa, Benin, Kenya and Germany, and were characterised by phenotypic and genotypic tests. These could be divided into five main groups comprising strains of facultatively heterofermentative rods, obligately heterofermentative rods, heterofermentative cocci, homofermentative cocci and obligately homofermentative rods, in decreasing order of predominance. Most of the facultatively heterofermentative rods were identified by phenotypic tests as presumptive Lactobacillus plantarum-group strains, which also comprised the most predominant bacteria (54.4% of strains) isolated in the study. The next predominant group of lactic acid bacteria (14.1% of total isolates) consisted of obligately heterofermentative rods belonging either to the genus Lactobacillus or Weissella, followed by the heterofermentative cocci (13.9% of isolates) belonging to the genera Weissella or Leuconostoc. Homofermentative cocci were also isolated (13.3% of isolates). Biochemical properties such as production of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase, tannase, antimicrobials (presumptive bacteriocin and H(2)O(2)-production), acidification and fermentation of the indigestible sugars raffinose and stachyose, were evaluated in vitro for selection of potential starter strains. A total of 32 strains with one or more desirable biochemical properties were pre-selected and identified using rep-PCR fingerprinting in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing of representative rep-PCR cluster isolates. Of these strains, 18 were identified as L. plantarum, four as Lactobacillus pentosus, two each as Leuconostoc fallax, Weissella paramesenteroides and Lactobacillus fermentum, one each as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and Weissella cibaria, while two remained unidentified but could be assigned to the L. plantarum-group. These strains were further investigated for clonal relationships, using RAPD-PCR with three primers, and of the 32 a total of 16 strains were finally selected for the development as starter cultures for Gari production. PMID:17188771

  16. STUDI PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN BIFIDOBAKTERIA TERHADAP FLAVOR YOUGHURT [Study on the Effect of the Use of Bifidobacteria on Flavor of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Apriyantono4

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to study the effect of bifidobacteria on flavor of yoghurt. Parameters measured in the experiment were acidity, pH, viscosity, volatile composition, sensory acceptance and intensity of yoghurt sensory attributes.Results of the experiment indicated that the use of bifidobacteria in mixture of yoghurt culture was able to increase the levels of acidity and viscosity of yoghurt. The highest acidity and viscosity was found in yoghurt prepared by Lactobacillus bulgaricus and bifidobacteria mixture, and also by Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and bifidobacteria mixture cultures. The major classes of volatile component identified were acids, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. The major component identified were octanoic acid, acetoin and octadecanal. It was found that there was no significant difference in sensory acceptance of the panelist for colour, aroma and taste of yoghurt prepared by the various combination of cultures. However, consistency of yoghurt prepared by S. thermophilus with or without addition of bifidobacteria, was less compared to that of others. Yoghurt prepared by single culture of S. thermophilus showed higher intensity of bitter and syneresis. The use of bifidobacteria in the cultures mixture decrease the intensity of bitter and syneresis of the yoghurt.

  17. An optimized procedure for the enological selection of non-Saccharomyces starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Maria; Bleve, Gianluca; Grieco, Francesco; Tristezza, Mariana; Tufariello, Maria; Grieco, Francesco

    2011-02-01

    The apiculate yeasts are the species predominating the first stage of grape must alcoholic fermentation and are important for the production of desired volatile compounds. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a protocol for the enological selection of non-Saccharomyces strains directly isolated from a natural must fermentation during the tumultuous phase. At this scope, fifty Hanseniaspora uvarum isolates were characterized at strain level by employing a new combined PCR-based approach. One isolate representative of each identified strain was used in fermentation assays to assess strain-specific enological properties. The chemical analysis indicated that all the analyzed strains were low producers of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide, whereas they showed fructophilic character and high glycerol production. Analysis of volatile compounds indicated that one strain could positively affect, during the alcoholic fermentation process, the taste and flavour of alcoholic beverages. The statistical evaluation of obtained results indicated that the selected autochthonous H. uvarum strain possessed physiological and technological properties which satisfy the criteria indicated for non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts selection. Our data suggest that the described protocol could be advantageously applied for the selection of non-Saccharomyces strains suitable for the formulation of mixed or sequential starters together with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:20571862

  18. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:27052702

  19. Dried Yoghurts: Kurut and Kashk

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Say; Mostafa Soltani; Nuray Güzeler

    2015-01-01

    The removal of water from the foods by the drying process is a known method since ancient times. Among drying methods, drying under sun is a method that cheap, quite easily implemented, needing less labour and equipment. Drying yoghurt (Kurut) is a form of dried yoghurt or buttermilk. Kurut is made with plenty of milk in summer seasons and consumed in winter in eastern and southeastern region of our country. Dried yoghurt is consumed with pasting after softened thoroughly by into hot water or...

  20. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris....... Fermentation kinetics in nitrogen-flushed milk was not statistically different from that in untreated milk except for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis CHCC D2, which showed faster reduction time after nitrogen flushing. This study clarifies the relationship between the redox state in milk and acidification kinetics of...... the predominant subspecies in DL-starter cultures. This knowledge is important for dairies to ensure optimized, fast, and controlled milk fermentations, leading to greater standardization of dairy products....

  1. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa.

  2. Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ufuk Eren-Vapur; Tulay Ozcan

    2012-01-01

    Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei) and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA) release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoac...

  3. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  4. Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Pacifico; Rossana Lauriola; Stefania Franchino; Anna Rita Dragano; Emanuela Ciuffreda; Cataldo Caldarola; Maria Teresa Cagnazzo; Antonio Bevilacqua; Maria Rosaria Corbo; Milena Sinigaglia

    2012-01-01

    This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum) were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amounts...

  5. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including autolysis, permeabilisation, and intracellular enzyme release. However, it may be possible to reduce the fat and salt content of Cheddar cheese by 30 or 50%, respectively, without largely altering permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations and, in turn, the amount of released intracellular Pep X activity, such that these performance parameters are similar to those observed for control full-fat, full-salt Cheddar cheese. PMID:26905194

  6. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, A ND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOY BASED GOUDA CHEESE ANALOG MA DE FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF FA T, SODIUM CITRATE AND VARIOUS CHEESE STARTER CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Amar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. Thefree fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

  7. The influence of starter cultures on texture and sensorial properties of “Paio”, a Portuguese dry-cured sausage.

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, M; A.C. Agulheiro-Santos

    2011-01-01

    A traditional Portuguese dry-cured sausage called “Paio” was obtained using meat from Alentejano pig breed female 24 month aged in a traditional meat plant. For this research work three batches were inoculated. One of them was inoculated with a commercial starter composed by Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts (designed S1); another with a starter composed by Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus (designed S2) and another one considered as the control sample was not inocula...

  8. Biochemical characteristics of fermented milk produced by mixed-cultures of lactic starters and bifidobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barona, Martine; Roy, Denis,; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe

    2000-01-01

    Les caractéristiques biochimiques du lait fermenté par des cultures mixtes de ferments lactiques et de bifidobactéries. Des souches de bifidobactéries d'origine humaine (Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, B. infantis et B. bifidum) ont été inoculées simultanément avec des cultures mixtes de lactocoques acidifiants, des lactocoques aromatiques et de leuconostocs afin de déterminer leur impact sur les caractéristiques de produits laitiers fermentés. Les fermentations ont été réalisées sous diffé...

  9. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AngeloSisto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

  10. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product "probiotic table olives".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Angelo; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food, and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life. PMID:22586426

  11. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  12. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Saerens, Sofie; Blennow, Andreas; Skovmand-Larsen, Mathias; Swiegers, Jan H.; Petersen, Gert B.; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in...... roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  13. The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shady, T. S. M; H. Ashour Eman; E.E.Y. El-Badrawy

    1999-01-01

    The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determi...

  14. Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2013-10-01

    The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

  15. A 23S rDNA-targeted polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in meat starter cultures and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, J A; Hertel, C; Hammes, W P

    1999-10-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Staphylococcus aureus was developed. The system consisted of the following components: (i) selective enrichment, (ii) DNA isolation, (iii) amplification of DNA with primers targeted against the 23S rRNA gene, and (iv) evaluation of the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by Southern hybridization and nested polymerase chain reaction. The method achieved a high degree of sensitivity and unambiguity as required for the detection of contaminants in food starter preparations. The method permitted detection of Staphylococcus aureus in preparations of meat starter cultures containing Staphylococcus carnosus either alone or in combination with lactobacilli, pediococci, and/or Kocuria varians. Detection limits were sufficiently low to show within 12 h the presence of 10(0) CFU of S. aureus in starter preparations containing 10(10) CFU of S. carnosus. The system was also applied to dried skim milk and cream. For detection without selective enrichment, a protocol was developed and permitted detection of 120 CFU of S. aureus in 1 ml of cream within 6 h. With nested polymerase chain reaction, the detection limit was decreased by one order of magnitude. PMID:10528718

  16. Application of Streptococcus thermophilus DPC1842 as an adjunct to counteract bacteriophage disruption in a predominantly lactococcal Cheddar cheese starter: use in bulk starter culture systems

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Daire; Paul Ross, R.; Fitzgerald, Gerald (Irish draftsman and etcher, 1821-1886); Coffey, Aidan

    2001-01-01

    Ajout de Streptococcus thermophilus DPC1842 à la flore lactococcale utilisée en fabrication de Cheddar pour contrecarrer les attaques phagiques : utilisation dans des systèmes de culture de levain industriel. Une partie importante du fromage de Cheddar fabriqué dans le monde repose sur l'utilisation de cultures de levains industriels au lieu de cultures d'ensemencement direct en cuve. Alors que l'ajout de S. thermophilus est parfois utilisé dans ce dernier système pour contrecarrer la défaill...

  17. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12 weeks of ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ?4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ?4 cells. A negative correlation between NaCl content and PepX activity was observed. At the end of ripening the total FAA content was lower in the unsalted cheeses, compared to the reduced- and normal-salted cheeses. In conclusion, NaCl had a significant influence on proliferation of both DL-starter cultures. However, the influence of NaCl on culture development was more pronounced in cheeses produced with DL-starter culture C1. As both texture and taste are parameters known to be affected by the development of the starter culture, the design of starter cultures for reduced NaCl cheeses is recommended. PMID:26216837

  18. Use of Starter Cultures in Olives: A Not-Correct Use Could Cause a Delay of Performances

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bevilacqua; Maria Rosaria Corbo; Milena Sinigaglia; Marianne Perricone

    2013-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria for a correct course of fermentation of table olives has been extensively reviewed and it is a common idea that the inoculum of selected strains could exert a strong benefit for product quality; however, the basic assumption of this research is that a not-correct preparation of starter could affect its performances in brines and delay the benefit of a starter inoculum. Thus, some selected strains of LAB (lactic acid bacteria) and yeasts were inoculated into br...

  19. The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shady, T. S. M

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determined lead to prevent or inhibit the growth of all pathogens. These factors clearly showed the inhibition effect of lactic acid bacteria against pathogens. The count of all pathogenic organisms decreased sharply with fermentation time until it disappeared completely after 3 days. This shows the importance of the consumption of fermented milks. Cell-free extract of lactic acid bacteria shows clearly an inhibitory activity against all pathogenic organisms used. But, non-boiled extract was highly active than those of boiled ones. This means that, lactic acid bacteria produced thermolabile substances inhibit or prevent the growth of pathogens. Finally all these observations show the hygienic and nutritional importance of the consumption of fermented milks.

  20. Inhibitory effects of meju prepared with mixed starter cultures on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Meju is the main ingredient and the starter culture of traditional Korean fermented soybean foods; these fermented soybean products are well-known for their various health benefits, including anticancer effects. We developed the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures to improve the qualities and functionalities of fermented soybean products, as well as the meju itself. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the grain-type meju were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. Materials and Methods: AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice and meju was orally administered for 4 weeks. The body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically observed. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: The administration of meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer and reduced number of neoplasia, and reduced serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. It increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in colonic tissues. Conclusion: The meju showed inhibitory effects on the progression of colon cancer induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the number of neoplasias and regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels and the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  1. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  2. Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15954629

  3. Fermentation of table olives by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines and inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataridou, M; Kotzekidou, P

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an autochthonous starter culture developed by oleuropeinolytic strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum group on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and the biophenol content of table olives fermented under reduced salt conditions was studied. Black (cv. Kalamata) and green (cv. Chalkidikis) olives were fermented in two different kinds of brine (Brine A containing 2.3% NaCl, 32.3mM Ca-acetate and 33.9mM Ca-lactate and Brine B containing 4% NaCl, pH5.0 in both brines). The sensory attributes of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture assessed by a trained panel did not differ significantly compared with industrial processing. It is possible to carry out significant changes in table olive processing applying a completely microbiological procedure using oleuropeinolytic strains of the L. plantarum group as both the debittering and the fermentation agent in order to achieve improved sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the final product. Table olives processed by the suggested methodology may constitute a good source of biophenols in the diet, especially hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The inactivation potential of Escherichia coli O157 EDL-932 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture was evaluated. The population of each pathogen in olive homogenates of both cultivars is inactivated by more than 6logCFU/ml in less than 24h. When whole fermented olives were submerged in peptone/saline (containing 6.7logCFU/ml of the relevant bacterial pathogen) for 30min followed by rinsing in distilled water, the population of viable foodborne pathogens dropped more than 4 logs in olive pulp. During subsequent storage at 22 or 4°C the population of L. monocytogenes Scott A was further eliminated under the detection limit in both olive cultivars whereas the population of E. coli O157 EDL-932 could be detected in olives stored in peptone/saline at 22°C for 7days. The inhibitory effect of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines on pathogens is due to the antimicrobial activity of the phenolic compounds and the antagonistic action of the associated microflora. PMID:26065729

  4. Use of a genetically enhanced, pediocin-producing starter culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, to control Listeria monocytogenes in cheddar cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Buyong, N; Kok, J.; Luchansky, JB

    1998-01-01

    Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp, lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1, About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca, 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca, 10(6) CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes strains (ca, 10(3) CFU per ml), The viability of the pathogen and the activity of pediocin in the cheese were monitored at appropriate intervals throughout the manufacturing process and during r...

  5. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products. PMID:21535644

  6. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Siefarth; Thi Bich Thao Tran; Peter Mittermaier; Thomas Pfeiffer; Andrea Buettner

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Radio frequency (RF) heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV) heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C). This second part of our feasibility...

  7. Use of tocopherol extract and different nitrite sources and starter cultures in the production of organic botifarra catalana, a cooked cured sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrinyà, Núria; Bou, Ricard; Rius, Núria; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    This research evaluates the effects of adding a tocopherol mix (0 or 200 mg/kg), two nitrite sources (sodium nitrite or a nitrate-rich vegetable concentrate) and the use ofStaphylococcus carnosustogether with fermentation types that varied in temperature (12 h at 4 ℃ or 16 ℃) on different quality parameters and acceptability of cooked cured sausages after vacuum packing and storage at 4 ℃ for 120 days. In the presence ofS. carnosus, residual nitrate and nitrite levels were reduced. Sausages containing vegetable concentrates and withoutS. carnosusresulted in higher amounts of residual nitrate and lower curing efficiency. The lowest values in redness and acceptability were observed in those sausages without starter cultures. The addition of tocopherols had no effect on oxidative status and susceptibility to oxidation. However, the highest amount of hydroperoxides was related with nitrite decreased formation. Overall, vegetable concentrates can be used as curing agents if fermentation with a nitrate-reducing starter culture is allowed. PMID:25990636

  8. Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Eren-Vapur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

  9. An ecophysiological study of starter streptococci

    OpenAIRE

    Otto, Roelf

    1981-01-01

    Cheese starter cultures used for the production of Gouda cheese consist of a mixture of strains of S. cremoris, S. lactis, S. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc spp. The exact ratio between the strains is unknown and changes on subculturing. ... Zie: Summary

  10. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Winata, Vera; Wang, Xiaoxi; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk, the two probiotic strains were precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor. The activity of sublethally precultured probiotics was evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated adaptive stress responses of the two probiotic strains resulting in their viability improvement without adverse influence on milk acidification. A complementary metabolomic approach using SPME-GC/MS and (1)H-NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed substantial impact of the activity of sublethally precultured probiotics on metabolite formation demonstrated by distinctive volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. Changes in relative abundance of various aroma compounds suggest that incorporation of stress-adapted probiotics considerably influences the organoleptic quality of product. This study provides new information on the application of stress-adapted probiotics in an actual food-carrier environment. PMID:25846920

  11. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir / Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Daiana, Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo, Pimentel; Sandra, Garcia; Sandra Helena, Prudencio.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo [...] de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial via [...] bility during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  12. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas.

  13. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  14. Identification of peptides in traditional and probiotic sheep milk yoghurt with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitriou, Christos G.; Vafopoulou-Mastrojiannaki, Anna; Silva, Sofia Vieira; Gomes, Ana-Maria; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Alichanidis, Efstathios

    2007-01-01

    Two sets of traditional Greek sheep milk yoghurt were produced: the first one (YC) using normal yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus !10.13 and Streptococcus thermophilus !10.7) and the second (PR) with the same normal culture mixed with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei DC412. YC and PR had similar physicochemical properties and proteolysis patterns throughout storage. Both products showed similar peptide profiles by RP-HPLC but quantitative differences were ob...

  15. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the...

  16. Use of molecular methods to characterize the bacterial community and to monitor different native starter cultures throughout the ripening of Galician chorizo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Sonia; Ivette Ouoba, Labia Irène; Franco, Inmaculada; Carballo, Javier

    2013-05-01

    The development of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains used as starter cultures throughout the ripening of Galician chorizo, a traditional dry fermented sausage from the north-west of Spain, was monitored combining different molecular-based techniques. The bacterial diversity occurring in the inoculated sausages at the beginning and the end of the ripening was also studied and compared to the indigenous population in an uninoculated control batch. Real-time PCR was used to monitor the Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus community using genus and species-specific primer to quantify the occurring microbiota. The identification of isolates at genus or species level was achieved by specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. rep-PCR using (GTG)5-PCR primer was used to characterize this bacterial community at strain level. According to the data obtained, the strains Lactobacillus sakei LS131, Staphylococcus equorum SA25 and Staphylococcus saprophyticus SB12 were dominant during the ripening process, whereas the strain Staphylococcus epidermidis SA49, that was added in order to study its behaviour with a merely scientific purpose, did not succeed in dominating ripening, since it seemed to be outcompeted by autochthonous microbiota. In conclusion, the combination of a quantitative method such as real-time PCR with the identification and typing techniques used in this study (genus and species-specific PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (GTG)5-PCR) provided accurate and complete information about the starter cultures development, assessing their growth and survival over the ripening process. PMID:23498201

  17. In-vitro microbial production of conjugated linoleic acid by probiotic L. plantarum strains: Utilization as a functional starter culture in sucuk fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Cem O; K?l?ç, Birol; K?l?ç, Gülden Ba?yi?it

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-three probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains were screened in-vitro to determine their ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). L. plantarum AA1-2 and L. plantarum AB20-961 were identified as potential strains for CLA production. Optimum conditions for these strains to produce high levels of CLA were determined by evaluating the amount of added hydrolyzed sunflower oil (HSO) and initial pH levels in a nutrient medium. The highest CLA production was obtained in medium with pH6.0 and 2% HSO (P<0.05). Those strains were then used as starter culture in sucuk fermentation. Five sucuk treatments included a control (no starter culture), two sucuk groups with L. plantarum AA1-2 at the initial pH of 5.8 or 6.0 and two sucuk groups with L. plantarum AB20-961 at the initial pH of 5.8 or 6.0. Results indicate that L. plantarum AB20-961 produced higher amount of CLA in sucuk at initial pH of 5.8 and 6.0 levels during first 24h of fermentation compared with other groups. CLA isomer concentration decreased in all sucuk groups during the rest of the fermentation period (P<0.05) and remained quite stable during the storage. This study demonstrated that probiotic L. plantarum AB20-961 can be used in sucuk manufacturing without posing any quality problems. PMID:26720888

  18. Effect of Novel Starter Culture on Reduction of Biogenic Amines, Quality Improvement, and Sensory Properties of Doenjang, a Traditional Korean Soybean Fermented Sauce Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shruti; Lee, Jong Suk; Park, Hae-Kyong; Yoo, Jung-Ah; Hong, Sung-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-08-01

    To select appropriate microorganisms as starter cultures for the reliable and reproducible fermentation of soybean fermented products of Korean Doenjang, various ratios of fungi (Aspergillus oryzae J, Mucor racemosus 15, M. racemosus 42) combined with Bacillus subtilis TKSP 24 were selected as either single, double, or multiple Meju strains for commercial mass production of Doenjang, followed by analysis of sensory characteristics. In the sensory evaluation, Doenjang BAM15-1 and BAM42-1, which were fermented with multiple strains (1:1:1), showed the highest sensory scores as compared to control. Based on sensory characteristics, 6 Doenjang samples were subjected to quantitative determination of amino acids, free sugars, and organic acids (volatile and nonvolatile) contents, followed by determination of biogenic amines. Total sweet taste amino acid contents were highest in BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 samples (333.7 and 295.8 mg/100 g, respectively) and similar that of control (391.1 mg/100 g). Samples BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed the relatively high volatile and nonvolatile organic acid contents (154.24, 192.26, and 71.31, 82.42 mg/100 g, respectively). In addition, BAM15-1 and BAM42-1 showed negligible biogenic amine formation, ranging from 0.00 to 1.02 and 0.00 to 3.92 mg/100 g, respectively. These findings indicate that determination of food components along with sensory and quality attributes using multiple microbial Meju strains as a starter culture may provide substantial results on improved quality fermented Doenjang products. PMID:26147854

  19. Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-12-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  20. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

  1. Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of small-scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-08-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

  2. Impact of sensory differences on consumer acceptability of yoghurt and yoghurt-like products

    OpenAIRE

    Bayarri, Sara; Carbonell, Inmaculada; Barrios, Edith X.; Costell, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain information about how perceptible sensory differences affect consumer acceptability for yoghurt and a yoghurt-like product. Descriptive sensory profiles of six commercial samples, three of plain yoghurt and three of plain fermented milk, were determined using a trained panel (n = 10). Sample acceptance was determined by a group of consumers (n = 120). Initially, two groups of consumers were identified using Cluster analyses. For one group 46 (38%) of the con...

  3. Viscosity of stirred yoghurt during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Šimun Zamberlin; Dubravka Samaržija; Petar Mamula; Jasmina Havranek; Marija Pecina; Tomislav Poga?i?

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the changes in viscosity of stirred yoghurt from producer A (n = 20) and producer B (n = 20) throughout 21 days of storage. The content of fat, dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactic acid, pH and viscosity of stirred yoghurt were determined on the 0, 7th, 14th and the 21st day of storage of the product at the temperature of 4 °C. Considerable change in viscosity of stirred yoghurt (p < 0,05) throughout the maintenance period was determined on the 0 and t...

  4. Biofilm formation on Conservolea natural black olives during single and combined inoculation with a functional Lactobacillus pentosus starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounta, Athena; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-06-01

    The potential of biofilm formation of multifunctional starters Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Pichia membranifaciens M3A during inoculated fermentation of Conservolea natural black olives according to Greek-style processing was investigated. Olives were directly brined in 8% (w/v) NaCl following three fermentation procedures namely, i) spontaneous fermentation, ii) inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281, and iii) co-inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 and P. membranifaciens M3A. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were monitored on olives by plate counting for a period of 153 days, whereas the survival of the inoculated strains was confirmed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 with/without the presence of the yeast resulted in higher acidification of the brine compared to the spontaneous process where no indigenous LAB could be enumerated. The population of LAB on olives ranged between 5.5 and 6.5 log CFU/g and it was maintained at higher levels compared to yeasts (3.5-4.5 log CFU/g) throughout the process. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 could successfully colonize the surface of black olives presenting high recovery rate (100%) at the end of fermentation in contrast to P. membranifaciens M3A that was successfully recovered (42%) only after 72 days of the process. The obtained results provide interesting perspectives for the production of natural black olives with functional properties. PMID:26919816

  5. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret; Tredoux, Andreas; Muller, Nina; Næs, Tormod; Nieuwoudt, Helene

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made o...... sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry......BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made...... over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines...

  6. Production of Traditional Sorghum Beer “Ikigage” Using Saccharomyces cerevisae, Lactobacillus fermentum and Issatckenkia orientalis as Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    François Lyumugabe; Jeanne Primitive Uyisenga; Emmanuel Bajyana Songa; Philippe Thonart

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of the use of predominant yeast strains (Sacharomyces cerevisiae and Issatkenkia orientalis) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum) of Rwandese traditional sorghum beer “ikigage” as starter cultures to improve ikigage beer. The results show that L. fermentum has an influence on taste sour of ikigage beer and contributes also to generating ethyl acetate, ethyl lactate and higher alcohols such as 3-methylbutan-...

  7. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Siefarth; Thi Bich Thao Tran; Peter Mittermaier; Thomas Pfeiffer; Andrea Buettner

    2014-01-01

    bstract: This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing l...

  8. Potentially probiotic and bioprotective lactic acid bacteria starter cultures antagonise the Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to HT29 colonocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, M; Rubio, R; Aymerich, T; Ruas-Madiedo, P

    2015-01-01

    The capability of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to counteract the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to the epithelial intestinal cell line HT29 was studied. The highest adhesion ability to HT29 was achieved by the intestinal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, followed by the meat-derived strains Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 and Enterococcus faecium CTC8005. Surprisingly, the meat strains showed significantly better adhesion to HT29 than two faecal isolates of Lactobacillus casei and even significantly higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. Additionally, the anti-listerial, bacteriocin-producer starter culture L. sakei CTC494 was able to significantly reduce the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to HT29 in experiments of exclusion, competition and inhibition. The performance was better than the faecal isolate L. rhamnosus CTC1679. Our results reinforce the fact that the ability of LAB to interact with a host epithelium model, as well as to antagonise with foodborne pathogens, is a strain-specific characteristic. Additionally, it is underlined that this trait is not dependent on the origin of the bacterium, since some food LAB behave better than intestinal ones. Therefore, the search for novel strains in food niches is a suitable approach to find those with potential health benefits. These strains are likely pre-adapted to the food environment, which would make their inclusion in the formulation of probiotic foods more feasible. PMID:25488261

  9. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  10. USE OF METEROXYLON SAGU AS A STABILIZING AGENT IN YOGHURT

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Hasan; Nuzhat Huma; Aysha Sameen; Saima Rafiq; Nabila Gulzar

    2014-01-01

    Yoghurt is popular fermented milk product with higher nutritional value and significant health beneficial effects. The formulation of yoghurt with optimum texture, appearance, consistency and stability to synersis, and shelf life is major challenge to dairy industries. Usually, syneresis is reduced by either increasing the total solids of yoghurt or by using stabilizers. The main objective of the present study was to use Metroxylon sagu as stabilizing agent in yoghurt and to evaluate its infl...

  11. Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production

    OpenAIRE

    A.H. Zaghloul; A.E. Elgasim; Maha E.A. Khalifa; M.B. Mahfouz

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added to yoghurt with ratio of 4 and 6%. Chemical compositions such as pH value, titratable acidity, wheying off, ash, protein, lactose, total carbohydrate, total solid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl of the t...

  12. SPSS for starters

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  13. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    , pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growthmodels were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25 °C)were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates fromcottage......Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature...... cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese...

  14. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature...... cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese....... The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias...

  15. Effect of yoghurt or yoghurt serum on microbial quality of cig kofte

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Mahmut; Cankurt, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Yetim, Hasan; Sagdic, Osman

    2012-01-01

    Cig kofte, raw meatball is a traditionally produced meat product in Turkey and some other Middle East countries. It is prepared from mixtures of finely minced raw beef, bulgur, onions, various spices and tap water. Cig kofte is an uncooked product and popularly consumed with lettuce and lemon juice. In this study, yoghurt or yoghurt serum (YS) were added to the mixtures of cig kofte instead of tap water to reduce microbial risks of the raw meatball. Additionally, the effects of yoghurt and YS...

  16. The essential mineral concentration of Torba yoghurts and their wheys compared with yoghurt made with cows', ewes' and goats' milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, Zehra; Sanal, Hasan

    2009-03-01

    Comparative studies on yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milks with respect to mineral concentrations are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyse the gross chemical composition as well as the concentration of essential minerals in concentrated (torba) yoghurts made from cows', ewes' and goats' milk compared with those in regular yoghurts and wheys. The elements were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Ewe torba yoghurt was significantly higher in calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium, zinc, cobalt, copper and iron concentrations compared with goat and cow torba yoghurts. It is recommended that torba yoghurts made from different types of milk may be considered an important source of phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, selenium and zinc over the regular yoghurts and wheys. Whey samples are also an excellent source of lactose as well as sodium and potassium. PMID:18608571

  17. Yoghurt Factory - Business plan for frozen yoghurt shop in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Brabcová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this Master thesis is to evaluate whether the establishment of frozen yoghurt shop in Prague, Czech Republic, is feasible based on a developed business plan. The topic is approached both from the theoretical and practical perspectives. The theoretical part focuses on the topic of entrepreneurship as well as business model development and business plan theory. The practical part comprises of a business plan specifically developed for the frozen yoghurt shop topic, which is bas...

  18. Instant Sinatra starter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  19. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  20. Instant Prezi starter

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    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  1. Instant Apache Maven starter

    CERN Document Server

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  2. Application of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis as Starter Culture for Fermentation of Baltic Herring (Clupea harengus membras Mince

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavels Semjonovs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a well-known source of proteins, minerals, fat-soluble vitamins, antioxidants and other bio-active ingredients. Fish and its processing by-products are relatively cheap raw materials however still rarely are used to create food products with increased nutritive value, functional foods or feed supplements. Application of certain strains of probiotic bifidobacteria for fermentation of non-dairy substrates is a great challenge for industry-targeted research and industry with further offering to the market of functional food products. Our study is the first report on application of bifidobacteria for fermentation of fish. It was shown that a new fish-based functional food product can be obtained after fermentation of Baltic herring mince, supplemented with carbohydrates and NaCl, with a single-strain probiotic culture Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12. Evaluation of FT-IR spectroscopy data indicated changes of proteins and the composition of total carbohydrates in fermented Baltic herring samples compared to the control. Glucose and sucrose ensured quick acidification and the decrease of pH, to achieve the cell count of B. lactis Bb12 up to 108 CFU g–1, thus meeting requirements of the viable cell-count of probiotic bacteria in functional food products. However the highest cell counts of probiotic bacteria and acidification were reached using fish mince supplemented with sucrose (2% and NaCl (1%. The obtained fermented baltic herring paste or its concentrate-after freeze-drying, still with high content of viable probiotic cells (107-108 CFU g–1, can be used as functional food product as well as food and feed ingredients.

  3. Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Siefarth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency (RF heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C. This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress. The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life.

  4. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  5. Instant OSGi starter

    CERN Document Server

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  6. Assessment of technological characteristics of non-fat yoghurt manufactured with prebiotics and probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyigit Kilic, Gülden; Akpinar Kankaya, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological, physicochemical, aroma and organic acid characteristics of non-fat yoghurt incorporated with β-glucan and probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains (AB6-25, AC18-82 and AK4-11) combination as adjunct culture were investigated during a 21 day storage period at 4 °C. Four treatment yoghurts contained 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % β-glucan. Treatments also included probiotic combination and commercial culture. Treatments were compared with three controls produced containing commercial culture, commercial culture and probiotic combination, and commercial culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus and inulin. The results indicated that β-glucan promote the viability of lactobacilli. However, the addition of β-glucan (except 0.25 %) resulted in enhanced syneresis (P < 0.05). In general, the use of 0.25 % β-glucan had no significant effect on pH, fat, protein and organic acid content of non-fat yoghurt. The results obtained from this research demonstrated that the use of 0.25 % β-glucan has no adverse effect on the characteristics of non-fat yogurt produced with probiotic combination. PMID:26788009

  7. Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosicler BALDUINO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o tempo de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v e lactose 0,5% (m/v e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15UFC/mL.Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to reduce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15CFU/mL.

  8. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Benković

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

  9. An outbreak of foodborne botulism associated with contaminated hazelnut yoghurt.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, M.; Mitchell, E.; Gilbert, R J; Hutchinson, D N; Begg, N. T.; Rodhouse, J C; Morris, J E

    1990-01-01

    The largest recorded outbreak of foodborne botulism in the United Kingdom occurred in June 1989. A total of 27 patients was affected; one patient died. Twenty-five of the patients had eaten one brand of hazelnut yoghurt in the week before the onset of symptoms. This yoghurt contained hazelnut conserve sweetened with aspartame rather than sugar. Clostridium botulinum type B toxin was detected in a blown can of hazelnut conserve, opened and unopened cartons of hazelnut yoghurt, and one faecal s...

  10. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt cont...

  11. Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying

    OpenAIRE

    Koç, Banu; Sakin-Y?lmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balk?r, P?nar

    2012-01-01

    The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were a...

  12. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

  13. Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Bijeljac; Hajrudin Skender; Zlatan Sarić

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid ...

  14. Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep Singh Negi; Sunki Reddy Yella Reddy; Ramakrishna Chetana

    2013-01-01

    Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptabl...

  15. Influence of myrtle juice and syrup on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory features of goat’s milk yogurt made with indigenous starter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Murgia, Marco Ambrogio; Fancello, Francesco; Nudda, Anna; Deiana, Pietrino

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Myrtle Juice (MJ) and Syrup (MS) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory features in goat milk yogurt fermented by indigenous Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus during 30 days of storage. Generally, in all samples, the high LAB number at the end of incubation and the pH values ranging from 4.1 to 4.6 indicates a good effectiveness of the used starter on fermentation process. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus c...

  16. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama Gupta; Nivedita Sharma; Neha Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perf...

  17. Genetic Diversity in the Lactose Operons of Lactobacillus helveticus Strains and Its Relationship to the Role of These Strains as Commercial Starter Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Callanan, M. J.; Beresford, T P; Ross, R. P. (R. Paul)

    2005-01-01

    Two novel insertion sequence elements, ISLhe1 and ISLhe15, were located upstream of the genes encoding the β-galactosidase enzyme in Lactobacillus helveticus commercial starter strains. Strains with the IS982 family element, ISLhe1, demonstrated reduced β-galactosidase activity compared to the L. helveticus type strain, whereas strains with the ISLhe15 element expressed β-galactosidase in the absence of lactose.

  18. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis. No...... of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation....

  19. Effects on product quality for probiotic yoghurts caused by long storage times during production

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Catrine

    2009-01-01

    Recent years there has been a large increase in the worldwide sales of cultured products containing probiotics. The obstacle in the production of fermented products incubated with probiotic strains is its effect on sensory, chemical and physical properties. This Master´s Thesis investigates how extended storage times in fermentation tank as well as buffer tank during production of probiotic yoghurts affect final product quality. Through experimental studies, maximum storage times for probioti...

  20. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  1. Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosicler BALDUINO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como ácido lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61% e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15 UFC/mL foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14 UFC/mL, mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos.Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61% and higher cellular viability (3x10(15 CFU/mL were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14CFU/mL, even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99% of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

  2. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    OpenAIRE

    AngeloSisto

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cul...

  3. FERMENTABILITY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTOPEROXIDASE ACTIVATED BUFFALO MILK YOGHURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijaz H. Soomro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study was planned to produce and evaluate the coagulum from buffalo milk preserved with the activation of its lactoperoxidase system (LPO-system. A total of 10 trials were conducted and in each trial milk base was equally divided into three parts, two of which were treated with 20 mg/L (A and 30 mg/L (B solution of Sodium thiocyanate + Hydrogen peroxide and third part was kept as control (C. All the samples were analyzed for fermentability trend, pH, acidity, viscosity, specific gravity, syneresis and organoleptic properties. The decreasing trend in pH during fermentation period was comparatively slow in LPO-system activated milk A and B (4h and 5h as compared to control yoghurt (3h. The titratable acidity (% lactic acid of A, B and C yoghurt was 0.86±0.022, 0.85±0.025 and 0.89±0.024, respectively. The viscosity and specific gravity of control yoghurt was significantly (P0.05 were observed in the total solids, fat, ash, lactose and protein contents among the control, A and B yoghurt. Two week stored samples of control yoghurt received lower sensory score for appearance, flavor, body/texture and overall acceptability as compared to fresh control yoghurt. Simultaneously, LPO-system treated A and B yoghurt received high score during storage period than the control yoghurt.

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW) plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% g...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

  7. Munin plugin starter

    CERN Document Server

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  8. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  9. Instant Metasploit starter

    CERN Document Server

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  10. Effect of yoghurt or yoghurt serum on microbial quality of cig kofte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mahmut; Cankurt, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Yetim, Hasan; Sagdic, Osman

    2014-07-01

    Cig kofte, raw meatball is a traditionally produced meat product in Turkey and some other Middle East countries. It is prepared from mixtures of finely minced raw beef, bulgur, onions, various spices and tap water. Cig kofte is an uncooked product and popularly consumed with lettuce and lemon juice. In this study, yoghurt or yoghurt serum (YS) were added to the mixtures of cig kofte instead of tap water to reduce microbial risks of the raw meatball. Additionally, the effects of yoghurt and YS on some physicochemical characteristics of cig kofte were investigated. Cig kofte is generally consumed within a few hours after the preparation because of its raw nature. Also, it is generally sold under unhygienic conditions in restaurants and restaurant-like places. For this purpose, reducing of the microbial load of cig kofte is important. In the results, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any samples. While lactic acid bacteria count increased by addition of yoghurt and YS, the number of other microorganisms except for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) were decreased. The aw values and% moisture contents of the samples were varied between 0.88-0.94 and 46.25-49.72, respectively. The pH values of the samples were slightly changed during the storage of 24 h while no changes detected in the control samples during the storage. In conclusion, it can be suggested that using the yoghurt or YS instead of tap water in the preparation of cig kofte might ensure the microbial safety, increase the nutritional value and its flavour or aroma. PMID:24966438

  11. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Capece Angela; Romaniello Rossana; Pietrafesa Rocchina; Romano Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective o...

  12. Microbiological evaluation of yoghurt products in Qena city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. El-Malt

    Full Text Available Aim: To examined Large and small scale yoghurts for presence of microorganisms of sanitary importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 random samples from various dairy shops, street vendors and supermarkets located in Qena city were collected within 2008 - 2010. Results: The recorded results show that (92% and (70% of the examined small and large scale yoghurt samples had Psychrotrophic count with an average of 3.9 x 104 and 6.8 x103 respectively. It was found that Enterococci were detected in (58% and (40% with an average count of 1.72 x104 and 2.0 x 103 for the examined small and large scale yoghourt samples. S.aureus were detected in (72% and (36% with an average of 8.5 x 103 and 9.41 x102 for both small and large scale yoghurt samples. Regarding yeast and moulds they were found in (94% and (40% with an average counts of 1.4 x 104 for small scale and 3.9 x 102 of large scale yoghurt samples. Most probable number (MPN technique showed that [(38, (20], [(35, (17] and [(30, (6] out of the total examined small and large scale yoghurt samples were contaminated with coliform, Fecal coliform and E. coli respectively. The incidence of E. coli biotype I and II for examined small scale yoghurt samples were (63.4% and (36.6%, while for the examined large scale yoghurt samples were (16.7 and (83.3 respectively. Conclusions: Yoghurt samples obtained from Qena city markets constitute a high risk hazard to consumers. So suggestive hygienic measures to safeguard the consumer health. As well as, the recommended sanitary practices for improving quality of small and large scale yoghurt must be applied. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 400-404

  13. Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Guo-Nong Zhang; Joel Isanga

    2008-01-01

    Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v). Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing ?-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with litt...

  14. Milk and yoghurt do not impair the absorption of ofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuvonen, P. J.; Kivistö, K. T.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of milk and yoghurt on the oral absorption of ofloxacin were studied in seven healthy volunteers in a randomized cross-over trial. After an overnight fast, 200 mg ofloxacin was given with 300 ml water, milk or yoghurt. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of ofloxacin were determined up to 24 h. Values of total plasma AUC and 24 h urinary excretion of ofloxacin were not affected by milk or yoghurt. Plasma ofloxacin concentrations from 0.5 to 1.5 h and the peak concentration...

  15. Fastener starter tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Faith T. (Inventor); Valentino, William D. (Inventor); Garton, Harry L. (Inventor); Arnett, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fastener starter tool includes a number of spring retention fingers for retaining a small part, or combination of parts. The tool has an inner housing, which holds the spring retention fingers, a hand grip, and an outer housing configured to slide over the inner housing and the spring retention fingers toward and away from the hand grip, exposing and opening, or respectively, covering and closing, the spring retention fingers. By sliding the outer housing toward (away from) the hand grip, a part can be released from (retained by) the tool. The tool may include replaceable inserts, for retaining parts, such as screws, and configured to limit the torque applied to the part, to prevent cross threading. The inner housing has means to transfer torque from the hand grip to the insert. The tool may include replaceable bits, the inner housing having means for transferring torque to the replaceable bit.

  16. Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurul Islam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15% of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape. Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of fruit juice. Yoghurts fortified with 10% orange juice was the best in quality among the others. The smell and taste, body and consistency and color and texture of the fruit yoghurts were equally acceptable. 10 and 15% strawberry fruit yoghurt contain more acid and its texture was cracked down in refrigeration temperature. The moisture and acidity content of fruit yoghurts were increased than plain yoghurt because of high content of these in the fruits. The fat, protein, carbohydrates and ash content of strawberry and orange fruit yoghurt were decreased than normal plain yoghurt. But the carbohydrates content of grape yoghurt were increased because grape contains more sugar than milk and other two fruits. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 10% orange juice was more acceptable than others comparing all quality characteristics. The microbiological quality of the fruit yoghurts was also acceptable because of acid content of the fruits. In case of strawberry yoghurt, fruit juice concentration more than 5% was not suitable for fruit yoghurt because that are highly acidic and curd was cracked down at refrigerated condition. The findings of this research may give an overall idea about manufacturing of fruit yoghurt incorporating different level of fruit juice and appropriate technology of fruit yoghurt preparation.

  17. Utilization of Portulaca Oleracea L. to Improve Quality of Yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was conducted to study the possibility of using Portulaca Oleracea L. as a source of Omega - 3 and Omega - 6 fatty acids as well as high vitamins and minerals, to improve the quality of yoghurt. Also, the microbial characteristics the treated yoghurt were evaluated. The obtained results showed that the replacement of milk fat by dry leaves of P. Oleracea had no effect on the chemical composition and the sensory properties of the treated yoghurt with 50 and 100% P. Oleracea L. leaves oil as milk fat substitute compared to the untreated one. In conclusion, manufacturing yoghurt is suitable as a rich nutrient food stuff for people suffering from blood hypertension, high blood cholesterol, liver and heart diseases

  18. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

  19. Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S. Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2012-01-01

    As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of...

  20. Simulation of stirred yoghurt processing in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carla S.; Ricardo P. Dias; Nóbrega, João M.; Afonso, Isabel A.; Luis F. Melo; Maia, João M.

    2005-01-01

    In the present work, simulations of stirred yoghurt processing in a plate heat exchanger were performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and the results compared with experimental data, showing a very good agreement. A Herschel–Bulkley model for the viscosity and an Arrhenius-type term for the temperature dependence were used to model the thermo-rheological behaviour of yoghurt. The heat exchanger used in this study operates in a parallel arrangement, thus simplifyi...

  1. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  2. Sensory Evaluation of the Strawberry Flavored Yoghurt with Stevia and Sucrose Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Lisak, Katarina; Lenc, Maja; Jeličić, Irena; Božanić, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    As obesity is a growing problem in the world the target of food industries is to produce low calorie products safe for the human health. According to the non-caloric value of stevia and its beneficial influence on human health, there is a great possibility of its use in the food industry. Plain yoghurts were produced by fermentation with ABT-5 cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifi dobacterium spp.) and flavored by addition of 0.2 mL/100 g strawberry aroma. Y...

  3. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade.In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  4. Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil......-enriched emulsion was responsible for the remarkably high oxidative stability and was able to protect the n-3 PUFA against oxidative deterioration. It should be considered that this strong antioxidative effect of yoghurt might mask potential antioxidative effects of the other ingredients in the drinking yoghurt.......The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1...

  5. Effects of Preheat on the Flavor and Texture Properties of Yoghurt Made of Reconstituted Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Yanhua Li; Weijun Wang; Yuecheng Meng; Jie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Reconstituted milk replaced fresh milk has been applied in the production of yoghurt. The flavor compounds and texture profile analysis of yoghurt produced from reconstituted milk were investigated. Using SPME-GC-MS, 24 and 22 volatiles were found in reconstituted whole milk and reconstituted skim milk, while 32 and 28 volatiles were found in their yoghurt products, respectively. Levels of aldehydes, methyl ketones, alkanes olefinic aldehydes, ketenes in liquid milk and yoghurt increased with...

  6. Improved creaminess in stirred yoghurt through amylomaltase-treated starch domains

    OpenAIRE

    Kanning, M.W.; van de Velde, F.; Alting, A.C.; Buwalda, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Amylomaltase-treated starch (ATS) has been described as an excellent fat-replacer in set yoghurt. Its functionality as a creaminess enhancer relates to the ability to form domains, which have melting and yielding characteristics in the mouth. This study was intended to understand the functionality of ATS in stirred yoghurt. Sensory evaluation of reduced fat stirred yoghurt samples showed that the creaminess perception of stirred yoghurt with 1.5% fat and 0.5% ATS was comparable with the refer...

  7. Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt) Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice

    OpenAIRE

    Md Nurul Islam; Md. Fakruddin; Md Nur Hossain

    2012-01-01

    Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15%) of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape). Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of...

  8. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  9. A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Lushchyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

  10. Instant OpenNMS starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  11. Instant CloudFlare starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  12. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  13. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  14. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

  15. Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production

    OpenAIRE

    Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compa...

  16. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reps, A.; Jankowska, A.; Wi?niewska, K.

    2008-07-01

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4°C and 20°C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20°C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4°C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  17. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 40C and 200C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 200C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 40C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes

  18. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  19. The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NETI YULIANA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results showed that using a mixed culture of L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides could greatly reduce contamination of non-lactic acid bacteria, retaining low amount of reducing sugar, rapidly producing lactic acid and consequently decreasing pH value of the pickle, as well as giving better sensory score. After 12 d of fermentation, sample of pickle inoculated with mixed culture showed the following characters: total lactic acid content 0.5%, total lactic acid bacteria 8.46 log10 CFU mL-1, total non-lactic acid bacteria 1 log10 CFU mL-1, total reducing sugar 0.84 g L-1, texture 64.92 mm 50 g-1 s-1, and hedonic sensory score for both taste and aroma 4 (like in a scale of 5. These results indicated the potential ability of the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria to improve the quality of the pickle fermented spontaneously.

  20. The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.)

    OpenAIRE

    NETI YULIANA; SITI NURDJANAH; MIKA MARGARETA

    2013-01-01

    In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results...

  1. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    OpenAIRE

    DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen co...

  2. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI STARTER PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN AYAM KAMPUNG Gallus domesticus

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayah, Nurul; Gobel, Risco B.; Djide, M. Natsir; Hassan, Munif S

    2008-01-01

    The researh about ???The Effect of Addition of Various Concentration of Probiotic Starter on Feed to the Development of Local Chicken Gallus domesticus??? has been done. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of addition of various concentration of probiotic starter on body weight gain, feed conversion and appearance of local chicken Gallus domesticus. MRSA medium (Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar) is used to cultivate of pure culture probiotic isolate. The grown isolates diluted and ...

  3. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  4. The Invisible Fire Starters

    OpenAIRE

    Sorensen, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Tracing the origins of ‘modernity’ in the archaeological record has been an ongoing, and often heavily debated topic of discussion in the field of human origins for quite some time. Cognitive modernity – generally defined as the manifestation of complex language and abstract thought – is often inferred from various perceived innovations in material culture that are believed to indicate behavioral modernity (e.g. parietal art, personal adornment, bone tool technology, hafting technology, etc.)...

  5. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  6. Rheological and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt-Modified Mayonnaise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štern, Petr; Pokorný, J.; Šedivá, A.; Panovská, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 190-198. ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : mayonnaise * rheology * sensory analysis * texture * yoghurt Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  7. Instant MinGW starter

    CERN Document Server

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  8. Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Energy Management Curriculum Starter Kit was designed to help engineering educators develop and teach energy management courses. Montana State University and Oklahoma State University courses are embodied in the model curriculum given. The curricula offered at many other universities throughout the United States are also presented. The kit was designed specifically to train engineering students to be good energy managers. Courses at both the undergraduate and postgraduate level are presented.

  9. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored autochthonous strains to impart the specific characteristics of a given wine which are an expression of a specific terroir. PMID:27199939

  10. Effect of natural starters used for sourdough bread in Morocco on phytate biodegradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaoui, A; Faid, M; Belhcen, R

    2003-01-01

    Phytase activity was studied in natural sourdough bread starters to determine physicochemical characteristics (phytic acid hydrolysis, dough rising capacity and pH) in the flour and during sourdough fermentation. Fermentation microorganisms (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria) were also characterized. Results showed a decrease of phytic acid in sourdoughs started with traditional starters, and wide variation in phytase activity. Microorganism counts were high at the end of fermentation, indicating higher fermenting activity of the starters. Yeast populations showed wide variation and lactic acid bacteria had high counts in the fermentation. Phytase activity was demonstrated in starter cultures made of lactic acid bacteria and yeast isolates, the most interesting of which were Saccharomyces cerevisiae combined with Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. PMID:15562743

  11. Nutritive characteristics of probiotic quark as influenced by type of starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Mirjana S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quark was manufactured, under laboratory conditions, by standard batch process, from two types of milk: I partially skimmed, with 1.6 % of fat and II whole milk, with 3.5 % of fat. As starters, two probiotic cultures were applied: I DVS-Probio-TecTM ABT- 1, Lactobacillus acidophilus-5, Bifidobacterium-12, S. thermophilus and II DVS-Probio-TecTM ABT-2, Lactobacillus acidophilus-5, Bifidobacterium-12, S. thermophilus. Also, the traditional cheese culture (CH - N22 was used. The obtained Quark samples were tested by standard methods in order to determine their nutritive characteristics. The results have shown that probiotic starter ABT-1 ensured the highest level of utilization of fat, proteins, lactose and phosphorus from partially skimmed milk. Probiotic culture ABT-2 was less effective, but combined with the traditional starter and applied to a whole milk could give Quark with acceptable nutritive characteristics. When sensory characteristics of products were tested, it has been proven that the application of ABT-2 culture and combination of probiotic starters ABT-2 and traditional culture gave good products with typical mild flavor. On the contrary, inoculation with ABT-1 probiotic starter resulted in lower-quality products in case of both kinds of milk applied. .

  12. Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Niketi? Gordana B.; Peši?-Mikulec Dragana

    2009-01-01

    Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad ...

  13. Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy-yoghurt with Different Colours and Fruit Flavours

    OpenAIRE

    O.F. Osundahunsi; D. Amosu; B.O.T. Ifesan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of different flavouring/colouring agents and fruits on the quality and acceptability of stirred soy-yoghurt were studied. Soy-yoghurts flavoured with strawberry, vanilla, orange, orange fruit, pineapple fruit and pawpaw fruit were compared for protein, pH, percentage lactic acid, soluble solids, percentage syneresis, total solids and microbial count with plain soy-yoghurt. Sensory evaluation was conducted in order to determine the acceptability of the samples. The pH and percent l...

  14. Concentration changes of aroma components in plain and probiotic yoghurt during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Hruškar; Marina Krpan; Nada Vah?i?; Ivana Bucak

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two types of yoghurt, plain yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt purchased from Croatian and Slovenian market, were stored for up to 25 days at two different temperatures (+4 ºC, +20 ºC). Samples were analyzed every 5 days and changes in acetaldehyde, ethanol and diacetyl content were determined. At the same time sensory evaluation was carried out. The aim of this study to show changes in concentrations of some flavor compounds and sensory quality in both yoghurt types during storage ...

  15. Aflatoxin M1 levels in retail yoghurt and ayran in Erzurum in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ATASEVER, Meryem AYDEMİR; ATASEVER, Mustafa; ÖZTURAN, Korhan

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in yoghurt and ayran consumed in the province of Erzurum, Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 80 yoghurt samples and 80 ayran samples were randomly obtained from markets. The samples' AFM1 content and concentrations were examined by competitive ELISA method. AFM1 at detectable level (5 ng/kg) was found in 87.5% of the yoghurt samples and in 90.0% of the ayran samples. AFM1 levels in 16 (20%) yoghurt a...

  16. Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

    2004-08-01

    Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein. PMID:15545049

  17. Probiotic fermented almond “milk” as an alternative to cow-milk yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Bernat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in almond-based matrices were considered as a means of obtaining fermented products which would cover both the current demand for health-promoting foods and for alternatives to standard yoghurts. Firstly, the combined effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH and heat treatment on the physical stability of almond “milk” was studied. The beverage was homogenised by applying 62, 103 and 172 MPa (MF1, MF2 and MF3 respectively; MF3 was also combined with two different heat treatments (85 ºC-30 min (LH and 121 ºC-15 min (HH. Both microstructure and colloidal stability were analysed in all the processed samples to select the most suitable treatment with which to obtain a stable product. The selected almond milk was then fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus and the final product was characterised throughout cold storage time (28 days as to pH, acidity, serum retention and starter viability. A sensory evaluation and probiotic survival to in vitro digestion was also conducted. The results showed that the physical and structural almond-milk properties were affected by both HPH and heat treatments, obtaining the greatest stability in MF3-LH samples. The fermented milk permitted probiotic survivals above the level suggested as minimum for ensuring health benefits during the entire controlled time and, hence, can be considered as a functional food. No differences in the sensory acceptability of the product were found between 1 and 28 storage days. Therefore, a new, functional, fermented product was developed, which was suitable for targeted groups, such as the lactose-intolerant and cow-milk-protein allergic populations.

  18. Instant forgedUI starter

    CERN Document Server

    Luiz, Joseandro

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

  19. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

  20. SPSS for Starters, Part 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

  1. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few. PMID:22779912

  2. Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Nong Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v. Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing κ-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with little or no whey at the top, respectively. Yoghurt containing the other five stabilizers (High methoxy pectin, Propylene glycole alginate, Carboxy methyl cellulose, Xanthan gum and Guar gum all formed weak gels with little or excessive whey at the top. The yoghurt containing gelatin had higher sensory scores for all the three sensory attributes (Appearance, texture and overall acceptability as compared to the other stabilizers assessed in this study. Therefore, gelatin was found to be the most appropriate stabilizer compatible to a peanut milk based yoghurt system.

  3. Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capece Angela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-δ region with primer pair δ2/δ12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

  4. The Quality of Yoghurt on Retail in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    C. Karagozlu; Kilic, S; Uysal, Hü N. Akbulut; H. Kesenkas

    2005-01-01

    Some physico-chemical and microbiological properties of 47 commercial yoghurt samples collected from the local market were examined to determine their consistency to current codex. Results obtained showed that, considering non-fat solids contents, the majority (87.2%) of the samples were in line with the Turkish Food Codex Fermentative Milk Regulation. Nevertheless, 9 samples were found to be out of limits indicated in the relevant codex. The chemical composition of 80.9% of the samples did n...

  5. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Jihad M. Quasem; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The formulas were ferm...

  6. Determination of Contamination Sources during the Manufacturing of Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    KASIMOĞLU, Aylin

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the critical control points for the contamination in a factory experiencing a problem with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, and to prevent economic losses and also to protect public health by facilitating production under hygienic conditions. Samples were taken from a total of 20 control points, which involved every stage of production from the beginning to the end, including milk, all equipment, surfaces, air, hands of staff and water; yoghurt samples ...

  7. Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Magala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Material and methods. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability. Results. Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Conclusion. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid. Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

  8. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  9. Effect of Goji Berries and Honey on Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability and Shelf Life Stability of Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    ROTAR, Ancu?a M.; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Florina BUNGHEZ; Giorgiana Mihaela C?TUNESCU; Carmen R. Pop; Mirela JIMBOREAN; Cristina A. SEMENIUC

    2015-01-01

    The probiotic properties and the viability of lactic acid bacteria of fermented dairy products can be improved by addition of bioactive compounds originating from natural sources (e.g. goji berries). This study aimed to evaluate how goji berries and honey affect the sensorial quality of yoghurt, the chemical properties, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and the concurrent microflora development. Two types of yoghurts (yoghurt with goji berries and yoghurt with honey and goji berries...

  10. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  11. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, L.R.; Miller, J.M.

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus is described for use with an engine having a combined starter/alternator assembly. The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring with a sensor and bandpass filter, having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor, and a gain limiter. The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor of the combined starter/alternator assembly. The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller and an inner loop controller. The starter/alternator assembly in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  12. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond (Plymouth, MI); Miller, John Michael (Saline, MI)

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  13. Compositional characteristics of commercial yoghurt based on quantitative determination of viable lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niketić Gordana B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt quality is particularly difficult to standardize because of the many forms, varieties, manufacturing methods, ingredients and consumer preferences that exist. Since these factors will always play an important role, it is unlikely that a uniform yoghurt quality concept will ever emerge, such as has been developed for other dairy products. There are a number of common denominators, however that have bearing on yoghurt quality. Since a number of producers are recognized within the broad category entitled yoghurt. This situation makes yoghurt an interesting, challenging, but also a confusing area to work in. The present investigation was undertaken to isolate from commercial yoghurt the strains involved in its manufacture and determine the characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus. This study is concerned with the lactic acid bacteria (L.delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus growth in yoghurt from involving different procedures and with the determination of the number of lactic acid bacteria in dependence of the temperature and acidity in the period of storage. Predominant samples of yoghurt were with 11-107/ml lactic acid lactococci (44.28%.

  14. Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit

    CERN Document Server

    Shipside, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

  15. PFP supply fan motor starters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake

  16. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg. PMID:25892751

  17. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.; Ahaotu, I.; C.I. Owuamanam; Ogueke, C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cul...

  18. Reproducibility of esophageal scintigraphy using semi-solid yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Yukinori; Kinoshita, Manabu; Asakura, Yasushi; Kakinuma, Tohru; Shimoji, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Kenji; Suzuki, Kenji; Miyamae, Tatsuya [Saitama Medical School, Moroyama (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Esophageal scintigraphy is a non-invasive method which evaluate esophageal function quantitatively. We applied new technique using semi-solid yoghurt, which can evaluate esophageal function in a sitting position. To evaluate the reproducibility of this method, scintigraphy were performed in 16 healthy volunteers. From the result of four swallows except the first one, the mean coefficients of variation in esophageal transit time and esophageal emptying time were 12.8% and 13.4% respectively (interday variation). As regards the interday variation, this method had also good reproducibility from the result on the 2 separate days. (author)

  19. Reproducibility of esophageal scintigraphy using semi-solid yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal scintigraphy is a non-invasive method which evaluate esophageal function quantitatively. We applied new technique using semi-solid yoghurt, which can evaluate esophageal function in a sitting position. To evaluate the reproducibility of this method, scintigraphy were performed in 16 healthy volunteers. From the result of four swallows except the first one, the mean coefficients of variation in esophageal transit time and esophageal emptying time were 12.8% and 13.4% respectively (interday variation). As regards the interday variation, this method had also good reproducibility from the result on the 2 separate days. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Otte, Jeanette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid...... all the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt...

  1. KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

  2. Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and soybeans (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falade, Kolawole O; Ogundele, Opeolu M; Ogunshe, Adenike O; Fayemi, Olanrewaju E; Ocloo, Fidelis C K

    2015-09-01

    Physico-chemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of plain yoghurt from bambara groundnut and soybean milks were studied. Milks were prepared from bambara and soybean and then fermented using Lactobacillus delbruieckii subspp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarus subspp. thermophilus to produce yoghurt. The yoghurts were stored at 7 °C and 27 °C for 9 days and their quality monitored. Results showed that pH of soy and bambara yoghurts decreased during the storage period for both storage temperatures. This decrease in pH was accompanied by simultaneous increase in titratable acidity. Total solids and apparent viscosities of soy and bambara yoghurts increased at 7 °C, but decreased at 27 °C during storage period. Bambara yoghurt received higher sensory acceptability than soy yoghurt. Predominant microorganisms in the stored yoghurts were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count in the yoghurts stored at 7 °C decreased but increased at 27 °C during the storage period. Similar trends were followed by total aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds counts. Pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, Coliform and E. coli were absent in all the yogurt samples. Yoghurts of acceptable quality and safety were produced from bambara groundnut and soybeans. PMID:26345001

  3. Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma?gorzata Ziarno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates of S. thermophilus were cultured in artificial gastric fluid (with pepsin added and in artificial duodenal fluid (with the enzyme complex added, and in M17 broth containing cholesterol at an initial concentration of 600 µg/mL, as well as in M17 broth without cholesterol. Immediately after the adding of bacteria inoculums and at the end of experiment, the concentration of cholesterol and the number of bacteria were measured. Results. S. thermophilus did not remove statistically significant amounts of cholesterol from artificial gastric fluid. The isolates showed the ability to uptake cholesterol from M17 broth and artificial duodenal fluid, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depended on the isolate. All isolates of S. thermophilus remove much more cholesterol from M17 broth than from artificial duodenal fluid. All S. thermophilus isolates had worse survival in artificial gastric or duodenal fluids than in M17 broth. Conclusions. The ability of S. thermophilus cells to survive in artificial gastric fluid and artificial duodenal fluid varied according to the isolates.

  4. Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

  5. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Traditional Yoghurts Produced in Guilan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Nikbakht,\tShima Lachiniyan ,Saeid Rahbar,\tFarhad Oubari,\tZahra Rostami,\tAhmad Tajehmiri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a major carcinogenic compound that may be existed in dairy products. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of AFM1 in traditional yoghurt samples in Guilan Province (Northern Iran. Ninety samples of traditional yoghurts were collected during summer and autumn 2014. Enzyme linked Immunosorbentassay (ELISA which is a rapid and sensitive method was used to determine the presence and levels of AFM1. 100% of the yoghurt samples were contaminated with 5 and 83 ng/kg of AFM1. In general, AFM1 in 20 samples (22.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/kg accepted by the European Union. It was therefore concluded that, high occurrence of AFM1 in yoghurt is a serious risk for public health.

  6. Yoghurt Sinbiotik Berbasis Probiotik Lokal Dapat Mencegah Diare dan Mengubah Status Hematologi Tikus (SYNBIOTIC YOGHURT BASED ON INDIGENOUS PROBIOTIC: IT’S EFFECT ON DIARRHEA AND HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS IN RATS)

    OpenAIRE

    Made Astawan 1); Tutik Wresdiyati2); Suliantari; Yenni MS Nababan

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effect of functional synbiotics yoghurt (made ofindigenous probiotic + oligofructosaccharides) in rats that were infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichiacoli (EPEC), and to detect its effect on hematological status. A total of 25 male Sprague Dawley rats wereused in this study and divided into five treatment groups: (i) negative-control; (ii) positive-control; (iii)synbiotic yoghurt; (iv) synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC; and (v) conventional prebiotic...

  7. Acute calcium assimilation from fresh or pasteurized yoghurt depending on the lactose digestibility status

    OpenAIRE

    Parra, M.D. (M.D.); Martinez-de-Morentin, B.E. (B.E.); Cobo, J.M. (J.M.); Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Martinez, J A

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The major aim of this trial was to evaluate the potential interaction of fresh or pasteurized yoghurt intake with lactose intolerance on calcium assimilation by means of the stable isotope 43Ca as a tracer. METHODS: Forty volunteers (age: 32 +/- 7 years) participated in this parallel simple blind study (20 of them with moderate lactose intolerance). The protocol included the intake of a test meal consisting on 43Ca-labelled fresh or pasteurized yoghurt. Volunteers, in whom...

  8. Heat transfer and rheology of stirred yoghurt during cooling in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel M. Afonso; Maia, João M.; Luis F. Melo; Lubos Hes

    2003-01-01

    In the present work an experimental investigation was conducted to obtain a correlation for the determination of convective heat transfer coefficients of stirred yoghurt in a plate heat exchanger. A rheological study was carried out in order to characterise the stirred yoghurt flow behaviour, evaluating its dependency both on shear rate and temperature. A shift in the temperature dependency was evidenced at 25 ºC. It is also shown that the material shows a complex flow behaviour, changing fr...

  9. Destructive Effects of Classical Viscosimeters on the Microstructure of Yoghurt Gel

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER*, Barbaros

    2004-01-01

    The effects of empirical viscosity measuring techniques that are commonly used in the determination of the viscosity of weak viscoelastic gels such as yoghurt on the microstructure of yoghurt were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the measurement of viscosity, Brookfield and Haake viscosimeters were employed at 2 different measuring periods (15 and 30 s). The results obtained indicated that the increase in the measuring period (15 s versus 30 s) stimulated the further des...

  10. Optimization of the process parameters for the preparation of synbiotic yoghurt-cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Pratima Khandelwal; Upendra R.S; Zeinab Raftani Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Attempts were made to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese having functional attributes of both prebiotics and probiotics. Firstly, the conditions for the preparation of prebiotic yoghurt were optimized in order to determine the optimal level of prebiotic ingredients - raftiline (the fat replacer), raftilose (the sugar replacer), oat fiber and honey as an enricher and combinations thereof; by means of sensory evaluation. Incorporation of raftiline, raftilose, honey @ 4, 4 and 3 percent respective...

  11. Thermal behaviour of stirred yoghurt during cooling in plate heat exchangers

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Carla S.; Ricardo P. Dias; Nóbrega, João M.; Isabel M. Afonso; Luis F. Melo; Maia, João M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, CFD calculations were made in order to analyse the thermal behaviour of yoghurt in a plate heat exchanger, the yoghurt viscosity being described by a Herschel-Bulkley model. The influence of Reynolds number on local Nusselt numbers was analysed as well as the influence of entry effects on average Nusselt number. Numerical runs considering and discarding the influence of temperature on the viscosity were performed and the impact on average Nusselt numbers was analysed. Transv...

  12. Yoghurt Sinbiotik Berbasis Probiotik Lokal Dapat Mencegah Diare dan Mengubah Status Hematologi Tikus (SYNBIOTIC YOGHURT BASED ON INDIGENOUS PROBIOTIC: IT’S EFFECT ON DIARRHEA AND HEMATOLOGICAL STATUS IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Astawan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to observe the effect of functional synbiotics yoghurt (made ofindigenous probiotic + oligofructosaccharides in rats that were infected with Enteropathogenic Escherichiacoli (EPEC, and to detect its effect on hematological status. A total of 25 male Sprague Dawley rats wereused in this study and divided into five treatment groups: (i negative-control; (ii positive-control; (iiisynbiotic yoghurt; (iv synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC; and (v conventional prebiotic yoghurt. Yoghurt (109 cfu/mL lactic acid bacteria was given orally using feeding tube at day one until day 4. At day 8 – day 14animals were infected with EPEC (107 cfu/mL orally using feeding tube; at day 22 blood samples werecollected for hematology analysis (erythrocytes, hematocrit (Hct, hemoglobulin (Hb, platelets, andleucocytes. Post infection with the EPEC diarrhea was developed in rats both in the control positivegroups and in the synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC group. Animals in the positive-control group had a significantlyhigher thrombocytes and leucocytes counts and Hct compared to that in animals in the other groups(P<0.01. Whereas there were no significant effect on the erythrocytes counts and Hb (P>0.05. The treatmentwith synbiotic yoghurt, in both synbiotic yoghurt only and synbiotic yoghurt + EPEC groups significantlyreduced the platelets and leucocytes counts and Hct of rats

  13. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lisak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

  14. The Use of Skim Milk and Essential Fatty Acids as an Alternative Method on Improving Yoghurt Nutrition Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Triana Yuni Astuti; Triana Setyawardani

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research was to investigate the effects of addition of different levels lemuru seafish oil on skim milk-based yoghurt in order to produce good quality and marketable yoghurt. The experiment consisted of lemuru seafish oil fractination based on its freesing point and the addition of extracted lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt at 0.50%; 1%; 1.50%; 2%. Yoghurt with 0% lemuru seafish oil was included as a control. A Completely Randomised Design was employed and ...

  15. Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter

    CERN Document Server

    Volpe, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

  16. From Good to Great: Discussion Starter Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Great Teachers and Leaders, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In the report "From Good to Great: Exemplary Teachers Share Perspectives on Increasing Teacher Effectiveness across the Career Continuum," (See full report in ERIC at ED555657) National and State Teachers of the Year shared their views on what helped them become great teachers. This accompanying "Discussion Starter Tool" builds…

  17. Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoutas, Y; Kandylis, P; Panas, P; Dooley, J S G; Nigam, P; Koutinas, A A

    2006-09-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4 degrees C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

  18. Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

  19. Effects on physicochemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream with fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the effect of fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal on physico-chemical characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream. Fatty acid profile of milk fat was modified by feeding calcium salts of soybean oil fatty acids to cows and cholesterol was removed by b-cyclodextrin b-cyclodextrin removed 76% and 60% cholesterol from yoghurt and ice cream. Modification of fatty acid composition did not have a significant effect on a-tocopherol content; while b-cyclodextrin treated milk had substantially lower a-tocopherol content. The concentration of a-tocopherol in control and b-cyclodextrin treated yoghurt was 45.62, 32.73 mg/g and 210.34, 185.56 mg/g for ice cream, respectively. Fatty acid modification and cholesterol removal significantly decreased the overrun in ice cream (P<0.05), with no effect on sensory characteristics of yoghurt and ice cream. These results evidenced that milk with higher content of unsaturated fatty acids and low cholesterol can be used in the formulation of yoghurt and ice cream with improved health benefits and suitable sensory features. (author)

  20. Biochemical characterization of a novel dual-function a-L-arabinofuranosidase/b-xylosidase isolated from a compost starter mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 43 enzyme was isolated from a culture seeded with a compost starter mixed bacterium population. The gene was cloned into E. coli with a C-terminal His-tag and its recombinant product termed deAX was expressed and purified to apparent homogeneity. The en...

  1. Development of a multiplex real time PCR to detect thermophilic lactic acid bacteria in natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Benedetta; Agrimonti, Caterina; Gatti, Monica; Neviani, Erasmo; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A multiplex real time PCR (mRealT-PCR) useful to rapidly screen microbial composition of thermophilic starter cultures for hard cooked cheeses and to compare samples with potentially different technological properties was developed. Novel primers directed toward pheS gene were designed and optimized for multiple detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum. The assay was based on SYBR Green chemistry followed by melting curves analysis. The method was then evaluated for applications in the specific detection of the 4 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in 29 different natural whey starters for Parmigiano Reggiano cheese production. The results obtained by mRealT-PCR were also compared with those obtained on the same samples by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Length-Heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR). The mRealT-PCR developed in this study, was found to be effective for analyzing species present in the samples with an average sensitivity down to less than 600 copies of DNA and therefore sensitive enough to detect even minor LAB community members of thermophilic starter cultures. The assay was able to describe the microbial population of all the different natural whey starter samples analyzed, despite their natural variability. A higher number of whey starter samples with S. thermophilus and L. fermentum present in their microbial community were revealed, suggesting that these species could be more frequent in Parmigiano Reggiano natural whey starter samples than previously shown. The method was more effective than LH-PCR and FISH and, considering that these two techniques have to be used in combination to detect the less abundant species, the mRealT-PCR was also faster. Providing a single step sensitive detection of L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii, S. thermophilus and L. fermentum, the developed mRealT-PCR could be used for screening thermophilic starter cultures and to follow the presence of those species during ripening of derived dairy products. A major increase in understanding the starter culture contribution to cheese ecosystem could be harnessed to control cheese ripening and flavor formation. PMID:23290237

  2. Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis and Quality of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhar Hussain Athar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was observed that there was gradual decrease in pH and increase in acidity in all samples during 15 days at 10°C±1. Lactose contents decrease in all Yoghurt samples during storage due to its conversion into lactic acid. It was observed that cornstarch tend to reduce syneresis followed by gelatin, pectin, guargum, CMC, Carrageenan, sodium alginate while comparing with control.

  3. Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

    2008-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

  4. Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rasdhari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and β-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8x104 to 1.85x107 cfu mL-1. Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis. Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.

  5. Semiconductor Sensor Array Based Electronic Nose for Milk, Rancid Milk and Yoghurt Odors Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A.; Sadistap, S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the use semiconductor sensor array based electronic nose for the identification of milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors. A low cost sensor array, serial data acquisition system and E-nose software package (ESP) tool are used to generate the database, feature extraction and normalization. The MLP NN is trained using the NeuroSolutions for the identification. The network has successfully classified milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors with 96% success rate. A sensitivity analysis is done to test the performance of the sensor data in the trained network

  6. Yoghurt production from camel (Camelus dramedarius) milk fortified with samphire molasses and different colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Kavas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, yoghurt was produced from camel (Camelus dramedarius) milk with whey protein isolate (3 % w/v) and fortified with 3 % (w/v) traditional samphire molasses (TSM) (YTSM), 3 % (w/v) TSM+0.1% (w/v) κ-carrageenan (YTSMC) or 3 % (w/v) TSM+0.05 % (w/v) xanthan gum (YTSMX). In yoghurt samples, physical-chemical properties, texture, color and sensory analysis were determined on the 1st, 5th, 10th and 14th days of storage, while total phenolics (TF) levels were determined on the 14th, 24t...

  7. QUALITY AND MICRIOBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN YOGHURT SUPPLEMENTED WITH COW MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Taiwo A. Aderinola; Zulfah Y. Olanrewaju

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of African yam bean for the production of yoghurt substituted with cow milk was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with Yoghurmet® in ratios with reconstituted cow milk powder in the ratios 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, 100:0 and 0:100 (African yam bean milk:Cow milk). Sample 0:100 which was 100% cow milk yoghurt served as the control. The samples were stored for 14 days at 4oC and 3 days at room temperature. The results of the p...

  8. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST, but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showed as following: the freeze-drying protective agents or anti-freeze factors could enhanced survival rate of LB and ST; the freeze-dried LB and ST powders containing both of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents had higher viable count and freeze-drying survival rate that were 84.7% and 79.7% respectively; In terms of fermentation performance, the best group of freeze-dried starter for yogurt was the compound of LB3 and ST2.

  9. Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

  10. Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet, 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1 and starter (Assay 2 diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X² and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X. Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X. Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X² and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

  11. Effect of Goji Berries and Honey on Lactic Acid Bacteria Viability and Shelf Life Stability of Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancu?a M. ROTAR

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The probiotic properties and the viability of lactic acid bacteria of fermented dairy products can be improved by addition of bioactive compounds originating from natural sources (e.g. goji berries. This study aimed to evaluate how goji berries and honey affect the sensorial quality of yoghurt, the chemical properties, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and the concurrent microflora development. Two types of yoghurts (yoghurt with goji berries and yoghurt with honey and goji berries were developed. The addition of honey affected the entire yoghurt microflora including LAB, manifesting bactericidal effect. The addition of goji berries maintained the viability of LAB at probiotic levels (106-107 log CFU/ml during 21 days of storage; compared to classic yoghurt, LAB viability decreased during storage at 103 log CFU/ml. Goji berries also improved sensory acceptance of consumers. The results obtained in this study collect information that enables the use of goji berries as enhancer of probiotic levels in yoghurt, while honey can provide bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect for contaminants.

  12. Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

  13. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    OpenAIRE

    Marisa Jatupornpipat; Payom Keatikumjorn

    2007-01-01

    The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml) was significantly higher (P

  14. Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

  15. Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten Bruun; Rasmussen, Morten; Vindeløv, Jannik; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O...

  16. Radiation safety aspects of fluorescent lamp starters incorporating radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fluorescent lamp starter is a switch applies the voltage to the fluorescent tube after sufficient preheating to allow the tube to conduct an electric current. Radioactive substances used in the starters are 85Kr, 147Pm, 3H and 232Th. In India, fluorescent lamp starters are classified as consumer products and users are outside regulatory control. However, regulatory control is exercised over the manufacturers at the production stage. Tritium activity measured in the lamp starters ranged from 400-4500 Bq with a mean activity of 1.78 kBq. Thorium activity measured varied from 0.44-3.3 mg. The results of radiation safety assessment of the workplace and radioactivity estimation in the starters are discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. Isolation of cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and molecular comparison with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Elisabeth Penderup; Ardö, Ylva Margareta; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To isolate cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and compare them with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains using molecular typing methods. Methods and Results: The number of thermophilic bacteria in seven commercial cheeses...... was identical to the rep-PCR profile of the Lact. helveticus adjunct culture used in the specific cheese, but their pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles differed slightly. Conclusion: It was possible to isolate cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses manufactured with mesophilic...... starter and thermophilic adjunct cultures by using an enumeration step. Significance and Impact of the Study: Isolation of cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses made with mesophilic starters offers an original source for new dairy-relevant cultures....

  18. Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Kavas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A and 70% goat - 30% cow (B, 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF and skim milk powder addition (MP were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration method and storage period on physico-chemical and microbiological properties of samples were investigated statistically.

  19. Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Kavas; Harun Uysal; Sevda Kilic; Necati Akbulut; Harun Kesenkas

    2003-01-01

    In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A) and 70% goat - 30% cow (B), 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c) mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF) and skim milk powder addition (MP) were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration...

  20. Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline; Nina Skall, Nielsen; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and......, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles...

  1. The Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) on Some Quality Properties and Shelf-Life of Set and Stirred Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNDOĞDU, Engin; ÇAKMAKÇI, Songül; DAĞDEMİR, Elif

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine some properties of set and stirred type yoghurts containing 0.5% and 1% garlic (Allium sativum L.) during storage period of 28 days at 4±1 °C. Some microbiological, physical, chemical, and sensory properties of yoghurts were determined in days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of the storage period. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all samples during the storage period ( 0.05) and sensory scores of yoghurts decreased during the storage period. It was also shown ...

  2. Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santana Toledo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

  3. Kinetics of β-galactosidase Production by Lactobacillus bulgaricus During pH Controlled Batch Fermentation in Three Commercial Bulk Starter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abbasalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The potential of bulk starter fermentation strategy for production of a cost-effective and GRAS source of β-galactosidase from a starter culture strain Lactobacillus bulgaricus was investigated. Three different media were selected and the strain, L. bulgaricus DSM 20081 was cultivated in these media under pH-controlled condition (pH = 5.6 at 43°C. The media were: bulk starter medium based on skim milk + whey, bulk starter medium based on whey, and skim milk. Growth and β-lactic acid production parameters were estimated from experimental data with the Garcia and Luedeking-Piret models, respectively. β-galactosidase production kinetics was also simulated using models based on biomass concentration and lactic acid production. Growth in the bulk starter medium based on skim milk + whey resulted in a higher rate of lactic acid production (7.35 ± 0.23  mg lactic acid ml-1 media h-1 and β-galactosidase activity (800.1± 0.7 nmol ONP ml-1 media compared to the other two media (P<0.01. Simulation of β- galactosidase production based on rate of lactic acid production resulted in very good agreement with experimental data for all three tested media. The results revealed the potential of bulk starter fermentation strategy and skim milk + whey based medium for in-house and relatively low cost production of food-grade β-galactosidase by dairy plants.

  4. STUDY REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOGHURT WITH RED BEETROOT JUICE

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Prodaniuc

    2009-01-01

    The study presents some physical - chemical characteristics of the beetroot juice yoghurt. The following determinations were carried out: the determination of the acidity by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) N/10, the determination of the fat content by the acid-butirometric method and the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature.

  5. Stability of Two Probiotics Bacteria of Goat Milk Yoghurt in Rat Digestive Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RARAH RATIH ADJIE MAHESWARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased age will affect the bacterial population of the human digestive tract, in which many bacteria will adapt and colonize different sites. Combining probiotics and prebiotics in what has been called a synbiotic could beneficially affect the host by improving survival and implantation/adhesion of live microbial dietary supplements in the gastrointestinal flora. Probiotic bacteria are expected to survive in the digestive tract to give health effects to the host by balancing the intestinal microflora. The addition of fructo-oligosaccharides is expected to increase viability and growth of probiotics in the digestive tract. The objective of the current research is to investigate the effect of probiotic yoghurt and synbiotic yoghurt of Etawa Breed Cross Saanen (PESA goats together with fructo-oligosaccharides, on female rats and to study the stability of probiotic bacteria in the digestive tracts. The results showed that synbiotic yoghurt intake had no significant influence (p>0.05 on ration consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion, final body weight and mortality. The synbiotic intake significantly increased the population of Bifidobacterium longum (p<0.01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus (p<0.05, but in contrast decreased (p<0.05the population of Escherichia coli. The yoghurt synbiotic treatment over 14 days influenced probiotic bacteria’s stability asshown by the reduced population of B. longum and L. acidophilus.

  6. Utilization of Yoghurt and Sucralose to Produce Low-calorie Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.S. Hussein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we had replaced sucrose with sucralose in the manufacture of sponge cake and yoghurt cake. These cakes were chosen because their ingredients include little fat so they were of low calories. Such functional cakes were evaluated chemically, physically and sensorial. The results suggest that, sucrose substitution with sucralose in cakes increased the cake volume and softened the texture (as shown by lower values of hardness, chewiness and gumminess. Water activity of the yoghurt control cake prepared with 100% sucrose with a value of 0.91 was higher than the yogurt cake containing sucralose (p<0.05. The mean water activity of sponge cakes prepared with sucrose was significantly higher than the sponge cakes containing sucralose (p<0.05. The obtained low calorie yoghurt cake characterized with its low calorie and food energy (103.22 and 431.3/100 g than control yoghurt cake (268 and 1119/100 g. Also, low calorie sponge cake had low calorie and food energy (98.0 and 409.4/100 g compared to control sponge cake (276.9 and 1156.9 g, respectively. Sensory scores of studied cake samples indicated that, texture and flavor of all samples were not affected significantly in case of replacing sucrose with sucralose in yogurt or sponge cake. A significant difference in cells and crumb color was observed in all cake samples when compared with control cake samples.

  7. Stability of polyphenols and carotenoids in strawberry and peach yoghurt throughout in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability and bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds and carotenoids, as well as on the antioxidant activity in strawberry and peach enriched yoghurt. The radical scavenging capacity of strawberry and peach yoghurt was 480 and 550% higher, respectively, at the level of the intestine than in fruit yoghurt not subjected to digestion. In strawberry the amount of bio-accessible anthocyanins increased during gastric digestion and the transition to the intestinal compartment produced a decrease in all the analyzed classes of polyphenols, being more pronounced in pelargonidin-3-glucoside (65%) and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside (58%). In peach the (+)-catechin content strongly decreased (80%), and neochlorogenic, chlorogenic acid, rutin and the carotenoid zeaxanthin decreased at lower levels, between 32-45%, while β-carotene was rather stable under gastric conditions (increased by 12%) during intestinal digestion. Despite the decrease in the concentration of these bioactive compounds after being subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, results suggest that fruit yoghurt is an important source of bio-accessible polyphenols and carotenoids and that despite some losses induced by digestion conditions, it still releases relevant amounts at the level of the intestine to be absorbed and to promote health benefits. PMID:25882006

  8. Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Giangolini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12, fruit (14 and cereal yoghurt (4 produced with cow (8 and goat milk (22.The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

  9. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. PMID:26867520

  10. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anvar Hussain Noorul Anisha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAdhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.

  11. Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Meyer, Anne S.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and...... stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for...... milk, yoghurt, and dressing. Yoghurt and dressing enriched with neat fish oil were more stable than those enriched with a fish-oil-in-water emulsion, whereas milk enriched with neat fish oil was less stable than milk enriched with the fish-oil-in-water emulsion. Overall, it seemed that application of...

  12. Nutritional requirements of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter culture used in the elaboration of wine from orange / Requerimientos nutricionales de un cultivo iniciador de Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizado en la elaboración de vino de naranja

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Mercedes, Ferreyra; María del Carmen, Schvab; Liliana Mabel, Gerard; Cristina Verónica, Davies; María Cristina, Cayetano Arteaga; Andreína, Stefani Leal.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de levaduras autóctonas para ser usadas en la elaboración de vino de naranja, incluye aislamiento, identificación y obtención de biomasa. Para optimizar su crecimiento se deben establecer los requerimientos nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las necesidades de vitamina [...] s y factores orgánicos de crecimiento de S. cerevisiae aislada de jugo de naranja fermentado. Se formuló un medio de cultivo con sacarosa (4 g/L) como fuente de carbono y energia (FCE) y urea como fuente de nitrógeno (FN), con 6 vitaminas (pantotenato de calcio, piridoxina, tiamina, biotina, niacina, ác. fólico) e inositol y ácido p-aminobenzoico (PABA) como factores de crecimiento. El medio completo se usó como testigo, preparándose además otros tres medios: con ausencia de todas las vitaminas y factores orgánicos de crecimiento, con pantotenato de Ca, piridoxina, tiamina, biotina e inositol y con esas 4 vitaminas, pero sin inositol. Finalmente, se procedió a eliminar una vitamina. Los cultivos se realizaron en aerobiosis a 30 ºC y pH 5,0. La cepa autóctona de S. cerevisiae requiere las vitaminas pantotenato de calcio, piridoxina, tiamina y biotina para crecer adecuadamente en condiciones aeróbicas en sistema batch; en cambio, no es auxótrofa para niacina, ácido fólico, PABA e inositol. Abstract in english The study of the yeasts present in the orange juice microbiota and used in the winemaking involves the isolation, identification and production of biomass. In order to optimize the yeast growth, the nutritional requirements should be determined. The aim of this work was to determine the vitamin and [...] other growth organic factors demand for the S. cerevisiae isolated from fermented orange juice. The culture medium was formulated with sucrose (4 g/L) as carbon and energy source (CES), urea as nitrogen source (NS), six vitamins (calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine, biotin, niacin, folic acid), and inositol and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as growth factors. The complete culture medium was used as blank, and three other media were prepared: without the vitamins and growth organic factors, with calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine, biotin and inositol and with the latter four vitamins, but for inositol. Finally, four new media were obtained by elimination of one vitamin at a time. The temperature was set at 30 ºC and the pH, at 5.0. The S. cerevisiae present in the orange juice needs calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine and biotin to grow adequately under aerobic conditions in a batch system, not being auxotroph for niacin, folic acid, PABA and inositol.

  13. The effect of microbial starter composition on cassava chips fermentation for the production of fermented cassava flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Listianingrum, Zaenudin, Ahmad; Trihatmoko, Kharisrama

    2015-12-01

    The processing of cassava into fermented cassava flour (fercaf) or the widely known as modified cassava flour (mocaf) presents an alternative solution to improve the competitiveness of local foods and to support national food security. However, the mass production of fercaf is being limited by several problems, among which is the availability of starter cultures. This paper presents the mapping of the effect of microbial starter compositions on the nutritional content of fercaf in order to obtain the suitable nutritional composition. Based on their enzymatic activities, the combination of Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus oryzae were tested during the study. In addition, commercial starter was also tested. During the fermentation, the dynamics in microbial population were measured as well as changes in cyanogenic glucoside content. The microbial starter composition was observed to affect the dynamics in microbial populationcynaogenic glucoside content of the produced fercaf. In general, steady state microbial population was reached within 12 hours of fermentation. Cyanogenic glucoside was observed to decrease along the fermentation.

  14. Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Dias de Avila

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle. A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR, °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control. Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Reducing sugars (RS, °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

  15. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  16. The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gustaw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of FOS and decrease in syneresis of obtained bio-yoghurts.  

  17. [Genetic improvement of technological characteristics of starters for fermented milk product/span>s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganesian, G G; Barsegian, A A; Grigorian, N G; Toptsian, A V

    2010-01-01

    Possibility for improvement of technological characteristics of lactobacilli using mutations of resistance to rifampicin (rif(r)) and streptomycin (str(r)) was studied. Using starter model of Narine Lactobacillus acidophilus INMIA-9602 Armenian diet milk product, it was showed that a possibility for selecting strains with increased rate of milk fermentation and acid production is higher in Rif(r) and Str(r) mutants induced by nitrosoguanidine than in cultures sensitive to antibiotics. The milk products obtained using Rif(r) and Str(r) strains had high viscosity, improved texture, increased amount of alive cells and good organoleptic features. PMID:20873167

  18. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese. PMID:26805985

  19. Effect of LGG Yoghurt on Streptococcus Mutans and Lactobacillus Spp. Salivary Counts in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Glavina, Domagoj; Goršeta, Kristina; škrinjari?, Ilija; Negoveti? Vrani?, Dubravka; MEHULI?, Ketij; Kožul, Karlo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish effect of 14 day consumption of commercially available yoghurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103 – LGG (Bioaktiv LGG, Dukat, Croatia) on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children. Twenty five patients, 6–10yr old participated in the study. At the inclusion in the study caries risk for every patient was evaluated. The saliva samples were tested with chair side kits for saliva buffer capacity (CRT buffer, Vivadent, ...

  20. Analysis of molecular interactions between yoghurt bacteria by an integrated genomics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sieuwerts, S.

    2009-01-01

    The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of Gram-positive bacteria that ferment sugars such as lactose to produce mainly lactic acid. LAB are a group of industrially important microorganisms that are applied for the production of many fermented foods. These include foods produced with substrates from plant origin (e.g. sauerkraut and wine) and animal origin (e.g. fermented meats and dairy products such as yoghurt). The current market trends regarding sustainability and health-promoting food...

  1. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeličić; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božanić

    2011-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

  2. Diversity and evolution of the microbial populations during manufacture and ripening of Casín, a traditional Spanish, starter-free cheese made from cow's milk

    OpenAIRE

    Alegría, Ángel; Álvarez Martín, Pablo; Sacristán, Noelia; Fernández, Elena; Delgado, Susana; Mayo Pérez, Baltasar

    2009-01-01

    Classical culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) techniques have been used for studying the microbial diversity and dynamics of the traditional Spanish Casín cheese during manufacturing and ripening. As with other starter-free cheeses made from raw milk, the microbial diversity of Casín was shown to be high by both culturing and DGGE analyses. The culture technique showed that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species constituted the majority of the microbial populations. Of th...

  3. Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Santos Junior

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

  4. Microbial evolution of traditional mountain cheese and characterization of early fermentation cocci for selection of autochtonous dairy starter strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Clementi, Francesca; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2016-02-01

    The microbial population of Traditional Mountain (TM) cheese was investigated and characterized for the selection of cocci suitable for developing new starter cultures. Samples of milk, curd and cheese at different ripening times were enumerated in selective culture media and 640 colonies were isolated from curd and cheese after 24 h of ripening. The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from M17 were clustered into 231 biotypes by RAPD-PCR analysis and identified as Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis. Forty percent of enterococci showed the in vitro ability to inhibit raw milk resident coliforms, but they were excluded as possible starters due to the presence of associated risk factors. All lactococci and streptococci were tested for their technological properties; 4 Lc. lactis subsp. lactis and 2 Sc. thermophilus which were fast acidifiers and did not produce unpleasant flavours were subjected to the freeze-drying stability test. Lc. lactis subsp. lactis biotype 68 and Sc. thermophilus biotype 93 showed the best technological properties and may be appropriate for cheese production. This work gave evidence of the high biodiversity of TM-cheese autochthonous biotypes which could be used as starter cultures for the improvement of TM-cheese technology. PMID:26678135

  5. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.; Saedén, K. Hallin; Nilsson, B.F.; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for...... the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at...

  6. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Persson, S.-E.; Saedén, K. Hallin; Nilsson, B.F.; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2011-01-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for...... the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at...

  7. Novel liquid starter cultures for malolactic fermentation in wine

    OpenAIRE

    Berbegal de Gracia, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    La fermentación maloláctica es fundamental para la calidad del vino, especialmente en el vino tinto. Se trata de la transformación del ácido L-málico procedente de las uvas, de un gusto fuerte y áspero, en ácido L-láctico, de gusto más agradable, liberándose además CO2. Esta fermentación puede ser una poderosa herramienta en la elaboración del vino, no solo por reducir su acidez, sino también por influir positivamente en el aroma y perfil sensorial del vino. Esta fermentación es llevada a cab...

  8. Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Parmjit S. Panesar

    2011-01-01

    Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under ...

  9. Angiotensin I-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of tryptic peptides of ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin and of milk yoghurts obtained by using different starters

    OpenAIRE

    Chobert, Jean-Marc; El-Zahar, Khaled; Sitohy, Mahmoud; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Métro, François; Choiset, Yvan; Haertlé, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Activité inhibitrice de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine I (ECA) de peptides trypsiques de la$\\beta$-lactoglobuline du lait de brebis et de yoghourts obtenus à partir de différents levains. Une activité inhibitrice de l'enzyme de conversion de l'angiotensine I (ECA) a été recherchée dans les peptides trypsiques de la $\\beta$-lactoglobuline du lait de brebis et dans des fractions issues de yoghourts fabriqués à partir de différents ferments lactiques. La $\\beta$-lactoglobuline ovine (u...

  10. Pengaruh Temperatur Dalam Pembuatan Yoghurt dari Berbagai Jenis Susu Dengan Menggunakan Lactobacillus Bulgaricus dan Streptococcus Thermophilus The effect of Temperature in Making Yoghurt from Various Kind of Milk, Using Lactobacillus Bulgaricus and Streptococcus Thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Ginting, Nurzainah; Pasaribu, Elsegustri

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the colour, texture, taste and biological living of yoghurt. The yoghurt was treated with various temperature and various kinds of milk and using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Factorial randomized block was used and the first factor was temperature, i.e. T1 (30°C), T2 (37°C), T3 (44°C), T4 (51°C); and the second factor was various kinds of milk, i.e. S1 (Skim Cow Milk), S2 (Fresh Cow Milk), S3 (Full Cream Cow Milk) and S...

  11. 30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and...-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment separation and cover interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained...

  12. 76 FR 3158 - Certain Starter Motors and Alternators; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Starter Motors and Alternators; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade... the United States after importation of certain starter motors and alternators by reason of... importation of certain starter motors and alternators that infringe one or more of claims 1-4 of the...

  13. Starter Labelling of -Windmill Graphs with Small Defects

    OpenAIRE

    Farej Omer; Nabil Shalaby

    2015-01-01

    A graph on 2n vertices can be starter-labelled, if the vertices can be given labels from the nonzero elements of the additive group Z2n+1 such that each label i, either i or i-1, is assigned to exactly two vertices and the two vertices are separated by either i edges or i-1 edges, respectively. Mendelsohn and Shalaby have introduced Skolem-labelled graphs and determined the conditions of k-windmills to be Skolem-labelled. In this paper, we introduce starter-labelled graphs and obtain necessar...

  14. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DilekHeperkan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

  15. A study of product stability of commercial probiotic fermented milk and yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the stability of three probiotic fermented milk products (‘Cultura Naturell’, ‘Biola Syrnet Lettmelk Naturell’ and ‘Biola Pluss Yoghurt Mild Naturell’) produced by TINE BA was studied and samples from each production were studied at three different times within designated shelf-life. The study focused mainly on the viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, which is a key criterion for quality evaluation of probiotic dairy products. Other parameters (pH, viscosity, organic...

  16. On One Possibility to Improve Reliability of Magnetic Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anishchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes and considers a possibility to improve an operational reliability of reversing magnetic starters by reservation of main and auxiliary contacts in accordance with majority-logic voter «two out of three».

  17. A Z-Source Inverter for an Integrated Starter Alternator

    OpenAIRE

    HANGIU Radu-Petru; FILIP Andrei-Toader; MAR?I? Claudia Stelu?a; BIRÓ Károly Ágoston

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an integrated starter alternator system used in mild hybrid electric vehicles. Inverter configurations that are used in HEV are assessed with an emphasis on the novel Zsource inverter topology. The final part presents a simulation model of a bi-directional Z-source inverter, developed in AMESim, and the simulation results.

  18. Fingerprint based bio-starter and bio-access

    OpenAIRE

    G. Iovane; Giordano, P.; Iovane, C.; Rotulo, F.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper will be presented a safety and security system based on fingerprint technology. The results suggest a new scenario where the new cars can use a fingerprint sensor integrated in car handle to allow access and in the dashboard as starter button.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of... distillate) is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the following species of bacteria grown...

  20. Probiotic yoghurt with inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization: physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stabilityIogurte probiótico com frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização: características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e estabilidade ao armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of inulin-type fructans of different degrees of polymerization (DP on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and storage stability (4°C for 28 days of nonfat probiotic yoghurt was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared using traditional lactic culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei as probiotic. The formulations contained inulin- type fructans of DP: low (P95 oligofructose, DP 5, medium (ST inulin, DP 10 or high (HP inulin, DP 23 in a concentration of 2g 100g of milk-1, meeting the current Brazilian legislation and, thus their claim of functional properties could be utilized; and were compared to a Normal formulation (without inulin-type fructans addition. The addition of inulin-type fructans with different DP did not alter the L*, a* and b* color parameters, the syneresis and the viability of the probiotic culture in yoghurts. Yoghurts with inulin-type fructans of low DP were more acidic (lower pH values and higher values of acidity. The high DP inulin caused a reduction in the firmness of yoghurt. The products contained Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei at concentrations higher than that recommended to consider them as probiotic foods throughout the storage period. The refrigerated storage resulted in decreased pH and viability of the probiotic culture and increased acidity and syneresis of yoghurt, regardless of the use of inulin-type fructans. It can be concluded that the addition of inulin-type fructans of different DP does not adversely affect the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of yoghurts and their stability to storage, thus, the selection of the type to be used depend on the purpose of the manufacturer and the intended use.Investigou-se o efeito da adição de frutanos tipo inulina de diferentes graus de polimerização (DP nas características físico-químicas e microbiológicas e na estabilidade ao armazenamento (4oC por 28 dias de iogurtes probióticos desnatados. Os iogurtes foram preparados usando cultura lática tradicional (Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus e Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei como probiótico. As formulações continham frutanos tipo inulina de DP: baixo (oligofrutose P95, DP 5, médio (inulina ST, DP 10 ou alto (inulina HP, DP 23, em uma concentração de 2g 100g de leite-1, de modo a atender a legislação brasileira vigente e assim, utilizar sua alegação de propriedade funcional; e foram comparadas a uma formulação Normal (sem adição de frutanos tipo inulina. A adição de frutanos tipo inulina com diferente DP não alterou os parâmetros L*, a* e b* de cor, a sinérese e a viabilidade da cultura probiótica dos iogurtes. Iogurtes com frutanos tipo inulina de baixo DP foram mais ácidos (menores valores de pH e maiores valores de acidez titulável. A inulina de alto DP ocasionou redução na firmeza dos iogurtes. Os produtos continham Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei em concentrações superiores às recomendadas para considerá-los como sendo probióticos durante todo o período de armazenamento. O armazenamento refrigerado resultou em diminuição do pH e da viabilidade da cultura probiótica e aumento da acidez titulável e da sinérese dos iogurtes, independentemente da utilização de frutanos tipo inulina. Conclui-se que a adição de frutanos tipo inulina de diferente DP não afeta negativamente as características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos iogurtes e sua estabilidade ao armazenamento; sendo assim, a seleção do tipo a ser utilizado dependerá do objetivo do fabricante e da intenção de uso.

  1. Effects of mixed starter composition on nisin Z production by lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis UL 719 during production and ripening of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouksaim, M; Lacroix, C; Audet, P; Simard, R E

    2000-09-10

    A starter culture system that produced both acid and nisin at acceptable rates in milk for manufacture of Gouda cheese was developed using nisin Z-producing L. lactis subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis UL 719 (UL 719) and a commercial Flora Danica (FD) starter culture. Different compositions of mixed cultures (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8% UL 719 with 1.4% FD) were tested for acidification and nisin Z production in milk after 12 h incubation at 30 degrees C. The 0.6/1.4% combination, selected as the optimal mixture of starter cultures, acidified milk to a suitable pH and produced nisin Z at a high concentration of 512 IU/ml. With this optimal combination, FD numbers of citrate-fermenting and non-fermenting bacteria did not change compared with the control (1.4% FD). However, with 0.8% of L. lactis strain UL 719 and 1.4% of the FD starter culture, the numbers of citrate-fermenting and non-fermenting bacteria in fermented milk decreased compared with those obtained when milk was inoculated with 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6% of UL 719 added to 1.4% FD or control cultures (1.4% FD). Mixed starter culture ratios 0.6/1.4%, 0.4/1.4% and 0.5/1.4% (UL 719/FD) were used to manufacture nisin Z containing Gouda cheese which was ripened up to 45 weeks. The composition of control cheeses made with 1.4% FD, and nisin Z-containing Gouda cheeses were similar with respect to percent moisture, fat, salt and protein. During the ripening period, the cell counts observed were approximately two logs higher in cheese made with the 0.6/1.4% mixed starter culture than in control cheese. In experimental cheese produced with 0.6/1.4% (UL 719/FD) mixed starter culture, nisin activity increased from 256 IU/g at the end of manufacture to a maximum of 512 IU/g after 6 weeks of ripening; the levels then decreased to 128 and 32 IU/g after 27 and 45 weeks of ripening, respectively. In contrast, nisin Z was not detected in experimental cheeses made with 0.4/1.4% or 0.5/1.4% (UL 719/FD) mixed starters. Using an affinity purified anti-nisin polyclonal antibody, anti-rabbit gold-conjugate and transmission electron microscopy, nisin Z was found to be localized in the cheese matrix, in fat globules, in the casein phase and concentrated at the fat-casein interface. After 27 weeks of ripening, nisin Z was detected preferentially in the fat globules of the experimental cheese. PMID:11020036

  2. Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña Aurora

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

  3. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Suk Choi; Joo Wan Kim; Ki-Young Kim; Jong-Kwang Lee; Jae Hak Sohn; Sae-Kwang Ku

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lu...

  4. Dietary Intervention with Yoghurt, Synbiotic Yogurt or Traditional Fermented Sobya: Bio-Potency among Male Adolescents Using Five Bio-Markers of Relevance to Colonic Metabolic Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Laila Hussein; Moustafa Gouda; Mohamed Fouad; Eid Labib; Ranya Bassyouni; Mahmoud Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to test the effectiveness of probiotic potency of regular yoghurt, synbiotic yoghurt and traditional fermented Egyptian sobya containing endogenous probiotic strains compared to unfermented rice milk porridge. Methods: The study consisted of 28 male subjects with mean age of 13.9 ± 0.1 years. The subjects were divided into four groups, three groups consumed one of three fermented supplements, while the fourth group served as a control gro...

  5. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF STRAINED (TORBA) YOGHURTS PRODUCED DURING THE SUMMER AND WINTER SEASONS IN DENÄ°ZLÄ°

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan GÖKÇE; Ahmet Hilmi ÇON; Oğuz GÜRSOY

    2001-01-01

    In this study some chemical and microbiological analysis of 57 strained (Torba) yoghurt which were taken from 10 different markets during summer and winter seasons in Denizli city centre have been carried out. According to the results, there were no significant statistical differences in chemical and microbiological properties of torba yoghurts. According to Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic, analysed samples were not appropriate while considering; dry material, 98.25 %; mould-...

  6. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

  7. Pengaruh Jenis Susu dan Persentase Starter yang Berbeda terhadap Kualitas Kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusdar Zakaria

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of different milk and starter percentage on kefir quality ABSTRACT. The objective of this study is to study the quality of kefir with different amount of starter added and different kind of milk. The quality of kefir was evaluated by measuring lactic acid level, syneresis, crude protein, crude fat and amount of active microorganism. The result showed that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has a high significant on syneresis and Lactic Acid level (P < 0,01. The best interaction was resulted from the combination of 10% starter and UHT milk. The result also indicated that the different percentage of starter and kind of milk has no effect on crude protein, crude fat and the amount of active microorganism. The combination of 10% Starter and UHT milk, produces the best quality of kefir

  8. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 ?l/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 ?l/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 ?l/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 ?l/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product. PMID:26818985

  9. Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais / Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Rocha dos Santos, Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva, Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva, Rosa; Bárbara Amorim, Silva.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Fo [...] ram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were u [...] sed and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

  10. Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Delaš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 μg/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 μmol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 μmol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 μmol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

  11. The post-entry performance of cohorts of export starters in German manufacturing industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates four cohorts of firms from German manufacturing industries that started to export in the years between 1998 and 2002 and follows them over the five years after the start. Export starters are a rare species and they are small on average compared to incumbent exporters. Between 30 percent and 40 percent of the starters became continuous exporters; some starters stepped out and back into exporting, many of them more than once. The share of total exports contributed by exp...

  12. Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Demarigny Yann; Gerber Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the ...

  13. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Yanna Syamsuddin; Hesti Meilina; Friday Septavia; Rahmad Darmawan

    2013-01-01

    Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk ...

  14. Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan; Shobana Devi R; Regina Mary R; Prabhavathi D; Vidya R; Mechenro John; Mahendri NV; Pugazhendhi Srinivasan; Ramakrishna Balakrishnan S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt...

  15. Chitosan Interaction with Iron from Yoghurt Using an In Vitro Digestive Model: Comparative Study with Plant Dietary Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Albertengo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the interaction of chitosan with iron from yoghurt by an in vitro gastrointestinal tract model. Taking into account that chitosan is a polysaccharide included in fiber definition by Codex Alimentarius; chitosan behavior was studied and compared with different plant fiber (wheat, bamboo, apple, psyllium and inulin behaviors, in the same in vitro conditions. Ferrous sulfate was added to yoghurts with each type of fiber. The gastric environment was simulated with HCl (pH 1.0–2.0. The duodenal environment was simulated with NaHCO3 (pH 6.8–7.2 and a dialysis tubing cellulose membrane. Results showed that chitosan had the highest iron retention percentages (53.2% at 30 min; 56.8% at 60 min interacting in a more pronounced manner with iron than the plant fibers used in this work.

  16. Low-fat yoghurt intake in pregnancy associated with increased child asthma and allergic rhinitis risk: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Strøm, Marin; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2012-01-01

    Dairy products are important sources of micronutrients, fatty acids and probiotics which could modify the risk of child asthma and allergy development. To examine the association of dairy product intake during pregnancy with child asthma and allergic rhinitis at 18 months and 7 years in the Danish National Birth Cohort, data on milk and yoghurt consumption were collected in mid-pregnancy (25th week of gestation) using a validated FFQ (n 61 909). At 18 months, we evaluated asthm...

  17. Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Various Dairy Products: Evidence for Biologically Reduced Amount of AFM1 in Yoghurt.

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Rahimirad; Hassan Maalekinejad; Araz Ostadi; Samal Yeganeh; Samira Fahimi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a carcinogenic substance is found in milk and dairy products. The effect of season and type of dairy products on AFMi level in northern Iran was investigated in this study. Methods Three hundred samples (each season 75 samples) including raw and pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese, and cream samples were collected from three distinct milk producing farms. The samples were subjected to chemical and solid phase extractions and were analyzed by using HPLC t...

  18. Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

  19. Incorporation of different natural polyphenol extracts into a yoghurt and their effect on viability of a selected probiotic strain

    OpenAIRE

    Pisu, Rosa; Juliano, Claudia Clelia Assunta; Alamanni, Maria Cristina Paolina; Coloru, Gavina Carmina; Cossu, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The aims of our project were: (1) to prepare different extracts of strawberry-tree honey, Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke), Arbutus unedo L. fruits (strawberry-tree) and Prunus avium L. var. Bonnannaro fruits (cherry) and characterise them with respect to their polyphenol contents; (2) to study the effect of these extracts on viability of probiotic strain Lactobacillus casei ATCC 12116; (3) to incorporate these extracts into commercial yoghurt samples to verify if their presence ...

  20. Have milk, maas or yoghurt every day:  a food–based dietary guideline for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vorster, H H; Wenhold, F.A.M.; Wright, H.H.; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; C. S. Venter; Vermaak, M.

    2013-01-01

    A national working group recently reached consensus that a guideline message for milk consumption should form part of the set of revised food-based dietary guidelines (FBDGs) for South Africa. The message was formulated as: “Have milk, maas or yoghurt every day”. This paper provides scientific support for this FBDG, based on the nutrition and health profile of South Africans; addresses concerns about possible detrimental effects of milk consumption, such as lactose intolerance, sa...

  1. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Saxami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties.

  2. Potential of functional strains, isolated from traditional Maasai milk, as starters for the production of fermented milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Mathara, Julius Maina; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this research was the evaluation of technological features and of the ability of functional LAB strains with desirable sensory characteristics, to produce fermented milk. Eight strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactococcus lactis, isolated from Maasai traditional fermented milk in Kenya and previously tested for their probiotic properties, were selected for this investigation. Technological features such as growth kinetics in fresh heat-treated whole milk medium and survival in the final product during storage at 4 degrees C, were studied. The strains Lb. acidophilus BFE 6,059, Lb. paracasei BFE 5,264 and Lc. lactis BFE 6,049 showed the best potential and were thus selected for use as starter cultures in further trials with the objective to improve their technological performance and to optimise the sensory features of fermented milk obtained. The effects of fat (F), non-fat milk solids (S) and fermentation temperature (T), modulated according to a Central Composite Design, on fermentation rates and viability losses during refrigerated storage of the chosen starters, and on product texture parameters, were studied. From the data analysis, it was possible to select optimum conditions for enhancing positive sensory traits of final products and for improving the survival of these potentially probiotic cultures. PMID:16271787

  3. Molecular Detection of Two Potential Probiotic Lactobacilli Strains and Evaluation of Their Performance as Starter Adjuncts in Yogurt Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxami, Georgia; Papadopoulou, Olga S; Chorianopoulos, Nikos; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Galanis, Alex

    2016-01-01

    A molecular method for efficient and accurate detection and identification of two potential probiotic lactobacilli strains isolated from fermented olives, namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, was developed in the present study. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed, and strain specific primers were designed and applied in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The specificity of the assay was tested and successfully confirmed in 27 and 22 lactobacilli strains for Lb. pentosus B281 and Lb. plantarum B282, respectively. Moreover, the two strains were used as starter cultures in yogurt production. Cell enumeration followed by multiplex PCR analysis demonstrated that the two strains were present in yogurt samples at levels ≥6 log CFU/g even after 35 days of storage at 4 °C. Microbiological analysis showed that lactobacilli and streptococci were present within usual levels, whereas enterobacteriaceae and yeast/mold counts were not detected as expected. Although the pH values of the novel products were slightly lower than the control ones, the yogurt containing the probiotic cultures scored similar values compared to the control in a series of sensory tests. Overall, these results demonstrated the possible use of the two strains as starter adjuncts in the production of yogurt with potential probiotic properties. PMID:27153065

  4. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  5. Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Various Dairy Products: Evidence for Biologically Reduced Amount of AFM1 in Yoghurt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rahimirad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a carcinogenic substance is found in milk and dairy products. The effect of season and type of dairy products on AFMi level in northern Iran was investigated in this study.Three hundred samples (each season 75 samples including raw and pasteurized milk, yoghurt, cheese, and cream samples were collected from three distinct milk producing farms. The samples were subjected to chemical and solid phase extractions and were analyzed by using HPLC technique. Recovery percentages, limit of detection and limit of quantification values were determined.Seventy percent and 98% were the minimum and maximum recoveries for cheese and raw milk, respectively and 0.021 and 0.063 ppb were the limit of detection and limit of quantification values for AFM1. We found that in autumn and winter the highest level (0.121 ppb of AFM1 in cheese and cream samples and failed to detect any AFM1 in spring samples. Interestingly, our data showed that the yoghurt samples had the lowest level of AFM1 in all seasons.There are significant differences between the AFM1 levels in dairy products in various seasons and also various types of products, suggesting spring and summer yoghurt samples as the safest products from AFM1 level point of view.

  6. Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WL Bryden

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

  7. Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi

    OpenAIRE

    E Taufik

    2005-01-01

    This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1), L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2), L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3) and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B...

  8. Suitability of a new mixed-strain starter for manufacturing uncooked raw ewe's milk cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutry, Fabienne; Torre, Paloma; Arana, Ines; Garcia, Susana; Pérez Elortondo, Francisco J; Berthier, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    Most raw milk Ossau-Iraty cheeses are currently manufactured on-farm using the same commercial streptococcal-lactococcal starter (S1). One way to enhance the microbial diversity that gives raw milk its advantages for cheese-making is to formulate new starters combining diverse, characterized strains. A new starter (OI) combining 6 raw milk strains of lactococci, recently isolated and characterized, was tested in parallel with the current starter by making 12 Ossau-Iraty raw milk cheeses at 3 farmhouses under the conditions prevailing at each farm. Compliance of the sensory characteristics with those expected by the Ossau-Iraty professionals, physicochemical parameters and coliforms were quantified at key manufacturing steps. The new starter OI gave cheeses having proper compliance but having lower compliance than the S1 cheeses under most manufacturing conditions, while managing coliform levels equally well as starter S1. This lower compliance relied more on the absence of Streptococcus thermophilus in starter OI, than on the nature of the lactoccocal strains present in starter OI. The study also shows that variations in 5 technological parameters during the first day of manufacture, within the range of values applied in the 3 farmhouses, are powerful tools for diversifying the scores for the sensory characteristics investigated. PMID:26919818

  9. 77 FR 8898 - Certain Starter Motors and Alternators; Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ..., L.L.C. both of Pendleton, Indiana (collectively, ``Remy''). 76 FR 3158 (Jan. 19, 2011). The... COMMISSION Certain Starter Motors and Alternators; Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination... importation of certain starter motors and alternators that by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  10. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ design verification activities am being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

  11. Construction monitoring activities in the ESF starter tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ design verification activities are being conducted in the North Ramp Starter Tunnel of the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility. These activities include: monitoring the peak particle velocities and evaluating the damage to the rock mass associated with construction blasting, assessing the rock mass quality surrounding the tunnel, monitoring the performance of the installed ground support, and monitoring the stability of the tunnel. In this paper, examples of the data that have been collected and preliminary conclusions from the data are presented

  12. Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

    2014-03-01

    Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health. PMID:24463208

  13. Clinical efficacy of facial masks containing yoghurt and Opuntia humifusa Raf. (F-YOP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Gyoseon; Yun, Dae-Myoung; Kang, Yun-Won; Kwon, Ji-Sook; Kang, In-Oh; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2011-01-01

    Facial packs or masks are popular beauty treatments that are thought to improve skin quality. We formulated a yoghurt pack using natural ingredients (F-YOP), with consideration of skin affinity, safety, health, and beauty. Then, we performed an in vitro assessment of biological activity and in vivo assessments of moisture, TEWL, melanin content, and elasticity. Facial areas treated with F-YOP showed increased moisture compared to control regions: 89±6.26% (forehead), 140.72±10.19% (cheek), and 123.29±6.67% (chin). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) values were decreased in the treated areas compared to control: 101.38±6.95% (forehead), 50.37±5.93% (cheek), and l57.81±10.88% (chin). Elasticity was decreased in the control region, whereas the treatment region did not change. The initial elasticity was maintained in the cheek. F-YOP exhibited activity on DPPH radical scavenging, SOD-like activity, and lipoxygenase activity. F-YOP treatment successfully improved the moisture, brightness, and elasticity of treated skin. PMID:22152494

  14. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  15. Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Marques

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

  16. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF STRAINED (TORBA YOGHURTS PRODUCED DURING THE SUMMER AND WINTER SEASONS IN DENÄ°ZLÄ°

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan GÖKÇE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study some chemical and microbiological analysis of 57 strained (Torba yoghurt which were taken from 10 different markets during summer and winter seasons in Denizli city centre have been carried out. According to the results, there were no significant statistical differences in chemical and microbiological properties of torba yoghurts. According to Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic, analysed samples were not appropriate while considering; dry material, 98.25 %; mould-yeast, 85 %; sodium benzoate, 28.07 % and acidity, 12.28 % point of views. For these reasons, it should be considered some new arrangements in the Regulations of Food Products of Turkish Republic for torba yoghurt.

  17. Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, U; Vogensen, F K; Persson, S-E; Hallin Saedén, K; Nilsson, B F; Ardö, Y

    2011-03-01

    The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB. The occurrence of cracks was higher in cheeses with more hydrolyzed α(S1)- and β-casein, higher content of free amino acids, lower strain at fracture (shorter texture), and a greater number of PAB. PMID:21338776

  18. Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Al-Wabel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST activities were estimated before and after alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Obtained results showed that blood glucose levels in sera of treated rats fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture decreased with mean values of 135.0 ± 26.85 mg/100 mL serum compared with the treated rat fed on basal diet (positive control with mean value of 237.66 ± 14.43 mg/100 mL serum. Data showed that ALT and AST activities in sera of treated rat fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were nearest to the level of un-treated rats fed basal diet (negative control. The means values of ALT and AST level in treated group fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were 57.33 ± 20 and 189.33 ± 48.85 compared with the positive control 90 ± 31.76 and 260.00 ± 57.27 and negative control 44.66 ± 9.5 and 180.66 ± 23.58 U L-1, respectively. Data concluded that mixture of medicinal plant extracts and stirred yoghurt filtrate may play a role in protection against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rat.

  19. Evaluation of Various Physico-Chemical Properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei Incorporated Probiotic Yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rasdhari; Parekh, T; Dave, N.; Patel, V.; R. Subhash

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis...

  20. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Maja Benković; Blaženka Kos; Katarina Tonković; Andreja Leboš; Jagoda Šušković; Ljerka Gregurek

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minu...

  1. HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF STARTER BROILERS FED NEEM (Azadirachta indica) LEAF MEAL

    OpenAIRE

    H.O. OBIKAONU; I.C. Okoli; M.N. Opara; V.M.O. OKORO; I.P. Ogbuewu; E.B. Etuk; A.B.I UDEDIBIE

    2011-01-01

    A 28-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf meal on the haematological and serum biochemical indices of starter broilers. The Neem leaves used in the experiment were manually harvested, air-dried and milled to become Neem leaf meal. The Neem leaf meal was included in broiler starter diets at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% levels, respectively. One hundred and fifty (150) Anak broiler starter chicks raised on a commercial starte...

  2. Karakterizacija i primjena autohtonih starter-kultura u proizvodnji svježeg sira

    OpenAIRE

    Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Beganović, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Uroić, Ksenija; Blažić, Marijana; Šušković, Jagoda

    2012-01-01

    Primjenom komercijalnih starter-kultura u proizvodnji svježeg sira iz pasteriziranog mlijeka gube se specifična svojstva tradicionalno proizvedenog svježeg sira zbog zamjene prirodno prisutne kompleksne mikrobiote definiranim komercijalnim starter-kulturama. Stoga je svrha ovih istraživanja bila izolirati i okarakterizirati bakterije mliječne kiseline (BMK) koje prevladavaju u tradicionalnom svježem siru i ustanoviti mogućnost njihove primjene kao autohtonih starter-kultura za proizvodnju svj...

  3. Fate of Bacillus anthracis during production of laboratory-scale cream cheese and homemade-style yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Katja; Schneider, Oda; Schmoock, Gernot; Melzer, Falk; Elschner, Mandy C

    2015-04-01

    The viability of Bacillus anthracis during production and storage of cream cheese and yoghurt was evaluated. Experimental cheeses were manufactured from whole milk inoculated with a suspension of B. anthracis vegetative cells and spores at a final concentration of 10(4) cfu/ml. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and lab ferment were used to induce milk ripening and milk coagulation. The pH-value of the contaminated milk dropped below 4.5 within the first 6 h and the amount of LAB increased by approximately 2-logs. During cheese production and storage at 5-9 °C for 24 days no growth of B. anthracis was observed. The amount of vegetative cells and spores fluctuated by 1-log. Inoculation of whole milk with heat-treated spores at 10(4) cfu/ml resulted in a slight increase of vegetative cell counts during the first 6 h. This indicated that germination occurred, but replication of vegetative cells was still inhibited in the produced cheese. Incubation of cheeses at room temperature or heating after milk coagulation strongly reduced the amount of LAB but had no effect on the growth behaviour of B. anthracis. The vegetative cell and spore content remained steady at 10(4) cfu/100 mg. During yoghurt production the pH-value decreased within 5 h below 5 and growth of B. anthracis was inhibited throughout storage. A pH-value of 5 or less is likely a critical factor to control the growth of B. anthracis. However, spores remained viable in experimental cream cheeses and yoghurts and are a potential risk of infection. PMID:25475304

  4. Effects of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Inflammatory Factors in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Rahim Foroushani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (107 CFU g-1 for each or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation. Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-a, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.441.56 to 7.441.03 g mL-1 (p = 0.041. There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.551.57 to 14.511.62 g mL-1, p = 0.202. The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-a (from 73.756.59 to 77.915.61 pg mL-1, p = 0.633. Serum TNF-a did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134. In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-a.

  5. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerabl...

  6. QUALITY AND MICRIOBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN YOGHURT SUPPLEMENTED WITH COW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo A. Aderinola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of African yam bean for the production of yoghurt substituted with cow milk was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with Yoghurmet® in ratios with reconstituted cow milk powder in the ratios 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, 100:0 and 0:100 (African yam bean milk:Cow milk. Sample 0:100 which was 100% cow milk yoghurt served as the control. The samples were stored for 14 days at 4oC and 3 days at room temperature. The results of the proximate composition of the fresh samples in percentages are; Moisture: 82.76, 81.62, 83.62, 86.53 and 85.42. Total solids: 17.25, 18.47, 16.35, 13.47and14.57. Protein: 5.93, 4.27, 5.87, 5.57 and 5.14. Ash: 0.94, 0.83, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.87. Fat: 1.07, 2.53, 1.18, 1.45 and 1.75. Carbohydrate: 9.09, 10.73, 8.33, 5.53 and 6.78 for the samples 100:0, 0:100, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 respectively. The moisture, total solids, fat and carbohydrate contents differed significantly (p≤0.05 in all the samples. The protein content of 100:0 and 90:0 did not differ significantly but differs in other samples. 0:100 differ significantly from other samples in ash content. There was no fiber in the samples. The total viable microbial count was highest in 70:30 (1×107cfu/ml for refrigerated storage samples while 50:50 (9.5×106cfu/ml had the highest count in room temperature storage samples. There were no yeasts/moulds enumerated in the refrigerated storage samples while yeast/moulds appeared in 100:0 (3×106cfu/ml and 70:30 (1×106cfu/ml on the 3rd day of room temperature storage. The titratable acidity of all the samples increased gradually throughout the storage period while their pH decreased. The specific gravity of the samples also decreased gradually throughout the storage period. The anti-nutritional composition of the samples containing African yam bean was also determined. The sensory properties showed that samples stored at refrigeration temperature maintained good quality up to 14 days of storage and that sample 50:50 was most preferred.

  7. Characterisation of microbial communities in Chinese liquor fermentation starters Daqu using nested PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Wu, Chongde; Ding, Xiaofei; Zheng, Jia; Zhou, Rongqing

    2014-12-01

    In this study, characterises of the microbial community structures of three typical Chinese liquor Daqu, as well as different kinds of light flavour Daqu were investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that microbial diversity was considerably different, and the microfloral compositions were highly variable among various Daqu. Lactic acid bacteria, which accounted for 30.95 % of all identified bacteria, were dominant in all Daqu samples, whereas Bacillus species were also predominant in the Luzhou (14.8 %) and Langjiu Daqu (18.2 %). Citrobacter and Burkholderia were first identified in light flavour Daqu. Aspergillus was the dominant moulds, and the non-Saccharomyces yeast species, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Pichia subpelliculosa, were the dominant yeasts. Rasamsonia, Galactomyces, Geotrichum and Wallemia were first identified using nested PCR-DGGE. Cluster analysis indicated that the microbial community structures of different Daqu samples exhibited some differences. These may be ascribed to the different peak production temperatures, raw material constituents and microhabitats around the liquor enterprises. The current study provides insights into the microbial community structures of three typical Daqu samples, and may facilitate the development of starter cultures for manufacturing Chinese liquor. PMID:25193747

  8. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  9. Expert system for detecting and diagnosing car engine starter cranks fault using dynamic control system

    OpenAIRE

    David Ibitayo LANLEGE; Umar Muhammad GARBA; Usman Mohammed GANA; Abdulrahman ABDULGANIYU

    2015-01-01

    Application of Dynamic Control Systems (DCS) in detecting and diagnosing car engine Starter Cranks is continuously being implemented to serve different cases of real life problems such as Control of MEMS-based scanning-probe data-storage devices, track-follow control for tape storage, probe-based ultrahigh-density storage technology, a review of feed forward control approaches in nanopositioning for high-speed SPM and so on. Car engine Starter Cranks faults can be detected b...

  10. Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Mishra

    2013-01-01

    High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with sm...

  11. Rice and soy protein isolate in pre-starter diets for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, P D; Kessler, A M; Villanueva, A P; Pontalti, G C; Farina, G; Ribeiro, A M L

    2015-11-01

    Although most industries use a specific diet for the pre-starter phase, ingredients are used in the later phases, primarily corn and soybean meal, which at this stage do not have high digestibility. Three experiments : Exp : were carried out to evaluate the substitution of corn by white or parboiled rice : WR, PR : and the inclusion of 6% soy protein isolate : SPI : in pre-starter diets (1 to 7 d). In Exp 1 (1 to 21 d), WR, PR, and SPI were added to the diets until the birds were 21-day-old, whereas in Exps 2 and 3 (1 to 33 d), only until birds were 7-day-old. Birds were fed a basal diet based on corn and soybean meal until the end of the experimental period. In Exp 1, the coefficients of total tract apparent retention : CTTAR : of the pre-starter and the starter diets, ileal and jejunal digestibility of starch in the starter diets, and broiler performance were measured. Subsequently, the same pre-starter diets Exp 1 were evaluated in pellet (Exp 2) or mash (Exp 3) form and different oil percentage (Exp 2) or not (Exp 3). We hypothesized that the ingredients particle size (Exp 2) and fat content (Exp 3) could influence feed intake. There was no interaction among the evaluated factors (P > 0.05). Rice (WR or PR) promoted better results than corn in terms of CTTAR of dietary components, jejunal and ileal starch digestibility, and broiler performance (P 0.05), so that SPI may not be the best choice for pre-starter diets. The study also suggests that better growth performance and nutrient digestibility can be obtained in broiler chickens if corn is replaced by rice in pre-starter diets. PMID:26500274

  12. Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Raimundo Ferreira Grosso

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12 and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05 both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8. The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2, during 28 days of refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determined. Lee's agar was used to count Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus when B. lactis were counted in the MRS medium. B. lactis and L. acidophilus in both free and immobilized forms presented satisfactory rates of survival in milk and acidified milk because the average reduction of the population was only one log cycle after 21 days of storage. The number of viable cells of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt presented a gradual decline throughout the storage period, passing from 10(8 cfu/ml to no count after 28 days of storage. When the cultures were not in equilibrium just the selective medium was efficient in counting B. lactis in yoghurt. The results showed that both microorganisms can be added to milk and acidified milk, because their population was only slightly affected during storage. The presence of traditional culture of yoghurt seems to be harmful for survival of immobilized B. lactis and the immobilization in calcium alginate failed as an effective barrier to protect the cells in all analysed treatments.Este trabalho avaliou a estabilidade de Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12 e de Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05 nas formas livre e imobilizada em alginato de cálcio, em leite e leite acidificado (pHs 5.0, 4.4 e 3.8, e a estabilidade de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte (fermentado até pH 4.2, durante 28 dias de estocagem refrigerada. Também foi estudada a eficiência de dois meios de cultura (ágar MRS modificado e Reinforced Clostridial Agar, acrescido de Prussian Blue para enumerar B. lactis em iogurte. Ágar Lee foi usado para enumeração de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus quando B. lactis era enumerado no meio MRS. Ambos os microrganismos, nas formas livre e imobilizada, apresentaram uma taxa de sobrevivência adequada nos leites acidificados, uma vez que houve redução de apenas um ciclo log, após 21 dias de estocagem refrigerada. O número de células viáveis de B. lactis imobilizado mostrou um declínio gradual durante o período de armazenamento do iogurte, passando de 10(8 ufc/ml até não ter mais contagem na diluição 10-1. Quando as culturas não estavam em equilíbrio, o meio MRS modificado foi mais eficiente para a contagem de B. lactis em iogurte. Em vista destes resultados pode-se concluir que ambos os microrganismos podem ser incorporados em leite e leite acidificados, haja visto que a redução na população foi pequena durante o período de armazenagem estudado. A presença da cultura tradicional de iogurte parece ter afetado negativamente a sobrevivência de B. lactis e a imobilização não proveu proteção às células, em nenhum dos tratamentos estudados.

  13. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanna Syamsuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk concentration of 5, 10, and 15% and starter concentration of 3, 5, and 7%, based on volume of soy-milk used as raw material. The soy-milk used was analyzed for its carbohydrate and protein content, and the soyghurt produced was analyzed for its lactic acid, pH and syneresis. The result showed that carbohydrate and protein content in soy-milk was 122.39 mg/L and 2.75%, respectively. The best condition of this process was the addition of 15% skimmed-milk and 5% starter, which yielded the highest lactic acid of 15% with pH of 4.23 and syneresis of 15%. It can be concluded that increasing skimmed-milk concentration cause the increase in lactic acid formation and decrease pH and syneresis. While effect of starter concentration on product analysis was influenced by the amount of nutrition contain in soy-milk.

  14. Application of autochthonous mixed starter for controlled Kedong sufu fermentation in pilot plant tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhen; Xu, Miao; Zhai, Shuang; Chen, Hong; Li, Ai-li; Lv, Xin-tong; Deng, Hong-ling

    2015-01-01

    Traditional sufu is fermented by back-slopping and back-slopping has many defects. The objective of this study was to apply autochthonous mixed starter to control Kedong sufu fermentation. Sufu was manufactured using back-slopping (batch A) and autochthonous mixed starter (batch B) with Kocuria kristinae F7, Micrococcus luteus KDF1, and Staphylococcus carnosus KDFR1676. Considering physicochemical properties of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B met the standard requirements, respectively. Considering sensory characteristics of sufu, 150-day sufu samples from batch A and 90-day sufu samples from batch B showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The maturation period of sufu was shortened by 60 d. Profiles of free amino acids and peptides partly revealed the mechanism of typical sensory quality and shorter ripening time of sufu manufactured by autochthonous mixed starter. In final products, content of total biogenic amines was reduced by 48%. Autochthonous mixed starter performed better than back-slopping. Fermentation had a positive influence on the quality, safety, and sensory properties of sufu. The application of autochthonous mixed starter does not change the sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sufu. In addition, it reduces maturation period and improves their homogeneity and safety. It is possible to substitute autochthonous mixed starter for back-slopping in the manufacture of sufu. PMID:25533352

  15. Learning Opportunities And Learning Behaviours Of Small Business Starters: Relations With Goal Achievement, Skill Development, And Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gelderen, Marco; Van Der Sluis, L.; Jansen, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Learning is a vital issue for small business starters, contributing to short term and long term business performance, as well as to personal development. This study investigates when and how small business starters learn. It specifies the situations that offer learning opportunities, as well as the learning behaviours that small business starters can employ in order to learn from these opportunities. In a cross-sectional, quantitative study of recently started small business founders, learnin...

  16. Controlling An Electric Car Starter System Through Voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Muhammad Firdaus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract These days automotive has turned into a stand out amongst the most well-known modes of transportation on the grounds that a large number of Malaysians could bear to have an auto. There are numerous decisions of innovations in auto that have in the market. One of the engineering is voice controlled framework. Voice Recognition is the procedure of consequently perceiving a certain statement talked by a specific speaker focused around individual data included in discourse waves. This paper is to make an car controlled by voice of human. An essential pre-processing venture in Voice Recognition systems is to recognize the vicinity of noise. Sensitivity to speech variability lacking recognition precision and helplessness to mimic are among the principle specialized obstacles that keep the far reaching selection of speech-based recognition systems. Voice recognition systems work sensibly well with a quiet conditions however inadequately under loud conditions or in twisted channels. The key focus of the project is to control an electric car starter system.

  17. Expert system for detecting and diagnosing car engine starter cranks fault using dynamic control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibitayo LANLEGE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of Dynamic Control Systems (DCS in detecting and diagnosing car engine Starter Cranks is continuously being implemented to serve different cases of real life problems such as Control of MEMS-based scanning-probe data-storage devices, track-follow control for tape storage, probe-based ultrahigh-density storage technology, a review of feed forward control approaches in nanopositioning for high-speed SPM and so on. Car engine Starter Cranks faults can be detected by sequence of diagnostic processes which brings about the deployment of an Expert System. An Expert System is one of the leading Artificial Intelligence techniques that have been adopted to handle such task. This paper presents the imperatives for an Expert System in developing Dynamic Control Systems for detecting and diagnosing car engine Starter Crank faults through input and output requirements of constructing successful Knowledge-Based Systems. Furthermore, diagnosis of car engine Starter Cranks faults requires high technical skills and experience. thus, DCS provides input and output equations in form of Matrix/Vector State Space Representation (MSSR which is useful in assisting mechanics for car engine Starter Cranks fault detection and diagnosis via DCS and mathematical Differential Equations (DE’s.

  18. Production Of Bio fuel Starter From Biomass Waste Using Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biggest biomass source in Malaysia comes from oil palm industry. According to the statistic in 2010, Malaysia produced 40 million tones per year of biomass of which 30 million tones of biomass originated from the oil palm industries. The biomass waste such as palm kernel shell can be used to produce activated carbon and bio fuel starter. A new type of rotary kiln, called Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) was developed in Nuclear Malaysia to utilize the large amount of the biomass to produce high value added products. This system is capable to process biomass with complete combustion to produce bio fuel starter. With this system, the produced charcoal has calorific value, 33MJ/ kg that is better than bituminous coal with calorific value, 25-30 MJ/ kg. In this research, the charcoals produced were further used to produce the bio fuel starter. This paper will elaborate the experimental set-up of the Rocking Kiln Fluidized Bed (RKFB) for bio fuel starter production and the quality of the produced bio fuel starter. (author)

  19. Cheese production using kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kanellaki, Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of kefir culture entrapped in casein and in whey protein as starter cultures for the production of Feta-type cheese. Microbiological analysis showed that counts of enterobacteria, coliforms, and staphylococci were significantly reduced due to kefir culture. In addition, the effect of kefir culture on the formation of volatile compounds, such as esters, organic acids, alcohols, carbonyl compounds, and lactones, was also investigated using the SPME GC/MS technique. Cheese samples produced with kefir culture entrapped in milk proteins presented improved profile of aroma-related compounds. Principal component analysis of the results indicated that the volatile composition of the different cheese types was dependent on the nature of the starter culture. Finally, the sensory evaluation showed that the products produced with kefir culture had a soft, fine taste, and were of improved quality. PMID:25809991

  20. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    their markets. 3. When aggregated, 16 potential key success factors were derived: High product quality, attractive packaging, high quality of raw material, possession of advanced technology and know-how, competent management and competent staff, wide product range, extensive product development......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success on...

  1. The effect of homogenization pressure and stages on the amounts of Lactic and Acetic acids of probiotic yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Massoud

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the use of probiotic products especially yogurt, due to having wonderful and health properties, has become popular in the world. In this study, the effect of homogenization pressure (100, 150 and 200 bars and stage (single and two on the amount of lactic and acetic acids was investigated. Yoghurts were manufactured from low-fat milk treated using high pressure homogenization at 100,150 and 200 bar and at 60°C. The amount of lactic and acetic acids was determined after the days 1, 7, 14 and 21 of storage at 4ºC. The experiments were set up using a completely randomized design. With the increase of pressure and stage of homogenization, the amount of both acids was increased (p<0.01. The greatest amount of lactic and acetic acids during the storage period was observed in the sample homogenized at a pressure of 200 bars and two stages.

  2. The effects of marketing activities on fast moving consumer good purchases: the case of yoghurt Italian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Brasini

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.

  3. 76 FR 28808 - In the Matter of Certain Starter Motors And Alternators; Notice of Commission Decision Not To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... Remy International, Inc. and Remy Technologies, L.L.C. (collectively, ``Remy''). 76 FR 3158. The... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Starter Motors And Alternators; Notice of Commission Decision Not To... importation of certain starter motors and alternators by reason of infringement of various United...

  4. Short communication: Protection of lyophilized milk starter Lactobacillus casei Zhang by glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Liu, Qian; Chen, Wei; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Lyophilization is considered an effective way to preserve the activity of milk starters, such as lactic acid bacteria, in which proper protective agents play key roles. In this study, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a probiotic bacterium applied as a milk starter in China, was used to investigate the effects of various cryoprotectants according to cell survival rate and physiological characteristics. The result showed a significant survival improvement to 86.6% when glutathione (GSH) was added as an ideal cryoprotectant. Further study revealed that GSH plays a key role on maintaining higher unsaturation ratio of cell membrane and shorter chain length of saturated fatty acids. In this case, the intact cell structure can be obtained. These findings will contribute not only to deepen the understanding of cells during lyophilization but also to improve the industrial performance of certain milk starters such as L. casei Zhang by application of GSH as cryoprotectant. PMID:26723115

  5. Digestive development in neonatal dairy calves with either whole or ground oats in the calf starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Heinrichs, A J; Jones, C M; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D

    2015-05-01

    A series of 3 trials was conducted to determine effects of whole or ground oats in starter grain on reticulorumen fermentation and digestive system development of preweaned calves. Male Holstein calves (43.1±2.3kg at birth; n=8, 9, and 7 for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively) were housed in individual pens in a heated facility; bedding was covered with landscape fabric to prevent consumption of bedding by the calves. In trials 1 and 2 only, calves were fitted with rumen cannulas by wk 2 of life. In all trials, a fixed amount of starter (containing 25% oats either ground and in the pellet or whole) was offered daily; orts were fed through the cannula in trials 1 and 2. Calves were randomly assigned to an all-pelleted starter or pellets plus whole oats. Rumen contents (trials 1 and 2) were sampled weekly at -8, -4, 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h after grain feeding for determination of pH and volatile fatty acids. Calves were killed 3 wk (trial 1) or 4 wk (trials 2 and 3) after grain was offered; organs were harvested, emptied, rinsed, and weighed to gauge digestive organ development. Starter intake was not different between treatments. Weekly measurements of rumen digesta pH did not change and only subtle changes were observed in molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids. Molar proportion of butyrate and pH linearly decreased with age, whereas acetate proportion increased. Reticulorumen weight and papillae length tended to be greater for calves fed pelleted starter, whereas abomasum weight was greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Fecal particle size and starch content were greater for calves fed pellets plus whole oats. Under the conditions of this study, physical form of oats in starter grain did not affect rumen fermentation measurements; greater rumen weight and papillae length in calves fed pelleted starter may be the result of greater nutrient availability of ground oats. Under the conditions of this study with young calves on treatments for <4 wk, increasing particle size of the starter by feeding whole oats did not affect rumen fermentation nor did it improve digestive system development. PMID:25747837

  6. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; PARK, KUN-YOUNG

    2015-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related ...

  7. Effect of macronutrient ratio of the pre-starter diet on broiler performance and intermediary metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Swennen, Quirine; Everaert, N.; Debonne, M.; Verbaeys, I.; Careghi, C.; Tona, K.; Janssens, G.P.J.; Decuypere, E.; Bruggeman, V.; Buyse, J

    2010-01-01

    P>The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of isoenergetic substitution between the three energy delivering macronutrients in pre-starter diets on performance and intermediary nutrient metabolism in broiler chickens. From hatch until 5 days of age, 600 chicks, collected during peak of hatch, were fed one of the three experimental pre-starter diets with isoenergetic (13 MJ metabolisable energy/kg) substitutions between fat (43 vs. 108 g/kg), protein (126 vs. 240 g/kg) and carbohy...

  8. The Crankshaft Starter Generator Sachs dynastart; Der Kurbelwellen-Startergenerator Sachs DynaStart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, J.; Sattler, M.; Baumeister, J. [Mannesmann Sachs AG, Schweinfurt (Germany). Produktbereich Automatisierung und Elektrische Antriebssysteme

    2000-06-01

    Mannesmann Sachs has been developing electric drives for automotive applications for ten years. One of the most interesting example for the application of the approved Sachs motor technology is the Crankshaft Starter Generator CSG. The CSG combines the conventional starter and the generator into a single unit offering a significantly improved performance and novel functionalities as well. (orig.) [German] Das Auto wird zunehmend elektrifiziert. Der Antriebsstrang bleibt bei diesem Trend nicht aussen vor. Neben der Automatisierung von Kupplung und Getriebe mittels elektromechanischer Aktuatoren eroeffnet die Integration einer elektrischen Maschine - zum Beispiel in das Schwungrad, die Kupplung oder das Zweimassenschwungrad (ZMS) - attraktive Moeglichkeiten hinsichtlich Funktionalitaet, Effizienz und Kompaktheit. (orig.)

  9. Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler AM; DS Lubisco; MM Vieira; AML Ribeiro; Penz Jr AM

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

  10. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Soković, Marina

    2014-07-25

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

  11. Dadih Susu Sapi Hasil Fermentasi Berbagai Starter Bakteri Probiotik yang Disimpan pada Suhu Rendah: II. Karakteristik Fisik, Organoleptik dan Mikrobiologi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate physical, organoleptical and microbiological characteristics of dadih from cow milk fermented with different combinations of probiotic starter bacteria and stored at low temperature. The concentration of starter used to make dadih was 3% with equal comparison between starters. The combinations of probiotic starter bacteria were (L. plantarum (A1, L. plantarum + L. acidophilus (A2, L. plantarum + B. bifidum (A3 and L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum (A4 and stored at low temperatures (refrigerator for 0, 7 and 14 days. The observed variables were viscosity, total lactic acid bacteria, total Bifidobacterium bifidum and organoleptic properties (color, aroma, taste and firmness. The result showed that combinations of probiotic starter bacteria did not affect significantly (P>0.05 viscosity and total Bificobacterium bifidum of dadih at H-0 (before storage, but affect significantly (P<0.05 total lactic acid bacteria. The characteristics of dadih during 14 days of storage in low temperature showed that combinations of starter did not significantly affect viscosity but storage time affect significantly (P<0.05. Total Bificobacterium bifidum was not affected significantly by either starter combination or storage time.Total lactic acid bacteria was significantly affected (P<0.05 by storage time and very significantly affected (P<0.01 by starter combinations. A4 starter combination (L. plantarum + L. acidophilus + B. bifidum has the most preference modus value for firmness, color, flavor and aroma according to panelist test result. Among those four organoleptic parameters, only aroma was affected significantly by starter combination.

  12. Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Stojković, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Leo J.L.D. Van Griensven; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Soković, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

  13. Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh) and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Esfandiari; Mohammad Badiey; Pooya Mahmoodian; Reza Sarhangpour; Elham Yazdani; Maryam Mirlohi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh”, the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh. Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP-HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservativ...

  14. Genome Sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris Strain T26, Isolated from Mesophilic Undefined Cheese Starter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Kot, W P; Hansen, L H; Sørensen, Søren J.; Broadbent, J R; Vogensen, F K; Ardö, Y

    2014-01-01

    Leuconostoc is the main group of heterofermentative bacteria found in mesophilic dairy starters. They grow in close symbiosis with the Lactococcus population and are able to degrade citrate. Here we present a draft genome sequence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris strain T26....

  15. Diagnostics of D.C. Starter Generators While Using Fuzzy Logic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lobaty

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Methodology for sparking control in generator brush contact has been developed on the basis of the proposed fuzzy diagnostic model for ad.c.starter-generator and complex processing of diagnostic data. The paper provides investigation results, namely: dependence of voltage parameters  in an external generator circuit on collector sparking intensity.

  16. The AskA Starter Kit: How To Build and Maintain Digital Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Kasowitz, Abby S.

    This Starter Kit is designed to help organizations and individuals who wish to offer human-mediated information services via the Internet to users in the K-12 community. A six-step process is proposed for organizations to follow in creating an "AskA" service. This process addresses all aspects involved in building and maintaining an AskA service…

  17. Study of a Nine-Phase Fault Tolerant Permanent Magnet Starter-Alternator

    OpenAIRE

    RUBA Mircea; SURDU Felicia; Szabó, Loránd

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a study on a nine-phasepermanent magnet synchronous starter-alternator forautomotive applications, analyzing different convertertopologies, detailing the simulation programs anddiscussing the results in different operating conditions,from entire healthy machine to several faulted phases.The comparison between the two converter topologiescontrolling the multiphase machine highlights theincreased fault tolerance, hence the reliability of suchstarter-alternator structures. Nev...

  18. Time-dependent correlation of the microbial community and the metabolomics of traditional barley nuruk starter fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Kannan; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    The microbial community and the metabolites of barley nuruk were studied to determine the time-dependent correlation between the fermentation of microbes and metabolites. Samples were analyzed by a polyphasic approach based on culture-dependent, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and qPCR analysis), and metabolite analysis using GC-MS. Barley nuruk consists of varying amounts of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The PCR-DGGE results showed that only one phylotype, Aspergillus oryzae, was predominant throughout fermentation, reaching a maximum on day 9. The bacterial load was higher on day 6 of fermentation, and then gradually decreased because of increased fungal activity. The shift in fungal and bacterial diversity observed by DGGE was further confirmed by qPCR analysis. In addition, microbes closely related to Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera appeared to play key roles in the fermentation of barley nuruk. GC-MS analysis combined with multivariate analysis, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA, showed fermentation time-dependent metabolite patterns. A total of 21 metabolites, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, were identified. In particular, glycerol, malic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose were produced at the early fermentation stages (0-6 d), whereas glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, mannitol, and xylitol were produced during the latter stages of fermentation (9-18 d). Mixed culture fermentation was found throughout the natural fermentation of barley nuruk starter. Most likely, A. oryzae had a major role in saccharification, along with other mixed cultures. PMID:23563559

  19. Efisiensi dan Kecernaan Ransum Domba yang Diberi Silase Ransum Komplit Eceng Gondok Ditambahkan Starter Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Ekawati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available (Efficiency and digestibility feed of sheep given silage complete feed water hyacinth added starter lactobacillus plantarum ABSTRACT. This study aims to determine the effect of a complete ration of silage made from water hyacinth on feed efficiency and digestibility. This study uses fifteen rams (12 months old with an average body weight of 19 ± 3.98 kg. The experimental was designed completely random. The sheeps were randomly divided into 3 treatments, and 4 replications. The sheeps wereted concentrate and fresh elephant grass (T0, silage-based rations complete without the addition of starter hyacinth L. plantarum (T1, and a complete ration silage made from water hyacinth by the addition of L. plantarum starter (T2. Feed structured treatment isoenergi and isoprotein (PK 13% and 65% TDN. Feed treatment was given for 12 weeks with a 2-week adaptation period. The results showed that feed intake, ADG, feed conversion, and feed efficiency were not significantly different (P> 0.05, but it can improve feed digestibility (P <0.05 between treatments. Feed intake data, digestibility, ADG, feed conversion and feed efficiency at T0, T1 and T2 as follows: 678.27, 811.43, 701.21 g / day; 70.51, 71.74, 69.82%; 94.09, 106.34, 97.28 g / day; 7.22, 7.66, and 7.18; 14.09, 13.23 and 14.02% use a complete ration silage with L. plantarum starter better than the control treatment in the form of concentrates with elephant grass but not better than silage without a starter.

  20. Utjecaj količine starter kulture na oblikovanje gela i fizikalno-kemijska svojstva jogurta proizvedenog od zebu mlijeka

    OpenAIRE

    A. Olorunnisomo, Olusola; Saudat Adewumi, Adedoyin

    2014-01-01

    U svrhu određivanja optimalne doze starter kulture za proizvodnju jogurta od zebu mlijeka, svježe mlijeko je inokulirano dodatkom 5, 10, 15, 20, i 25 g/L pripravka liofilizirane starter kulture. Pri tome je praćena neposredna priprema kulture i tvorba gela, a jogurtima proizvedenim inokulacijom mlijeka različitim dozama starter kulture određivani su pH vrijednost, senzorska svojstva i prihvatljivost nakon 2, 4, 6, 8 i 10 sati inkubacije. U proizvedenim uzorcima jogurta uočen je značajan (p20>...

  1. Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Astawan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

  2. Influence of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [G.B. Pant Univ., of Agriculture and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Arora, C.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on product temperature profiles and production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt were investigated experimentally. Three sample thicknesses - 3.8 mm, 6.2 mm and 9.4 mm - were tested at chamber pressures of 0.01 and 0.5 mmHg. The production rate increased by decreasing product thickness in contact heating through the bottom of the frozen layer, whereas no significant change was observed in radiant heating. A reduction in chamber pressure from 0.50 to 0.01 mmHg increased the drying time in radiant heating. Maximum production rate was obtained when the thickness of dried product was 6.2 mm, when heat was transferred simultaneously through the frozen and dried layers, and the chamber pressure was at 0.01 mmHg. Use of the product tray developed in this study prevents the growth of dry layers at the contact surfaces. (Author)

  3. Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aran H-Kittikun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

  4. Characteristic of cow milk dadih using starter of probiotic of lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Usmiati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Dadih is an original dairy product from West Sumatera processed traditionally. It is a spontaneous fermentation of buffalo milk at room temperature for 48 hours in a bamboo tube, has no standard of processing and quality. Dadih is potentially to be develop into probiotic products (functional food that can be enjoyed by the public widely. Development of cow's milk dadih is necessary since buffalo milk is available only in certain area. Product and characteristic information of cow milk dadih using probiotic of lactic acid bacteria starter has not been known. The research objective was to determine the characteristics of cow milk dadih that used starter of probiotic lactic acid bacteria during storage at room temperature (27oC and cold temperature (4oC. The study was designed using a factorial randomized block design pattern 12x3 at room temperature and 12X4 at cold temperatures, with the number of repeatation of 3 times. Treatment consisted of: (i starter formula (A using a single bacterium or a combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, and (ii storage time (B. Observed parameters included pH value, titrable acidity, the total plate count, and in-vitro probiotic testing (bacterial resistance to bile salts and low pH of cow milk dadih. The results showed that L. acidophilus early exponential phase was at the hour 3rd, L. casei at the hour 4th and B. longum on the 3rd of which is used as the optimum time of mixing two or more bacteria in the manufacture of cow milk dadih. The volume of starter used was 3% with time fermentation of 48 hours at room temperature (27-30oC. Cow milk dadih that was stored for 7 days at room temperature (27-30oC and for 21 days at cold temperatures (4-10oC was able to maintain viability of bacteria to bile salts and low pH at 1010-1012 cfu/ml with percentage resistance varied. The cow milk dadih using a combination starter of B. longum with other probiotics on the composition of 1:1 had a resistance to bile salts which were relatively constant after the dadih was kept for 21 days at cold temperature. Cow milk dadih with a starter of probiotic bacteria still qualify as a probiotic product with good quality that storaged up to 4 days at room temperature and 21 days in cold temperatures.

  5. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter culture on fermentation of cabbage with reduced salt concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerkraut fermentations rely upon selection of naturally occurring lactic acid bacteria by addition of 2.0 to 2.25% granulated sodium chloride (NaCl) to shredded cabbage. Excess brine generated is a waste product with high levels of organic material (BOD) and non-biodegradable NaCl. The objective...

  6. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials. PMID:26429595

  7. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening

    OpenAIRE

    H. Bachmann; Kruijswijk, Z.; Molenaar, D.; Kleerebezem, M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughput...

  8. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Yousef I.; Bullerman, Lloyd B.

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultu...

  9. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nago, M.C.; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava...

  10. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    OpenAIRE

    Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results fr...

  11. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Kos; Jasna Beganović; Lina Jurašić; Martina Švađumović; Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Ksenija Uroić; Jagoda Šušković

    2011-01-01

    Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacill...

  12. Importance in dairy technology of bacteriocins produced by dairy starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia Şimşek

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by Lactic acid bacteria (LAB and propionic acid bacteria (PAB are heterogeneous group of peptide inhibitors which include lantibiotics (class I, e. g. nisin, small heat-stable peptides (class II, e. g. pediocin PA-1 and large heat-labile proteins (class III, e. g. helveticin J. Many bacteriocins belonging to the first two groups can be successfully used to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in foods, but only nisin is produced industrially and is used as a food preservative. LAB and PAB develops easily in milk and milk products. LAB and PAB growth in dairy products can cause microbial interference to spoilage and pathogenic bacteria through several metabolits, specially bacteriocins. The review deals with the description of milk-borne bacteriocins and their application in milk and milk products either to extend the shelf life or to inhibit milk pathogens.

  13. Alcohols, esters and heavy sulphur compounds production by pure and mixed cultures of apiculate wine yeasts

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Nathalie; Mendes, Filipa; Hogg, Tim; Vasconcelos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Strains of Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as pure or mixed starter cultures in commercial medium, in order to compare their kinetic parameters and fermentation patterns. In pure and mixed cultures, yeasts presented similar ethanol yield and productivity. Pure cultures of H. uvarum and S. cerevisiae showed a specific growth rate of 0.38 h⁻¹; however, this value decreased when these yeasts were grown in mixed cultures with H. guillie...

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Moo-Yeon; Lim, Dong; Kim, Sung

    2015-01-01

    The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations ...

  15. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Onu P. N.

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performanc...

  16. Starting of fluorescent tube light by using inverter circuit instead of choke and starter arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Debnath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A fluorescent tube light generally starts glowing when a large voltage is applied across its terminals at the time of starting for a very short period, once it starts glowing then it will be able to continue with normal supply voltage. Conventionally this needed high voltage, at the time of starting, is provided by the use of choke starter arrangement.On the other hand, the circuit which converts the dc into ac is called inverter circuit. This paper will discuss about an inverter circuit which can be used in place of choke starter arrangement. This inverter circuit develops high voltage at the time of starting and after that its output voltage will come down to the normal rated voltage level. This inverter circuit arrangement not only make the tube light performance faster but also economically preferable.

  17. An experimental evaluation of the performance deficit of an aircraft engine starter turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. E.; Roelke, R. J.; Hermann, P.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to determine the aerodynamic performance deficit of a 13.5 - centimeter-tip-diameter aircraft engine starter turbine. The two-phased evaluation comprised both the stator and the stage performance, and the experimental design is described in detail. Data obtained from the investigation of three honeycomb shrouds clearly showed that the filled honeycomb reached a total efficiency of 0.868, 8.2 points higher than the open honeycomb shroud, at design equivalent conditions of speed and blade-jet speed ratio. It was concluded that the use of an open honeycomb shroud caused the large performance deficit for the starter turbine. Further research is suggested to ascertain stator inlet boundary layer measurements.

  18. Fuzzy and ANFIS based soft starter fed induction motor drive for high performance applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rajaji

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft starters are used with induction motors in blowers, fans, pumps and the crane hoist drives. AC voltage controllers are used as soft starters in induction motors for starting and to adjust its speed. This paper highlights the intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy and Neuro fuzzy based ac voltage controllers to generate the firing pulses for appropriate thyristors for any given operating torque, speed of the motor and the load. FUZZY and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System models have been designed to achieve the proposed algorithm. MATLAB/SIMULINK package was used to simulate the proposed methods. Simulation results presented in this paper explain the advantages of proposed soft starting methods over conventional method. The advantages of intelligent methods proposed in this paper are its simplicity, stability, accuracy and fast response.

  19. THE RESPONSE OF ACETOBACTER SENEGALENSIS TO STRESSORS: A STUDY TOWARDS IMPROVEMENT OF VINEGAR STARTER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiei, Rasoul; Thonart, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria encounter various harsh conditions during acetic acid fermentation. Ethanol as the main substrate and acetic acid as the major product at low pH can influence deeply on the cellular functions of acetic acid bacteria. In previous studies in CWBI, Acetobacter senegalensis was used for production of dried vinegar starters; however the impact of stressors (ethanol and acetic acid) on A. senegalensis remained unclear. In this study, different techniques...

  20. Rectifier Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of a Doubly Fed Brushless Starter Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Liwei Shi; Zhou Bo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a rectifier fault diagnosis method with wavelet packet analysis to improve the fault tolerant four-phase doubly fed brushless starter generator (DFBLSG) system reliability. The system components and fault tolerant principle of the high reliable DFBLSG are given. And the common fault of the rectifier is analyzed. The process of wavelet packet transforms fault detection/identification algorithm is introduced in detail. The fault tolerant performance and output voltage experi...