WorldWideScience

Sample records for yoghurt starter cultures

  1. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  2. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Małgorzata Ziarno; Ewa Sękul; Alvaro Aguado Lafraya

    2007-01-01

    The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultu...

  3. Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo

    Vijayendra, S. V. N.; Gupta, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p 

  4. Wine starters cultures

    Débora Santos; Jane Mary Lafayette Neves Gelinski

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.

  5. Should yoghurt cultures be considered probiotic?

    Guarner, Francisco; Perdigon, Gabriela; Corthier, Gérard; Salminen, Seppo; Koletzko, Berthold; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2005-06-01

    Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics. PMID:16022746

  6. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Elok Zubaedah1); Joni Kusnadi; Ima Andriastuti2)

    2003-01-01

    Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of rando...

  7. Influence of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 on post-acidification, metabolite formation and survival of starter bacteria in set-yoghurt.

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Gazi, Inge; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth and survival of the model probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 in co-culture with traditional yoghurt starters and to investigate the impact of preculturing on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. L. plantarum WCFS1 was precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor before inoculation in milk. Adaptive responses of L. plantarum WCFS1 were evaluated by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated that sublethal preculturing did not significantly affect survival of L. plantarum WCFS1. On the other hand, incorporation of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 significantly impaired the survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus which consequently reduced the post-acidification of yoghurt during refrigerated storage. A complementary metabolomics approach using headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR combined with multivariate statistical analysis revealed substantial impact of sublethally precultured L. plantarum WCFS1 on the metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. This study provides insight in the technological implications of non-dairy model probiotic strain L. plantarum WCFS1, such as its good stability in fermented milk and the inhibitory effect on post-acidification. PMID:27375240

  8. Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry

    Hansen, Egon Bech

    2014-01-01

    Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultur...... the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets....

  9. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-

  10. Community dynamics of complex starter cultures for Gouda-type cheeses and its functional consequences

    Erkus, O.

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as starter and adjunct cultures for the production of artisanal and industrial fermented milk products such as yoghurt and cheese.  Artisanal fermentations is propagated with the transfer of an inoculum from old batch of fermented food to the new batch (back-slopping) to initiate the fermentation with the activity of the indigenous microbiota present in the inoculum. In industrial production, these inocula with indigenous microbiota are replaced with t...

  11. 一种酸奶发酵剂的实践应用效果%Practical application of yoghurt culture

    苏海涛; 张柏林

    2011-01-01

    The Application of JLB1 starter culture in yoghurt product with weak post-acidification Abstract: A commercial starter culture was used to produce yogurt products. The changes of pHs from yogurt samples, collected fermented yogurt and stored at 6 ℃ or 27 ℃ for 17 days, showed that the stable pH in yogurt products was important in maintaining the good sensory quality of final products due to the weak post-acidifying activity of the starter culture. Starter culture JLB1 was available for producing high quality yogurt stored at ambient temperatures with less loss of viscosity.%通过对来自科汉森发酵剂ILB1在发酵过程中与产品货架期内不同贮存温度下的pH值变化,以及随pH值变化后酸乳的黏度等感官指标评价表明,采用该菌种能显著改善制作酸乳的后酸化过程,可以用来作为生产高品质酸乳的适宜发酵剂.

  12. Thermophilic starter cultures: another set of problems

    Oberg, C. J.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.

    1993-01-01

    Increased consumer demand for yogurt and Italian cheeses, particularly Mozzarella, over the past decade has intensified production demands on thermophilic starter cultures. Dramatically elevated production rates within existing facilities have created problems analogous to those experienced years ago by the dairy industry for mesophilic lactococci when Cheddar cheese production increased dramatically. In contrast to mesophilic lactococci, however, diversity among lactic genera that contain th...

  13. PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics

    Elok Zubaedah1

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

  14. Improving Quality of Yoghurt By Irradiation

    This investigation was carried out to study the possibility to utilize gamma irradiation to activate starter culture during incubation period and prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt. Starter culture of yoghurt was subjected to gamma irradiation with 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Gy to activate the starter then yoghurt was made. Effect of irradiation dose on titratable acidity and the sensory evaluation of all samples were evaluated during incubation period. The obtained results indicated that the irradiation doses 30, 35 and 40 Gy activated the starter and caused significant decreased of incubation period from 4 h to 3.5 h while irradiation doses that less than 30 Gy and more than 40 Gy did not significantly effect. Yoghurt samples were subjected to gamma irradiation with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy to prolong the shelf-life of yoghurt samples. The sensory, microbial and chemical properties of yoghurt samples were evaluated during cold storage. The obtained results indicated that the counts of total viable bacteria, molds and yeasts were decreased by applying gamma irradiation. Irradiation treatment caused significant decrease in acidity. The overall acceptability scores, total solid and ph value of all treatments were gradually decreased as the storage period proceeded while total nitrogen of all treatments was not affected. In addition, treatments of yoghurt with 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 kGy prolonged the shelf-life to 20, 28 and 36 days as compared to 12 days for control treatment

  15. The Inhibition effect of Yoghurt Starter Culture Metabolites

    ASLIM, Belma; BEYATLI, Yavuz

    2000-01-01

    In this study effect of some separate and combined metabolic compounds produced by lactic acid were tested on food pathogenic and contaminant microorgnasms. For this study, five strains of each Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were used. The inhibition effects of the metabolic products (lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, acetaldehyde, diacetyl) produced by the stains on test bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli) were determined. Also, a random combination...

  16. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana.

    Akabanda, Fortune; Owusu-Kwarteng, James; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Parkouda, Charles; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities). Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL) was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures. PMID:26904646

  17. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  18. Effect of bacteria proportion on the fermentation of goat yoghurt with probiotic culture

    Guowei Shu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Goat milk production in Shaanxi province is dominant in China, but the product is mainly in- fant formula and adult milk powder; product homogeneity is serious and has no goat yoghurt with probiotic culture. Methods. The effect of bacteria proportion (1:3:1, 1:2:1, 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1 on pH, acidity, and viable counts and sensory evaluation of goat milk fermented by probiotics including L. acidophilus, B. bifidum  or L. casei besides, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt was investigated. Results. The optimum bacteria proportion of L. acidophilus : B. bifidum : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for AB-goat yoghurt and B. bifidum : L. casei : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for BC-goat yoghurt were both 2:1:1. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, the total viable counts were respectively 4.60, 7.73 (g/L, 3.50×107 cfu/mL, 3.40×107 cfu/mL and 2.30×109 cfu/mL in AB-goat yoghurt. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of B. bifidum and L. casei, the total viable counts were respectively  4.61, 8.16 (g/L, 7.60×107 cfu/mL, 5.60×107 cfu/mL and 2.04×109 cfu/mL in BC-goat yoghurt. Conclusion. The bacteria proportion had a significant effect on fermentation of AB- and BC-goat yoghurt, the results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt.

  19. SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan

    Widaningrum3

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

  20. Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt

    Harun Kesenkaş

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

  1. Towards the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi (edible starch): Screening for potential starters

    Kubrat A. Oyinlola; Onilude, Anthony A.; Oluwaseun E. Garuba

    2016-01-01

    Fermented cassava products like fufu and usi are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starters are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence, this study...

  2. Probiotic Yoghurts From Ultrafiltered Concentrated Milk

    Kozludzhova Siyka; Goranov Bogdan; Boyanova Petya; Yanakieva Velichka; Dushkova Mariya; Dinkov Kolyo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, yoghurts from ultrafiltered concentrated whole milk with a volume reduction ratio 0, 2 and 3 with three different probiotic yoghurt starters were obtained. Their physiological, microbiological and rheological properties were examined. The concentrated probiotic yoghurts had high concentration of viable cells of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (over 1010cfu/cm3). For the preparation of concentrated probiotic yoghurts the most appropriate volume red...

  3. Optimization of the process parameters for the preparation of synbiotic yoghurt-cheese

    Pratima Khandelwal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Attempts were made to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese having functional attributes of both prebiotics and probiotics. Firstly, the conditions for the preparation of prebiotic yoghurt were optimized in order to determine the optimal level of prebiotic ingredients - raftiline (the fat replacer, raftilose (the sugar replacer, oat fiber and honey as an enricher and combinations thereof; by means of sensory evaluation. Incorporation of raftiline, raftilose, honey @ 4, 4 and 3 percent respectively, and combinations of oat fiber with raftiline or raftilose (0.5%+4% and honey (0.5%+3% in pre-standardized low fat (0.5% fat and 11 % SNF buffalo milk resulted in acceptable yoghurt. The yoghurt-cheese was then made by centrifuging the set yoghurt at pre-optimized centrifugation conditions (9000 rpm for 15 min. In order to prepare synbiotic yoghurt-cheese, optimized level of prebiotic ingredients/enricher and the combinations thereof were added to standardized milk and the fermentation was carried out by different combinations of probiotic cultures namely L. acidophilus with yoghurt culture (C2, 1:1:1, B. bifidum with yoghurt starter (C3, 1:1:1 and combination of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum with yoghurt culture (C4, 1:1:1:1 taking yoghurt culture as control (C1, 1:1. Each culture combination was added @ 3% and incubation was carried out at 42±1 0C. It was concluded on the basis of physico-chemical and sensory evaluation that a quite acceptable quality synbiotic yoghurt-cheese could be prepared using C3 culture combination with raftiline, raftilose and combinations of oat fiber with raftiline, raftilose and honey.

  4. Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations

    Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

  5. Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei

    Sedarnawati Yasni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

  6. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk

    Metin Guldas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w % and without the addition of Spirulina powder was investigated. The yoghurts were prepared under hygienic laboratory conditions and their pH and acidity were controlled during the process. The samples of yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and investigated on days 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. Viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria were above 6 cfu g-1of all “spirulina powder” added samples whereas control yoghurt samples contained lower lactic acid bacteria count at the end of the storage period. Addition of 1 % Spirulina platensis powder into the yoghurts did not cause significant differences on the viable lactic acid bacteria (p≤0.05. The results showed the positive effect of S. platensis powder on the survival of the lactic acid bacteria during storage of yoghurt (P≤0.05. The sensory analysis was also performed for the yoghurt samples. Sensory scores of 0.5 % spirulina powder added yoghurt samples were better than 1 % spirulina powder added ones. It was determined that spirulina powder added yoghurt is a good medium of lactic acid bacteria during the 30 days of refrigerated storage.

  7. Evolutionary engineering to enhance starter culture performance in food fermentations.

    Bachmann, Herwig; Pronk, Jack T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teusink, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Microbial starter cultures are essential for consistent product quality and functional properties such as flavor, texture, pH or the alcohol content of various fermented foods. Strain improvement programs to achieve desired properties in starter cultures are diverse, but developments in next-generation sequencing lead to an increased interest in evolutionary engineering of desired phenotypes. We here discuss recent developments of strain selection protocols and how computational approaches can assist such experimental design. Furthermore the analysis of evolved phenotypes and possibilities with complex consortia are highlighted. Studies carried out with mainly yeast and lactic acid bacteria demonstrate the power of evolutionary engineering to deliver strains with novel phenotypes as well as insight into underlying mechanisms. PMID:25269887

  8. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    Ibrahim Afaneh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW, Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

  9. Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C, on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added to the milk at 43°C. After milk fermentation at pH 4.5, probiotic yoghurt samples were cooled to 8°C, gently homogenized and packed in plastic containers and stored for 10 days, at +4oC. Viscosity of all samples was measured at 5°C on a Haake Rheostress 600 viscosimeter. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that yoghurt samples produced with low level of transglutaminase activated prior to fermentation have significantly better rheological properties than the samples produced without activation and yoghurt control. Generally, the application of low level transglutaminase in low - fat yoghurt production improves overall rheological properties of the final product.

  10. DETERMINATION OF QUALITY PROPERTIES OF DIET ACIDOPHILUS BIFIDUS YOGHURT AND DIET YOGHURT

    Oğuz GÜRSOY

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Diet yoghurt and diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt were produced from cow milk and fat ratio was decreased below 1 %. In production of diet Asidophilus bifidus yoghurt, freeze dried DVS culture which contains normal yoghurt bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus ve Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and therapeutic lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria was used. In production of diet yoghurt, normal yoghurt bacteria were used. Chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of these products were determined and compared. Generally, except the consistency sensed in mouth, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties were approximately same. Finally, these products were healthier than other yoghurt products, because of the amount of low fat and containing therapeutic bacteria.

  11. Effects of Different Starter Culture Combinations on Fermented Sausages

    GÖNÜLALAN, Zafer

    2004-01-01

    Commercial starter cultures containing (group A) S. xylosus DD-34 + P. pentosaceus PC-1, (group B) L. plantarum L74 + S. carnosus MIII, (group C) S. carnosus MIII + L. pentosus LP-1, (group D) S. xylosus DD-34 + P. pentosaceus PCFF-1, (group E) P. acidilactici PA-2, (group F) S. carnosus MC-1 + P. pentosaceus PC-1 and (group G) S. xylosus DD-34 + L. alimentarus BJ 33 were used for manufacturing fermented sausage. Sausage samples were examined for pH values, moisture contents, mesophilic aerob...

  12. Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy-Corn Yoghurt

    Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research efforts in the developing countries have been geared towards the improvement of protein quality foods using blends of legume and cereal which is considered a nutritionally balanced product. Therefore, this present study is aimed at finding local substitute for milk based product with high protein content of a well balancing amino acid composition and high digestibility; determining the proximate composition, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation of soy-corn yoghurt with a view of knowing the consumer acceptability of the product. Yoghurt samples were produced from blends of soymilk and corn milk (yellow maize corn using Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. Ratio of soy milk to corn milk were 80%:20%; 70%:30% and 100% soymilk as control. The yoghurt samples produced were coded A, B and C representing 100% soy yoghurt, 80%:20% soy corn yoghurt and 70%:30% soy corn yoghurt respectively. Yoghurt samples were subjected to chemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment. The results of chemical analysis revealed protein contents of 4.30, 4.00 and 3.70% respectively for the samples. Fat contents varied between 2.10 and 2.60%, while ash contents of 0.50, 0.60 and 0.62% were obtained for the samples respectively. Total solids of between 10.98 and 8.80% were obtained with titratable acidity of 0.03, 0.05 and 0.06%, respectively. The carbohydrate contents of the samples ranged from 1.40 to 4.50% while all the samples showed fairly acidic levels. Water contents of between 89.00 and 91.20% were obtained. The microbiological examination revealed a tolerable level for all the samples.

  13. Towards the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi (edible starch: Screening for potential starters

    Kubrat A. Oyinlola

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented cassava products like fufu and usi are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starters are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence, this study aimed at screening for potential starters in the development of a common starter culture for fufu and usi.Fresh, peeled, chipped and grated cassava tubers were spontaneously fermented and lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the fermenting mash at 24 hour intervals. Ninety eight (98 isolates were randomly picked. Lactobacillus plantarum had highest occurrence (50.0% in both fermentations.All selected isolates did not hydrolyze starch, but produced linamarase and pectinase. Fermenting pH ranged between 6.50 and 3.58 during 72 hours fermentation. Lactic acid concentration ranged from 1.10 g/L to 1.78 g/L at 24 hours, 1.22 g/L to 2.45 g/L at 48 hours and 0.57 g/L to 2.55 g/l at 72 hours. The highest hydrogen peroxide concentration produced was 629 µg/L at 24 hours while the least was 136 µg/L at 72 hours. 1.08 g/L of diacetyl was the least concentration produced at 24 hours while the highest was 2.86 g/L at 48 hours.Five potential starters were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus F2A, L. plantarum subsp. argentolarensis F2B, L. plantarum F2C, L. plantarum U2A and L. paraplantarum U2C.

  14. The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production

    Radulović Zorica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug−1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug−1 for streptococci and >106 cfug−1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

  15. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  16. Traditionally produced sauerkraut as source of autochthonous functional starter cultures.

    Beganović, Jasna; Kos, Blaženka; Leboš Pavunc, Andreja; Uroić, Ksenija; Jokić, Mladen; Šušković, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous sauerkraut fermentation was performed at industrial scale in "Prehrana Inc.", Varaždin, in order to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which were evaluated according probiotic criteria and tested for their capacity as probiotic starter cultures. At the end of the spontaneous sauerkraut fermentation, total LAB counts reached 9.0×10(5) CFU/ml. This underlines that the need for addition of the well characterised probiotic cultures, in appropriate viable cell counts, would be valuable in probiotic sauerkraut production. Phenotypic characterisation through API 50 CHL and SDS-PAGE of cell protein patterns revealed that Lactobacillus plantarum is predominant LAB strain in homofermentative phase of fermentation. Autochthonous LAB isolates SF1, SF2, SF4, SF9 and SF15 were selected based on the survival in in vitro gastrointestinal tract conditions. RAPD fingerprints indicated that the selected autochthonous LAB were distinct from one another. All of the strains efficiently inhibited the growth of indicator strains and satisfied technological properties such as acidification rate, tolerance to NaCl and viability during freeze-drying. Strains Lb. paraplantarum SF9 and Lb. brevis SF15, identified by AFLP DNA fingerprints, have shown the best properties to be applied as probiotic starter cultures, because of their highest adhesion to Caco-2 cells and expression of specific, protective S-layer proteins of 45 kDa in size. With addition of these strains, probiotic attribute of the sauerkraut will be achieved, including health promoting, nutritional, technological and economic advantages in large scale industrial sauerkraut production. PMID:24797236

  17. Microbial community dynamics in thermophilic undefined milk starter cultures.

    Parente, Eugenio; Guidone, Angela; Matera, Attilio; De Filippis, Francesca; Mauriello, Gianluigi; Ricciardi, Annamaria

    2016-01-18

    Model undefined thermophilic starter cultures were produced from raw milk of nine pasta-filata cheesemaking plants using a selective procedure based on pasteurization and incubation at high temperature with the objective of studying the microbial community dynamics and the variability in performances under repeated (7-13) reproduction cycles with backslopping. The traditional culture-dependent approach, based on random isolation and molecular characterization of isolates was coupled to the determination of pH and the evaluation of the ability to produce acid and fermentation metabolites. Moreover, a culture-independent approach based on amplicon-targeted next-generation sequencing was employed. The microbial diversity was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing (V1-V3 regions), while the microdiversity of Streptococcus thermophilus populations was explored by using novel approach based on sequencing of partial amplicons of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB). In addition, the occurrence of bacteriophages was evaluated by qPCR and by multiplex PCR. Although it was relatively easy to select for a community dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) within a single reproduction cycle, final pH, LAB populations and acid production activity fluctuated over reproduction cycles. Both culture-dependent and -independent methods showed that the cultures were dominated by either S. thermophilus or Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis or by both species. Nevertheless, subdominant mesophilic species, including lactococci and spoilage organisms, persisted at low levels. A limited number of serB sequence types (ST) were present in S. thermophilus populations. L. delbrueckii and Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages were below the detection limit of the method used and high titres of cos type S. thermophilus bacteriophages were detected in only two cases. In one case a high titre of bacteriophages was concurrent with a S. thermophilus biotype shift in the culture

  18. Microstructure and Textural Properties of Yoghurts Produced by Exopolysaccharides- Producing Starter Cultures

    Zhang, Lanjun

    . A moderate mechanical treatment post-fermentation (i.e. 1 bar) was able to further improve the textural properties, possibly due to structural rearrangements causing improved protein-protein interactions and/or a better distribution of EPS. A total 286 of CLSM micrographs acquired from the four types...

  19. The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses

    E. Hynes

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

  20. Comparison between using starter culture, Gdl, and a combination of both in the production of salami

    Andersen L.; Cislaghi S.

    2007-01-01

    In the production of fermented, dry sausages (salami) it is important to oppress the acidification to ensure a safe and controlled processing. The acidification may be achieved by applying a starter culture containing lactic acid bacteria (LAB), chemically by e.g. glucono-deltalacton (GdL, E 575) or relying on the indigenous LAB flora. In salami meat model the acidification and LAB development with GdL in two levels, 0.4% and 0.8%, with and without starter culture were compared. The starter c...

  1. Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk

    Rajka Božanić

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition improved the consistency and sensory characteristic of the products. Probiotics yoghurt had slightly higher sensory properties. After hedonic scaleevaluation the control yoghurt samples and control probiotic yoghurt samples were not acceptable. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between investigated yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt, and Duncan test showed that yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt samples with additives were significantly different from others, i.e., they proved to be better then control samples.

  2. Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage

    Iličić Mirela D.; Carić Marijana Đ.; Milanović Spasenija D.; Dokić Ljubica P.; Đurić Mirjana S.; Bošnjak Goran S.; Duraković Katarina G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C), on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat) during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark) were added to the milk at 43°C. ...

  3. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products

    Fiorentini, Ângela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant’Anna, Ernani S.

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for ...

  4. Fermentation profile and optimization of green olive fermentationusing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 as a starter culture

    Leal-Sánchez, M. Vega; Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Sánchez Gómez, Antonio Higinio; Rejano Navarro, Luis; Jiménez Díaz, Rufino; Garrido Fernández, A.

    2003-01-01

    The bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a strain originally isolated from an olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation. By means of a 23 (7 4) fractional factorial design, the salt concentration in brines was found to be the most important factor for producing the highest acidity and the highest initial population of the starter culture. To a lesser extent, other factors such as a high inoculum size, u...

  5. Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation.

    Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Lee, Hyo Jung; Seo, Hye-Young; Park, Wan-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok

    2012-02-15

    Kimchi fermentation usually relies upon the growth of naturally-occurring various heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This sometimes makes it difficult to produce kimchi with uniform quality. The use of Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a starter has been considered to produce commercial fermented kimchi with uniform and good quality in Korea. In this study, a combination of a barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and a (1)H NMR technique was used to investigate the effects of Leu. mesenteroides strain B1 as a starter culture for kimchi fermentation. Baechu (Chinese cabbage) and Chonggak (radish) kimchi with and without Leu. mesenteroides inoculation were prepared, respectively and their characteristics that included pH, cell number, bacterial community, and metabolites were monitored periodically for 40 days. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the numbers of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) in starter kimchi decreased more quickly than that in non-starter kimchi. Members of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were dominant LAB regardless of the kimchi type or starter inoculation. Among the three genera, Leuconostoc was the most abundant, followed by Lactobacillus and Weissella. The use of Leu. mesenteroides as a starter increased the Leuconostoc proportions and decreased the Lactobacillus proportions in both type of kimchi during kimchi fermentation. However, interestingly, the use of the kimchi starter more highly maintained the Weissella proportions of starter kimchi compared to that in the non-starter kimchi until fermentation was complete. Metabolite analysis using the (1)H NMR technique showed that both Baechu and Chonggak kimchi with the starter culture began to consume free sugars earlier and produced a little greater amounts of lactic and acetic acids and mannitol. Metabolite analysis demonstrated that kimchi fermentation using Leu. mesenteroides as a starter was completed earlier with more production of kimchi

  6. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.;

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in...... different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...

  7. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientali...

  8. The Effect of Starter Culture Use in Pastırma Production on the Properties of End Product

    Aksu, Muhammet İrfan; KAYA, Mükerrem

    2001-01-01

    The effects of three different starter preparations (Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus carnosus + Lactobocillus pentosus and Staphylococcus xylosus + Lactobacillus sakei) on the end product of pastırma were investigated. In the production of pastırma samples, dry curing was performed using NaCl, KNO3, glucose and saccarose, and starter culture was added together with curing compounds to the meat. The starter culture used affected the counts of total aeophilic mesophilic Micrococcus/Stap...

  9. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

  10. Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods

    Mei, Jun; GUO, QIZHEN; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

    2014-01-01

    The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture...

  11. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. PMID:25084650

  12. It's Gettin' Hot in Here: Breeding Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Fermentation.

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2016-03-01

    Cocoa beans have to undergo post-harvest fermentation and drying to develop the typical 'cocoa flavor' associated with chocolate. Yeasts play a pivotal role during the fermentation but are generally outcompeted early in the process. Meersman and colleagues describe an elegant breeding-based approach to generate robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa fermentation. PMID:26803379

  13. The production of glucans via glucansucrases from Lactobacillus satsumensis isolated from a fermented beverage starter culture

    Several starter cultures used in the production of fermented beverages were screened for lactic acid bacteria that produced water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose. The strain producing the greatest amount was identified as Lactobacillus satsumensis by its 16S RNA sequence. This strain produc...

  14. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  15. Starter culture production in fluidized bed reactor with a flocculent strain ofL. plantarum

    Barreto, M.T.O.; Melo, E. P.; Carrondo, M J T

    1989-01-01

    A lactic starter culture of a flocculentLactobacillus plantarum was produced in a fluidized bed reactor with higher cell volumetric productivities than in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The fluidized bed reactor was operated at optimised parameters obtained in batch reactor performed with and without pH control.

  16. Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

    2011-01-31

    Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the

  17. Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt

    Lilian A Gogo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

  18. The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added (10% w/w to the processed cow’s milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profi le analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive fl avour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. Results. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper fl avours were dominating in the fermented milks fortifi ed with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin fl avours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not infl uenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Conclusions. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable fl avour.

  19. Archaeological culture, please meet yoghurt culture: towards a relational archaeology of milk

    Dimitrij Mlekuž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking milk as a point of departure, we set out on a journey to explore the ‘mutual becomings’ of different bodies, species, and things. We argue that milk should be understood as a component in an assemblage that connects animals, humans, hormones, enzymes, bacteria, food, genes, technologies and material culture. These complex entanglements produced new, unexpected results and effects. Since they form part of this assemblage, all its components are profoundly changed. Focusing on this diversity of relations between humans, other creatures, things and substances is a key to an archaeology that does not radically separate humans and nonhumans.

  20. Effects of selected factors on rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt

    Jovana Glušac

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of inulin (1 %, combination of inulin (1 % and acacia honey (4 %, heat treatment of milk, and storage time on the rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt. Rheological properties were assessed trough viscosity, syneresis and texture (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity. Yoghurt was prepared from milk (1,5 % fat with added inulin (1% before heat treatment at 85 °C for 20 min or 95 °C for 10 min. After cooling to 55 °C honey (4 % was added. Samples were inoculated using probiotic starter culture (70 % w/w Streptococcus thermophilus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 % w/w Bifidobacterium ssp.. Yoghurt samples were held on +5 °C during 21 days. Measurements of pH value, lactic acid, viscosity, syneresis, and textural properties were done after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The results of this study show that honey addition significantly decreased fermentation time compared to fermentation time of control samples or samples containing inulin. Furthermore, addition of honey and inulin to milk caused significant lower syneresis (p<0,05 during storage time, while there was no significant influence on viscosity and texture of final product. The applied heat treatment of milk had no significant influence on rheological properties of probiotic yoghurt.

  1. Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.

    Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

  2. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture

  3. Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods

    Zheng, X.W.; Yan, Z.; Han, B.Z.; Zwietering, M.H.; Samson, R.A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen- Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and cultur

  4. Correlation between volatile profiles of Italian fermented sausages and their size and starter culture.

    Montanari, Chiara; Bargossi, Eleonora; Gardini, Aldo; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Magnani, Rudy; Gardini, Fausto; Tabanelli, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    The aroma profiles of 10 traditional Italian fermented sausages were evaluated. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) obtained by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). PCA allowed an acceptable separation but some sausage typologies were not well separated. On the other hand, the supervised approach of LDA allowed a clear grouping of the samples in relation to sausage size and starter culture. In spite of the extreme variability of the volatile profiles of the sausage typologies, this work showed the influence of diameter on VOC profile. The differences observed can be related to the effects that some fundamental physicochemical characteristics (such as water loss kinetics and oxygen availability) have on the results of ripening processes. Differences in VOC profiles were also observed due to the lactic acid bacteria used as starter cultures, with differences mainly attributable to compounds deriving from pyruvate metabolism. PMID:26304405

  5. Low molecular weight peptides derived from sarcoplasmic proteins produced by an autochthonous starter culture in a beaker sausage model

    Constanza M. López

    2015-06-01

    Significance: The selection of a specific autochthonous starter culture guarantees the hygiene and typicity of fermented sausages. The identification of new peptides as well as new target proteins by means of peptidomics represents a significant step toward the elucidation of the role of microorganisms in meat proteolysis. Moreover, these peptides may be further used as biomarkers capable to certify the use of the applied autochthonous starter culture described here.

  6. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....

  7. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    MariluzLatorre-Moratalla; SaraBover-Cid

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  8. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several ...

  9. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and p...

  10. Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies

    Aldo eCorsetti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

  11. Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams.

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Chul; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chin, Koo Bok

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham. PMID:27499673

  12. Use of starter cultures of dairy origin in the production of Salame nostrano, an Italian dry-cured sausage.

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Ranucci, D; Miraglia, D; Cioffi, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the use of selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture of dairy origin in the production of low-acid fermented sausages (Salame nostrano) produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy), and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame nostrano was obtained with two different technological processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial counts of safety indicators were lower in salami made with the addition of starter cultures. Pathogens after the first week of ripening were only detected from salami made without the addition of starter cultures. Control salami were rated as paler and harder, whereas those made with the addition of starter cultures as slightly saltier, juicier and in general more acceptable. Selected dairy-origin starter (SDS) cultures did prevent the growth of safety indicators, greatly reduced the rate of isolation of pathogens and increased the acceptability of full-ripened salami. PMID:22062456

  13. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...

  14. Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt

    Mortada Mohammed Salih

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p≤0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p≤0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p≤0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p≤0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p≤0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded

  15. The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test

    M. Mohsenzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (μg kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

  16. Additives in yoghurt production

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  17. Dipeptidase activity and growth of heat-treated commercial dairy starter culture.

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to heat treatment at 50-80 °C for 15 s, 10 and 3 min was delayed by a few or 10-20 h compared to the control culture. Based on the results achieved, it may be concluded that in the production of rennet cheeses, the application of additional, fermentation-impaired starter cultures (via heating for ten or so minutes) may serve to accelerate their ripening and to improve their sensory attributes. PMID:25542242

  18. Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of Mn²⁺.

    Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

  19. Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis

    Blaženka Kos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

  20. Fermentation profile of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis as starter cultures on barley malt medium.

    Alloue-Boraud, Wazé Aimée Mireille; N'Guessan, Kouadio Florent; Djeni, N'Dédé Théodore; Hiligsmann, Serge; Djè, Koffi Marcellin; Delvigne, Franck

    2015-08-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae C8-5 and Candida tropicalis F0-5 isolated from traditional sorghum beer were tested for kinetic parameters on barley malt extract, YPD (863 medium) and for alcohol production. The results showed that C. tropicalis has the highest maximum growth rate and the lowest doubling time. Values were 0.22 and 0.32 h(-1) for maximum growth rate, 3 h 09 min and 2 h 09 min for doubling time respectively on barley malt extract and YPD. On contrary, glucose consumption was the fastest with S. cerevisiae (-0.36 and -0.722 g/l/h respectively on barley malt extract and YPD). When these two yeasts were used as starters in pure culture and co-culture at proportion of 1:1 and 2:1 (cell/cell) for barley malt extract fermentation, we noticed that maltose content increased first from 12.12 g/l to 13.62-16.46 g/l and then decreased. The highest increase was obtained with starter C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. On contrary, glucose content decreased throughout all the fermentation process. For all the starters used, the major part of the ethanol was produced at 16 h of fermentation. Values obtained in the final beers were 11.4, 11.6, 10.4 and 10.9 g/l for fermentation conducted with S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis, C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 1:1 and C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1. Cell viability measurement during the fermentation by using flow cytometry revealed that the lowest mean channel fluorescence for FL3 (yeast rate of death) was obtained with C. tropicalis + S. cerevisiae 2:1 after 48 h of fermentation. PMID:26243947

  1. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  2. Lactic Acid Bacterial Starter Culture with Antioxidant and γ-Aminobutyric Acid Biosynthetic Activities Isolated from Flatfish-Sikhae Fermentation.

    Won, Yeong Geol; Yu, Hyun-Hee; Chang, Young-Hyo; Hwang, Han-Joon

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to select a lactic acid bacterial strain as a starter culture for flatfish-Sikhae fermentation and to evaluate its suitability for application in a food system. Four strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial flatfish-Sikhae were identified and selected as starter culture candidates through investigation of growth rates, salt tolerance, food safety, and functional properties such as antioxidative and antimicrobial activities. The fermentation properties of the starter candidates were also examined in food systems prepared with these strains (candidate batch) in comparison with a spontaneous fermentation process without starter culture (control batch) at 15°C. The results showed that the candidate YG331 batch had better fermentation properties such as viable cell count, pH, and acidity than the other experimental batches, including the control batch. The results are expressed according to selection criteria based on a preliminary sensory evaluation and physiochemical investigation. Also, only a small amount of histamine was detected with the candidate YG331 batch. The radical scavenging activity of the candidate batches was better compared with the control batch, and especially candidate YG331 batch showed the best radical scavenging activity. Also, we isolated another starter candidate (identified as Lactobacillus brevis PM03) with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing activity from commercial flatfish-Sikhae products. The sensory scores of the candidate YG331 batch were better than those of the other experimental batches in terms of flavor, color, and overall acceptance. In this study, we established selection criteria for the lactic acid bacterial starter for the flatfish-Sikhae production and finally selected candidate YG331 as the most suitable starter. PMID:26348620

  3. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

  4. Viability and Acidification by Promising Yeasts Intended as Potential Starter Cultures for Rice-based Beverages

    Antonio Bevilacqua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, some innovative cereal-based beverages were designed using beneficial lactic acid bacteria; however, few data are available on the potential role of yeasts. The main topic of this research was to investigate the suitability of four promising yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Saccharomyces pastorianus and Kazachstania exigua as potential starter cultures for rice-based beverages. This aim was achieved through some intermediate scientific aims, i.e., by assessing cell viability and acidification in different cereal substrates (malt extract, soft wheat, rice and kamut flours; thereafter by studying acidification and persistence in an organic rice drink during a prolonged storage at 25 and 4°C. Rice flour provided appropriate growth for all the strains. K. exigua and S. pastorianus experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (experienced a relatively fast acidification within 24 h. After 40 d the yeasts showed similar cell counts (ca. 7 log cfu/mL and acidification (ΔpH of ca. 2.7 at 25°C and ca. 1.2-1.4 at 4°C in the organic rice drink. The evaluation of viability and acidification by promising candidates should be a simple procedure to screen yeast strains for potential use as starter cultures to design new rice-fermented functional beverages.

  5. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    Domenico Cerri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  6. Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures

    Barbara Turchi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

  7. Some Microbiological and Chemical Properties of Pastırma Produced Using Potassium Nitrate and Starter Culture

    Aksu, Muhammet İrfan; KAYA, Mükerrem

    2002-01-01

    In this study, pastırma samples were produced using potassium nitrate and commercial starter culture (Staphylococcus carnosus + Lactobacillus pentosus). The meat for pastırma was dry cured with NaCl, glucose and saccarose together with KNO3. The use of starter culture in pastırma production had a significant effect on counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus and lactic acid bacteria. The maximum counts of microorganisms were found in the 2nd stage of the dryin...

  8. Use of starter cultures isolated from native microbiota of artisanal sausage in the production of Italian sausage

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most promising microorganisms for use as starter cultures are those isolated from the native microbiota of traditional fermented products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of lactic acid bacteria selected from the native microbiota of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation as starter cultures for the production of sausage. Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum 503 and 341 have the potential for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of Italian sausage type. The population of lactic acid bacteria in sausages was >8 log CFU.g-1 during fermentation, which caused the pH to decrease to <4.5. This decrease in pH and the water activity of < 0.90 of sausages ensures the safety and preservation of this product. Sausages produced with these lactic cultures fulfill the requirements for microbiological quality and composition of Italian sausage type. Our results suggest the possibility of using these starter cultures for the production of sausages with peculiar characteristics that contribute to the identity of the product.

  9. Rheology and Microstructure of Strained Yoghurt (Labneh) Made From Cow's Milk by Three Different Methods

    Tamime, A. Y.; Kalab, M; Davies, G

    1989-01-01

    Labneh is the name for strained yoghurt, i.e., yoghurt made with an elevated solids content, which has originated in the Middle East. For this study , three types of Labneh were made from cow' s milk: (a) "Traditional Labneh" was produced by straining yoghurt in a cloth bag, (b) "UF Labneh" was made by ultrafiltration of warm yoghurt , and , (c) "UF Retentate Labneh" was obtained by culturing homogenised ultrafiltration (UF) milk retentate. A 11 products were passed through a lactic curd homo...

  10. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation. PMID:27375251

  11. Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures

    Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.; Traoré, A.S.;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and...... cultures....

  12. Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks

    Oktay Yerlikaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and their favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

  13. Тhe impact of starter culture on the pH and the content of lactic and volatile fatty acids in boiled-smoked sausages

    Indzhelieva, Dijana; Valkova-Jorgova, Katja; Kuzelov, Aco; Andronikov, Darko

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of starter cultures with lactic acid bacteria as a factor of increasing quality and intensifi cation of production processes in durable boiled – smoked sausages, type of Burgas. In this regard, the impact of starter cultures in the fi lling, their role in changing the pH value, the content of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids were tested. The two types of starter were used: pure cultures Bifi dobacterium longum (B2), and mixed cultures Bifi dobacteri...

  14. Benzoic Acid Production with Respect to Starter Culture and Incubation Temperature during Yogurt Fermentation using Response Surface Methodology.

    Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products. PMID:27433115

  15. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  16. Microbial diversity of a Camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Jun Mei

    Full Text Available The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates. Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates. However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese.

  17. Screening and Characterization of Potential Bacillus Starter Cultures for Fermenting Low-Salt Soybean Paste (Doenjang).

    Jeon, Hye Hee; Jung, Ji Young; Chun, Byung-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Baek, Seong Yeol; Moon, Ji Young; Yeo, Soo-Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok

    2016-04-28

    The bacterial strains were screened as potential starters for fermenting low-salt doenjang (a Korean traditional fermented soybean paste) using Korean doenjang based on proteolytic and antipathogenic activities under 6.5-7.5% NaCl conditions. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that they all belonged to the genus Bacillus. Proteolytic and antipathogenic activities against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Aspergillus flavus, as well as fibrinolytic, amylase, and cellulase activities of the 10 strains were quantitatively evaluated. Of these, strains D2-2, JJ-D34, and D12-5 were selected, based on their activities. The functional, phenotypic, and safety-related characteristics of these three strains were additionally investigated and strains D2-2 and D12-5, which lacked antibiotic resistance, were finally selected. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 produced poly-γ-glutamic acid and showed various enzyme activities, including α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase. Growth properties of strains D2-2 and D12-5 included wide temperature and pH ranges, growth in up to 16% NaCl, and weak anaerobic growth, suggesting that they facilitate low-salt doenjang fermentation. Strains D2-2 and D12-5 were not hemolytic, carried no toxin genes, and did not produce biogenic amines. These results suggest that strains D2-2 and D12-5 can serve as appropriate starter cultures for fermenting low-salt doenjang with high quality and safety. PMID:26718466

  18. Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures

    Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

    Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters...... dairy strains had, in comparison with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour...... formation. The traditional DL-starters contained numerous of strains of heterofermentative Le. mesenteroides, whereas Le. pseudomesenteroides and  only were found in some starters. The potential of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria to effect the flavour formation in cheese seems to be dependent on how...

  19. Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production

    Dora Bučan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

  20. Growth inhibition of selected microorganisms by an association of dairy starter cultures and probiotics

    Beniamino T. Cenci-Goga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several growth curves for selected pathogens and hygiene indicators alone and vs selected dairy starter cultures (LAB and commercial probiotics have been performed. All strains for LAB and commercial probiotics were inoculated as pure cultures into skim milk to get an initial cocci:bacilli:enterocci ratio of 2:1:1 and a concentration of approximately 107 cfu mL–1 until challenge vs selected pathogens and hygiene indicators. Selected pathogens came from the collection of the Laboratorio di Ispezione degli Alimenti di O.A. or were reference strains (Escherichia coli, CSH26 K12, Staphylococcus aureus 27R, Salmonella Derby 27, Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 13525, Listeria innocua ATCC 33090. Each strain was inoculated into skim milk to get an initial concentration of approximately 106 cfu mL–1. Growth curves in skim milk for the following challenges were studied: i sterility control; ii association LAB; iii association of LAB vs each selected pathogen or hygiene indicator; iv selected pathogen or hygiene indicator alone. The challenges were carried out in BHI broth and in skim milk at 37°C. The highest reduction was observed in milk but in general the association of LAB and the probiotic was able to limit the growth of pathogens and hygiene indicators.

  1. Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics

    Kim, Young Joo; Park, Sung Yong; Lee, Hong Cheol; Yoo, Seung Seok; Oh, Se Jong; Kim, Hyeong Sang; Chin, Koo Bok

    2014-01-01

    Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum c...

  2. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

  3. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture

    Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; Dias, Disney R.; Pereira, Gilberto V. de Melo; Oliveira, J.M.; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Schwan, Rosane F.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, i...

  4. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Italian Bella di Cerignola table olives: selection of potential multifunctional starter cultures.

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Altieri, Clelia; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena; Ouoba, Labia Irène Ivette

    2010-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (19 isolates) from Bella di Cerignola Italian table olives were investigated for their technological and probiotic properties for the selection of multifunctional starter cultures for table olives. The bacteria were first identified by phenotyping and genotyping, then characterized for the production of biogenic amines, growth at different pH, NaCl concentrations, and temperatures. The potentiality of the bacteria to have some probiotic properties (antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, survival in low pH and in the presence of bile salts, ability to adhere to the mammalian cells model IPEC-J2) was also investigated. Eighteen of the studied isolates were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and one as Enterococcus faecalis. All bacteria were able to grow at a range of pH between 4.0 and 10.0 as well as in media supplemented with 2.5 to 7.5% of NaCl and 0.3% bile salts and survived in MRS broth acidified at pH 2.5; moreover, they inhibited significantly Escherichia coli O157:H7. The adhesion to IPEC-J2 cells was in general low to moderate (5.3 to 8.3%); however, 2 isolates of L. plantarum (c16 and c19) showed interesting higher adhesion values (up to 16%). Our results suggest that at least 3 isolates could be possible multifunctional starters for Bella di Cerignola olives: L. plantarum 16 and 19 for mainly their probiotic properties and L. plantarum 10 for mainly its technological characteristics. Practical Application: A functional starter is a microorganism exerting benefits on human health (probiotic) and able to guide a fermentation (starter). The main goal of this article was to select a functional starter for table olives. PMID:21535510

  5. Prevalence and impact of single-strain starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria on metabolite formation in sourdough.

    Ravyts, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Flavour of type II sourdoughs is influenced by the ingredients, processing conditions, and starter culture composition. It is, however, not fully clear to what extent different sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contribute to flavour. Therefore, two types of flour (rye and wheat) and different LAB starter culture strains were used to prepare sourdoughs, thereby leaving the yeast microbiota uncontrolled. All LAB starter culture strains tested were shown to be prevalent and to acidify the flour/water mixture to pH values between 3.1 and 3.9 after 24h of fermentation. Multiple aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acids were produced by the sourdough-associated microbiota throughout the fermentation period. Based on the organoleptic evaluation of breads produced with these sourdoughs, five LAB strains were selected to perform prolonged wheat and rye fermentations as to their capacity to result in an acidic (Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101, Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 130201, and Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699), buttermilk-like (Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471), or fruity flavour (Lactobacillus sakei CG1). Upon prolonged fermentation, higher metabolite concentrations were produced. For instance, L. sakei CG1 produced the highest amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, which was further converted into 3-methylbutyl acetate. The latter compound resulted in a fruity banana flavour after 48h of fermentation, probably due to yeast interference. Rye fermentations resulted in sourdoughs richer in volatiles than wheat, including 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, and ethyl acetate. PMID:21645811

  6. Potential antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities of autochthonous starter cultures and protease EPg222 in dry-fermented sausages.

    Fernández, Margarita; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Benito, María José; Martín, Alberto; Hernández, Alejandro; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2016-05-18

    This work studied the presence of nitrogen compounds with bioactive properties in Iberian pork sausages that were manufactured using different autochthonous starter cultures (Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34) and protease EPg222. Nitrogen compounds were extracted and evaluated for their antimicrobial effect against spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and antiproliferative activity on the HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cell line. Dry-fermented sausages elaborated with starter cultures P200S34 and protease EPg222 generate extracts that cause inhibition of the growth of pathogens reaching 25% inhibition of Bacillus cereus, making this a promising tool for biocontrol in the meat industry. On the other hand, the inoculation of well-adapted starter cultures with high proteolytic activity also increased the antiproliferative activity of these extracts, around 45% inhibition at 72 h, mainly due to an increase in free amino acids, such as Lys and Pro, but also small peptides. PMID:27112426

  7. EFFECT OF SELECTED DAIRY STARTER CULTURES ON MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF VENISON (Dama dama NITRITE-FREE DRY-CURED SAUSAGES

    S. Parmegiani

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of the use of selected lactic acid bacteria starter culture of dairy origin in the production of nitrite-free low-acid fermented venison (Dama dama sausage (Salame di daino produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy, and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame di daino was obtained with two different processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial counts of safety indicators were lower in salami made with the addition of starter cultures. Pathogens after the first week of ripening were only detected from salami made without the addition of starter cultures. Control salami were paler and harder, whereas those made with the addition of starter cultures slightly saltier, juicier and in general more acceptable. Selected dairy-origin starter (SDS cultures did prevent the growth of safety indicators, greatly reduced the rate of isolation of pathogens and increased the acceptability of full-ripened salami.

  8. Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.

    Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

    2011-08-01

    The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High β-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed α-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of α-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed. PMID:21819671

  9. Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2011-08-10

    The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The α-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P halophilus showed high contents of total amino acids with predominantly high glutamic acid. Major volatile compounds in fish sauce were 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and benzaldehyde. T. halophilus-inoculated fish sauce samples demonstrated the ability to reduce dimethyl disulfide, a compound contributing to a fecal note. The use of T. halophilus for fish sauce fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product. PMID:21710980

  10. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. PMID:26743883

  11. Phenolic trend and hygienic quality of green table olives fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture.

    Benincasa, Cinzia; Muccilli, Serena; Amenta, Margherita; Perri, Enzo; Romeo, Flora V

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, four different olive cultivars from Southern Italy, Carolea, Cassanese, Nocellara del Belice, Nocellara Messinese table olives, produced according to traditional fermentation processes, were evaluated with the aim of assessing the effect of selected starter cultures on growth of bacterial population and on olive phenols during fermentation. Only Cassanese and Nocellara del Belice inoculated samples reached a safe pH value under 4.6 after 90 days while maintaining it until the end of storage. The most representative phenols in brine samples analysed by HPLC-MS/MS were hydroxytyrosol and verbascoside. Among the analysed phenols, only hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid and ferulic acid always increased during fermentation, while the others increased up to 90-120 days and then decreased. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed on pH and phenol values highlighted three clusters of olive cultivars. Throughout the brining period, lactic acid bacteria were always present while staphylococci and coliform bacteria disappeared after 30 and 90 days, respectively. PMID:25976821

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTHY VALUES OF YOGHURT BY FORTIFICATION WITH RUTUB DATE

    Magdy M. Ismail

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, the date fruits are good sources of many nutrients. Also, yoghurt especially bio-yoghurt has a lot of nutritional and healthy benefits. The aim of this study was to combine the benefits of date and bio-yoghurt in one product which can be made by simple manner. Six treatments of yoghurt were made from cow's milk fortified with 10 and 15% rutub date and using classic or ABT-5 cultures. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that fortification with date accelerates the rates of fermentation and lowered coagulation time. For rheological analyses, curd tension, viscosity and water holding capacity values increased whereas curd syneresis values decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with date. Redox potential values were lower in date yoghurt as compared with control. Acidity, carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber and ash contents of yoghurt supplemented with date were higher than those of control. Supplementation of date increased mineral contents (K, Ca, P, Mg, Na and Fe, total nitrogen, water soluble nitrogen, total phenols and total volatile fatty acids of yoghurt. The addition of date improved the viability of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. The bifidobacteria counts were sufficient to yield numbers of beneficial organisms that were higher than the accepted threshold (106cfu.g-1 for a probiotic effect. Also, date adding improved the body, texture and flavor of the yoghurt.

  13. Peningkatan Cita Rasa Dan Tekstur Yoghurt Dari Susu Kambing Dengan Penambahan Sari Buah Markisa Dan Terung Belanda

    Purba, Meihot Naida

    2011-01-01

    Processing milk into yogurt is one of the factors that affect the quality of texture and flavor of yoghurt. This research aims to determine a combination of yoghurt from goat's milk taste different from the composition of the starter and the addition of passion fruit juice and fruit of eggplant Dutch as a typical North Sumatra. The research was conducted in Laboratory of Technology Agriculture at Faculty of Agriculture of North Sumatra University in January - March 2010. This research was des...

  14. Effect of Pasteurization Temperature, Starter Culture, and Incubation Temperature on the Physicochemical Properties, Yield, Rheology, and Sensory Characteristics of Spreadable Goat Cheese

    Florencia Frau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The local cheese factories currently use bovine commercial starter cultures, and the spreadable cheese process is not standardized. A detailed understanding of the effect of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature must allow producers to optimize the process, increase cheese yield, and improve the quality of the final product. The main objective of the study was to describe the preparation method of spreadable goat cheese and investigate the effects of specific processing conditions (pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on the composition, yield, rheology, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Results showed the impact of pasteurization temperature, starter culture, and incubation temperature on spreadable goat cheese. The results indicated that it is possible to improve cheese yield, rheological properties, and sensory analysis when milk is pasteurized at 75°C for 30 minutes; cheese yield can also be improved by lowering incubation temperature to 37°C. Cheeses made with autochthonous starter culture showed better sensory characteristics and higher pH compared to the cheeses made with commercial culture.

  15. Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality

    Luís César CASTRO

    2000-04-01

    these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA, non-protein nitrogen (NPN, taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

  16. Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.

    Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-01-01

    The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

  17. Selection of functional lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Sprengel.).

    Yang, Jaesik; Ji, Yosep; Park, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jieun; Park, Soyoung; Yeo, Soyoung; Shin, Hyunkil; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H

    2014-11-17

    The purpose of this research was to find safe and suitable starter cultures for the fermentation of Korean leek (Allium tuberosum Rottler), also known as garlic chives or Oriental garlic. This traditional herb has several functional properties and a strong flavour; its leaves are used as food material. Eighteen strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from well-fermented leek kimchi. Controlled fermentation of the leek leaves was conducted with 2 strains (Weissella confusa LK4 and Lactobacillus plantarum LK8), selected as potential starter cultures on the basis of their safety properties, and on the pH, total titratable acidity (TTA), and viable cell numbers [colony forming units (CFUml(-1))] achieved during the fermentation. Microbial dynamics was also followed during fermentation by using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) on DNA level. To analyse bioactive compounds such as thiols and allicin (diallyl thiosulfinates), the total flavonoid and polyphenolic contents were determined by colorimetric methods. Functional properties were assessed on the basis of anti-oxidative capacities by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging effect, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). W. confusa LK4 rapidly increased during the first stage of leek fermentation, and was mainly responsible for accelerated fermentation during the early period in contrast to L. plantarum LK8, a stronger acid producer during the later stages of fermentation. After 48 h fermentation, leeks fermented with W. confusa LK4 showed the highest radical scavenging effects and reducing ability. The detectable amount of allicin of fermented leeks decreased relative to the change in pH, whereas the concentration of thiols significantly increased. Total flavonoid and poly-phenolic contents changed during fermentation and showed correlation with anti-oxidant effects. We therefore suggest the suitability of W. confusa LK4 as a potential starter

  18. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

  19. STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT Исследование совместного влияния арабиногалактана и лактулозы на развитие закваски для йогурта

    Zavezenova I. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

  20. Two efficient nitrite-reducing Lactobacillus strains isolated from traditional fermented pork (Nanx Wudl) as competitive starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausage.

    Chen, Xi; Li, Jiapeng; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jinchun; Yang, Junna; Chen, Wenhua; Xiong, Youling L

    2016-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Dong pork product (Nanx Wudl) were investigated for their potential as starter cultures for Chinese fermented dry sausages. Based on preliminary screening, Lactobacillus plantarum CMRC6 and Lactobacillus sakei CMRC15, both showing excellent nitrite-reducing capacity, were used as single-strain starter cultures. For comparison, a commercial composite starter was also tested. In CMRC6 and CMRC15-inoculated sausages, lactic acid bacteria dominated the microflora and improved the microbiological safety by suppression of Enterobacteriaceae growth. Nitrite content of all inoculated sausages declined rapidly during ripening compared to non-inoculated. Texture profiles analysis showed inoculated sausages had more pronounced textural development during ripening. Sensory evaluation indicated CMRC6 and CMRC15-fermented sausages had comparable or more desirable organoleptic characteristics than sausage made with commercial starters. Therefore, CMRC6 and CMRC15 are promising candidates as multi-functional starter cultures for microbiological safety and residual nitrite control in gourmet Chinese dry sausage production. PMID:27395823

  1. Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: A Step-by-Step Procedure

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2012-01-01

    The selection of yeasts intended as starters for table olives is a complex process, including a characterization step at laboratory level and a validation at lab level and factory-scale. The characterization at lab level deals with the assessment of some technological traits (growth under different temperatures and at alkaline pHs, effect of salt, and for probiotic strains the resistance to preservatives), enzymatic activities, and some new functional properties (probiotic traits, production ...

  2. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages. PMID:23567124

  3. Influence of Chitosan Coating on Mechanical Stability of Biopolymer Carriers with Probiotic Starter Culture in Fermented Whey Beverages

    Nataša S. Obradović

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical stability of biopolymer carriers and cell viability with addition of chitosan coating during fermentation process and product storage. Dairy starter culture (1% (w/v was diluted in whey and mixed with sodium alginate solution and the beads were made using extrusion technique. The mechanical stability of coated and uncoated beads, the release behavior, and the viability of encapsulated probiotic dairy starter culture in fermented whey beverages were analyzed. The mechanical properties of the beads were determined according to force-displacement and engineering stress-strain curves obtained after compression testing. It was observed that addition of chitosan as a coating on the beads as well as the fermentation process increased the elastic modulus of the calcium alginate-whey beads and cell survival. The current study revealed that the coating did not significantly improve the viability of probiotics during the fermentation but had an important influence on preservation of the strength of the carrier during storage. Our results indicate that whey-based substrate has positive effect on the mechanical stability of biopolymer beads with encapsulated probiotics.

  4. Valorization of whey for the yoghurt production

    Portelinha, Dário Miguel Guilherme

    2013-01-01

    Whey is a by-product obtained by the dairy industry in cheese production and has an interesting nutritional composition, having about 55% of the nutrients of the milk, and from 85 to 90% of the volume of milk used in cheese production. A possible alternative to the use of whey is in the production of a fermented milk, like the yoghurt. Yogurt is the fermented milk type most widely consumed worldwide, being obtained by symbiotic fermentation of a culture of Lactobacillus bulgari...

  5. Production of Italian Dry Salami: Effect of Starter Culture and Chemical Acidulation on Staphylococcal Growth in Salami Under Commercial Manufacturing Conditions

    Metaxopoulos, J.; Genigeorgis, C.; Fanelli, M. J.; Franti, C.; Cosma, E.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of starter culture and chemical acidulation on the growth and enterotoxigenesis of Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 in Italian dry salami under commercial manufacturing conditions was studied. The experimental design included two levels of S. aureus (104 and 105/g), three levels of starter culture (0, 105, and 106/g), three levels of initial pH (pH0) (6.1, 5.5, and 4.8), two manufacturing plants, and three replications. S. aureus growth in the salami was affected significantly (P <...

  6. EFFECT OF SELECTED DAIRY STARTER CULTURES ON MICROBIOLOGICAL, CHEMICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF VENISON (Dama dama) NITRITE-FREE DRY-CURED SAUSAGES

    S. Parmegiani; A. Vizzani; P. Sechi; B. Cenci Goga

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of the use of selected lactic acid bacteria starter culture of dairy origin in the production of nitrite-free low-acid fermented venison (Dama dama) sausage (Salame di daino) produced in a small-scale plant in Umbria (Italy), and their effect on microbiological, physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the products. Salame di daino was obtained with two different processes: with and without the addition of selected LAB starter cultures. Microbial c...

  7. Effect of autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese on physicochemical, microbiological and volatile compound profiles and sensorial attributes of sucuk, a Turkish dry-fermented sausage.

    Kargozari, Mina; Moini, Sohrab; Akhondzadeh Basti, Afshin; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra; Gandomi, Hassan; Revilla Martin, Isabel; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A

    2014-05-01

    The effect of adding autochthonous starter cultures isolated from Siahmazgi cheese, on the physicochemical parameters and microbial counts of sucuk was investigated during the ripening period. SPME-GC/MS was used in volatile compound analysis and a trained group of panelists carried out sensory analysis of the final product. After preliminary screening, three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, which possess desirable technological properties, were used to prepare three starter cultures: LBP7, LBP10 and LBP14. The addition of LBP7 and LBP14 starter cultures had a significant effect (Plactic acid bacteria, lower growth of Enterobacteriaceae and Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and greatly lowered the pH value compared to control sausages throughout the ripening process. At the end of the ripening process, lactic acid bacteria counts were affected (P<0.05) by the addition of starter culture since higher counts were observed in sausages prepared with LBP7 (9.14logCFU/g) and LBP14 (8.96logCFU/g) batches. The decrease of water activity during the ripening of sausages was not affected by the various starters. The texture profiles of all sausages were similar except for LBP10, which showed lower hardness and gumminess during ripening. Under the conditions of the study, volatile compounds were mainly from spices, and no marked differences were found among inoculated sausages. However, sensory evaluation revealed that most of the sensory attributes were scored higher for inoculated sausages than for the control ones. Therefore, LBP7 and LBP14 could be promising candidates for inclusion as starter cultures for the manufacture of sucuk. PMID:24553492

  8. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    DANIELA PARASCHIV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

  9. Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.

    Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter

  10. Evaluation of different starter cultures (Staphylococci plus Lactic Acid Bacteria) in semi-ripened Salami stuffed in swine gut.

    Bedia, Mario; Méndez, Lorena; Bañón, Sancho

    2011-04-01

    The ripening properties were evaluated in semi-ripened pork Salami started by different cultures: CXP (Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus); RAP (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, S. xylosus and S. carnosus); and GY2 (L. sakei, S. xylosus and S. carnosus). These starters were chosen by their technological activities: CXP (rapid acidifying); RAP (medium acidifying); and GY2 (slow acidifying plus intense reddening-flavouring). Salami was enhanced with Ponceau 4R red and sodium glutamate, stuffed in pig gut and aged for 12 days at 15 °C/65-85%RH. Dehydration, reddening, proteolysis, fat acidity and lipid oxidation were hardly affected by the starters. Acidification by LAB strongly influenced the flavour. L. sakei plus L. plantarum provided a better flavouring than a low dose of L. sakei, and, especially, than over-acidifying P. pentosaceus. A final pH of 5 seems to be suitable for preventing aroma and taste defects in semi-ripened Salami. Spontaneous lactic microflora showed great acidifying potential. PMID:21177044

  11. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-01

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. PMID:21807435

  12. Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2010-01-01

    Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates ...

  13. Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'

    Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.;

    2009-01-01

    conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of...... Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). p......H, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S...

  14. Selection of aroma compounds for the differentiation of wines obtained by fermenting musts with starter cultures of commercial yeast strains.

    Vararu, Florin; Moreno-García, Jaime; Zamfir, Cătălin-Ioan; Cotea, Valeriu V; Moreno, Juan

    2016-04-15

    Nine wines obtained by fermenting Aligoté musts with individual starter cultures of eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains and with the indigenous microbiota were compared in terms of their composition in minor volatile aroma compounds. An easy handle methodology Stir-Bar-Sorptive-Adsorption, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry based, permits the identification of 49 aroma compounds. The rearrangement of these aroma compounds in six chemical families permits the establishment of a finger printing for each wine. Eighteen aroma compounds that exhibit a high differentiation power (p⩽0.05) were selected for chemometric analysis. The Principal Component Analysis carried out with these aroma compounds reveal that the first two principal components explain 53.8% and 17.2% of the total variance, respectively, allowing the establishment of nine different groups, in accordance with the wine types obtained. These results reveal analytical differences among the wines that are not recognized by sensorial analysis. PMID:26616963

  15. Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures

    Jasna Mrvčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

  16. In vitro determination of volatile compound development during starter culture-controlled fermentation of Cucurbitaceae cotyledons.

    Kamda, Aristide Guillaume Silapeux; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Fokou, Elie; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Mercy, Achu; Germain, Kansci; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3, Pediococcus acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and Torulaspora delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 inoculation on the volatile compound profile of fermentation of Cucumeropsis mannii cotyledons were investigated. Different microbial associations were used as starters. All associations displayed the ability to ferment the cotyledons as judged by lowering the pH from 6.4 to 4.4-5 within 24h and increasing organic acids such as lactate and acetate. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts increased during fermentation. In the fermentation performed without inoculation (control), the LAB and yeast populations were lower than those in inoculated assays at the beginning, but they reached similar populations after 48 h. The Enterobacteriaceae population decreased during the fermentation, and they were not detected at 48 h in the L. plantarum UFLA CH3 and P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1 (LP+PA) and L. plantarum UFLA CH3, P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 (LP+PA+TD) samples. The assays inoculated with the yeast T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 exhibited the majority of volatile compounds (13 compounds) characterized by pleasant notes. The LP+PA+TD association seemed to be appropriate to ferment C. mannii cotyledons. It was able to control the Enterobacteriaceae population, and achieved high concentrations of esters and low concentrations of aldehydes and ketones. PMID:25306300

  17. Quantification of viable bacterial starter cultures of Virgibacillus sp. and Tetragenococcus halophilus in fish sauce fermentation by real-time quantitative PCR.

    Udomsil, Natteewan; Chen, Shu; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2016-08-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods were developed for the quantification of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and Tetragenococcus halophilus MS33, which were added as starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. The PCR assays were coupled with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment of samples to selectively quantify viable cells and integrated with exogenous recombinant Escherichia coli cells to control variabilities in analysis procedures. The qPCR methods showed species-specificity for both Virgibacillus halodenitrificans and T. halophilus as evaluated using 6 reference strains and 28 strains of bacteria isolated from fish sauce fermentation. The qPCR efficiencies were 101.1% for V. halodenitrificans and 90.2% for T. halophilus. The quantification limits of the assays were 10(3) CFU/mL and 10(2) CFU/mL in fish sauce samples with linear correlations over 4 Logs for V. halodenitrificans and T. halophilus, respectively. The matrix effect was not observed when evaluated using fish sauce samples fermented for 1-6 months. The developed PMA-qPCR methods were successfully applied to monitor changes of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 and T. halophilus MS33 in a mackerel fish sauce fermentation model where culture-dependent techniques failed to quantify the starter cultures. The results demonstrated the usability of the methods as practical tools for monitoring the starter cultures in fish sauce fermentation. PMID:27052702

  18. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ernani S Sant'Anna

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for st...

  19. The Effect of Different Nitrite Doses and Starter Culture on the Growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Sucuk (Turkish Style Dry Sausage) Processing

    Öz, Fatih; KAYA, Mükerrem; AKSU, M. İrfan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of different nitrite doses (100, 150 and 200 ppm NaNO2) and starter culture (Lactobacillus plantarum + Staphylococcus carnosus) on Escherichia coli 0157:H7 were investigated in this study. Sucuk batter was inoculated with Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (106 /g). The count of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in sucuk samples was determined periodically during ripening/storage by a quantitative method. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae counts, pH, nitrite and salt content were also r...

  20. Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ▿

    Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2010-01-01

    The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist;

    2015-01-01

    (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk...... the predominant subspecies in DL-starter cultures. This knowledge is important for dairies to ensure optimized, fast, and controlled milk fermentations, leading to greater standardization of dairy products....

  2. Dipeptidase Activity and Growth of Heat-Treated Commercial Dairy Starter Culture

    Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to...

  3. Evaluation of Two Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures for the Fermentation of Natural Black Table Olives (Olea europaea L cv Kalamon).

    Papadelli, Marina; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Georgalaki, Marina; Anastasiou, Rania; Manolopoulou, Eugenia; Lytra, Ioanna; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    The production of Greek-style natural black table olives remains an empirical process relying on spontaneous fermentation despite its economic significance. For this reason producers often resort to increased NaCl concentration of the brine to secure quality of the product. In this study we employ two lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Lm139 and Lactobacillus pentosus DSM 16366 as starters in separate laboratory low salinity fermentations of "Kalamon" cultivar olives, processed according to the Greek-style method. L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides Lm139 was previously isolated from Kalamon olives laboratory spontaneous fermentations, while L. pentosus DSM 16366 was isolated from fermenting green olives prepared according to the Spanish-style method. Spontaneous olives fermentation was also performed as a control. Microbiological and physicochemical analyses of the brines revealed that the use of the starters had a significant effect on the olives fermentation, leading to a faster acidification due to the more efficient consumption of soluble sugars in the brines. The final pH value reached by each starter culture used indicates a successful lactic fermentation. The production of lactic acid by the starters and the concomitant drop of the pH value proved to inhibit enterobacteria in a shorter period of time compared to the spontaneous fermentation. Concluding, the use of either of the two lactic acid bacteria as starters in Greek-style Kalamon olives fermentation could lead to a more controllable fermentation at lower salinities. The resulting product could be of higher quality with extended shelf-life while being at the same time safer for the consumer. PMID:26638534

  4. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including

  5. 益生菌发酵剂发酵特性研究%Fermentation Property of Probiotics Microbial Culture Starters

    路守栋; 刘玺; 马瑞芬

    2012-01-01

    Three strains(Lactobacillu casei,Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lactobacillus acdophilus) of common probiotics bacteria were selected,and fermentation property of probiotics microbial culture starters were studied.The three strains performed stronger resistant capabilities of NaNO2,stronger resistant capabilities of NaCl,and lacked in the abilities of lipolysis and proteolysis.They had strong acid—producing capability and could effectively inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria.They were suitable for fermented meat products.%选择干酪乳杆菌(Lactobacillu casei,Lc),嗜酸乳杆菌(Lactobacillus acdophilus,La),保加利亚乳杆菌(Lactobacillus bulgaricus,Lb)三种益生菌作为发酵肉发酵剂,对其发酵特性进行研究。结果表明:三种菌均有较强的耐亚硝酸盐、食盐能力,能够耐受150 mg/kg亚硝酸盐和6%食盐。所选菌种无蛋白和脂肪分解能力,能够有效降低pH,抑制致病菌的生长,适合发酵肉制品的生产。

  6. Diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of autochthonous dairy enterococci isolates: Are they safe candidates for autochthonous starter cultures?

    Amarela eTerzić-Vidojević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent the most controversial group of dairy bacteria. They are found to be the main constituent of many traditional Mediterranean dairy products and contribute to their characteristic taste and flavor. On the other hand, during the last 50 years antibiotic-resistant enterococci have emerged as leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the diversity, technological properties, antibiotic susceptibility and virulence traits of 636 enterococci previously isolated from 55 artisan dairy products from 12 locations in the Western Balkan countries of Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. All strains were identified both by microbiological and molecular methods. The predominant species was Enterococcus durans, followed by E. faecalis and E. faecium. Over 44% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin and erythromycin, while 26.2% of the isolates were multi-resistant to three or more antibiotics belonging to different families. 185 isolates (29.1% were susceptible to all 13 of the antibiotics tested. The antibiotic-susceptible isolates were further tested for possible virulence genes and the production of biogenic amines. Finally, five enterococci isolates were found to be antibiotic susceptible with good technological characteristics and without virulence traits or the ability to produce biogenic amines, making them possible candidates for biotechnological application as starter cultures in the dairy industry.

  7. Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture.

    Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit Brøsted; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-03-01

    Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, by the DL-starter culture, and by the type strains. High and low levels of oxygen were produced by flushing milk with oxygen or nitrogen, respectively. The kinetics of milk acidification was characterized by the maximum rate and time of acidification (Vamax and Tamax), the maximum rate and time of reduction (Vrmax and Trmax), the minimum redox potential (Eh7 final), and time of reaching Eh7 final (Trfinal). Variations in kinetic parameters were observed at both the species and strain levels. Two of the Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strains were not able to lower redox potential to negative values. Kinetic parameters of the DL-starter culture were comparable with the best acidifying and reducing strains, indicating their additive effects. Acidification curves were mostly diauxic at all oxygen levels, displaying 2 maxima of acidification rate: before (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had a negative effect on reduction and acidification capacity of tested LAB. Reduction was significantly delayed at high initial oxygen, exhibiting longer Trmax, Trfinal, or both

  8. 富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶品质控制的研究%Quality Control on Germinated Brown Rice Yoghurt Rich in Ferulic Acid- and γ-GABA

    耿欣; 杜江; 肖军霞

    2011-01-01

    Germinated brown rice is a brown rice product which is the brown rice germinates to a certain length af-ter being cultured under a certain temperature and humidity combined with bud, bran and endosperm. It has shown many important physiological functions, such as reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, preventing obesity etc. Germi-nated brown rice yoghurt is a novel fermented dairy product which is prepared with germinated brown rice, fresh milk, sugar and together with ready-to-use yoghurt starter. The influence of the amount of germinated brown rice, milk, sug-ar, the starter and fermentation time on the quality of the yoghurt were studied in this paper. The optimum conditions were determined by orthogonal test and the nutritional components of the yoghurt including ferulic acid andγ-GABA were investigated finally. It was shown that the ratio of germinated brown rice to milk was 1:1.5, the amount of sugar was 7%, and the amount of starter was 0.008%. Under these conditions, the germinated brown rice yoghurt with abundant nutrition, sour-sweet agreeable to the taste and unique flavor was obtained, its content of femlic acid and γ-GABA were 5.02 mg/g and 4.54 mg/g, respectively.%目的:以发芽糙米、鲜牛奶及白砂糖为主要原料,利用直投式发酵剂制作富含阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的发芽糙米酸奶.方法:研究发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比、糖添加量、发酵剂接入量、发酵时间等因素对成品酸奶品质的影响.结果:通过正交试验等得到最佳工艺条件:发芽糙米浆与牛奶的体积比1:1.5,糖添加量7%.发酵剂接入量0.008%.在此条件下得到的发芽糙米酸奶中阿魏酸和γ-氨基丁酸的含量分别为5.02 mg/g和4.54 mg/g.结论:在最佳工艺条件下获得了营养丰富、酸甜适宜和风味独特的发芽糙米酸奶制品.

  9. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  10. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    AngeloSisto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

  11. Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture

    Shakerian, Mansour; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Ziai, Seyed Ali; Khodaiyan, Faramarz; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Moayedi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium ani...

  12. CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE

    Yousef I. Hassan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

  13. Characteristics of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Used as Starter Cultures in Dry Sausage Production

    Nordal, John; Slinde, Erik

    1980-01-01

    The fermentation characteristics of two commercial (Duploferment 66 and Saga II) and five Norwegian lactic acid bacteria used in dry sausage production were compared with those of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014. The Norwegian strains lacked the ability to ferment mannitol, sorbitol, lactose, and d-(+)-raffinose and grew at 8 but not at 42°C, in contrast to the ATCC culture and the two commercial strains. The lactate dehydrogenase activity of the Norwegian strains was not stimulated by pyru...

  14. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on proliferation and autolysis of DL-starter cultures.

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina; Høier, Erik; Andersen, Ulf; Hammershøj, Marianne; Møller, Jean R; Arneborg, Nils; Jespersen, Lene

    2015-11-20

    Reduction of sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese manufacturing is a challenge for the dairy industry. NaCl has a profound role on microbial development influencing cheese sensory and technological properties. The purpose of this work was to investigate how proliferation, distribution and autolysis of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing <0.3% (unsalted), 2.3% (reduced-salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12 weeks of ripening. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), distribution of bacteria as single cells or microcolonies, their viability in the cheeses and cell autolysis were monitored during ripening, as well as the impact of NaCl content and autolysis on the formation of free amino acids (FAA). Reduction of NaCl resulted in higher LAB counts at the early stages of ripening, with differences between the two DL-starter cultures. The unsalted cheeses produced with C1 had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) after 1 and 2 weeks of ripening (i.e. 58% and 71%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11 weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found in cheeses ripened for 7 weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells or in groups of ≥4 cells. During ripening the decrease in the number of viable bacteria was mainly due to a reduction in the number of viable bacteria organized in groups of ≥4

  15. Inhibitory effects of meju prepared with mixed starter cultures on azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Meju is the main ingredient and the starter culture of traditional Korean fermented soybean foods; these fermented soybean products are well-known for their various health benefits, including anticancer effects. We developed the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures to improve the qualities and functionalities of fermented soybean products, as well as the meju itself. In this study, the inhibitory effects of the grain-type meju were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. Materials and Methods: AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice and meju was orally administered for 4 weeks. The body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically observed. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and the levels of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: The administration of meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer and reduced number of neoplasia, and reduced serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and iNOS and COX-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. It increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in colonic tissues. Conclusion: The meju showed inhibitory effects on the progression of colon cancer induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the number of neoplasias and regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels and the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  16. Doenjang prepared with mixed starter cultures attenuates azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in mice

    Ji-Kang Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Doenjang is traditional Korean fermented soybean paste and widely known for its various health benefits including anticancer effect. In this study, we manufactured doenjang with the grain-type meju using probiotic mixed starter cultures of Aspegillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis-SKm, and Lactococcus lactis-GAm to improve the qualities and beneficial properties of doenjang. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effects of the doenjang prepared with the grain-type meju using mixed starter cultures were investigated in azoxymethane (AOM and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis mice model. AOM and DSS colon carcinogenesis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice, and doenjang was orally administered for 4 weeks. Body weight, colon length, and colon weight of mice were determined, and colonic tissues were histologically evaluated. The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in colonic tissue were also analyzed. Results: Administration of the doenjang using probiotic mixed starter cultures ameliorated the symptoms of colon cancer, and reduced the incidence of neoplasia, and reduced the levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase and cycloooxygenase-2 expression levels in colonic tissue. In addition, it increased Bax and reduced Bcl-2 expression levels and increased p21 and p53 expression in the colonic tissues. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the doenjang attenuated colon carcinogenesis induced by AOM and DSS by ameliorating the symptoms of colon cancer, reducing the occurrence of neoplasia, regulating proinflammatory cytokine levels, and controlling the expressions of inflammation- and apoptosis-related genes in the colonic tissue.

  17. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. PMID:26338117

  18. Fermentation of table olives by oleuropeinolytic starter culture in reduced salt brines and inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes.

    Tataridou, M; Kotzekidou, P

    2015-09-01

    The effect of an autochthonous starter culture developed by oleuropeinolytic strains belonging to the Lactobacillus plantarum group on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics and the biophenol content of table olives fermented under reduced salt conditions was studied. Black (cv. Kalamata) and green (cv. Chalkidikis) olives were fermented in two different kinds of brine (Brine A containing 2.3% NaCl, 32.3mM Ca-acetate and 33.9mM Ca-lactate and Brine B containing 4% NaCl, pH5.0 in both brines). The sensory attributes of olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture assessed by a trained panel did not differ significantly compared with industrial processing. It is possible to carry out significant changes in table olive processing applying a completely microbiological procedure using oleuropeinolytic strains of the L. plantarum group as both the debittering and the fermentation agent in order to achieve improved sensorial and nutritional characteristics of the final product. Table olives processed by the suggested methodology may constitute a good source of biophenols in the diet, especially hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The inactivation potential of Escherichia coli O157 EDL-932 and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A in olives fermented by oleuropeinolytic starter culture was evaluated. The population of each pathogen in olive homogenates of both cultivars is inactivated by more than 6logCFU/ml in less than 24h. When whole fermented olives were submerged in peptone/saline (containing 6.7logCFU/ml of the relevant bacterial pathogen) for 30min followed by rinsing in distilled water, the population of viable foodborne pathogens dropped more than 4 logs in olive pulp. During subsequent storage at 22 or 4°C the population of L. monocytogenes Scott A was further eliminated under the detection limit in both olive cultivars whereas the population of E. coli O157 EDL-932 could be detected in olives stored in peptone/saline at 22°C for 7days. The inhibitory

  19. Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.

    Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15954629

  20. Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt.

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Winata, Vera; Wang, Xiaoxi; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk, the two probiotic strains were precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor. The activity of sublethally precultured probiotics was evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated adaptive stress responses of the two probiotic strains resulting in their viability improvement without adverse influence on milk acidification. A complementary metabolomic approach using SPME-GC/MS and (1)H-NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed substantial impact of the activity of sublethally precultured probiotics on metabolite formation demonstrated by distinctive volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. Changes in relative abundance of various aroma compounds suggest that incorporation of stress-adapted probiotics considerably influences the organoleptic quality of product. This study provides new information on the application of stress-adapted probiotics in an actual food-carrier environment. PMID:25846920

  1. The influence of douchi starter cultures on the composition of extractive components, microbiological activity, and sensory properties of fermented fish pastes.

    Kasankala, Ladislaus M; Xiong, Youling L; Chen, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that douchi cultures could serve as a potential starter for enhancing the quality attributes of fermented silver carp meat. In experiment 1, an active, prefermented douchi culture was incorporated into a fish paste to aid in the fish fermentation (30 d) and facilitate biochemical production of extractive flavor components (PRF). In experiment 2, a fully fermented (30 d) douchi was added to a fish paste and the mixture was fermented for 30 d (PSF). In experiment 3, a fish paste without the douchi culture was fermented for 30 d (CF). Total extracted free amino acids increased by 68.0, 68.6, and 78.8% (P 100 mg/mL). The concentrations of both formaldehyde-reactive nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen extractives increased significantly (P PSF > CF. Low amounts of biogenic amines (ingredient commonly used in China, Japan, and other Asian countries. It is also used in many Chinese cuisines in the United States. On the other hand, fermented seafood made from freshwater fish such as silver carp is known to contain bioactive components believed to promote health. The findings from the present study indicated that douchi as a novel starter can be used to produce fermented silver carp fish pastes with excellent flavor and consumer acceptability. The results may be applicable to other fish species to produce similar fermentation products. PMID:21535644

  2. The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures

    Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena; du Toit, Maret; Tredoux, Andreas; Muller, Nina; Næs, Tormod; Nieuwoudt, Helene

    2013-01-01

    over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines......BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made...... buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine...

  3. Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality

    Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

  4. The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.

    Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels starter culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages. PMID:24998181

  5. Use of tocopherol extract and different nitrite sources and starter cultures in the production of organic botifarra catalana, a cooked cured sausage.

    Magrinyà, Núria; Bou, Ricard; Rius, Núria; Codony, Rafael; Guardiola, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    This research evaluates the effects of adding a tocopherol mix (0 or 200 mg/kg), two nitrite sources (sodium nitrite or a nitrate-rich vegetable concentrate) and the use ofStaphylococcus carnosustogether with fermentation types that varied in temperature (12 h at 4 ℃ or 16 ℃) on different quality parameters and acceptability of cooked cured sausages after vacuum packing and storage at 4 ℃ for 120 days. In the presence ofS. carnosus, residual nitrate and nitrite levels were reduced. Sausages containing vegetable concentrates and withoutS. carnosusresulted in higher amounts of residual nitrate and lower curing efficiency. The lowest values in redness and acceptability were observed in those sausages without starter cultures. The addition of tocopherols had no effect on oxidative status and susceptibility to oxidation. However, the highest amount of hydroperoxides was related with nitrite decreased formation. Overall, vegetable concentrates can be used as curing agents if fermentation with a nitrate-reducing starter culture is allowed. PMID:25990636

  6. Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado

    Flávia Daiana Montanuci

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da

  7. Genotypic and technological diversity of Brevibacterium linens strains for use as adjunct starter cultures in 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments.

    Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Cafaro, Caterina; Salzano, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-two Brevibacterium linens strains isolated from 'Pecorino di Filiano' cheese ripened in two different environments (natural cave and storeroom) were characterized and differentiated for features of technological interest and by genotypic methods, in order to select strains with specific features to be used as surface starter cultures. Results showed significant differences among strains on the basis of physiological and technological features, indicating heterogeneity within the species. A middle-low level of proteolytic activity was observed in 27.3 % of strains, while a small group (9.1 %) showed a high ability. Lipolytic activity was observed at three different temperatures and the highest value was detected at 20 °C with 13.6 % of strains, while an increase in temperature produced a slightly lower lipolysis in all strains. The evaluation of diacetyl production revealed that only 22.8 % of strains showed this ability, and most of them were isolated from product ripened in the natural cave. All strains exhibited only leu-aminopeptidase activity, with values more elevated in strains coming from the natural cave product. The combined analysis of genotypic results with the data obtained by the features of technological interest study established that the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) clusters obtained were composed not only of different genotypes but of different profiles based on technological properties too. This study demonstrated the importance of the ripening environment that affects the typical features of the artisanal product, leading to the selection of a specific surface microflora. Characterized strains could be associated within surface starters to standardize the production process of cheese, but preserving its typical organoleptic and sensory characteristics and improving the quality of the final product. PMID:25147054

  8. Comparing the Protective Effect of the Conventional Pasteurized and Lactobacillus Acidophilus-fortified Pasteurized Yoghurts on Candida Albicans

    Ebrahimi H.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problems: Candida species are the most common fungal pathogen in human’s body. Therefore an accurate and immediate treatment seems to be necessary. Nowadays, alternative treatments, such as probiotics, are considered because of the adverse side effects of chemical medications. Probiotics are alive organisms which can be used for medical purposes and are added to different kinds of diary such as yoghurt. Lactobacill Acidophilus (LA was detected form human’s recourses many years ago and nowadays can be found in special kinds of milk, yoghurt, juice and food complementories. Purpose: In this study we are to compare the effect of conventional pasteurized and lactobacillus acidophilus- fortified pasteurized yoghurt on Candida Albicans in vitro.Materials and Method: Candida Albicans was isolated from 30 oral candidasis patients, cultured and prepared as standard suspension. Probiotic powder of LA in MRS Media after 24hrs led to 5×109 lactobacillus. LA- fortified yoghurt was prepared via adding lactobacills into 250 ml of pasteurized boiled milk after 8hrs in 37oc. We prepared 3 tubes and added standard suspension of Candida in each of them. Adding sterile yoghourt, conventional pasteurized yoghurt and LA-fortified yoghurt to the tubes respectively, we put them in 35oc incubator for 48 hrs. We added the content of each tube in Sabouraud agar media and incubated in 25oc for 72 hrs and then counted the colonies.Results: There was a significant difference between the mean of colonies in each group during 5 days ( p = 0, df = 4 and also on each day ( p = 0, df = 2.Conclusion: L.A. can inhibit colonization of Candida in vitro. In this study the most of Candida colonies were in the sterile yoghurt and the least of them were in LA fortified yoghurt.

  9. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk...

  10. Biofilm formation on Conservolea natural black olives during single and combined inoculation with a functional Lactobacillus pentosus starter culture.

    Grounta, Athena; Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2016-06-01

    The potential of biofilm formation of multifunctional starters Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Pichia membranifaciens M3A during inoculated fermentation of Conservolea natural black olives according to Greek-style processing was investigated. Olives were directly brined in 8% (w/v) NaCl following three fermentation procedures namely, i) spontaneous fermentation, ii) inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281, and iii) co-inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 and P. membranifaciens M3A. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts were monitored on olives by plate counting for a period of 153 days, whereas the survival of the inoculated strains was confirmed by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Inoculated fermentation with L. pentosus B281 with/without the presence of the yeast resulted in higher acidification of the brine compared to the spontaneous process where no indigenous LAB could be enumerated. The population of LAB on olives ranged between 5.5 and 6.5 log CFU/g and it was maintained at higher levels compared to yeasts (3.5-4.5 log CFU/g) throughout the process. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 could successfully colonize the surface of black olives presenting high recovery rate (100%) at the end of fermentation in contrast to P. membranifaciens M3A that was successfully recovered (42%) only after 72 days of the process. The obtained results provide interesting perspectives for the production of natural black olives with functional properties. PMID:26919816

  11. Study on DVS Yogurt Starter Cultures in Processing of Yogurt%直投式酸奶发酵剂在酸奶制作中应用的初步研究

    孙灵霞; 张秋会; 李红; 李真真

    2011-01-01

    In order to reduce the amount of DVS yogurt starter cultures and the production cost, the activation times and inoculum concentration were studied. The results showed that the best activation times of 518 and 350 DVS yogurt starter culture was once, and the best inoculum concentration was 0.06g/250mL.%为了减少直投式酸奶发酵剂的用量和降低生产成本,对直投式酸奶发酵剂的活化次数和最小接种量进行了研究.结果表明:518、350直投式酸奶发酵剂的最佳活化次数均为一次,最佳接种量均为0.06g/250mL.

  12. Study on the Quality of Yoghurt Fermented at Low Temperature%低温发酵乳品质特性研究

    李静; 任发政; 李晓鹏; 顾会咏; 甘伯中

    2011-01-01

    以青藏高原传统发酵牦牛乳中分离的保加利亚乳杆菌(编号为CGMCC2603)和酸乳球菌(编号为CGMCC1.3920)为研究对象,研究菌株低温发酵酸乳的感官特性、后酸化能力、粘度及双乙酰含量变化。结果表明试验菌株在25℃发酵的酸乳凝乳状态较好,冷藏14d后酸度分别提高29.2°T和8.5°T,后酸化较弱。冷藏期间粘度变化与发酵温度没有直接关系。低温有利于双乙酰的积累,双乙酰含量最高分别为12.04ug/mL和9.78ug/mL。本研究时开发低温发酵剂具有重要意义。%Take Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp.bulgaricus (accession number is CGMCC2603) and Lactococcus lactis (accession number is CGMCC1.3920) that isolated from Tibetan fermented yak milk at low temperature as starter. Sensory analysis, post acidification, viscosity and diacetyl were measured for all the yoghurt fermented at different temperature. Results indicated that yoghurt fermented at 25℃ with experimental strains had good texture; the titrable acidity increased 29.2°T and 8.5°T respectively during storage and had weak post acidification. Viscosity was not increased with the decreasing of the fermented temperature. Decreases in temperature might contribute to the accumulation of diacetyl, the maximum value of diacetyl were 12.04ug/mL and 9.78ug/mL, respectively. This study had important significance for the development of the starter culture fermented at low temperature.

  13. Assessment of technological characteristics of non-fat yoghurt manufactured with prebiotics and probiotic strains.

    Basyigit Kilic, Gülden; Akpinar Kankaya, Didem

    2016-01-01

    Microbiological, physicochemical, aroma and organic acid characteristics of non-fat yoghurt incorporated with β-glucan and probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains (AB6-25, AC18-82 and AK4-11) combination as adjunct culture were investigated during a 21 day storage period at 4 °C. Four treatment yoghurts contained 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % β-glucan. Treatments also included probiotic combination and commercial culture. Treatments were compared with three controls produced containing commercial culture, commercial culture and probiotic combination, and commercial culture, Lactobacillus acidophilus and inulin. The results indicated that β-glucan promote the viability of lactobacilli. However, the addition of β-glucan (except 0.25 %) resulted in enhanced syneresis (P yogurt produced with probiotic combination. PMID:26788009

  14. Technological characterization and probiotic traits of yeasts isolated from Altamura sourdough to select promising microorganisms as functional starter cultures for cereal-based products.

    Perricone, Marianne; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2014-04-01

    The main topic of this research was to select some suitable functional starter cultures for cereal-based food or beverages. This aim was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, as well as on the evaluation of the probiotic traits of yeasts; the technological characterization relied on the assessment of enzymatic activities (catalase, urease, β-glucosidase), growth under various conditions (pH, temperature, addition of salt, lactic and acetic acids) and leavening ability. The results of this step were used as input data for a Principal Component Analysis; thus, the most technologically relevant 18 isolates underwent a second selection for their probiotic traits (survival at pH 2.5 and with bile salts added, antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial activity towards foodborne pathogens, hydrophobic properties and biofilm production) and were identified through genotyping. Two isolates (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2 and S. cerevisiae strain 4) were selected and analyzed in the last step for the simulation of the gastric transit; these isolates showed a trend similar to S. cerevisiae var. boulardii ATCC MYA-796, a commercial probiotic yeast used as control. PMID:24290622

  15. Screening and identification of lactic acid bacteria from raw seafoods and Thai fermented seafood products for their potential use as starter cultures

    Thitirut Jaichalad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was analyzed from 52 samples of raw seafoods (shrimp and mussel, andThai fermented seafood products including fermented shrimp (kung-jom, mussel (hoi-dong, and fish (pla-jom. The viableLAB were 3.0103 to 3.4108 CFU/g. LAB were isolated and screened for their inhibitory activities against eight indicatorbacteria by agar spot test. Among all selected LAB isolates, 52 isolates showed strong inhibitory activity. They were furthercharacterized for their ability to resist hydrochloric acid, lactic acid, bile salts, and sodium chloride, and their ability toproduce bacteriocins and amino acid decarboxylase. The selected LAB isolates, 1IS11 and 4IS17, were bacteriocin-producingstrains, and showed no amino acid decarboxylase activity, which was suitable property for starter cultures. The isolate 1IS11could resist both hydrochloric and lactic acid at the lowest pH of 2.0, while the isolate 4IS17 was able to tolerate hydrochloricand lactic acid at the lowest pH of 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Both isolates could grow in MRS broth containing a highconcentration of sodium chloride (10 % and bile salts (1.5%. They were identified by morphological characterization, biochemicaltest, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolate 1IS11 was found to be Enterococcus faecium, whereas the isolate4IS17 was Enterococcus faecalis.

  16. Potentially probiotic and bioprotective lactic acid bacteria starter cultures antagonise the Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to HT29 colonocyte-like cells.

    Garriga, M; Rubio, R; Aymerich, T; Ruas-Madiedo, P

    2015-01-01

    The capability of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to counteract the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to the epithelial intestinal cell line HT29 was studied. The highest adhesion ability to HT29 was achieved by the intestinal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, followed by the meat-derived strains Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 and Enterococcus faecium CTC8005. Surprisingly, the meat strains showed significantly better adhesion to HT29 than two faecal isolates of Lactobacillus casei and even significantly higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. Additionally, the anti-listerial, bacteriocin-producer starter culture L. sakei CTC494 was able to significantly reduce the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to HT29 in experiments of exclusion, competition and inhibition. The performance was better than the faecal isolate L. rhamnosus CTC1679. Our results reinforce the fact that the ability of LAB to interact with a host epithelium model, as well as to antagonise with foodborne pathogens, is a strain-specific characteristic. Additionally, it is underlined that this trait is not dependent on the origin of the bacterium, since some food LAB behave better than intestinal ones. Therefore, the search for novel strains in food niches is a suitable approach to find those with potential health benefits. These strains are likely pre-adapted to the food environment, which would make their inclusion in the formulation of probiotic foods more feasible. PMID:25488261

  17. Impact of NaCl reduction in Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses on development and autolysis of DL-starter cultures

    Søndergaard, Lise; Ryssel, Mia; Svendsen, Carina;

    2015-01-01

    of two commercial DL-starter cultures (C1 and C2) used in the production of Danish semi-hard Samsoe cheeses were affected by reduced NaCl levels. Cheeses containing reduced-salt) and 3.4% (normal-salted) (w/v) NaCl in moisture were produced and analyzed during 12weeks of ripening.......e. 22% and 21%), whereas no significant difference was found between the reduced-salt (i.e. 31% and 35%) and normal-salted cheeses. At the later stages of ripening (i.e. 7 and 11weeks) NaCl had no significant influence. For cheeses produced with C2, a significant influence of NaCl was only found...... in cheeses ripened for 7weeks, where the unsalted and reduced-salt cheeses had retained a significantly higher number of the initial LAB counts (cfu/g) (i.e. 39% and 38%), compared to the normal-salted cheeses (i.e. 21%). In the Samsoe cheeses, bacteria were organized as single cells, in groups of 2-3 cells...

  18. The use of lactic acid bacteria starter culture in the production of Nunu, a spontaneously fermented milk product in Ghana

    Fortune Akabanda; James Owusu-Kwarteng; Kwaku Tano-Debrah; Charles Parkouda; Lene Jespersen

    2014-01-01

    Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities). Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacil...

  19. Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt

    Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation.......The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis. No...... oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition...

  20. SPSS for starters

    Cleophas, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    This book contains all statistical tests relevant for starters on SPSS. Each test is explained using a data example from clinical practice along with the main tables of results with an accompanying text with interpretations of the results and hints.

  1. Starter Motor Protection

    Gerhardsson, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Starter motors are sensitive for overheating. By estimating the temperature and preventing cranking in time, there is an option to avoid the dangerous temperatures. The truck manufacturer Scania CV AB proposed a master thesis that should evaluate the need of an overheating protection for the starter motor. The aim is to evaluate any positive effects of implementing an algorithm that can estimate the brush temperature instead of using the available time constrain, which allows 35 seconds of cr...

  2. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-01-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature...... cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese....... The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias...

  3. Instant Sublime Text starter

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  4. Instant Apache Maven starter

    Turatti, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

  5. Instant Prezi starter

    Ladores, Minerva M

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

  6. Instant Sinatra starter

    Yates, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

  7. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

  8. Quality Characteristics of Stirred Yoghurt Added with Fermented Red Pepper

    Yu, Mi-Sang; Kim, Jeong-Mee; Lee, Chi-Ho; Son, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    Pungency of hot pepper has limited its usage even though it shows various health beneficial effects. This study was conducted to develop the novel yoghurt containing hot pepper with diminishing pungency and aimed to examine the quality characteristics of yoghurt prepared with fermented red pepper. Hot pepper was first fermented with Bacillus licheniformis SK1230 to reduce the pungency of capsaicin. We then examined the quality, sensory characteristics, and antioxidant activity of yoghurt cont...

  9. Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt

    Maja Benković

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

  10. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovenská Bryndza Ovine Cheese

    D'Auria, Giuseppe; Džunková, Mária; Moya, Andrés; Tomáška, Martin; Kološta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements.

  11. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the...... a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had...

  12. Instant OSGi starter

    Goodyear, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

  13. Effects on product quality for probiotic yoghurts caused by long storage times during production

    Larsson, Catrine

    2009-01-01

    Recent years there has been a large increase in the worldwide sales of cultured products containing probiotics. The obstacle in the production of fermented products incubated with probiotic strains is its effect on sensory, chemical and physical properties. This Master´s Thesis investigates how extended storage times in fermentation tank as well as buffer tank during production of probiotic yoghurts affect final product quality. Through experimental studies, maximum storage times for probioti...

  14. Selection of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria isolates from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt

    Zhang Chun-lei; Li Jia-qi; Guo Hai-tao; Wang Jie; Xu Ri-hua

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt were evaluated for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) by phenol-sulphuric acid method after ethanol precipitation and dialysis. Total polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing MRS broth cultures of the selected LAB strains. Comparison of the EPS yields revealed that among tested LAB, strain 37 exhibited the highest production of 536.904 mg/L. The strain was identified as Leuconostoc citreum with ca...

  15. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  16. Influence of myrtle juice and syrup on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory features of goat’s milk yogurt made with indigenous starter Culture

    Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Murgia, Marco Ambrogio; FANCELLO, FRANCESCO; Nudda, Anna; Deiana, Pietrino

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Myrtle Juice (MJ) and Syrup (MS) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory features in goat milk yogurt fermented by indigenous Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus during 30 days of storage. Generally, in all samples, the high LAB number at the end of incubation and the pH values ranging from 4.1 to 4.6 indicates a good effectiveness of the used starter on fermentation process. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus c...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED

    Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

  18. Instant Gimp starter

    Amreen, Fazreil

    2013-01-01

    A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

  19. Instant Google Drive starter

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  20. Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products

    Rosicler BALDUINO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como ácido lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61% e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15 UFC/mL foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14 UFC/mL, mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos.Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture

  1. Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”

    AngeloSisto

    2012-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cul...

  2. Microbiological evaluation of yoghurt products in Qena city, Egypt

    L. M. El-Malt

    Full Text Available Aim: To examined Large and small scale yoghurts for presence of microorganisms of sanitary importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 random samples from various dairy shops, street vendors and supermarkets located in Qena city were collected within 2008 - 2010. Results: The recorded results show that (92% and (70% of the examined small and large scale yoghurt samples had Psychrotrophic count with an average of 3.9 x 104 and 6.8 x103 respectively. It was found that Enterococci were detected in (58% and (40% with an average count of 1.72 x104 and 2.0 x 103 for the examined small and large scale yoghourt samples. S.aureus were detected in (72% and (36% with an average of 8.5 x 103 and 9.41 x102 for both small and large scale yoghurt samples. Regarding yeast and moulds they were found in (94% and (40% with an average counts of 1.4 x 104 for small scale and 3.9 x 102 of large scale yoghurt samples. Most probable number (MPN technique showed that [(38, (20], [(35, (17] and [(30, (6] out of the total examined small and large scale yoghurt samples were contaminated with coliform, Fecal coliform and E. coli respectively. The incidence of E. coli biotype I and II for examined small scale yoghurt samples were (63.4% and (36.6%, while for the examined large scale yoghurt samples were (16.7 and (83.3 respectively. Conclusions: Yoghurt samples obtained from Qena city markets constitute a high risk hazard to consumers. So suggestive hygienic measures to safeguard the consumer health. As well as, the recommended sanitary practices for improving quality of small and large scale yoghurt must be applied. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 400-404

  3. Munin plugin starter

    Brinke, Bart ten

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

  4. Instant Spring security starter

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  5. Instant Metasploit starter

    Ranganath, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

  6. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja; Hamza Adam; Hudu Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and sHamza Adam olids not fat were rec...

  7. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  8. Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities

    Belewu, Moshood Adewale

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

  9. Fastener starter tool

    Chandler, Faith T. (Inventor); Valentino, William D. (Inventor); Garton, Harry L. (Inventor); Arnett, Michael C. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A fastener starter tool includes a number of spring retention fingers for retaining a small part, or combination of parts. The tool has an inner housing, which holds the spring retention fingers, a hand grip, and an outer housing configured to slide over the inner housing and the spring retention fingers toward and away from the hand grip, exposing and opening, or respectively, covering and closing, the spring retention fingers. By sliding the outer housing toward (away from) the hand grip, a part can be released from (retained by) the tool. The tool may include replaceable inserts, for retaining parts, such as screws, and configured to limit the torque applied to the part, to prevent cross threading. The inner housing has means to transfer torque from the hand grip to the insert. The tool may include replaceable bits, the inner housing having means for transferring torque to the replaceable bit.

  10. 发酵剂与凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响研究%Studies on Effects of Culture Starters and Coagulants on the Quality of Mozzarella Cheese

    王雪梅; 张轶

    2014-01-01

    为生产出适合在国内消费的Mozzarella干酪,本文研究了发酵剂和凝乳酶对Mozzarella干酪品质的影响。结果表明:以产酸较快、产粘性较高、双乙酰含量较高、pH值为4.6时可溶性氮适中为原则,结合干酪的感官评价结果,选择CHOOZIT MA14发酵剂作为Mozzarella干酪实际生产用发酵剂;综合考虑凝乳的状态、凝乳时间及干酪产率和感官评价结果,添加量为0.025 g/L的奶酪凝乳酶更适用于Mozzarel a干酪的实际生产。%The paper studied the effect of culture starters and coagulants on the quality of Mozzarel a cheese which was suitable for domestic consumption. In view of the high acid production, production of viscous and diacetyl content, as wel as the soluble nitrogen is medium when the pH value is 4.6, the starter of CHOOZIT MA14 was chosen for the actual production. In consideration of the state and time of curd , cheese yield and texture and sensory evaluation, the cheese rennet which additives for 0.025 g/L was more suitable for the actual production of Mozzarel a cheese.

  11. Sensory Evaluation of the Strawberry Flavored Yoghurt with Stevia and Sucrose Addition

    Lisak, Katarina; Lenc, Maja; Jeličić, Irena; Božanić, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    As obesity is a growing problem in the world the target of food industries is to produce low calorie products safe for the human health. According to the non-caloric value of stevia and its beneficial influence on human health, there is a great possibility of its use in the food industry. Plain yoghurts were produced by fermentation with ABT-5 cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifi dobacterium spp.) and flavored by addition of 0.2 mL/100 g strawberry aroma. Y...

  12. Examining the possibilities of applying high pressure to preserve yoghurt supplemented with probiotic bacteria

    Jankowska, Agnieszka; Grześkiewicz, Aleksandra; Wiśniewska, Krystyna; Reps, Arnold

    2012-09-01

    Natural yoghurt was subject to pressures of 200 and 250 MPa/4 and 18°C/15 min, after which milk-activated inocula of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. were added. The yoghurts were stored for 4 weeks at refrigeration temperature. After preparation and each week of storage, the count of bacteria, acidity, antibacterial property and an organoleptic assessment was determined. The highest survival rate was demonstrated by the bacteria of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. in the yoghurt pressurised 200 MPa/15min at 4°C. Acidity increases in the control yoghurts were higher than in the pressurised ones. Pressurised yoghurts demonstrated weaker antibacterial effect in comparison to control yoghurts. Slight changes in the smell and taste were observed after pressurisation. Yoghurts pressurised at 18°C were characterised by more favourable organoleptic properties. Better conciseness of the curd and lower whey seep out were observed in pressurised yoghurt.

  13. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  14. 乳酸菌直投制备金针菇泡菜的风味物质分析%Analysis of flavor compounds in Flammulina velutiper fermented by lactobacillus starter culture

    陈聪; 董英; 程新; 肖香; 史腊妮

    2015-01-01

    将2株Lactobacillus plantarum(植物乳杆菌)1∶1复配,直投制备金针菇泡菜,并以自然发酵为对照,比较发酵前后金针菇泡菜的感官指标及主要风味物质的变化.结果表明,直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜呈乳白色,酸度适宜,感官指标优于自然发酵金针菇;直投发酵制备的金针菇泡菜所产生的挥发性风味物质中芳香族化合物、酚类、杂环化合物、醛类、酮类、醚类和酯类化合物的含量均明显高于自然发酵,且主要挥发性成分(相对含量在1%以上)如1-辛醇(1.53%)、乙醛(1.18%)、乙偶姻(1.14%)等含量均高于自然发酵.直投发酵所产生的总氨基酸(547.59 μg/mL)、鲜甜味氨基酸(315.93μg/mL)、必需氨基酸(76.46μg/mL)以及多种有机酸的含量也明显高于自然发酵.与自然发酵相比,乳酸菌直投发酵可以加快金针菇泡菜成熟速度,改善产品风味,适用于金针菇泡菜的生产.%Flammulina velutiper was fermented from two Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures with ratio of 1∶ 1.The natural fermentation was used as control.The organoleptic investigation was carried out and the main flavor compounds were compared.The results showed that,the color of Flammulina velutiper fermented from starter culture was white and its acidity was appropriate,which was better than that from natural fermentation.The contents of aromatic compound,phenols,heterocyclic compound,aldehyde,ketone,ether and esters in Flammulina velutiper from direct fermentation were higher than those from natural fermentation.The contents of some kinds of main flavor compounds (above 1%) in the former were higher,including 1-Octanol (1.53%),aldehyde (1.18%),acetoin (1.14%),and so on.The contents of total amino acid (547.59 μg/mL),amino acid (315.93 μg/mL) with sweet and palatable taste,essential amino acid (76.46 μg/mL) and many kinds of organic acid in the former were higher.Compared with natural fermentation

  15. PRESERVATIVE POTENTIAL OF PURIFIED BACTERIOCIN PRODUCED FROM BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS AG1 ISOLATED FROM MARCHA – A TRADITIONAL WINE STARTER CULTURE CAKE IN TOMATO PASTE

    Anupama Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purified bacteriocin produced from Brevibacillus borstelensis AG1 isolated from Marcha a local wine starter herbal cake, was used to enhance the shelf life of tomato paste. Preservative effect of purified bacteriocin was studied for nine days in tomato paste inoculated with food borne pathogens and was compared to commercial biopreservative – nisin and chemical preservative – sodium benzoate. The indicator strains i.e. Listeria monocytogenes MTCC839, Bacillus subtilis CRI and Clostridium perfringens MTCC1739 were used at the amount 8.16, 8.13 and 8.18 log CFU/ml. Viable cells were counted periodically and a consistent reduction in number of viable cells of each tested pathogen was observed. It was found antagonistic against L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739 which are the most challengeable and food borne pathogens found in processed vegetables products. Purified bacteriocin was found active over a wide pH range i.e. 3.0 to 11.0 and was able to withstand temperature up to 100oC. It showed a better preservative potential by reducing pathogenic load of the tested strains (by 2.02, 2.05 and 2.02 log cycles (CFU/ml of L. monocytogenes MTCC839, B. subtilis CRI and C. perfringes MTCC1739, respectively in tomato paste as compared to control (without bacteriocin. This proves efficiency of bacteriocin produced by B. borstelensis AG1 as biopreservative to enhance the safety and shelf life of acidic foods.

  16. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  17. Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki; Ângela Maria Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi Brod; Caroline Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave Arisi; Ernani Sebastião Sant'Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from...

  18. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    Chen He; Niu Jinfeng; Shu Guowei; Wan Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST), but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showe...

  19. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 40C and 200C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 200C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 40C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes

  20. The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer

    Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

    2008-07-15

    The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

  1. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  2. Instant CloudFlare starter

    Dickey, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

  3. Instant OpenNMS starter

    Hachey, Ghislain

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

  4. Instant Spring for Android starter

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  5. A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS

    V.D. Lushchyk

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

  6. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  7. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture

    Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

  8. Rheological and Sensory Characteristics of Yoghurt-Modified Mayonnaise

    Štern, Petr; Pokorný, J.; Šedivá, A.; Panovská, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2008), s. 190-198. ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : mayonnaise * rheology * sensory analysis * texture * yoghurt Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2008

  9. Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production

    Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2006-01-01

    The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compa...

  10. Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter

    DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen co...

  11. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN VARIASI KONSENTRASI STARTER PROBIOTIK PADA PAKAN TERHADAP PERKEMBANGAN AYAM KAMPUNG Gallus domesticus

    Hidayah, Nurul; Risco B. Gobel; Djide, M. Natsir; Hassan, Munif S.

    2008-01-01

    The researh about ???The Effect of Addition of Various Concentration of Probiotic Starter on Feed to the Development of Local Chicken Gallus domesticus??? has been done. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of addition of various concentration of probiotic starter on body weight gain, feed conversion and appearance of local chicken Gallus domesticus. MRSA medium (Man Rogosa Sharpe Agar) is used to cultivate of pure culture probiotic isolate. The grown isolates diluted and ...

  12. Sucukta Olgunlaşma Sırasında Meydana Gelen Karbonhidrat Fermantasyonuna Sıcaklık ve Starter Kültürün Etkisi (•Effects of Processing Temperature and Starter Culture on Carbohydrate Fermentation during Ripening of Turkish Sausages (Sucuk)

    2009-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, farklı starter kültürlerin ve üretim sıcaklıklarının sucukta meydana gelen karbonhidrat fermantasyonuna etkisi organik asit dağılımı ve miktarları ve diğer kalite özellikleri belirlenerek ortaya konulmuştur. Bu amaçla üç farklı starter kültür içeren (S1: Stapylococcus xylosus ve Pedicoccus pentosaceus karışımı, S2: Lactobacillus sakei ve Staphylococcus carnosus karışımı ve S3: Stapylococcus xylosus) ve bir startersiz (kontrol) grup oluşturulmuş ve iki farklı üretim sıcaklığında ...

  13. 胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的研制%Development of Yoghurt with Carrot and Pineapple

    张继成

    2012-01-01

    以鲜牛乳和胡萝卜、菠萝为主要原料,以保加利亚乳杆菌、嗜热链球菌和双歧杆菌作为发酵剂,采用感官品质评价和正交试验方法,研究胡萝卜菠萝酸奶的加工工艺.结果表明,胡萝卜菠萝酸奶加工制作的最佳配方及工艺条件为:在鲜牛乳中添加10%的胡萝卜和菠萝汁(胡萝卜汁∶菠萝汁=1∶2),8%的白砂糖,菌种添加量为4%(保加利亚乳杆菌∶嗜热链球菌∶双歧杆菌=1∶2∶1),在42 ℃下发酵4h,经冷却后熟后,制得的胡萝卜菠萝酸奶具有均匀的橙红色和独特的胡萝卜菠萝风味,其凝块均匀一致,表面细腻光滑,硬度、黏度适中,酸甜可口,清爽润喉,无异味,无或有少量的乳清析出,符合酸奶标准.%Using fresh milk, carrots and pineapples as the main raw materials, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bacillus bifidus as the starter, the processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt was studied, through sensory evaluation and orthogonal test method. The results showed that, the optimum formula and processing technology of carrot pineapple yoghurt were as follows: added 10% carrot and pineapple juice (carrot juice :pineapple juice = 1 -2) to fresh milk, 8% white sugar and 4% bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus 'Streptococcus thermophilus: Bacillus bifidus = 1:2:1), fermented for 4 hours at 42 ℃ and then cooled down. The obtained carrot pineapple yoghurt had a uniform orange red color and clot, unique flavor of carrot and pineapple, smooth appearance, moderate hardness and viscosity, suitable acid and sweet flavor, no off-flavor, and no or a little of whey separtion, and was in line with the yogurt standard.

  14. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans......-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative...

  15. Functional Starters for Functional Yogurt

    Mattia P. Arena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the multifunctionality (microbial starters and probiotics of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 8328 strains used as microbial starters for the production of yogurt in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The ability of the probiotic strains to survive oro-gastrointestinal stresses was monitored by an in vitro assay simulating the human digestive tract. The transcriptional level of several genes involved in the immune response suggested that the probiotic strains may have a favorable influence on immunomodulation. Overall, this study revealed that the tested Lactobacilli exhibited suitable technological features for yogurt production and might be used to formulate novel food with immunomodulating effects.

  16. Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte

    Juliana Moriya; Luciano Fachin; Ana Lourdes Neves Gândara; Walkiria Hanada Viotto

    2006-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer health benefit(s) based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidobacterium sp in the pr...

  17. Instant MinGW starter

    Shpigor, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

  18. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranci...

  19. Probiotic fermented almond “milk” as an alternative to cow-milk yoghurt

    Neus Bernat

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics in almond-based matrices were considered as a means of obtaining fermented products which would cover both the current demand for health-promoting foods and for alternatives to standard yoghurts. Firstly, the combined effect of high pressure homogenisation (HPH and heat treatment on the physical stability of almond “milk” was studied. The beverage was homogenised by applying 62, 103 and 172 MPa (MF1, MF2 and MF3 respectively; MF3 was also combined with two different heat treatments (85 ºC-30 min (LH and 121 ºC-15 min (HH. Both microstructure and colloidal stability were analysed in all the processed samples to select the most suitable treatment with which to obtain a stable product. The selected almond milk was then fermented with probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus thermophilus and the final product was characterised throughout cold storage time (28 days as to pH, acidity, serum retention and starter viability. A sensory evaluation and probiotic survival to in vitro digestion was also conducted. The results showed that the physical and structural almond-milk properties were affected by both HPH and heat treatments, obtaining the greatest stability in MF3-LH samples. The fermented milk permitted probiotic survivals above the level suggested as minimum for ensuring health benefits during the entire controlled time and, hence, can be considered as a functional food. No differences in the sensory acceptability of the product were found between 1 and 28 storage days. Therefore, a new, functional, fermented product was developed, which was suitable for targeted groups, such as the lactose-intolerant and cow-milk-protein allergic populations.

  20. Aroma profile of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine fermented by single and co-culture starters of autochthonous Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts

    Rosanna eTofalo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Montepulciano d’Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73, a strain of Starm. bacillaris (STS12, one of H. uvarum (STS45 and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1 and Starm. bacillaris (STS12, in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d’Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after three days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains Starm. bacillaris (STS12 and H. uvarum (STS45. At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step towards the use of tailored

  1. Aroma Profile of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Wine Fermented by Single and Co-culture Starters of Autochthonous Saccharomyces and Non-saccharomyces Yeasts

    Tofalo, Rosanna; Patrignani, Francesca; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Di Gianvito, Paola; Pizzoni, Daniel; Arfelli, Giuseppe; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a native grape variety of Vitis vinifera L., grown in central Italy and used for production of high quality red wines. Limited studies have been carried out to improve its enological characteristics through the use of indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The main objective of the present work was to test two indigenous strains of S. cerevisiae (SRS1, RT73), a strain of Starmerella bacillaris (STS12), one of Hanseniaspora uvarum (STS45) and a co-culture of S. cerevisiae (SRS1) and S. bacillaris (STS12), in an experimental cellar to evaluate their role in the sensory characteristic of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine. A S. cerevisiae commercial strain was used. Fermentations were conducted under routine Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine production, in which the main variables were the yeast strains used for fermentation. Basic winemaking parameters, some key chemical analysis and aroma compounds were considered. S. cerevisiae strain dynamics during fermentation were determined by molecular methods. The musts inoculated with the co-culture were characterized by a faster fermentation start and a higher content of glycerol after 3 days of fermentation, as well as the musts added with strains S. bacillaris (STS12) and H. uvarum (STS45). At the end of fermentation the parameters studied were quite similar in all the wines. Total biogenic amines (BA) content of all the wines was low. Ethanolamine was the predominant BA, with a concentration ranging from 21 to 24 mg/l. Wines were characterized by esters and alcohols. In particular, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbut-1-yl methanoate, and ethyl ethanoate were the major aroma volatile compounds in all wines. Statistical analysis highlighted the different role played by aroma compounds in the differentiation of wines, even if it was impossible to select a single class of compounds as the most important for a specific yeast. The present study represents a further step toward the use of tailored

  2. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few. PMID:22779912

  3. Selection of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria isolates from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt

    Zhang Chun-lei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB isolated from Inner Mongolian traditional yoghurt were evaluated for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS by phenol-sulphuric acid method after ethanol precipitation and dialysis. Total polysaccharide was extracted from sucrose-containing MRS broth cultures of the selected LAB strains. Comparison of the EPS yields revealed that among tested LAB, strain 37 exhibited the highest production of 536.904 mg/L. The strain was identified as Leuconostoc citreum with carbohydrate assimilation profiling, 16S rRNA and pheS gene sequencing. The Ln. citreum 37 was found to be a novel EPS producing strain. It was found that there was no direct linear relation between the colony size and EPS yield, so the colony size could not to be used to screen EPS-producing strains.

  4. Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk

    Ibrahim Afaneh; Khaled Abu-Alruz; Jihad M. Quasem; Ahmad Sundookah; Jehad Abbadi; Suleiman Alloussi; Ziad Ayyad

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min) with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW), Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM) and skim milk. The formulas were ferm...

  5. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

  6. Determination of Contamination Sources during the Manufacturing of Yoghurt

    KASIMOĞLU, Aylin

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the critical control points for the contamination in a factory experiencing a problem with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, and to prevent economic losses and also to protect public health by facilitating production under hygienic conditions. Samples were taken from a total of 20 control points, which involved every stage of production from the beginning to the end, including milk, all equipment, surfaces, air, hands of staff and water; yoghurt samples ...

  7. Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures

    Michal Magala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Material and methods. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability. Results. Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Conclusion. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid. Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that

  8. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  9. Nutritive characteristics of probiotic quark as influenced by type of starter

    Đurić Mirjana S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Quark was manufactured, under laboratory conditions, by standard batch process, from two types of milk: I partially skimmed, with 1.6 % of fat and II whole milk, with 3.5 % of fat. As starters, two probiotic cultures were applied: I DVS-Probio-TecTM ABT- 1, Lactobacillus acidophilus-5, Bifidobacterium-12, S. thermophilus and II DVS-Probio-TecTM ABT-2, Lactobacillus acidophilus-5, Bifidobacterium-12, S. thermophilus. Also, the traditional cheese culture (CH - N22 was used. The obtained Quark samples were tested by standard methods in order to determine their nutritive characteristics. The results have shown that probiotic starter ABT-1 ensured the highest level of utilization of fat, proteins, lactose and phosphorus from partially skimmed milk. Probiotic culture ABT-2 was less effective, but combined with the traditional starter and applied to a whole milk could give Quark with acceptable nutritive characteristics. When sensory characteristics of products were tested, it has been proven that the application of ABT-2 culture and combination of probiotic starters ABT-2 and traditional culture gave good products with typical mild flavor. On the contrary, inoculation with ABT-1 probiotic starter resulted in lower-quality products in case of both kinds of milk applied. .

  10. Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter

    Khan, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a