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CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES  

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Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

Ma?gorzata Ziarno

2007-03-01

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Comparative Studies on Folate Production and Parameter Optimization in Fermented Milk from Yoghurt Starter Culture  

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Full Text Available Among the several causes reported for neural tube defects in newborns and cardiovascular diseases, deficiency of folate is one of the important reasons to be considered. Folate, water soluble vitamin, plays significant role in metabolic reactions. Humans cannot synthesize folate itself hence supplements and natural food sources are advisable to consume. Supplements have severe side effects on long term usage. Although milk is a poor soucrce of folate however folate producing microorganisms can enhance the folate content in the fermented milk. In this study, yogurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus NCIM No. 2904 and Lactobacillus helveticus NCIM No. 2733 were selected. Both the cultures were grown in MRS media and production was checked in reconstituted nonfat dry milk medium. Folate production was analysed by the TLC method and the modified ninhydrin assay which is not previously used on food products. Both cultures produced the folate in the fermented milk however S. thermophilus was found to be the best producer. After the production, optimization of culture condition such as temperature, pH, age of inoculum, inoculum volume and carbon source i.e. lactose concentration was carried out to obtain the enhanced folate content. S. thermophilus and L. helveticus gave the maximum production at 40°C and 37°C respectively and optimum pH was found to be 6.5 for both the cultures. Optimum age of inoculum was observed as the 15 hr while 5% inoculum volume was found to be optimum. Lactose concentration i.e. carbon source was also optimized and 2% lactose was found to be the optimum for the maximum folate production.

Prof. (Dr. Subir Kundu

2014-12-01

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Performance evaluation of bulk freeze dried starter cultures of dahi and yoghurt along with probiotic strains in standardized milk of cow and buffalo.  

Science.gov (United States)

Performance of bulk freeze dried (BFD) cultures of dahi (D) and yoghurt (Y) either with or without probiotic cultures (AB -Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum) in standardized milk of cow and buffalo was evaluated. In buffalo milk, significantly (p?milk, however, the volatile acidity (VA) produced by combination D was higher (32.5 ml/50 g sample) in buffalo milk than in cow milk (29.2 ml/50 g sample). Whereas, DAB produced very low amount of VA (16 ml/50 g sample) both in cow and buffalo milk. The diacetyl and tyrosine contents produced by either D or DAB in cow or buffalo milk were in the same order. Although Y and YAB produced slightly more VA in buffalo milk than in cow milk, significant change in the performance of yoghurt cultures (Y or YAB) both in cow and buffalo milk was not noticed. However, the VA and acetaldehyde produced by YAB either in cow and buffalo milk was higher than that by combination Y. Addition of probiotic cultures significantly enhanced the production of acetaldehyde content in both types of milk. Difference in tyrosine content in yoghurt made either with cow or buffalo milk was not significant. Overall, the present study indicated that the BFD cultures can be used to prepare dahi or yoghurt either from cow or buffalo milk, without affecting the biochemical profile of these products. PMID:25477690

Vijayendra, S V N; Gupta, R C

2014-12-01

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Wine starters cultures  

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Full Text Available This article presents a review about wine starters cultures. It makes a report in recent 5 years of researches about starters cultures in the follow areas: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Food Science and Enology. It was reviewed winemaking fermentations and mixed cultures as well as methodologies in the domain of Biotechnological data and the studies perpectives.

Débora Santos

2008-01-01

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Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the microflora of yoghurt and acidophilus milk  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this research was to monitor the influence of the powdered Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis addition to plain yoghurt and the yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophiluson survival of the microbiota during the refrigerated storage. The cell viability of yoghurt starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and Lactobacillus acidophilus under refrigeration conditions in yoghurts prepared with (0.5 or 1.0 (w/w) %) and withou...

Metin Guldas

2010-01-01

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Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei  

OpenAIRE

The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation fro...

Sedarnawati Yasni; Ayuni Maulidya

2014-01-01

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[Yoghurt: a probiotic Mediterranean food].  

Science.gov (United States)

Yoghurt is a traditional Mediterraean food, based on milk and specific living cultures. Most recent research shows that yogurt bacteria are able to survive passage through the human intestine. Yogurt containing viable starter cultures has been shown to improve lactose digestion in lactose-intolerant people. There are indications for a role of live yogurt cultures in modulating the immune system of the consumer. Long-term consumption of live yogurt reduces nasal allergies, particularly in young adults. PMID:15584477

Mateos, José Antonio

2004-06-01

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New developments in meat starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meat starter cultures containing one or more strains of lactic acid bacteria,Actinobacteria, staphylococci,Halomonas elongata, Aeromonas spec., and moulds or yeasts are widely in practical use. The progress in microbial systematic has led to changes in the taxonomy of familiar bacterial species which are described. Studies of flavour genesis led to the identification of the contribution of the enzyme activities endogenously present in the meat matrix as well as of those exerted by the starter cultures. Characteristic compounds of the aroma of fermented meat products originating from the starter organisms were also described. New knowledge was accumulated on the physiology and genetics of starter bacteria and some insight has been gained in the regulation of the expression of genes encoding important properties such as bacteriocin production or catalase activity. The applicability of gene technology to starter strains has been shown and strains have been constructed that have the potential to further improve the technological and hygienic suitability of starter cultures. New applications of the micro-organisms as protective or probiotic cultures have been developed for application in meat science. PMID:22060705

Hammes, W P; Hertel, C

1998-01-01

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Isolation and Identification of Lactococci from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun  

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Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Lactococci isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 28 Lactococci were determined. Additionally, the biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures, in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional yoghurt. However, in the future can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

M.H. Zamani

2011-01-01

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Isolation and Identification of Leuconostocs from Traditional Yoghurt in Tribes of Kazerun  

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Full Text Available Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify Leuconostocs isolated from yoghurt in different areas in Kazerun city of Fars province in Iran. From 15 yoghurt samples a total of 34 Leuconostoc were determined. Additionally, our biochemical tests and API kit showed that all of them were Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris. The current study constitutes the first step in the designing process of LAB starter cultures in order to protect the typical organoleptic characteristics of traditional yoghurt. However in the future, we can consider genetical characterization and selection of the most desirable strains which can assess their potential as starter cultures for commercial use.

N. Taarof

2011-01-01

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Starter cultures for cereal based foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fermented cereals play a significant role in human nutrition in all parts of the world where cereals grow. These fermentations are started spontaneously or there have been traditional techniques developed in order to keep starter cultures for these processes alive. With the growing impact of industrial microbiology during 20th century this traditional starter culture propagation was replaced often, especially in the dairy industry, by the use of pure, frozen or freeze-dried cultures grown on microbial media. In contrast to the production of ethanol from cereals, in sourdough a pasteurization step before inoculation is avoided due to gelatinization of starch and inactivation of endogenous enzymes. Therefore cultures must be competitive to the relatively high microbial load of the cereal raw materials and well adapted to the specific ecology determined by the kind of cereal and the process conditions. Less adapted cultures could be used, but then the process of back-slopping of cultures is limited. Although cereal fermentations take the biggest volume among fermented foods, only for sourdoughs commercial cultures are available. PMID:24230471

Brandt, Markus J

2014-02-01

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SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan  

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Full Text Available Modified uli banana flour (MUBF rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus plantarum BSL in non-pasteurized and pasteurized (90ºC, 30 minutes MUBF yoghurt during 4 week of storage at 10ºC. Hedonic rating and ranking test on yoghurt attributes (aroma, taste, consistency, texture, color and overall preference performed by 35 untrained panelists showed that yoghurt produced with 70% MUBF substitution achieved good preferences in all of the attributes ranging from neutral to like. The pH value of the product decreased with increase in MUBF concentration. In addition, titratable acidity (TA, expressed as % lactic acid, increased. Survival of both probiotics in 70% MUBF yoghurt either in the pasteurized synbiotic or non-pasteurized yoghurts were still relatively high at week 4. The yoghurt still contains 108 CFU/ml of lactic acid bacteria, although this was a log decrease from the initial count. Therefore, the MUBF yoghurt was promising as synbiotic yoghurt based on the probiotic counts throughout 4 week of storage, which was higher than the minimum level recommended (106 CFU/ml to provide the beneficial effect.

Widaningrum3

2013-06-01

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:11482563

Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

2001-07-20

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Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

Harun Kesenka?

2010-03-01

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Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid to quality of raw material for yoghurt manufacture. The quality of raw milk for yoghurt production was high. Average relative density was 1,030. Acidity varied from 6.11 to 6.64oSH, with mean value of 6.28oSH. Evaporating of milk and addition of skim milk dry powder were used for dry solids adjustment required for good quality yoghurtmanufacture. Milk for yoghurt manufacture, had relative density from 1.035 to 1.036 with average value of 1.035. Acidity ranged from 7.07 to 7.59oSH. Average acidity was 7.30oSH. Fat content was in range from 1.94 to 2.00% and 1.98% in average. Yoghurt starter culture showed high acidic activity, as indicated in its acidity value before inoculation of yoghurt milk. Mean value of acidity of starter culture was 40.36oSH with variations from 38.05 to 42.64oSH. The acidity of final product varied from 37.36 to 38.81oSH or 38.26oSH in average. The acidity of yoghurt in Dairy Industry Zenica was adjusted to be somewhat lower than usual in order to keep high quality of products during distribution and consuming chain.

Sonja Bijeljac

2004-01-01

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Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas / Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, [...] e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated [...] from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were performed: T1 - addition of commercial starters (Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mixture of isolated Staphylococcus xylosus plus commercial Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T3 - mixture of isolated Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis plus commercial Staphylococcus xylosus; and T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis both isolated. The treatments showed a significant decrease of pH and reduction in the Aw ensuring microbiological safety to the products. With regard to lipid oxidation, the treatments that contained isolated strains of Staphylococcus xylosus presented significantly lower values than the other treatments. The sausages elaborated with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, both strains isolated, presented better sensorial results than the sausages elaborated with commercial starter cultures. Therefore, the addition of native starter cultures can be used in the elaboration of fermented Italian sausages providing safe products with differentiated flavor.

Andréia, Cirolini; Leadir Lucy Martins, Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra; Liana Inês Guidolin, Milani; Diala, Urnau; Bibiana Alves dos, Santos; Giovanna Dotta, Cervo; Ana Paula de Souza, Rezer.

2010-05-01

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Development of Corn Milk Yoghurt Using Mixed Culture of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to diversify the utilization of corn as commercial commodity by a corn-based new product development in the form of yoghurt. The first step was carried out to make corn yoghurt with the addition of fresh milk into heated corn extract using mixture starter of Lactobacillus delbruekii, Streptococcus salivarus, and Lactobacillus casei and the best formulation was determined through hedonic evaluation along with weighing method. The selected formulation from this step was corn extract with the addition of 50% fresh milk. The corn extract was produced from corn kernels that were blended and mixed with water in ratio of 3:1, the mixture was further heated and concentrated until the total volume remained 2/3. Afterwards, this selected formulation was added with sugar and full cream milk powder. The hedonic evaluation results showed that the mixture with 10% sugar and 5% full cream milk powder addition possessed the highest score. Lastly, the selected formulation was observed for physical, microbiological, and chemical assay during 4 weeks period. The ultimate observation concluded that the product could be classified as probiotics with total lactic acid bacteria reached 1.5 x 109 CFU/ml with medium fat content (1.8%.

Sedarnawati Yasni

2014-03-01

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YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS  

OpenAIRE

A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion) by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with contr...

Jayalalitha, V.; Palani Dorai, R.; Dhanalakshmi, B.; Elango, A.; Naresh Kumar, C.

2011-01-01

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Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

2014-01-01

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Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experime...

Silviya Popova; Mihail Angelov; Petia Koprinkova-Hristova; Georgi Kostov

2009-01-01

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Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C, on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added to the milk at 43°C. After milk fermentation at pH 4.5, probiotic yoghurt samples were cooled to 8°C, gently homogenized and packed in plastic containers and stored for 10 days, at +4oC. Viscosity of all samples was measured at 5°C on a Haake Rheostress 600 viscosimeter. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that yoghurt samples produced with low level of transglutaminase activated prior to fermentation have significantly better rheological properties than the samples produced without activation and yoghurt control. Generally, the application of low level transglutaminase in low - fat yoghurt production improves overall rheological properties of the final product.

Ili?i? Mirela D.

2008-01-01

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Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW, Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

Ibrahim Afaneh

2011-01-01

23

Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

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Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

Silviya Popova

2009-10-01

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Production of Nigerian Nono Using Lactic Starter Cultures  

OpenAIRE

The effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) on nutritional quality, acceptability and shelf life of nono was investigated. The lactic starter cultures were selected based on their ability to produce diacetyl. Lactobacillus caseiN18 produced the highest quantity (1.65 g/ml) of diacetyl while Lactobacillus brevisN15 produced the lowest amount (0.9 g/ml). During 24 h fermentation a general decrease in pH was observed with a corresponding increase in Titratable Acidity (TA). The pH ranged between 5....

Avanrenren, R. E.; Ekanola, Y. A.; Odetoyinbo, B. B.; Adesokan, I. A.; Fakorede, S.

2011-01-01

25

Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P bread production as an alternative bread specialty. PMID:18456117

Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

2008-06-01

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Effects of inoculation of commercial starter cultures on the quality and histamine accumulation in fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

To meet the requirements of high-quality safe products, starter cultures are used to produce fermented sausages. The effects of 3 commercial starter cultures, namely SM-194, T-SPX, and SM-181, on histamine accumulation and quality parameters including microbial quality, pH, water activity, and total volatile base nitrogen, as well as the color and texture properties, were evaluated during the fermentation and ripening of fermented sausages. Although initial counts of Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas were similar in the 4 batches, the growth of these microorganisms was significantly inhibited (P period. The counts of E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas increased to maximum levels of 3.89, 4.41, and 5.15 log10 colony forming units/g in the control sausages, respectively. At the end of ripening, the levels of histamine were 8.85, 0.32, 7.82, and 3.18 mg/kg for batches C, SM-194, T-SPX, and SM-181, respectively. The results revealed that commercial starter cultures, particularly starter cultures SM-194 and SM-181, made a great contribution to histamine reduction. In addition, batches inoculated with starter cultures showed a stronger acidification and lower level of total volatile base nitrogen than the control sample during production (P < 0.05). In conclusion, it seems that the inoculation of commercial starter cultures, particularly starter cultures SM-194 and SM-181, contributes to improving microbial quality, hygienic quality and food safety of fermented sausages. PMID:25588615

Wang, Xinhui; Ren, Hongyang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yin; Bai, Ting; Li, Junxia; Zhu, Wenyou

2015-02-01

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Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed. PMID:19835765

Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

2009-12-01

28

The influence of starter and adjunct lactobacilli culture on the ripening of washed curd cheeses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ten strains of lactobacillus from the CNRZ collection were tested as adjunct culture in miniature washed curd cheeses manufactured under controlled bacteriological conditions with two different starters, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL 416 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris AM2. Lactobacilli growth seemed to be dependent on the Lactobacillus strain but was not influenced by the starter strain or counts. Lactococci counts were higher in the miniature cheeses with AM2 starter and added lactobacilli than in the control cheeses without lactobacilli. Gross composition and hydrolysis of ?s1 casein were similar for miniature cheeses with and without lactobacilli. In the miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 starter, the lactobacilli adjunct slightly increased the soluble nitrogen content, but that was not verified in the AM2 miniature cheeses. Phosphotungstic acid nitrogen content increased in miniature cheeses manufactured with IL416 when Lactobacillus plantarum 1572 and 1310 adjunct cultures were added. That was also verified for several Lactobacillus strains, specially Lactobacillus casei 1227, for miniature cheeses manufactured with AM2 starter. Free fatty acid content increased in miniature cheeses made with lactobacilli adjuncts 1310, 1308 and 1219 with IL416 starter, and with strains 1218, 1244 and 1308 for miniature cheeses with AM2 starter. These results indicate that production of soluble nitrogen compounds as well as free fatty acid content could be influenced by the lactobacilli adjunct, depending on the starter strain.

E. Hynes

2002-12-01

29

Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model  

OpenAIRE

Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucur...

Moreno Leblanc, A.; Perdigo?n, G.

2005-01-01

30

Fermentation profile and optimization of green olive fermentationusing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 as a starter culture  

OpenAIRE

The bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a strain originally isolated from an olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation. By means of a 23 (7 4) fractional factorial design, the salt concentration in brines was found to be the most important factor for producing the highest acidity and the highest initial population of the starter culture. To a lesser extent, other factors such as a high inoculum size, u...

Leal-sa?nchez, M. Vega; Ruiz-barba, Jose? Luis; Sa?nchez Go?mez, Antonio Higinio; Rejano Navarro, Luis; Jime?nez Di?az, Rufino; Garrido Ferna?ndez, A.

2003-01-01

31

Effects of Leuconostoc mesenteroides starter cultures on microbial communities and metabolites during kimchi fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kimchi fermentation usually relies upon the growth of naturally-occurring various heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This sometimes makes it difficult to produce kimchi with uniform quality. The use of Leuconostoc mesenteroides as a starter has been considered to produce commercial fermented kimchi with uniform and good quality in Korea. In this study, a combination of a barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and a (1)H NMR technique was used to investigate the effects of Leu. mesenteroides strain B1 as a starter culture for kimchi fermentation. Baechu (Chinese cabbage) and Chonggak (radish) kimchi with and without Leu. mesenteroides inoculation were prepared, respectively and their characteristics that included pH, cell number, bacterial community, and metabolites were monitored periodically for 40 days. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the numbers of bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) in starter kimchi decreased more quickly than that in non-starter kimchi. Members of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were dominant LAB regardless of the kimchi type or starter inoculation. Among the three genera, Leuconostoc was the most abundant, followed by Lactobacillus and Weissella. The use of Leu. mesenteroides as a starter increased the Leuconostoc proportions and decreased the Lactobacillus proportions in both type of kimchi during kimchi fermentation. However, interestingly, the use of the kimchi starter more highly maintained the Weissella proportions of starter kimchi compared to that in the non-starter kimchi until fermentation was complete. Metabolite analysis using the (1)H NMR technique showed that both Baechu and Chonggak kimchi with the starter culture began to consume free sugars earlier and produced a little greater amounts of lactic and acetic acids and mannitol. Metabolite analysis demonstrated that kimchi fermentation using Leu. mesenteroides as a starter was completed earlier with more production of kimchi metabolites compared to that not using a starter, which coincided with the decreases in pH and the increases in bacterial cell number. The PCA strategy using all kimchi components including carbohydrates, amino acids, organic acids, and others also showed that starter kimchi fermented faster with more organic acid and mannitol production. In conclusion, the combination of the barcoded pyrosequencing strategy and the (1)H NMR technique was used to effectively monitor microbial succession and metabolite production and allowed for a greater understanding of the relationships between the microbial community and metabolite production in kimchi fermentation. PMID:22189023

Jung, Ji Young; Lee, Se Hee; Lee, Hyo Jung; Seo, Hye-Young; Park, Wan-Soo; Jeon, Che Ok

2012-02-15

32

Development of defined mixed-culture fungal fermentation starter granulate for controlled production of rice wine  

OpenAIRE

As a first step in the development of defined fungal starter granules for controlled winemaking from purple glutinous rice, the interaction of moulds and yeasts isolated from Vietnamese rice wine starters and the effect of some representative oriental herbs on the growth of moulds and yeasts were examined. Amylomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisae were shown to be compatible in mixed cultures, and the herbs ¿Tieu Hoi¿ (Fennel: Foeniculum vulgare Miller) and ¿Dinh Huong¿ (Clove: Syzygi...

Ngo Thi Phuong Dung; Rombouts, F. M.; Nout, M. J. R.

2005-01-01

33

Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation  

OpenAIRE

Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientali...

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-01-01

34

Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2010-01-01

35

The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey. PMID:21338784

Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

2011-03-01

36

Improving quality in Iberian ”Chouriço grosso” using autochthonous starter cultures.  

OpenAIRE

“Chouriço Grosso“ is a traditional and high quality Portuguese sausage made with meat from Alentejano pig breed, a rustic and fatty Portuguese breed. At a traditional factory, 4 batches with 25 kg, each one, were prepared to produce “Chouriço Grosso” using different starter inoculations: 1 - with 108 cells/g of Lactobacillus sakei and 108 cells/g of Staphylococcus xylosus, 2 - with 108 cells/g of Lactobacillus sakei, 3 - with 108 cells/g of Staphylococcus xylosus, 4 - control,...

Elias, Miguel; Agulheiro-santos, Ana Cristina; Carrascosa, Alfonso

2011-01-01

37

Effect of Egg White Utilization on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Attributes of Protein-rich Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE High protein yoghurt was made from whole milk, fortified with egg white (30% v/v and skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. Different yoghurt mixes, with albumin content of 15%, 30% and 45% (v/v, were prepared. The control was made from whole milk, fortified with skim milk powder at 12% (w/v. The blended premixes were pasteurized at 74ºC for 4 seconds, cooled and then inoculated with 3% (w/v Direct Vat Set yoghurt starter culture at 45ºC. After fermentation for 3 hours in a water bath maintained at 46+-1C, product was cooled to 5ºC and then stored for 24 hours. The effect of the fortification on physico-chemical and sensory properties was investigated. Protein content increased to 8.50% at 45% egg white utilization. Susceptibility to wheying was reduced in egg-white fortified samples, without signicant difference in sensory attributes of the test samples compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 45% egg white was organoleptically acceptable. The yoghurt was rated as having better sensory appeal as compared to the control.

Lilian A Gogo

2012-04-01

38

Fate of Listeria monocytogenes and pediococcal starter cultures during the manufacture of chicken summer sausage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two formulations of chicken summer sausages [100% hand deboned chicken meat (HDCM) and 85% HDCM and 15% chicken hearts (HDCM-CH)] were prepared with a nonpediocin-producing (PED-) Pediococcus acidilactici starter culture and inoculated with 10(4) or 10(7) cfu of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes/g of batter. Sausages were fermented to pH 5.0 (11 h), cooked to an internal temperature of 66.5 C, cold-showered, and stored at 4 C (60 days) and 30 C (7 days). For both formulations and inoculation levels, L. monocytogenes populations decreased 1.3 to 1.8 log10 cfu/g by the end of fermentation. No L. monocytogenes organisms were recovered from sausages (by enrichment) following the cook and shower or storage at 4 or 30 C. In contrast, P. acidilactici increased .7 to 1.2 log10 cfu/g during fermentation, and cook and shower and storage at 4 and 30 C. In a second set of experiments, sausages (HDCM) were prepared with a PED- or a pediocin-producing (PED+) P. acidilactici starter culture and challenged with the L. monocytogenes mixture (10(7) cfu/g). The PED- culture reduced numbers of L. monocytogenes 1.2 log10 cfu/g during fermentation, whereas L. monocytogenes numbers declined 2.6 log10 cfu/g in the presence of the PED+ culture. Although acid production by both starter cultures was equivalent, greater inhibition of L. monocytogenes by the PED+ compared with the PED- starter culture was attributed to in situ production of pediocin. Pediococcal starter cultures and proper cooking eliminated L. monocytogenes from sausages and established that PED+ cultures provide an additional hurdle against poultry-related listeriosis. PMID:8234138

Baccus-Taylor, G; Glass, K A; Luchansky, J B; Maurer, A J

1993-09-01

39

The eff ect of addition of selected vegetables on the microbiological, textural and fl avour profi le properties of yoghurts  

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Full Text Available Background. Vegetables, apart from having high nutritional value, also contain considerable amounts of dietary fi bre and other components, which may affect physico-chemical properties of fermented milks, e.g. viscosity, texture, susceptibility to syneresis, fl avour profi le etc. The present work was established to study the effect of selected vegetables addition on the rheological, textural, microbiological and fl avour profi le parameters of yoghurts. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added (10% w/w to the processed cow’s milk fermented with DVS yoghurt culture. Texture profi le analysis, determination of viscosity, susceptibility to syneresis and descriptive fl avour evaluation were conducted at the 1st, 7th and 14th day after production. Additionally, microbiological studies were performed for 28 days, at 7-day intervals. Results. The highest apparent viscosity and adhesiveness were obtained for the carrot yoghurt, whereas yoghurt with pumpkin was the least susceptible to syneresis. The other texture parameters were not affected by the addition of vegetables. Broccoli and red sweet pepper fl avours were dominating in the fermented milks fortifi ed with these vegetables, whereas carrot and pumpkin fl avours were less distinctive. Yoghurt supplemented with red sweet pepper got the highest sensoric acceptability. The number of starter bacteria was not infl uenced by the vegetable additives, except for pumpkin yoghurt, which contained lower population of lactobacilli. Conclusions. Among all tested vegetables, carrot additive had the greatest potential to improve yoghurt structure, whereas red sweet pepper imparted the most acceptable fl avour.

Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

2015-03-01

40

Preparation of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture for cucumber fermentations that can meet kosher guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for growth of a Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture in jars of commercially available pasteurized fresh-pack kosher dill cucumbers so that jars can be used to inoculate commercial scale cucumber fermentation tanks. A procedure is also described to transfer lactic acid bacte...

41

Effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recognized to confer health benefits to consumers, probiotics such as Lactobacillus acidophilus are commonly incorporated into fermented dairy products worldwide; among which yogurt is a popular delivery vehicle. To materialize most of the putative health benefits associated with probiotics, an adequate amount of viable cells must be delivered at the time of consumption. However, the loss in their viabilities during refrigerated storage has been demonstrated previously. This study focused on the effects of yogurt starter cultures on the survival of five strains of L. acidophilus, with emphases on low pH and acid production. Differential survival behavior between L. acidophilus strains was further analyzed. To this end, viable cell counts of L. acidophilus were determined weekly during 4°C storage in various types of yogurts made with Streptococcus thermophilus alone, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus alone, both species of the starter cultures, or glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). All yogurt types, except for pasteurized yogurts, were co-fermented with L. acidophilus. Yogurt filtrate was analyzed for the presence of any inhibitory substance and for the amount of hydrogen peroxide. Multiplication of L. acidophilus was not affected by the starter cultures as all strains reached high level on day 0 of the storage period. Throughout the 28-day storage period, cell counts of L. acidophilus PIM703 and SBT2062 remained steady (~6 × 10(7)CFU/g) in yogurts made with both starter cultures, whereas those of ATCC 700396 and NCFM were reduced by a maximum of 3 and 4.6 logs, respectively. When starter cultures were replaced by GDL, all strains survived well, suggesting that a low pH was not a critical factor dictating their survival. In addition, the filtrate collected from yogurts made with starter cultures appeared to have higher inhibitory activities against L. acidophilus than that made with GDL. The presence of viable starter cultures was necessary to adversely affect the survival of some strains, as pasteurized yogurts had no effect on their survival. In particular, the inhibitory effect exerted by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus on L. acidophilus NCFM was highly pronounced than by S. thermophilus, nevertheless, the same effect was not observed on SBT2062. The inhibition against stationary-phase NCFM cells might be caused by the elevated level of hydrogen peroxide produced by L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Delineating factors driving the differences in survival trait among probiotic strains will lead to a more efficacious delivery of health benefits in fermented dairy products through targeted technological interventions. PMID:21196060

Ng, Elizabeth W; Yeung, Marie; Tong, Phillip S

2011-01-31

42

Proteolytic and lipolytic starter cultures and their effect on traditional fermented sausages ripening and sensory traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, three starter formulations including Lactobacillus curvatus and Staphylococcus xylosus strains selected in vitro on the basis of their lipolytic and proteolytic activities were employed for the manufacture of traditional fermented sausages of southern Italy. Microbial population, proteolysis, lipolysis, changes in free amino acids (FAA) and free fatty acids (FFA) and development of characteristic taste and flavor of the final product were investigated. Proteolysis and lipolysis were observed in sausages inoculated with proteolytic and lipolytic S. xylosus coupled with L. curvatus, while the sausage started with only S. xylosus without lactobacilli was identical to the non-inoculated control, indicating that the proteolysis could be due to both microbial activity and endogenous proteases activated by the decrease in pH. The statistical analysis applied to the instrumental and sensory data showed that there was an effect of the starter used on the characteristics of the sausage obtained. In particular, the control samples showed very close features different from the sausages obtained by adding starter cultures. Finally, analyzing the sensory parameters the sausages ripened without starter addition and those started without the L. curvatus AVL3 showed similar features indicating an influence of the presence of the lactobacilli on the final organoleptic quality of the sausages. An appropriate choice of a combination of strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to obtain products of the expected quality. PMID:18206776

Casaburi, Annalisa; Di Monaco, Rossella; Cavella, Silvana; Toldrá, Fidel; Ercolini, Danilo; Villani, Francesco

2008-04-01

43

Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.  

Science.gov (United States)

For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7?×?10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying. PMID:24584512

Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

2014-06-01

44

Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased. PMID:24741179

Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

2014-04-01

45

Additives in yoghurt production  

OpenAIRE

In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory at...

Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija; Jasmina Havranek

2008-01-01

46

The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (?g kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

M. Mohsenzadeh

2008-01-01

47

Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p?0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p?0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p?0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p?0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p?0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded that camel milk yoghurt showed high coagulation time and the addition of skim milk powder to camel milk improved some physical properties of the yoghurt.

Mortada Mohammed Salih

2013-06-01

48

Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines. PMID:22063802

Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

2007-03-01

49

Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters that were selected on their ability to produce aroma compounds in butter. Although the heterofermentative species are present in the starters and in the cheeses made with these starters, they have not been studied to the same extent as the Lactococcus population. Heterofermentative strains isolated from DL-starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low aminopeptidase activity compared to Lactobacillus danicus and especially Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris had a low and narrow activity. Aminotransferase activity was high on aromatic amino acids for Lb. danicus, and the Leuconostoc species had an activity similar to Lb. danicus only after growth in CBM. A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria at the time. Differences were seen in the establishment of the heterofermentative bacteria in the cheese matrix, Le. pseudomesenteroides and Lb. danicus grew to a higher number and survived longer than Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. More secondary alcohols and less acetoin were found in cheeses where the heterofermentative bacteria grew and were established well. The biodiversity of heterofermentative bacteria in DL-starters was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the strains were characterizedwith 16s rRNA sequencing and carbohydrate fermentation. The sugar fermentation results indicated an ongoing adaption of Le. mesenteroides to a dairy environment. The adaption from a plant environment to a dairy environment was also indicated in the draft genome sequences of strains Le. pseudomesenteroides 1159, PS12 and Le. mesenteroides subsp. cmreoris T26. The dairy strains had, in comparison with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL-starters contained numerous of strains of heterofermentative Le. mesenteroides, whereas Le. pseudomesenteroides and  only were found in some starters. The potential of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria to effect the flavour formation in cheese seems to be dependent on how well they grow and establish themselves in the cheese matrix. Lb. danicus had metabolic activities that lead to gas formation in the cheese matrix after nine weeks of ripening, indicating that it behaved more like non-starter Lactobacillus in cheese. The genetic information obtained gave insight in the metabolism of Leuconostoc and gave rise to numerous of new topics for further research in this area.

Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

2014-01-01

50

Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production  

OpenAIRE

The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enteroc...

Dora Bu?an; Ksenija Uroi?; Jasna Beganovi?; Blaženka Kos; Andreja Leboš Pavunc; Jagoda Šuškovi?

2013-01-01

51

Additives in yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

Milna Tudor

2008-02-01

52

Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cheese is among the most commonly implicated foods associated with biogenic amines poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of autochthonous starter culture and ripening time on the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, ?-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in cheeses made from pasteurized ewe's milk. 4 cheese batches were made, in duplicate, and ripened for 7 months. The biogenic amines of 40 cheeses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The predominant biogenic amines determined at the end of the ripening time were phenylethylamine, spermine and tryptamine. Together, these accounted for 81% of the total of biogenic amines studied. The type of starter culture used to make the ewe's cheese had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the content of biogenic amines throughout ripening time. It was lower in the batches made with an autochthonous starter culture made up entirely of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris or of the same in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum. PMID:25084673

Renes, E; Diezhandino, I; Fernández, D; Ferrazza, R E; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M

2014-12-01

53

Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies  

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Full Text Available Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and they are considered an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid and phenolic compounds that may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic signi?cance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results from the competitive activities among indigenous, contaminating microorganisms, the microbial balance depending on several intrinsic (pH, water activity, diffusion of nutrients from the drupe and level of anti-microbial compounds and extrinsic (temperature, oxygen availability and salt concentration factors. At present, to reduce the risk of spoilage and to achieve a more predictable process there is an increasing interest in developing starter cultures for table olives fermentation. Anyway, the application of starter cultures in the field of table olives is quite far from reaching the diffusion it has in other sectors of food industry (e.g., dairy products and alcoholic beverages. This review focuses on experimental researches devoted to studying starter cultures for possible application to table olive fermentation both at artisan and industrial level.

AldoCorsetti

2012-07-01

54

Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS. PMID:20405917

Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

2010-05-12

55

Manufacturing of fermented goat milk with a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in a controlled bioreactor  

OpenAIRE

Aims: This work was undertaken to study the feasibility and the characteristics of a fermented product made of goat milk, using a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus under controlled conditions, and to determine their survival in the fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Methods and Results: Goat milk was inoculated with Lact. acidophilus and Bif. animalis mixed starter, fermented in a glass bioreactor with controlled temperatur...

Kongo, J. M.; Gomes, A. M.; Malcata, F. X.

2006-01-01

56

Dipeptidase activity and growth of heat-treated commercial dairy starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing expectations of consumers of fermented dairy products urge the search for novel solutions that would improve their organoleptic properties and in the case of rennet cheeses-that would also accelerate their ripening process. The aim of this study was to determine the peptidolytic activities and growth of heat-treated commercial culture of lactic acid bacteria. The analyzed culture was characterized by a relatively high peptidolytic activity. The growth of bacterial culture subjected to heat treatment at 50-80 °C for 15 s, 10 and 3 min was delayed by a few or 10-20 h compared to the control culture. Based on the results achieved, it may be concluded that in the production of rennet cheeses, the application of additional, fermentation-impaired starter cultures (via heating for ten or so minutes) may serve to accelerate their ripening and to improve their sensory attributes. PMID:25542242

Garbowska, Monika; Pluta, Antoni; Berthold-Pluta, Anna

2015-03-01

57

Avaliação sensorial de pães de fermentação natural a partir de culturas starters inovadoras / Sensory evaluation of natural fermentation breads with innovative starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A fermentação sourdough para a produção de pães é fortemente motivada por seus efeitos benéficos quanto ao sabor, textura, vida de prateleira e pelas propriedades nutricionais dos produtos obtidos. Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a aplicação dos micro-organismos Kluyveromyces marxianus, Dekkera bruxellen [...] sis e Lactobacillus plantarum como culturas starters alternativas na produção de pães. A partir de sete ensaios resultantes de um delineamento de mistura simplex-centroide, foram realizadas nos pães análises sensorial e instrumental. Observou-se que pães produzidos com L. plantarum apresentaram menor volume específico, enquanto que a mistura entre K. marxianus e L. plantarum exerceu influência positiva, possibilitando obter produtos de maior volume específico. A análise sensorial demonstrou a boa aceitabilidade para os pães produzidos com a mistura entre D. bruxellensis e K. marxianus e para a mistura entre os três micro-organismos. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram a possibilidade do uso de culturas starters definidas para a fermentação sourdough, que é tradicionalmente obtida sem controle de processo. Abstract in english The sourdough fermentation in bread making is strongly motivated due to its beneficial aspects on flavor, texture, shelf life, and the nutritional properties of the obtained products. In this research, the yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Dekkera bruxellensis, and the bacterium Lactobacillus plant [...] arum were used as alternative starter cultures in bread making. Experimental designs generated from simplex-centroid mixture were used in the sensorial analyses of breads. Results have shown that bread obtained with pure cultures of L. plantarum presented the smallest specific volume, while the mixture of K. marxianus and L. plantarum positively influenced the formation of good specific volume of products. Sensorial analysis showed good acceptability for breads obtained with D. bruxellensis and K. marxianus mixture, as well as for the mixture of the three microorganisms. The results obtained in this research suggest the possibility of using defined starter cultures for sourdough fermentation, which is traditionally carried out without any process controls.

Fernanda, Martinbianco; André Rosa, Martins; Rosane, Rech; Simone Hickmann, Flôres; Marco Antônio Záchia, Ayub.

1701-17-01

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Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

OpenAIRE

Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR–DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDN...

Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M. H.; Samson, R. A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M. J. R.

2012-01-01

59

Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis  

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Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

Blaženka Kos

2011-12-01

60

Effect of starter culture and turmeric on physico-chemical quality of carabeef pastirma  

OpenAIRE

Carabeef samples were sliced, pressed, cured and divided into 6 groups. Starter cultures (Micrococcus varians M483 (MV), Staphylococcus carnosus (SC), Lactobacillus sakei (LS), M. varians M483+ Lb. sakei and Staph. carnosus + Lb. sakei) were inoculated at the dose of 106–07cfu/g and stored at 10 ± 1°C for 7 days. Uninoculated samples were maintained as control. Samples were then divided into 2 treatment groups. Samples of treatment 1 (T1) were smeared with a paste of turmeric followed by ...

Maurya, P.; Borpuzari, R. N.; Nath, D. R.; Nath, N. C.

2010-01-01

61

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HPT, the First Defined-Strain Dairy Starter Culture Bacterium  

OpenAIRE

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HPT has been widely used in studies of the metabolism of lactococcal dairy starter cultures. A comparison of the draft HPT genome with those from other strains of L. lactis subsp. cremoris will aid our understanding of the domestication and evolution of these important industrial cultures.

Lambie, Suzanne C.; Altermann, Eric; Leahy, Sinead C.; Kelly, William J.

2014-01-01

62

Draft Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HPT, the First Defined-Strain Dairy Starter Culture Bacterium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris HP(T) has been widely used in studies of the metabolism of lactococcal dairy starter cultures. A comparison of the draft HP(T) genome with those from other strains of L. lactis subsp. cremoris will aid our understanding of the domestication and evolution of these important industrial cultures. PMID:24604643

Lambie, Suzanne C; Altermann, Eric; Leahy, Sinead C; Kelly, William J

2014-01-01

63

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

Domenico Cerri

2011-04-01

64

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

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Full Text Available he aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

Barbara Turchi

2011-05-01

65

Rapid detection of bacteriophages in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water emulsion microdroplets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteriophage contamination of starter culture and raw material poses a major problem in the fermentation industry. In this study, a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in starter culture using water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsion microdroplets was described. A model bacteria with varying concentrations of lytic phages were encapsulated in W/O/W emulsion microdroplets using a simple needle-in-tube setup. The detection of lytic phage contamination was accomplished in 1 h using the propidium iodide labeling of the phage-infected bacteria inside the W/O/W emulsion microdroplets. Using this approach, a detection limit of 10(2) PFU/mL of phages was achieved quantitatively, while 10(4) PFU/mL of phages could be detected qualitatively based on visual comparison of the fluorescence images. Given the simplicity and sensitivity of this approach, it is anticipated that this method can be adapted to any strains of bacteria and lytic phages that are commonly used for fermentation, and has potential for a rapid detection of lytic phage contamination in the fermentation industry. PMID:25142697

Wang, Min S; Nitin, Nitin

2014-10-01

66

Development of food grade media for the preparation of Lactobacillus plantarum starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on MRS medium, two types of food grade (FG) culture media (FG medium I and FG medium II) for the preparation of a concentrated starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum NRIC 0380 to manufacture a new type of instant Chinese noodle, the fermented instant Chinese noodle, were developed using FG materials. FG medium I, which is for normal static culture, contains table sugar (sucrose), Yeast peptone standard type F, Sunsoft Q-17S (emulsifier), sodium acetate, trisodium citrate and MnSO(4).4-5H(2)O. FG medium II was designed to be used for the pH-controlled jar fermentor culture conditions. Therefore, sodium acetate and trisodium citrate as a buffer to prevent acidification of medium were omitted from FG medium I. When L. plantarum NRIC 0380 was cultured under the pH-controlled jar fermentor culture conditions, the kinetics of growth, sugar consumption and lactic acid production in FG medium II were quite similar to those observed in the Difco Lactobacilli MRS Broth. Furthermore, growths of many lactobacilli strains isolated from various fermented foods in FG medium I were also quite similar to those observed in MRS medium. Therefore, simple and practical FG media for the culture of lactobacilli were successfully established. PMID:17325448

Sawatari, Yuki; Hirano, Tomomi; Yokota, Atsushi

2006-12-01

67

Chemical and bacteriological characteristics of Pichtogalo Chanion cheese and mesophilic starter cultures for its production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-two samples of Pichtogalo Chanion cheese traditionally produced in Crete, a few (3 to 6) days old, were analyzed for some chemical and bacteriological characteristics. The results of physicochemical analyses were as follows: (1) moisture content 61.63% (standard deviation 4.67); (2) fat in dry matter 54.03% (SD 7.73); (3) protein content 14.23% (SD 1.72); (4) salt content 1.02% (SD 0.38); (5) water activity (aw) 0.990 (SD 0.003); and (6) pH 4.36 (SD 0.25). None of the samples yielded Salmonella spp. Listeria monocytogenes and coagulase-positive staphylococci were present in 6.45% of the samples. Bacillus cereus and sulfite-reducing clostridia were isolated from 14.51% and 40.32% of the samples, respectively. High populations of coliforms were determined in the cheese samples. In 11.3% of the samples, Escherichia coli was not detected, while 88.7% of the samples yielded E. coli most probable number levels from 1.32 to 5.66 log10/g. The log10 CFU/g counts of enterococci were 6.89 (SD 0.84), of yeasts 6.79 (SD 0.61), of molds 4.68 (SD 0.69), and of psychrotrophic bacteria 7.63 (SD 0.62). The log10 CFU/g counts of lactic acid streptococci and lactococci were 7.91 (SD 0.68) and of lactobacilli 8.11 (SD 0.65). Lactic acid bacteria, mainly mesophilic, were isolated and confirmed using API 50 CH test trips. A pasteurized mixture of ewe's and goat's milk was made into Pichtogalo Chanion cheese according to standard procedure at 23 degrees C, after the addition of 4% commercial mesophilic starter culture or 2%, 3%, and 4% starter culture of the isolated and confirmed lactic acid bacteria and the addition of rennet. Results of this work indicated that high quality of Pichtogalo Chanion cheese can be produced using a pasteurized mixture of ewe's and goat's milk and 4% (vol/vol) of mesophilic starter culture. PMID:9709250

Papageorgiou, D K; Abrahim, A; Bori, M; Doundounakis, S

1998-06-01

68

Formation of biogenic amines in raw milk Hispánico cheese manufactured with proteinases and different levels of starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two proteinases, a neutral proteinase from Bacillus subtilis and a cysteine proteinase from Micrococcus sp., were used to accelerate the ripening process of raw cow's milk Hispánico cheese, a semihard variety. Two levels (0.1% and 1%) of a commercial starter culture containing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris were added for cheese manufacture. The influence of both factors, proteinase addition and level of starter culture, on the growth of amino acid-decarboxylating microorganisms and on the formation of biogenic amines during cheese ripening was investigated in duplicate experiments. The population of tyrosine decarboxylase-positive bacteria, which represented less than 1% of the total bacterial population in most cheese samples, and tyrosine decarboxylase-positive lactobacilli was not influenced by proteinase addition or level of starter culture. Tyramine was detected in all batches of cheese from day 30. Its concentration was significantly (P Histamine was not detected until day 60 in cheese with neutral proteinase and 1% starter culture and until day 90 in the rest of the cheeses. The concentration of this amine did not exceed 20 mg/kg in any of the batches investigated. Phenylethylamine and tryptamine were not found in any of the samples. PMID:11079699

Fernandez-García, E; Tomillo, J; Nuñez, M

2000-11-01

69

Identification and characterization of potential autochthonous starter cultures from a Croatian "brand" product "Slavonski kulen".  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial population of a traditional Croatian fermented sausage "Slavonski kulen" was isolated, identified and subjected to technological and functional characterization in order to select potential autochthonous functional starter cultures. Dominant microflora were lactic acid bacteria (LAB), followed by staphylococci. Identification of isolated lactobacilli showed domination of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus acidophilus while Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus warneri outnumbered the staphylococcal microbiota. Most of the isolated LAB and Staphylococcus species displayed good growth in the presence of 5% of NaCl and at 12, 18 and 22°C. All LAB and most of the staphylococci possess proteolytic activity and only Staphylococcus xylosus had lipolytic activity. All lactobacilli and staphylococci isolates produced significant concentrations of lactic acid (as determined by HPLC) and showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic test microorganisms. Dominant LAB and Staphylococcus species displayed growth in the presence of 1% bile. Most of the staphylococci and all of lactobacilli showed sensitivity to all antibiotics tested. PMID:21377808

Babi?, I; Markov, K; Kova?evi?, D; Trontel, A; Slavica, A; Dugum, J; ?vek, D; Svetec, I K; Posavec, S; Frece, J

2011-07-01

70

Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

Oktay, Yerlikaya.

2014-06-01

71

Acceleration of Thai fish sauce fermentation using proteinases and bacterial starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A means to accelerate fish sauce fermentation without adversely affecting fish sauce quality was investigated. Starter cultures prepared from Virgibacillus sp. SK33, Virgibacillus sp. SK37, and Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 were added separately to anchovy that was hydrolyzed by 0.25% Alcalase at 60 degrees C for 2 h followed by 0.5% Flavourzyme at 50 degrees C for 4 h. The mixtures were then adjusted to contain 25% solar salt and incubated at 35 degrees C for 4 mo. alpha-Amino contents of all inoculated samples were higher than the control (without the addition of starter culture) during the course of fermentation. After 4-mo fermentation, the samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 contained the highest alpha-amino content of 733.37 +/- 13.89 mM while that of the control was 682.67 +/- 3.33 mM. Amino acid profiles of inoculated samples showed similar patterns to that of commercial product fermented for 12 mo, with glutamic, aspartic, and lysine being predominant amino acids. Virgibacillus sp. SK33 appeared to decrease histamine content of fish sauce by 50% when compared to the control. Volatile compounds analyzed by GC-MS of all inoculated samples fermented for 4 mo exhibited a similar pattern to those of the 12-mo-old commercial product. Samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 produced higher levels of volatile fatty acids and showed similar sensory characteristics to the commercial fish sauce fermented for 12 mo. Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 is a potential strain that can be applied to produce fish sauce with overall sensory characteristics of traditional fish sauce in shorter time. PMID:18034732

Yongsawatdigul, J; Rodtong, S; Raksakulthai, N

2007-11-01

72

BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

2004-04-01

73

Determination of The Effects of Different Amino Acids, Sodium Formate and Their Combinations on Some Growth Characteristics of Mixed and Single Cell Cultures of Yoghurt Bacteria  

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Full Text Available In this research, different amino acids, sodium formate and their combinations were added into the milk for determining their stimulatory or inhibitory effects on some growth characteristics of mixed and single cell cultures of yoghurt bacteria. Among the added individual amino acids (each of them 100 ppm, cystein was the most stimulant agent for mixed and single cell cultures of the S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus for their acetaldehyde and volatile fatty acid contents. Histidine and glutamic acid were also stimulatory for mentioned parameters. But for the samples, inoculated with single cell culture of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, glutamic acid, cysteine and methionine were to be the most stimulatory for volatile fatty acid contents. Sodium formate added into the milk (500 ppm, as a growth factor aspecially for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, showed more stimulant effect on the growth characteristics of this single culture of this bacteria. According to different compounds and culture groups added into the milk, statistically important (p<0.01 differences were determined among the investigated parameters.

B. Kaptan

2005-05-01

74

On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

75

Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-09-30

76

Evaluation of a potential starter culture for enhance quality of coffee fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The coffee fermentation is characterized by the presence of different microorganisms belonging to the groups of bacteria, fungi and yeast. The objectives of this work were to select pectinolytic microorganisms isolated from coffee fermentations and evaluate their performance on coffee pulp culture medium. The yeasts and bacteria isolates were evaluated for their activity of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin lyase (PL) and pectin methylesterase (PME) and metabolites production. Among 127 yeasts isolates and 189 bacterial isolates, 15 were pre-selected based on their ability to produce PL and organic compounds. These isolates were strains identified as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Candida parapsilosis, Pichia caribbica, Pichia guilliermondii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When cultivated in Coffee peel and pulp media in single culture or two by two mixed inocula, different behavior concerning to PME, PL and PG were found. The two principal components PC1 and PC2 accounted for 45.27 and 32.02 % of the total variance. UFLA CN727 and UFLA CN731 strains were grouped in the positive part of PC1 being characterized by 1,2-propanediol, hexanoic acid, decanoic acid, nonanoic acid and ethyl acetate. The UFLA CN448 and UFLA CN724 strains were grouped in the negative part of PC1 and were mainly characterized by guaiacol, butyric acid and citronellol. S. cerevisiae UFLACN727, P. guilliermondii UFLACN731 and C. parapsilosis UFLACN448 isolates are promising candidates to be tested in future studies as coffee starter cultures. PMID:23054699

Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Vilela, Danielle Marques; de Souza Cordeiro, Cecília; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2013-02-01

77

Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production  

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Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

Dora Bu?an

2013-11-01

78

Combined use of starter cultures and preservatives to control production of biogenic amines and improve sensorial profile in low-acid salami.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined effect of starter culture, nitrites, and nitrates has been studied in low-acidity salamis, typical products of northern Italy. Nine batches have been prepared, combining three different inoculations of starter cultures (control, Lactobacillus plantarum , and Lactobacillus plantarum together with Kocuria varians ) with three different preservatives (control, sodium nitrate, and sodium nitrite). All of the batches showed a good fermentation process with a proper pH decrease, which was quicker in batches inoculated with L. plantarum. The use of starter cultures and in particular the use of nitrites allowed the control of the proliferation of Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci. The accumulation of biogenic amines, especially putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, and tyramine, in salami ready for consumption (60 days of ripening) was strongly affected by the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci. Results obtained showed that the combined use of adequate preservatives and starter cultures allows the production of safer products with improved sensorial profile. PMID:18986149

Coloretti, Fabio; Chiavari, Cristiana; Armaforte, Emanuele; Carri, Simone; Castagnetti, Gian Battista

2008-12-10

79

Effect of the use of curing salts and of a starter culture on the sensory and microbiological characteristics of homemade salamis  

OpenAIRE

Homemade salamis may have their food safety guaranteed by means of the addition of curing salt and starter cultures, without loosing their traditional manufacturing recipes brought to Brazil by the Italian immigration in the early 20th century. In this work, the influence of curing salt and of a starter culture, composed of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus, over the sensory and microbiological characteristics of Italian type salamis, containing 3% lactose and 0.5% saccharose, was evaluated. T...

Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo; Patrícia Bonat Pianovsky

2005-01-01

80

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames / Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltór [...] io, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo. Abstract in english The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as [...] well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

Luís César, CASTRO; Rosa Helena, LUCHESE; José Francisco P., MARTINS.

2000-04-01

81

Contribution of starter cultures to the proteolytic process of a fermented non-dried whole muscle ham product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Porcine longissimus dorsi muscles were cured by brine injection. Curing brine containing 15% (w/v) NaCl, 1.33% (w/v) glucose, 750 ppm sodium nitrite, and appropriate levels of either Lactobacillus sakei LAD, L. sakei LAD plus Kocuria varians FT4 (formally Micrococcus varians), L. sakei LAD plus papain and GDL (glucono-delta-lactone) plus K. varians FT4, was injected to the muscle at a pumping rate 15% w/v. The effect of these treatments on the proteolysis in the ham system was compared to a control ham, produced without starter culture and containing GDL acidulant to control pH and antibiotics to reduce the contribution of background microflora. Hydrolysis of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and reverse phase-HPLC. Hams with different treatments were also investigated for differences in amino acid profile, protein and non-protein nitrogen level, colour, pH, water activity and moisture and microbiological evolution. There was no significant difference in the gross compositional analysis of any of the treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the protein content, non-protein nitrogen level, SDS-PAGE and free amino acid analysis between the control ham and ham inoculated with proteolytic starter culture. However, it was observed that hams containing starter cultures exhibited decreases in certain peptide fractions and corresponding increases in some free amino acids compared to the uninoculated control. It can be concluded that, while the principle mechanisms resulting in the proteolysis of this non-dried ham product involve the activity of endogeneous cathepsins, the addition of proteolytic starter cultures influence the amino acid profile thereby potentially enhancing the sensorial attributes of the ham. PMID:15135960

Scannell, Amalia G M; Kenneally, Paul M; Arendt, Elke K

2004-06-01

82

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity pr [...] ofile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman, Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores, Rall; Margarida Júri, Saeki; Ary, Fernandes Júnior.

1147-11-01

83

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

2012-09-01

84

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

2012-07-01

85

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

OpenAIRE

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam di...

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores Rall; Margarida Júri Saeki; Ary Fernandes Júnior

2012-01-01

86

Selection of staphylococci strains isolated from a Portuguese traditional fermented/dry sausage for potential use as starter cultures  

OpenAIRE

In order to evaluate its potential use as starter cultures, 104 isolates of Staphylococcus spp. were obtained from sausages and different sampling environment points in workshops A and B, at southern region of Portugal. PCR amplification was carried out to confirm genus and species allocation. From workshop A, 47 isolates were staphylococci, the majority belonging to the specie S. equorum, while from workshop B, of the 57 isolates identified as staphylococci, most were S. xilosus. The genetic...

Carvalho, L.; Fernandes, M. J.; Fernandes, H.; Semedo-lemsaddek, T.; Elias, M.; Barreto, A. S.; Fraqueza, M. J.

2012-01-01

87

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures. PMID:24290655

Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

2014-04-01

88

Prevalence and impact of single-strain starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria on metabolite formation in sourdough.  

Science.gov (United States)

Flavour of type II sourdoughs is influenced by the ingredients, processing conditions, and starter culture composition. It is, however, not fully clear to what extent different sourdough lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contribute to flavour. Therefore, two types of flour (rye and wheat) and different LAB starter culture strains were used to prepare sourdoughs, thereby leaving the yeast microbiota uncontrolled. All LAB starter culture strains tested were shown to be prevalent and to acidify the flour/water mixture to pH values between 3.1 and 3.9 after 24h of fermentation. Multiple aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, and carboxylic acids were produced by the sourdough-associated microbiota throughout the fermentation period. Based on the organoleptic evaluation of breads produced with these sourdoughs, five LAB strains were selected to perform prolonged wheat and rye fermentations as to their capacity to result in an acidic (Lactobacillus fermentum IMDO 130101, Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 130201, and Lactobacillus crustorum LMG 23699), buttermilk-like (Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471), or fruity flavour (Lactobacillus sakei CG1). Upon prolonged fermentation, higher metabolite concentrations were produced. For instance, L. sakei CG1 produced the highest amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, which was further converted into 3-methylbutyl acetate. The latter compound resulted in a fruity banana flavour after 48h of fermentation, probably due to yeast interference. Rye fermentations resulted in sourdoughs richer in volatiles than wheat, including 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, and ethyl acetate. PMID:21645811

Ravyts, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

2011-09-01

89

The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. PMID:24359831

Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

2014-02-01

90

Susceptibility of meat starter cultures to antimicrobials used in food animals in Canada.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are extensively used in the food industry for fermentation processes. However, it is possible that these bacteria may serve as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes that can be transferred to pathogens, giving rise to public health concerns. Animal operations that use antimicrobials as growth promotants have been linked to the origin of resistance due to the selective effect of low levels of antimicrobial used in this management strategy. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibilities and mechanisms of resistance for 30 isolates of meat starter cultures commonly used in dry sausage fermentations to 20 antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility tests were performed by broth microdilution using Iso-Sensitest broth (90%, vol/vol) and de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) broth (10%, vol/vol). The results showed that all 30 isolates exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobials regardless of antimicrobial class while 17 or 30% of strains were resistant to antibiotics in three or six different classes, respectively. The incidence of antimicrobial resistance was higher among Pediococcus pentosaceus and lower for Staphylococcus carnosus strains. Genetic determinants for the lincosamide, macrolide, and tetracycline antimicrobials were not found using PCR. Phenotypic resistance in the absence of known resistance genes found here suggests that other mechanisms or genes might have contributed to the negative results. Further studies are needed to explore the genetic mechanisms underlying the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Pediococcus species. PMID:20501043

Cordeiro, R P; Du, T; Mulvey, M R; Krause, D O; Holley, R A

2010-05-01

91

Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR-DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 26S rDNA and ITS regions (fungi). DGGE of DNA extracted from Daqu was used to complement the culture-dependent method in order to include non-culturable microbes. Both approaches revealed that Bacillus licheniformis was an abundant bacterial species, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Pichia kudriavzevii were the most common yeasts encountered in Fen-Daqu. Six genera of moulds (Absidia, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Penicillium) were found. The potential function of these microorganisms in starters for alcoholic fermentation is discussed. In general the culture-based findings overlapped with those obtained by DGGE by a large extent. However, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus lactis, and Bacillus megaterium were only revealed by DGGE. PMID:22608236

Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Han, Bei-Zhong; Zwietering, Marcel H; Samson, Robert A; Boekhout, Teun; Robert Nout, M J

2012-09-01

92

Production of hard-type cheese using free or immobilized freeze-dried kefir cells as a starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a contribution to hard-type cheese starter culture production through the use of a freeze-dried culture in the ripening of hard-type cheeses. The effect of initial cell concentration, ripening temperature, and cell immobilization of kefir on the degree of openness, mold spoilage, microbial associations, physicochemical characteristics, and aroma-related compounds was studied. Use of kefir starter cultures resulted in cheese with an increased shelf life and resistance to spoilage as compared to control cheeses without kefir inoculants. Furthermore, the freeze-dried kefir culture improved aroma, taste, and texture characteristics while increasing the degree of openness in comparison to traditional hard-type cheese products. The kefir culture resulted in an increase in counts of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, lactococci, and lactobacilli until the 15th day of ripening. From then on, only lactobacilli counts increased, reaching levels up to 9.17 log CFU/g in cheeses ripened at 5 degrees C using freeze-dried kefir cells immobilized on casein. SPME-GC/MS analysis revealed major differences in volatile composition, especially with regard to alcohols (up to 75%), carbonyl compounds (up to 75%), and esters (up to 64%) between cheeses made with kefir cells and cheeses made without kefir inoculants. PMID:18540611

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Rapti, Katerina; Kandilogiannakis, Leonidas; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2008-07-01

93

Degradation kinetics of seven organophosphorus pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing  

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Full Text Available Bovine milk spiked with seven organophosphorus pesticides, i.e., dimethoate, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion, monocrotophos, phorate and trichlorphon, was fermented at 42 °C with commercial directed vat set (DVS starters to investigate the degradation kinetics of the pesticides during yoghurt processing. The spiked pesticides were extracted from the prepared samples with an organic solvent and analyzed by gas chromatography after purification. Based on published results that the degradation kinetics of pesticides is first order, the rate constant of degradation and the half live period of the pesticides were calculated. The results indicated that degradation of the pesticides in milk during yoghurt processing were enhanced by one or both starters, except for malathion, and the two commercial DVS starters had different influences on the degradation kinetics of the pesticides.

LI-YING BO

2011-03-01

94

Enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid in a fermented red seaweed beverage by starter culture Lactobacillus plantarum DW12  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum DW12, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing strain, was used as a starter culture to produce a functional fermented red seaweed beverage (FSB). Optimal conditions for producing FSB were established using Central Composite Design by varying the amounts of monosodium gluta [...] mate (MSG), sucrose and the initial pH in MRS medium. After a verification test, 1% MSG, 6% sucrose and an initial pH of 6 were selected. Four treatments were tested: traditional formula (A), red seaweed-cane sugar-potable water = 3:1:10, w/w/v, initial pH 6; the traditional formula with a 5% starter culture consisting of 4.1 x 10(9) CFU of DW 12/ml (B); formula A modified by changing the amounts of cane sugar and MSG to 6% and 1%, respectively (C); formula C with a 5% starter culture added (D). Comparison among the 4 treatments showed that the treatment D produced the highest amount of GABA (4000 mg/L) during days 45-60 while the GABA content of A, B and C treatments was 340, 730 and 1690 mg/L, respectively. However, the results of the sensory test for the treatments C and D showed that the presence of MSG produced an unsatisfactory salty taste. All finished products from the 4 treatments met Thai standard guidelines for chemical and microbiological qualities after 120 days. The results indicated that enrichment of the GABA content in FSB is possible by adding MSG and the GABA producing strain DW12; however, the appropriate amount of MSG addition should be further studied.

Anussara, Ratanaburee; Duangporn, Kantachote; Wilawan, Charernjiratrakul; Pimpimol, Penjamras; Chaiyavat, Chaiyasut.

2011-05-15

95

Brettanomyces as a starter culture in rice-steamed sponge cake: a traditional fermented food in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential use of Brettanomyces anomalus PSY-001 as an additional starter culture for the production of Rice-steamed sponge cake (RSSC), a traditional fermented food in China, was investigated. Two productions of RSSC, each containing batches of experimental cakes with Brettanomyces added and reference cakes with the leavened liquid added were carried out. For both experimental and reference cakes, chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out during the fermentation period. The results showed that experimental cakes had desirable aroma and taste. The observed differences indicate a positive contribution to the overall quality of RSSC by B. anomalus PSY-001. PMID:21882006

Wu, Peng; Xu, Xiaoyun; Xu, Yongxia; Chen, Qingchan; Pan, Siyi

2011-11-01

96

Effects of pure starter cultures on physico-chemical and sensory quality of dry fermented Chinese-style sausage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dry fermented Chinese-style sausages prepared in laboratory inoculating with Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei-1.001, Pediococcus pentosaceus-ATCC 33316, Staphylococcus xylosus-12 and without starter culture randomly sampled at 0, 3, 10, and 24 days of ripening were analyzed for physico-chemical and sensory qualities. A significant (prancidity in ripened product as indicated by a significant (p<0.05) rise in thiobarbituric acid. The lightness (L) and yellowness (b) in the colour of all sausages decreased with ripening time, meanwhile the redness (a) increased significantly (p<0.05) in sausages inoculated with cultures L. casei subsp. casei-1.001 and S. xylosus-12. The texture profile of sausages was almost similar except for P. Pentosaceous-ATCC 33316, which showed significantly (p<0.05) lower hardness and gumminess. Based on the sensory and physico-chemical quality criteria, S. xylosus-12 could be used as a starter culture to produce dry fermented Chinese-style sausage of high quality. PMID:23572623

Rai, Krishna P; Zhang, Chunhui; Xia, Wen Shui

2010-03-01

97

Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ?10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-?-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. PMID:21807435

Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

2011-10-01

98

Application of Bifidobacteria as Starter Culture in Whole Wheat Sourdough Breadmaking  

OpenAIRE

This investigation is aimed at developing a new cereal-based product, with increased nutritional quality, by using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 as starter in whole wheat sourdough fermentation and evaluating its performance. Four different sourdough levels (5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% on flour basis) in bread dough formulation were analysed. The effects of the use of bifidobacteria in sourdough bread were comparatively evaluated with controls (yeast and/or chemically acidified sourd...

Sanz Penella, Juan Mario; Tamayo Ramos, Juan Antonio; Haros, Monika

2012-01-01

99

The use of a starter culture in the fermentation of cassava for the production of "kivunde", a traditional Tanzanian food product.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three cassava fermentation methods (spontaneous fermentation, back-slopping and the use of starter culture) for the production of kivunde, executed in three trials at 30 degrees C, were compared in terms of cyanide level reduction, microbiology and product quality improvement. Among the isolates from spontaneously fermented cassava batches, four strains were selected on the basis of their enzymatic activities and acid production. All were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and were used as starters in this study. Lowest residual cyanide levels were detected after 120 h fermentation time in samples fermented with the starter culture and were below the maximum value of 10 mg/kg recommended by the Codex/FAO for cassava flour. This finding seems to be related to the alpha-glucosidase activity of the inoculated strains of which API-zyme (Bio-Merieux) tests showed activities of between 20 and > or = 40 nmol/4 h. The total residual cyanide levels of the spontaneous and back-slopping fermentations at 96 h were respectively 43.5 and 47.7 mg/kg dry weight of cassava. Extension of the fermentation period to 5 days, lead to further substantial reduction in the residual cyanide level in both these processes, but not below the recommended maximum value as in the case of starter culture fermented products. The spontaneous and back-slopping fermented cassava showed signs of deterioration after 3 days of fermentation. There was a sharp drop of pH and an increase of titratable acidity for all three batches during the first 48 h followed by a slow rise of pH and drop in titratable acidity towards the end of fermentation. The samples fermented with the starter culture had a smooth texture and pleasant fruity aroma, as opposed to the course and dull appearance and more complex flavour of the samples of spontaneous and back-slopping batches. During fermentation with starter culture, Enterobacteriaceae and yeasts and moulds could not be isolated throughout the period of fermentation (detection limit: 10 colony forming units/g). The present findings indicate the suitability of these Lb. plantarum strains as starter cultures for cassava fermentation in the kivunde process. The paper highlights the potential for the improvement of a traditional African fermented food (kivunde) through the use of a starter culture. PMID:10857544

Kimaryo, V M; Massawe, G A; Olasupo, N A; Holzapfel, W H

2000-06-01

100

Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

DANIELA PARASCHIV

2011-12-01

101

Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico / Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390). Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos. Abstract in english In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the g [...] rowth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390). Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

Maristela da Silva do, Nascimento; Izildinha, Moreno; Arnaldo Yoshiteru, Kuaye.

2009-03-01

102

Selection of lactic acid bacteria from Brazilian kefir grains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazilian kefir is a homemade fermented beverage that is obtained by incubating milk or a brown sugar solution with kefir grains that contribute their different microbiological compositions. It is highly important to isolate and characterize microorganisms from Brazilian kefir grains to obtain starter cultures for the industrial production of a standardized commercial kefir. Thus, the present study aimed to isolate lactic acid bacteria from eight kefir grains that were propagated in milk or sugar solutions from five different locations in Brazil and to select Lactobacillus isolates based on desirable in vitro probiotic properties. One hundred eight isolates from both substrates were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were determined to belong to the following 11 species from the genera: Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus (L.), and Oenococcus. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus kefiri, and Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens were isolated only from milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus perolens, Lactobacillus parafarraginis, Lactobacillus diolivorans, and Oenococcus oeni were isolated exclusively from sugar water grains. When the microbial compositions of four kefir grains were evaluated with culture-independent analyses, L. kefiranofaciens was observed to predominant in milk grains, whereas Lactobacillus hilgardii was most abundant in sugar water kefir. Unfortunately, L. hilgardii was not isolated from any grain, although this bacteria was detected with a culture-independent methodology. Fifty-two isolated Lactobacilli were tested for gastric juice and bile salt tolerance, antagonism against pathogens, antimicrobial resistance, and surface hydrophobicity. Three Lactobacillus strains (L. kefiranofaciens 8U, L. diolivorans 1Z, and Lactobacillus casei 17U) could be classified as potential probiotics. In conclusion, several lactic acid bacteria that could be used in combination with yeasts as starter cultures for both milk kefir and sugar water kefir were characterized, and the functional properties of several of the lactobacilli isolated from the kefir grains were suggestive of their possible use as probiotics in both kefir and other dairy products. PMID:25542841

Zanirati, Débora Ferreira; Abatemarco, Mário; Sandes, Sávio Henrique de Cicco; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Nunes, Álvaro Cantini; Neumann, Elisabeth

2015-04-01

103

Biochemical and sensory characteristics of traditional fermented sausages of Vallo di Diano (Southern Italy) as affected by the use of starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, two strains of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from traditional fermented sausages of Vallo di Diano (Southern Italy) were used in combination with an acidifying strain of Lactobacillus curvatus as starter culture for the production of fermented sausages. Two starter formulation were developed combining the proteolytic but not lipolytic (prt(+), lip(-)) S. xylosus CVS11 with the L. curvatus AVL3 (starter S1) and the S. xylosus FVS21 (prt(-), lip(+)) with the same strain of L. curvatus (starter S2). Proteolysis and lipolysis were observed during ripening by the increase in total free amino acids (FAA) and free fatty acids (FFA), respectively. Such activities were observed in both started and non started sausages (control). Moreover, the proteolytic and lipolytic activities were detected in products started by both formulations irrespective of the presence of such activities in the strains used. Therefore, it was not possible to conclude whether the effect of proteolysis and lipolysis during ripening of the started fermented sausages was due to the activity of the starter cultures or to the action of meat endogenous enzymes. PMID:22064299

Casaburi, Annalisa; Aristoy, M-Conception; Cavella, Silvana; Di Monaco, Rossella; Ercolini, Danilo; Toldrá, Fidel; Villani, Francesco

2007-06-01

104

Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used. PMID:22063839

Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

2008-12-01

105

Quantifying the significance of phage attack on starter cultures: A mechanistic model for population dynamics of phage and their hosts isolated from fermenting sauerkraut  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the possibility of using starter cultures in sauerkraut fermentation and, thereby, reducing the quantity of salt used in the process. This, in turn, would reduce the amount of waste salt that would end up in our water resources. Phage, naturally present in sauerkraut fermentation, ...

106

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

OpenAIRE

O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN...

Castro, Lui?s Ce?sar; Luchese, Rosa Helena; Martins, Jose? Francisco P.

2000-01-01

107

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (Pyeasts increased while the Enterobacteriaceae decreased with fermentation time. The pH was lowered and lactic acid produced significantly (P<0.05) fastest in natural togwa fermentation and in samples fermented by L. plantarum or L. plantarum in co-culture with I. orientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

108

Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures  

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Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

Jasna Mrv?i?

2008-05-01

109

Selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures for fermented fish products.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper was the 1st research focusing on the design of a halophilic lactic starter for the production of fermented fish products using a quantitative approach, based on the evaluation of the growth index and acidification score, as well as on the use of a multivariate approach to select the most promising strains. Fifty-nine strains were randomly selected from salted fish and phenotypically characterized through Gram staining, catalase activity, glucose metabolism, H2 S and indole production, nitrate reduction, citrate utilization, and hydrolysis of arginine, esculin, casein, gelatin, starch, Tween 80, and urea. Then the Gram positive isolates (44 out of 59) were studied for their growth at different temperatures (10, 25, 40, and 55 °C), salt (0%, 20%, and 30%), pHs (4.5 and 9.5), and acidification score in lab medium. Data were modelled through growth index and used as input to run a preliminary cluster analysis and a principal component analysis. Three promising strains were selected, identified as members of the genus Pediococcus and used for the validation at laboratory level through the assessment of their performances in the production of a fermented fish sauce. The results were really promising as their use not only reduced the fermentation time (2 d) but also improved the microbiological quality of the final product. This paper represents a 1st report on the use of a simple step-by-step methodology to select promising halophilic strains for the optimization of a starter for fish-fermented products. PMID:25492526

Speranza, Barbara; Racioppo, Angela; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Beneduce, Luciano; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

2015-01-01

110

Genome sequences of two Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from Danish dairy starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The lactic acid bacterium Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides can be found in mesophilic cheese starters, where it produces aromatic compounds from, e.g., citrate. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two L. pseudomesenteroides strains isolated from traditional Danish cheese starters.

Pedersen, Thomas Bæk; Kot, Witold Piotr

2014-01-01

111

A ready-to-use antifungal starter culture improves the shelf life of packaged bread.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fungal spoilage is the main cause of economic loss in the baking industry. In this study, we developed a ready-to-use biopreserver (slurry [SL]) for nonsliced packed bread by using selected antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and low-cost ingredients that are compatible with the food matrix. Four LAB strains (Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772, L. brevis CRL 796, L. plantarum CRL 778, and L. reuteri CRL 1100) tested in bread preservation were able to inhibit Penicillium sp. growth and lengthen shelf life twofold with respect to breads prepared using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2 days shelf life). The best biopreservation effect (5 days shelf life) was obtained with 40% antifungal slurry SL778 containing L. plantarum CRL 778; this was as effective as 0.2% calcium propionate (PCa). The antifungal effect of SL778 was related to the synthesis of acetic and phenyllactic acid as well as lactic acid, which was produced at a high concentration (31.2 mmol/kg) and lowered the pH of the dough, favoring the undissociated fraction of the organic acids. The combination of the starter SL778 with 0.4% PCa extended the shelf life of packaged bread to 24 days, 2.6-fold longer than breads prepared with only 0.4% PCa. PMID:20377968

Gerez, C L; Torino, M I; Obregozo, M D; Font de Valdez, G

2010-04-01

112

Viability of probiotic Lactobacillus casei in yoghurt: defining the best processing step to its addition / Viabilidade de Lactobacillus casei probiótico em iogurte natural: definição da melhor etapa de processamento para sua adição  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Probióticos são microrganismos capazes de produzir efeitos benéficos sobre seu hospedeiro, quando consumidos vivos e em quantidades adequadas. Para que exerçam esses efeitos, os alimentos probióticos devem conter tais microrganismos em populações acima de 106 UFC/g ou mL, durante toda sua validade. [...] Uma das estratégias para garantir a alta população dos probióticos em leites fermentados é adicioná-los durante ou após o processo de fermentação separadamente das culturas starter. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o comportamento do microrganismo probiótico Lactobacillus casei adicionado em iogurte natural, em diferentes etapas do processo de produção. Foram produzidos iogurtes com adição de L. casei em diferentes etapas: antes da suplementação com o starter (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), juntamente com essa cultura e após o término da fermentação. Além disso, um iogurte controle (sem probiótico) foi produzido. Os produtos foram estocados a 4°C e analisados após 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias de armazenamento. Nesses períodos, foram enumeradas as populações das culturas probiótica e starter e avaliados os parâmetros físico-químicos (pH e acidez). Os resultados obtidos foram avaliados através de análise de variância e teste de Tukey, ambos ao nível de 5% de significância.L. casei mantevese viável e em populações superiores a 108 UFC/g durante os 21 dias de armazenamento, suficientes para que as formulações fossem definidas como probióticas. Quando as diferentes etapas de adição do probiótico aos iogurtes foram avaliadas, com exceção do 1º dia, não houve diferença estatística entre as formulações (p Abstract in english Probiotics are live microorganisms capable of producing beneficial effects on its host when consumed in adequate amounts. To exert these effects, foods must contain probiotic microorganisms in populations above 106 CFU / g or mL throughout its shelf life. One of the strategies to ensure high populat [...] ion of probiotics in fermented milk is to add them during or after the fermentation process separately from the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of the probiotic microorganism Lactobacillus casei added to yoghurt in different stages of production. Yoghurts with L. casei were produced at different stages: before addition of starter (Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), added together with this culture and at the end of fermentation. Yoghurt without probiotic added was produced as a control. The products were stored at 4 °C and analyzed after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. In these periods, the populations of probiotic and starter cultures were enumerated and the parameters pH and acidity were analyzed. The results were evaluated using analysis of variance and Tukey's test, both at 5% significance level. L. casei remained viable in populations of more than 108 CFU / g during 21 days of storage, which is suitable to define the formulations as probiotics. When the different stages of the addition of probiotics in yoghurts were evaluated there was no statistical difference between the formulations (p

Nataly, Simões Bandiera; Isadora, Carneiro; Alisson, Santana da Silva; Edson Renato, Honjoya; Elsa Helena, Walter de Santana; Lina Casale, Aragon-Alegro; Cínthia Hoch, Batista de Souza.

2013-03-01

113

Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture  

OpenAIRE

Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei) and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA) release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoac...

Ufuk Eren-Vapur; Tulay Ozcan

2012-01-01

114

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

OpenAIRE

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

115

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, A ND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOY BASED GOUDA CHEESE ANALOG MA DE FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF FA T, SODIUM CITRATE AND VARIOUS CHEESE STARTER CULTURES  

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Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. Thefree fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

Abu Amar

2012-11-01

116

Effect of the use of curing salts and of a starter culture on the sensory and microbiological characteristics of homemade salamis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Homemade salamis may have their food safety guaranteed by means of the addition of curing salt and starter cultures, without loosing their traditional manufacturing recipes brought to Brazil by the Italian immigration in the early 20th century. In this work, the influence of curing salt and of a starter culture, composed of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus, over the sensory and microbiological characteristics of Italian type salamis, containing 3% lactose and 0.5% saccharose, was evaluated. The starter culture and the curing salt inhibited the development of Staphylococcus aureus and of coliforms, and the salamis added with curing salt presented better color attributes.Os salames produzidos artesanalmente podem ter sua segurança alimentar garantida pela adição de sal de cura e de culturas iniciadoras sem perda das receitas tradicionais trazidas pela imigração italiana do início do século vinte. Neste trabalho, a partir da produção de salames com 3% de lactose e 0,5% de sacarose, avaliou-se a influência do sal de cura e da cultura iniciadora, composta de Lactobacillus e Staphylococcus, sobre as características sensoriais e microbiológicas dos salames. A cultura iniciadora e o sal de cura inibiram o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e de coliformes totais, sendo que os salames adicionados de sal de cura apresentaram uma melhor coloração.

Cinthia Bittencourt Spricigo

2005-06-01

117

Effect of dissolved oxygen on redox potential and milk acidification by lactic acid bacteria isolated from a DL-starter culture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Milk acidification by DL-starter cultures [cultures containing Lactococcus lactis diacetylactis (D) and Leuconostoc (L) species] depends on the oxidation-reduction (redox) potential in milk; however, the mechanisms behind this effect are not completely clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on acidification kinetics and redox potential during milk fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Fermentations were conducted by single strains isolated from mixed DL-starter culture, including Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. cremoris, by the DL-starter culture, and by the type strains. High and low levels of oxygen were produced by flushing milk with oxygen or nitrogen, respectively. The kinetics of milk acidification was characterized by the maximum rate and time of acidification (V(a)max and T(a)max), the maximum rate and time of reduction (V(r)max and T(r)max), the minimum redox potential (Eh7 final),and time of reaching Eh7 final (T(r)final). Variations in kinetic parameters were observed at both the species and strain levels. Two of the Lc. lactis ssp. lactis strains were not able to lower redox potential to negative values. Kinetic parameters of the DL-starter culture were comparable with the best acidifying and reducing strains, indicating their additive effects. Acidification curves were mostly diauxic at all oxygen levels, displaying 2 maxima of acidification rate: before (aerobic maximum) and after (anaerobic maximum) oxygen depletion. The redox potential decreased concurrently with oxygen consumption and continued to decrease at slower rate until reaching the final values, indicating involvement of both oxygen and microbiological activity in the redox state of milk. Oxygen flushing had a negative effect on reduction and acidification capacity of tested LAB. Reduction was significantly delayed at high initial oxygen, exhibiting longer T(r)max, T(r)final, or both. Concurrently, anaerobic acidification rate maximum V(a)max was decreased and T(a)max was extended. Fermentation kinetics in nitrogen-flushed milk was not statistically different from that in untreated milk except for Lc. lactis ssp. lactis CHCC D2, which showed faster reduction time after nitrogen flushing. This study clarifies the relationship between the redox state in milk and acidification kinetics of the predominant subspecies in DL-starter cultures. This knowledge is important for dairies to ensure optimized, fast, and controlled milk fermentations, leading to greater standardization of dairy products.

Larsen, Nadja; Werner, Birgit BrØsted

2015-01-01

118

Manufacture and characterization of kefir made from cow and buffalo milk, using kefir grain and starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbiological and chemical characteristics as well as organic and amino acid profiles of kefir samples made from cow and buffalo milks fermented by kefir grains and starter culture were investigated during storage for 21 d at 4°C. After incubation, lactic, acetic, and citric acid concentrations showed a difference among the samples due to milk type and production methods. Storage time had little effect on the organic acid values of kefir samples. As compared with cow milk kefir, buffalo milk kefir had higher numbers of microorganisms, except lactobacilli, at the end of storage. Whereas pH and titratable acidity exhibited similar changes during storage in all kefir samples, ethanol levels were significantly increased in buffalo milk kefir samples. Glutamic acid was the major amino acid at all sampling times for all samples. Tyrosine, serine, histidine, alanine, methionine, and lysine concentrations were determined to be different in all samples depending on milk type. In general, due to the higher microbial population (especially yeast), kefir made from buffalo milk may be preferred. PMID:25582588

Gul, O; Mortas, M; Atalar, I; Dervisoglu, M; Kahyaoglu, T

2015-03-01

119

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced. Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. Conclusions: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broadspectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties. They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga.

Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.

2013-01-01

120

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

121

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos / Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como áci [...] do lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos. Abstract in english Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to i [...] nhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

1999-12-01

122

Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum 19L3, a Strain Proposed as a Starter Culture for Slovenská Bryndza Ovine Cheese  

OpenAIRE

The genome sequence of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from ovine cheese is presented here. This bacterium is proposed as a starter strain, named 19L3, for Slovenská bryndza cheese, a traditional Slovak cheese fulfilling European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) requirements.

D Auria, Giuseppe; Dz?unkova?, Ma?ria; Moya, Andrés; Toma?s?ka, Martin; Kolos?ta, Miroslav; Kmet, Vladimir

2014-01-01

123

Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

2009-01-01

124

Suitability of a probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain as a starter culture in olive fermentation and development of the innovative patented product “probiotic table olives”  

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Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria are generally available for consumers as concentrated preparations or incorporated in milk-based foods. Due to an increased interest of the market for probiotic foods as well as to meet a demand of industry for innovation, a new kind of probiotic food has been developed using table olives as a carrier. Green table olives, produced according to the Spanish-style, are obtained by a fermentation which can be carried out by spontaneous microflora, even if the use of starter cultures is desirable to obtain a more controlled process. In this regard, the selected strain Lactobacillus paracasei IMPC 2.1 of human origin was used in the dual role of starter and probiotic culture, and here we describe the different aspects which have been evaluated and solved to utilize that strain for the development of a new table olive-based probiotic food. These aspects include selection of the strain on the basis of its probiotic properties, molecular characterization, compatibility with the carrier food and efficacy as starter. The final product meets commercial and functional requirements throughout its shelf-life.

AngeloSisto

2012-05-01

125

Determination of microbial diversity in Daqu, a fermentation starter culture of Maotai liquor, using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study endeavored to investigate the diversity of microbes present during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu, a fermentation starter culture and substrata complex of Maotai alcoholic spirit. A nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique was utilized with different combinations of primers. The results showed the presence of bacteria, yeasts and molds. The microflora, which originate from wheat, were readily detectable during every stage of the fermentation process. However, the microbial structure had clear differences in the shaping, ripening and drying processes. In the shaping stage, there was a high level of diversity of the LAB (lactic acid bacteria) and fungi in the shaped samples. In the ripening stage, however, a reduction of diversity of fungi with a high level of diversity of the Bacilli was observed in the ripened samples. In the drying stage, the diversity of Bacilli and fungi, especially acid-producing bacteria, reduced dramatically. Interestingly, uncultured Lactococcus sp., Microbacterium testaceum, Cochliobolus sp., and Thermoascus crustaceus were the first to be detected in the fermentation starters used in liquor production. This study revealed the microbial diversity and distributions during the shaping, ripening and drying of Daqu-making, facilitating evaluation of the hygienic conditions and aiding in the design of specific starter and/or adjunct cultures. PMID:22806111

Xiu, Liu; Kunliang, Guo; Hongxun, Zhang

2012-06-01

126

Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy  

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Full Text Available This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amounts and pH values; acidifying ability; metabolism (arginin deamination, esculin hydrolysis, acetoin production; survival at low pH and in presence of bile salts; hydrophobic properties; antibiotic resistance. After laboratory assays and strain selection through a multivariate analyses, it was highlighted that B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis represent a good compromise as potential functional starter cultures, as B. animalis subp. lactis showed a high growth index at pH 5 and good values at 25?C and 30?C, as well as the minimal viability loss at pH 2.5. B. longum subsp. infantis DSMZ 20088 was the best microorganism for its growth index in presence of 6.5% of salt added and at 25?C and 30?C.

Angela Pacifico

2012-01-01

127

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with freshor cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growthmodels were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25 °C)were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates fromcottage cheese to improvemodel performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07–1.10with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria fromadded starter culturewere on average predicted to grow16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aromaculturewas on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L.monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone,which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The appliedmethodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy productswhere inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie

2014-01-01

128

CELL-SURFACE BINDING OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans ISOLATED FROM SOURDOUGH STARTER CULTURE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1 are two contaminant-mycotoxins frequently found in food commodities produced under poor conditions. Several methods have been suggested for the detoxification of such mycotoxins. Among the proposed methods, biological detoxification seems to be the most promising and cost-efficient. This study explores the capability of one strain of lactic acid bacteria, identified as Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans, to bind both DON and FB1 in liquid cultures. Here we report the ability of heat-inactivated cells to significantly reduce concentrations of DON in liquid cultures. Further mechanistic investigation showed that the detoxification process is a result of the physical binding of such mycotoxins to the cell wall of this bacterium.

Yousef I. Hassan

2013-04-01

129

Selection of Starter Culture for Yogurt Preparation and its Antibacterial Activity  

OpenAIRE

Studies on the symbiotic relationship of six combinations of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus for the preparation of yogurt in relation to its anti-microbial activity were carried out. The ratio 2:1 of L. bulgaricus: S. thermophillus in the inoculum was found best for the preparation of prime quality yogurt with maximum antibacterial activity. The ratio of the two cultures in the final product was 1:1. The yogurt samples were evaluated for curdling time, acidity, diace...

Mujeeb ur Rahman; Shereen Gul; Farooqi, Wasim A.

1999-01-01

130

The Inhibitory Effect of Lactic Starter Culture Against Food Borne Pathogenic Bacteria in Skim Milk  

OpenAIRE

The antibacterial effect of mixed culture of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus against some food borne pathogenic organisms were investigated. Much amount of acidity was produced by lactic acid bacteria and increased gradually with the fermentation time. Lating of reaching pathogens to milk lead to the over increasing of acidity produced by lactic acid bacteria. Over production of acidity and reduction of pH level and other substances not determi...

Shady, T. S. M.; Ashour Eman, H.; El-badrawy, E. E. Y.

1999-01-01

131

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

2013-10-01

132

Effect of sublethal preculturing on the survival of probiotics and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of preculturing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12 under sublethal stress conditions on their survival and metabolite formation in set-yoghurt. Prior to co-cultivation with yoghurt starters in milk, the two probiotic strains were precultured under sublethal stress conditions (combinations of elevated NaCl and low pH) in a batch fermentor. The activity of sublethally precultured probiotics was evaluated during fermentation and refrigerated storage by monitoring bacterial population dynamics, milk acidification and changes in volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. The results demonstrated adaptive stress responses of the two probiotic strains resulting in their viability improvement without adverse influence on milk acidification. A complementary metabolomic approach using SPME-GC/MS and (1)H-NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed substantial impact of the activity of sublethally precultured probiotics on metabolite formation demonstrated by distinctive volatile and non-volatile metabolite profiles of set-yoghurt. Changes in relative abundance of various aroma compounds suggest that incorporation of stress-adapted probiotics considerably influences the organoleptic quality of product. This study provides new information on the application of stress-adapted probiotics in an actual food-carrier environment. PMID:25846920

Settachaimongkon, Sarn; van Valenberg, Hein J F; Winata, Vera; Wang, Xiaoxi; Nout, M J Robert; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J

2015-08-01

133

DETERMINATION OF PROTEINS IN YOGHURT  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work was to introduce method for detection of protein content in yoghurts. The analysis was focused on determination of major milk proteins which include caseins and lower amounts of whey proteins, in particular ?-lactalbumin a ?-lactoglobulin. 10 samples from the market were analyzed by means of reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Liquid chromatograph Alliance 2695 with PDA detector 2996 was used. The separation was performed on C18 column X Bridge TM, 15...

Ivana Borkovcová; Michaela Dra?ková; Lenka Ruprichová; Lenka Vorlová

2012-01-01

134

A 23S rDNA-targeted polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in meat starter cultures and dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

A polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Staphylococcus aureus was developed. The system consisted of the following components: (i) selective enrichment, (ii) DNA isolation, (iii) amplification of DNA with primers targeted against the 23S rRNA gene, and (iv) evaluation of the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by Southern hybridization and nested polymerase chain reaction. The method achieved a high degree of sensitivity and unambiguity as required for the detection of contaminants in food starter preparations. The method permitted detection of Staphylococcus aureus in preparations of meat starter cultures containing Staphylococcus carnosus either alone or in combination with lactobacilli, pediococci, and/or Kocuria varians. Detection limits were sufficiently low to show within 12 h the presence of 10(0) CFU of S. aureus in starter preparations containing 10(10) CFU of S. carnosus. The system was also applied to dried skim milk and cream. For detection without selective enrichment, a protocol was developed and permitted detection of 120 CFU of S. aureus in 1 ml of cream within 6 h. With nested polymerase chain reaction, the detection limit was decreased by one order of magnitude. PMID:10528718

Straub, J A; Hertel, C; Hammes, W P

1999-10-01

135

Bacteriocin production by strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus BB18 during continuous prefermentation of yogurt starter culture and subsequent batch coagulation of milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

By screening for bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria of 1,428 strains isolated from authentic Bulgarian dairy products, Lb. bulgaricus BB18 strain obtained from kefir grain was selected. Out of 11 yogurt starters containing Lb. bulgaricus BB18 and S. thermophilus strains resistant to bacteriocin secreted by Lb. bulgaricus BB18 a yogurt culture (S. thermophilus 11A+Lb. bulgaricus BB18) with high growth and bacteriocinogenic activity in milk was selected. Continuous (pH-stat 5.7) prefermentation processes were carried out in milk at 37 degrees C in a 2l MBR bioreactor (MBR AG, Zurich, Switzerland) with an IMCS controller for agitation speed, temperature, dissolved oxygen, CO2 and pH. Prefermented milk with pH 5.7 coagulated in a thermostat at 37 degrees C until pH 4.8-4.9. S. thermophilus 11A and Lb. bulgaricus BB18 grew independently in a continuous mode at similar and sufficiently high-dilution rates (D=1.83 h(-1)-S. thermophilus 11A; D=1.80 h(-1)-Lb. bulgaricus BB18). The yogurt cultures developed in a stream at a high-dilution rate (D=2.03-2.28 h(-1)). The progress of both processes (growth and bacteriocin production) depended on the initial ratio between the two microorganisms. The continuous prefermentation process promoted conditions for efficient fermentation and bacteriocinogenesis of the starter culture during the batch process: strong reduction of the times for bacteriocin production and coagulation of milk (to 4.5-5.0 h); high cell productivity (lactobacilli-4x10(12) CFU ml(-1), streptococci-6x10(12) CFU ml(-1)); high productivity of bacteriocins (4,500 BU ml(-1))-1.7 times higher than the bacteriocinogenic activity of the batch starter culture. PMID:18273656

Simova, E D; Beshkova, D M; Angelov, M P; Dimitrov, Zh P

2008-06-01

136

Yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables: acidity, antioxidant properties and sensory quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Yoghurt is a fermented milk of unique sensory, nutritive and dietetic value offered in a variety of types and in different fl avours. Vegetables belong to the group of food products rich in antioxidant substances (e.g., vitamin C, carotenoids, tocopherols, polyphenols which regular consumption lowers the risk of many diseases including cancers and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present work was to manufacture and assess the acidity, sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of yoghurts with addition of selected vegetables during 2-week refrigerated storage. Material and methods. The vegetable preparations (carrot, pumpkin, broccoli and red sweet pepper were added to the cow’s milk fermented using DVS type yoghurt culture after initial cooling to 15-20°C in the amount of 10% (w/w. The following analyses were performed: determination of pH, titratable acidity, antioxidant activity by ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method as well as sensory evaluation and were conducted after 1, 7 and 14 days of cold storage. Results. The yoghurt supplementation with selected vegetables had no signifi cant effect on the pH and titratable acidity level. The highest ability to scavenge DPPH radicals was stated for yoghurts with broccoli and red sweet pepper. The latter treatment gained the highest notes in sensory evaluation. All vegetable yoghurts were characterised by higher than the natural yoghurt FRAP values measured directly after production. However, the level of this parameter signifi cantly decreased after storage. Conclusions. The red sweet pepper additive was the most benefi cial regarding antioxidant properties and organoleptic acceptance of the studied yoghurts.

Dorota Najgebauer-Lejko

2014-03-01

137

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (? = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

Caroline Siefarth

2014-05-01

138

Microbial ecology of the soppressata of Vallo di Diano, a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, and in vitro and in situ selection of autochthonous starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial ecology of "soppressata of Vallo di Diano," a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, was studied by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The ripened fermented sausages were characterized by high microbial loads of both staphylococci and lactobacilli. Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the variable V3 and V1 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and direct DNA sequencing, it was possible to identify Staphylococcus xylosus, S. succinus, and S. equorum among the staphylococci and Lactobacillus sakei and L. curvatus within the lactobacilli. Moreover, Debaryomyces hansenii was the main yeast species found by targeting the yeast 26S rRNA gene by PCR-DGGE. Selected strains of S. xylosus, L. sakei, and L. curvatus were characterized for their technological properties in the ripening conditions of the fermented sausages so as to select an autochthonous starter formulation. The selection included the determination of nitrate reductase, lipolytic, and antioxidant activity and proteolysis with myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions. Such properties were evaluated in both in vitro and in situ assays; the latter were performed by using each strain as a starter in the laboratory-scale manufacture of soppressata of Vallo di Diano and by monitoring the microbiological and chemical changes at the end of ripening. The results show differences between the in vitro and in situ selection results and indicate that in situ evaluation of the technological performance of specific strains is better suited to selecting autochthonous starter cultures for fermented-meat products than in vitro evaluation. PMID:17616625

Villani, Francesco; Casaburi, Annalisa; Pennacchia, Carmela; Filosa, Luisa; Russo, Federica; Ercolini, Danilo

2007-09-01

139

Effect of the use of curing salts and of a starter culture on the sensory and microbiological characteristics of homemade salamis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os salames produzidos artesanalmente podem ter sua segurança alimentar garantida pela adição de sal de cura e de culturas iniciadoras sem perda das receitas tradicionais trazidas pela imigração italiana do início do século vinte. Neste trabalho, a partir da produção de salames com 3% de lactose e 0, [...] 5% de sacarose, avaliou-se a influência do sal de cura e da cultura iniciadora, composta de Lactobacillus e Staphylococcus, sobre as características sensoriais e microbiológicas dos salames. A cultura iniciadora e o sal de cura inibiram o crescimento de Staphylococcus aureus e de coliformes totais, sendo que os salames adicionados de sal de cura apresentaram uma melhor coloração. Abstract in english Homemade salamis may have their food safety guaranteed by means of the addition of curing salt and starter cultures, without loosing their traditional manufacturing recipes brought to Brazil by the Italian immigration in the early 20th century. In this work, the influence of curing salt and of a sta [...] rter culture, composed of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus, over the sensory and microbiological characteristics of Italian type salamis, containing 3% lactose and 0.5% saccharose, was evaluated. The starter culture and the curing salt inhibited the development of Staphylococcus aureus and of coliforms, and the salamis added with curing salt presented better color attributes.

Cinthia Bittencourt, Spricigo; Patrícia Bonat, Pianovsky.

2005-06-01

140

CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO / STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO / FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o [...] desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho. Abstract in spanish RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesana [...] l, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The [...] quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

DIOFANOR, ACEVEDO; LUIS E, GUZMAN; AIDA, RODRIGUEZ.

2012-06-01

141

Evaluation of Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi as a starter culture for whole wheat sourdough.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leuconostoc citreum HO12 and Weissella koreensis HO20 isolated from kimchi were evaluated as starter cultures in the making of whole wheat sourdough bread. After 24h of fermentation at 25 °C, both lactobacilli grew to the final cell numbers of ca. 10(9)cfu/g dough, and both doughs had similar pHs and total titratable acidities. In addition, the fermentation quotient of the dough with Lc. citreum HO12 was slightly lower than that of the dough with W. koreensis HO20 (1.6 versus 2.8). Sourdoughs and bread with 50% sourdough produced with the starter cultures exhibited consistent ability to retard the growth of bread spoilage fungi (Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger) and rope-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis). Sourdough breads underwent a significant reduction in bread firming during storage. It seems that both lactobacilli have the potential to improve the shelf-life of wheat bread. The results indicate that the selected lactobacilli have unique fermentation characteristics and produce sourdough breads with overall satisfactory quality. PMID:23442676

Choi, Hyejung; Kim, Yeo-Won; Hwang, Inyoung; Kim, Jeongho; Yoon, Sun

2012-10-15

142

Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amylase production. An antimicrobial activity was detected for 33.3%, 31.8%, 22.7% and 15.9% of the isolates towards Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A producer, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A and B producer, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. A similarity was found between the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus fermentum ferments dolo and pito wort by lowering the pH and providing organic acids, EPSs and antimicrobial compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Strains with a rapid rate of acidification, an antimicrobial activity and producing EPSs are suggested to have potential for starter cultures.

Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.

2008-01-01

143

Determination of free amino acids in whole-fat Turkish White Brined Cheese produced by animal and microbial milk-clotting enzymes with and without the addition of starter culture  

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Full Text Available Coagulating enzymes are essential ingredients for the production of different cheese varieties. The objective of this research was to summarize the effect of rennet type (calf rennet and microbial rennet from Rhizomucor miehei and starter culture on the sensory properties and free amino acids (FAA release during the ripening of Turkish White brined cheese. The concentrations of FAA and sensory properties were similar for cheeses made with both types of coagulant and starter culture. Aminoacids Phe, Leu - Ile, Gln, Val, Pro and Ala were the principal FAAs in the White brined cheeses at all stages of ripening.

Ufuk Eren-Vapur

2012-12-01

144

The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines. These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry

Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena

2013-01-01

145

Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.

Shilpa Vij

2011-07-01

146

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir / Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo [...] de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial via [...] bility during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

Flávia Daiana, Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo, Pimentel; Sandra, Garcia; Sandra Helena, Prudencio.

2012-12-01

147

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality  

OpenAIRE

This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF) heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C) to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV) heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was investigated in view of existing legal reg...

Caroline Siefarth; Thi Bich Thao Tran; Peter Mittermaier; Thomas Pfeiffer; Andrea Buettner

2014-01-01

148

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

149

Carrot Yoghurt : Sensory, Chemical, Microbiological Properties and Consumer Acceptance  

OpenAIRE

Plain and carrot yoghurt were prepared in the laboratory scale production from cow`s milk obtained from Fayoum district, Egypt. Carrot yoghurt was prepared by blending milk with 5, 10, 15 and 20% carrot juice before fermentation. The sensory, rheological, chemical, and microbiological quality of yoghurt samples were investigated during refrigerated storage at 4?C for three weeks. The Sensory scores increased especially for yoghurt samples with 15% carrot juice. Chemical analysis revealed an...

Aly, Salwa A.; Galal, E. A.; Elewa, Neimat A.

2004-01-01

150

Microbiological and physicochemical characterization of small-scale cocoa fermentations and screening of yeast and bacterial strains to develop a defined starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant species), which were gradually replaced by the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) (Acetobacter tropicalis was the dominant species). In both processes, a sequence of substrate consumption (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and citric acid) and metabolite production kinetics (ethanol, lactic acid, and acetic acid) similar to that of previous, larger-scale fermentation experiments was observed. The technological potential of yeast, LAB, and AAB isolates was evaluated using a polyphasic study that included the measurement of stress-tolerant growth and fermentation kinetic parameters in cocoa pulp media. Overall, strains L. fermentum UFLA CHBE8.12 (citric acid fermenting, lactic acid producing, and tolerant to heat, acid, lactic acid, and ethanol), S. cerevisiae UFLA CHYC7.04 (ethanol producing and tolerant to acid, heat, and ethanol), and Acetobacter tropicalis UFLA CHBE16.01 (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid producing, and tolerant to acid, heat, acetic acid, and ethanol) were selected to form a cocktail starter culture that should lead to better-controlled and more-reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:22636007

Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius de Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2012-08-01

151

Combined pH and high hydrostatic pressure effects on Lactococcus starter cultures and Candida spoilage yeasts in a fermented milk test system during cold storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined effects of high pressure processing (HPP) and pH on the glycolytic and proteolytic activities of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a commonly used cheese starter culture and the outgrowth of spoilage yeasts of Candida species were investigated in a fermented milk test system. To prepare the test system, L. lactis subsp. lactis C10 was grown in UHT skim milk to a final pH of 4.30 and then additional samples for treatment were prepared by dilution of fermented milk with UHT skim milk to pH levels of 5.20 and 6.50. These milk samples (pH 4.30, 5.20 and 6.50) with or without an added mixture of two yeast cultures, Candida zeylanoides and Candida lipolytica (10(5) CFU mL(-1) of each species), were treated at 300 and 600 MPa (?20°C, 5 min) and stored at 4°C for up to 8 weeks. Continuing acidification by starter cultures, as monitored during storage, was substantially reduced in the milk pressurised at pH 5.20 where the initial titratable acidity (TA) of 0.40% increased by only 0.05% (600 MPa) and 0.10% (300 MPa) at week 8, compared to an increase of 0.30% in untreated controls. No substantial differences were observed in pH or TA between pressure-treated and untreated milk samples at pH 4.30 or 6.50. The rate of proteolysis in milk samples at pH values of 5.20 and 6.50 during storage was significantly reduced by treatment at 600 MPa. Treatment at 600 MPa also reduced the viable counts of both Candida yeast species to below the detection limit (1 CFU mL(-1)) at all pH levels for the entire storage period. However, samples treated at 300 MPa showed recovery of C. lipolytica from week 3 onwards, reaching 10(6)-10(7) CFU mL(-1) by week 8. In contrast, C. zeylanoides did not show any recovery in any of the pressure-treated samples during storage. PMID:20832684

Daryaei, Hossein; Coventry, John; Versteeg, Cornelis; Sherkat, Frank

2010-12-01

152

Inventory of non starter lactic acid bacteria from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as assessed by a culture dependent multiphasic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate microbial species diversity and strain complexity of the cultivable non starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) occurring in 31 ripened Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheeses. Dereplication of 127 lactobacilli isolates by (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting yielded a total of 51 genotypes. Phylogenetic relatedness of all the genotypes with known Lactobacillus species was determined by a novel combined amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (16S-ARDRA), species-specific PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The species Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei comprise the largest portions of the cultivable NSLAB community in PR cheese, with an inter-individual diversity ranging from one to four dominant genotypes per sample. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus fermentum species were also detected at low frequency. The data showed differences in cultivable NSLAB population, with an overall decrease in diversity and complexity from early to advanced stages of ripening. Finally the de-replicated collection of genotypes resulting from this work is the bases for further functional screening. PMID:22626626

Solieri, Lisa; Bianchi, Aldo; Giudici, Paolo

2012-06-01

153

Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis. No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation.

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Debnath, D.

2007-01-01

154

The potential probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and its use as starter culture results in safe nutritionally enhanced fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human-derived potential probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679 was used as a starter culture in reduced fat and sodium low-acid fermented sausages (fuets) to assess its ability to survive through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in a human intervention study consisting of 5 healthy volunteers who consumed 25 g fuet a day for 21 days. Faecal samples were analysed during and after consumption. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 produced a transient colonisation of the human GIT and persisted during the ingestion period of fuet containing L. rhamnosus CTC1679 at levels ca. 8log CFU/g. After 3 days of non-consumption, the strain was still recovered in the faeces of all the volunteers. To evaluate the safety of the nutritionally enhanced manufactured fuets, a challenge test was designed in a separately manufactured batch. L. rhamnosus CTC1679 was able to grow, survive and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB), prevented the growth of Listeria monocytogenes throughout the whole ripening process of the fuets and eliminated Salmonella. After 35 days of storage at 4 °C, L. monocytogenes was not detected, achieving absence in 25 g of the product. The application of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (600 MPa for 5 min) at the end of ripening (day 14) produced an immediate reduction of L. monocytogenes to levels culture for producing safe potentially probiotic fermented sausages. PMID:24998181

Rubio, Raquel; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

2014-09-01

155

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio frequency (RF heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C. This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress. The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life.

Caroline Siefarth

2014-06-01

156

Potentially probiotic and bioprotective lactic acid bacteria starter cultures antagonise the Listeria monocytogenes adhesion to HT29 colonocyte-like cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capability of five lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to counteract the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes to the epithelial intestinal cell line HT29 was studied. The highest adhesion ability to HT29 was achieved by the intestinal strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, followed by the meat-derived strains Lactobacillus sakei CTC494 and Enterococcus faecium CTC8005. Surprisingly, the meat strains showed significantly better adhesion to HT29 than two faecal isolates of Lactobacillus casei and even significantly higher than the reference strain L. rhamnosus GG. Additionally, the anti-listerial, bacteriocin-producer starter culture L. sakei CTC494 was able to significantly reduce the adhesion of L. monocytogenes to HT29 in experiments of exclusion, competition and inhibition. The performance was better than the faecal isolate L. rhamnosus CTC1679. Our results reinforce the fact that the ability of LAB to interact with a host epithelium model, as well as to antagonise with foodborne pathogens, is a strain-specific characteristic. Additionally, it is underlined that this trait is not dependent on the origin of the bacterium, since some food LAB behave better than intestinal ones. Therefore, the search for novel strains in food niches is a suitable approach to find those with potential health benefits. These strains are likely pre-adapted to the food environment, which would make their inclusion in the formulation of probiotic foods more feasible. PMID:25488261

Garriga, M; Rubio, R; Aymerich, T; Ruas-Madiedo, P

2015-01-01

157

Effect of starter culture and fermentation temperature on water mobility and distribution in fermented sausages and correlation to microbial safety studied by nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water mobility and distribution in fermented sausages produced with differences in pH development as a result of the use of three different starter cultures (T-SPX, F-1, or F-SC-111) and two fermentation temperatures (24 degrees C, or 32 degrees C) were studied using low-field proton NMR relaxometry. Changes in the distribution and mobility of water in fermented sausages upon fermentation and drying were detectable by NMR T(2) relaxation, and the progress in the drying process could be followed as a shift towards faster relaxation times. In addition, the distribution of water in the sausages was significantly affected by the pH decline. The sausages were spiked with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli VTEC, and partial least squares regressions revealed that 90% of the variation in reduction of Salmonella and VTEC could be explained by the NMR T(2) relaxation decay. Consequently, the study demonstrated that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for elucidating process parameters and microbial safety in the production of fermented meat products. PMID:20580493

Møller, Sandie M; Gunvig, Annemarie; Bertram, Hanne Christine

2010-10-01

158

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12in yoghurt after refrigerated storage Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb 12em iogurte após a estocagem refrigerada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(47H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO(47H2O had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar.O meio RCPB pH5 tem sido considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurte. Entretanto, durante a estocagem refrigerada do iogurte é extremante difícil a contagem deste microrganismo devido ao pequeno diâmetro desenvolvido pelas colônias de Bifidobacterium neste meio, sendo que a sua contagem somente se torna possível com o auxílio de um estereoscópio. Outro meio, MRS-LP, também tem sido recomendado para a contagem de Bifidobaterium em iogurte. Este estudo avaliou a suplementação do meio RCPB pH5 com extrato de fígado desidratado e com os sais KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(47H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(47H2O, visando melhorar a diferenciação de Bifidobacterium em iogurte durante a estocagem refrigerada e também avaliou a contagem seletiva de Bifidobacterium em iogurte usando o meio MRS-LP. O meio MRS-LP apresentou a mesma recuperação de células que o meio RCPB pH5, usado como padrão, após 30 dias de estocagem refrigerada do iogurte, sendo considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de Bifidobacterium em iogurtes durante a estocagem refrigerada. O meio RCPB pH5 fortificado também apresentou a mesma recuperação de células de Bifidobacterium que o meio padrão RCPB pH5; entretanto, a adição de extrato de fígado desidratado aumentou consideravelmente o diâmetro das colônias de Bifidobacterium, tornando a diferenciação destas bastante fácil e confiável quando comparadas à sua diferenciação no meio RCPB pH5 sem a fortificação. A adição dos sais (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO(47H2O, MnSO4H2O e MgSO(47H2O não exerceu influência no desempenho do meio RCPB pH5.

Luciano Fachin

2008-06-01

159

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

OpenAIRE

Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptabl...

Pradeep Singh Negi; Sunki Reddy Yella Reddy; Ramakrishna Chetana

2013-01-01

160

Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities  

OpenAIRE

The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

2013-01-01

161

Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid ...

Sonja Bijeljac; Hajrudin Skender; Zlatan Sari?

2004-01-01

162

Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

Maja Benkovi?

2008-05-01

163

The fate of indigenous microbiota, starter cultures, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus in Danish raw milk and cheeses determined by pyrosequencing and quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to study the bacterial communities in raw milk and in Danish raw milk cheeses using pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rDNA and cDNA. Furthermore, the effects of acidification and ripening starter cultures, cooking temperatures and rate of acidification on survival of added Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus in cheeses at different stages of ripening were studied by pyrosequencing and quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR. A high diversity of bacterial species was detected in raw milk. Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were the main bacteria detected in raw milk and cheeses. Bacteria belonging to the genera Brevibacterium, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Weissella, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus were also detected in both 16S rDNA and cDNA obtained from raw milk and cheeses. E. coli, which was added to milk used for production of some cheeses, was detected in both DNA and RNA extracted from cheeses at different stages of ripening showing the highest percentage of the total sequence reads at 7 days of ripening and decreased again in the later ripening stages. Growth of E. coli in cheeses appeared to be affected by the cooking temperature and the rate of acidification but not by the ripening starter cultures applied or the indigenous microbiota of raw milk. Growth of L. innocua and S. aureus added to milks was inhibited in all cheeses at different stages of ripening. The use of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR allows a deeper understanding of the behavior of indigenous microbiota, starter cultures and pathogenic bacteria in raw milk and cheeses. PMID:22154239

Masoud, Wafa; Vogensen, Finn K; Lillevang, Søren; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Jakobsen, Mogens

2012-02-01

164

DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

2013-01-01

165

Instant Prezi starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

Ladores, Minerva M

2013-01-01

166

Instant Apache Maven starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

Turatti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

167

Instant Sinatra starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, Instant Sinatra Starter will help you create a simple web app in no time at all. Instant Sinatra Starter is great if you are looking to get started with Sinatra for web development. Some previous experience with Ruby would be beneficial though not necessary for this step-by-step exploration of Sinatra and the world of web development.

Yates, Joe

2013-01-01

168

Instant Sublime Text starter  

CERN Document Server

A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

Haughee, Eric

2013-01-01

169

Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas / Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o temp [...] o de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v) e lactose 0,5% (m/v) e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15)UFC/mL. Abstract in english Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to red [...] uce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15)CFU/mL.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

1999-12-01

170

Instant OSGi starter  

CERN Document Server

Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

Goodyear, Jamie

2013-01-01

171

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.

Pradeep Singh Negi

2013-03-01

172

Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour.  

Science.gov (United States)

As a novel product, yoghurt powder was produced by freeze drying and with added candied chestnut puree at ratios of 5, 10, and 20 % by weight. During the freeze drying process, mass loss, water activity, and the moisture content of the samples were determined and the colour (Hunter L, a, b) of the yoghurt powder products was measured. Results showed that increasing the percentage of candied chestnut puree resulted in an increase in water activity, moisture content, and colour change values of the end product. The drying behaviour, drying rate versus free moisture content, was also investigated. It was observed that yoghurt with or without added candied chestnut puree could be satisfactorily freeze-dried. Moreover, the performance of the dried product was observed in a ready-to-use, reconstituted form. For this purpose, the obtained powders were reconstituted to their original moisture contents. Shear stress and apparent viscosity against shear rate in a range of 1-1,000 (1/sec) was then measured by a Haake-Mars rotary viscometer. According to the results, the apparent viscosities of reconstituted products, as plain yoghurt and the one with an added 5 % chestnut puree were lower than that of fresh yoghurt. However, reconstituted yoghurts containing 10 % and 20 % chestnut puree had apparent viscosities higher than fresh yoghurt. Power Law explained well the rheological behaviour of reconstituted yoghurt samples for the applied shear rate range. Based on rheological data and sensory analysis, it was concluded that the freeze dried yoghurt containing 10 % (w/w) candied chestnut puree was an acceptable novel product. PMID:25477665

Sakin-Yilmazer, Melike; Dirim, S Nur; Di Pinto, Davide; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

2014-12-01

173

Development of Fruit Dahi (Yoghurt Fortified with Strawberry, Orange and Grapes Juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dahi or yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, microbiological and organoleptic properties. The research was conducted to prepare fruit yoghurt fortified with different level of fruit juice (5, 10 and 15% of different fruits (strawberry, orange and grape. Different physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were analyzed to assay the quality of the yoghurts. Quality of the yoghurts was improved due to incorporation of low level of fruit juice. Yoghurts fortified with 10% orange juice was the best in quality among the others. The smell and taste, body and consistency and color and texture of the fruit yoghurts were equally acceptable. 10 and 15% strawberry fruit yoghurt contain more acid and its texture was cracked down in refrigeration temperature. The moisture and acidity content of fruit yoghurts were increased than plain yoghurt because of high content of these in the fruits. The fat, protein, carbohydrates and ash content of strawberry and orange fruit yoghurt were decreased than normal plain yoghurt. But the carbohydrates content of grape yoghurt were increased because grape contains more sugar than milk and other two fruits. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurt fortified with 10% orange juice was more acceptable than others comparing all quality characteristics. The microbiological quality of the fruit yoghurts was also acceptable because of acid content of the fruits. In case of strawberry yoghurt, fruit juice concentration more than 5% was not suitable for fruit yoghurt because that are highly acidic and curd was cracked down at refrigerated condition. The findings of this research may give an overall idea about manufacturing of fruit yoghurt incorporating different level of fruit juice and appropriate technology of fruit yoghurt preparation.

Md. Nurul Islam

2012-01-01

174

Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

Belewu, Moshood Adewale

2013-12-01

175

Resveratrol entrapped niosomes as yoghurt additive.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanodesign of niosomes containing resveratrol (RSV) was carried out using food-grade surfactants with dodecanol to stabilise the membrane. Niosomes were prepared using a modified thin film hydration method. A factorial design analysis was carried out to reduce the number of experiments. The response factors were: mean size, polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Agitation speed and surfactant to dodecanol weight ratio were selected as key parameters for niosomes preparation. Parameter contribution was determined using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Niosomes formulated with Span 60 or Maisine 35-1 as surfactants, and dodecanol as stabiliser, were able to incorporate RSV. These niosomes exhibited a small mean size, narrow size distribution, high RSV entrapment efficiency and good stability. RSV addition did not involve changes in the textural properties of regular yoghurt demonstrating that RSV entrapped niosomes are suitable additives in these dairy products. PMID:25306346

Pando, D; Beltrán, M; Gerone, I; Matos, M; Pazos, C

2015-03-01

176

7 CFR 58.516 - Starter vats.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starter vats. 58.516 Section 58.516 Agriculture ...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.516 Starter vats. Bulk starter vats shall meet the requirements of § 58.415....

2010-01-01

177

Instant Spring security starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

Jagielski, Piotr

2013-01-01

178

Instant Metasploit starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

Ranganath, Karthik

2013-01-01

179

Munin plugin starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

Brinke, Bart ten

2013-01-01

180

Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

Ma?gorzata Jasi?ska

2010-06-01

181

On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the very important flavor compounds 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal with various growth conditions. We found that the aldehydes were present in the culture broth only as transient metabolites. They were produced in the exponential growth phase, reached a maximum concentration when the culture became anaerobic, and then they rapidly disappeared from the culture medium. This general pattern was observed for three different strains of S. xylosus and S. carnosus. Small amounts of inoculum or increased exposure to oxygen were found to favor production of the aldehydes as a result of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor affect on aldehyde production.

de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian

2004-01-01

182

Natamycin content and quality evaluation of yoghurt from small- and large-scale brands in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the presence of natamycin and quality parameters of yoghurt samples manufactured by small- and large-scale dairy firms in Turkey were investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological results revealed that, except Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus counts, the majority of the yoghurts manufactured by small-scale dairy firms were found to be out of the limits. Natamycin was detected in 31 and 2 yoghurt samples from small- and large-scale brands, respectively. The levels of natamycin in small-scale brand yoghurts were higher than those in large-scale brand yoghurts. Of the analysed samples, 42.3% did not comply with the Turkish Food Codex. PMID:25295914

Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Aydemir, Oguz; Yazici, Fehmi; Kahyaoglu, Talip

2014-01-01

183

The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 40C and 200C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 200C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 40C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes

184

The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4{sup 0}C and 20{sup 0}C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20{sup 0}C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4{sup 0}C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

Reps, A; Jankowska, A; Wisniewska, K [Chair of Food Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Heweliusza str 1., 10-724 Olsztyn (Poland)], E-mail: arnold.reps@uwm.edu.pl

2008-07-15

185

The rebodying of stirred yoghurt: interactions between proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to identify the nature of bonds established between protein particles after stirring that are responsible for the texture improvement of stirred yoghurts, called rebodying. Using a constant model yoghurt at pH 4.4, the effects of changes in the physicochemical conditions at stirring were studied on the subsequent rebodying. Short term rebodying was measured as the changes in viscoelastic properties at 4 degrees C during 20 h after stirring, while long-term rebodying was measured as the viscosity changes during 28 d storage at 4 degrees C. Moreover, stirred gels obtained from either set gels that were allowed time or not for ionic equilibration were compared. Increasing or decreasing ionic strength did not change the properties of stirred gels. Calcium chloride addition significantly decreased G'0 h, G'20 h and tan20 h but did not induce changes in the gel microstructure as observed by confocal scanning microscopy. Yoghurt rebodying could not be explained by fulfilling ionic equilibrium. Moreover, N-ethyl maleimide addition had no effect on the stirred yoghurt. Attractive electrostatic and disulphide interactions were not involved in the gel rebodying and increasing calcium concentration in the set gel limited rebodying. PMID:18620617

Renan, Marie; Guyomarc'h, Fanny; Arnoult-Delest, Véronique; Pâquet, Denis; Brulé, Gérard; Famelart, Marie H

2008-11-01

186

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultra filtration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30, 10 and 3 kDa. The peptides in these fractions were identified by LC–MS/MS. The identified peptides comprised a few Nterminal fragments of as1-, as2-, and j-casein, and several fragments from b-casein. Almost all the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained a considerable amount of free amino acids such as His, Tyr, Thr and Lys, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties. Thus, our findings confirm that the antioxidant effects of the peptide fractions from yoghurt are due to the presence of certain peptides and free amino acids with recognised antioxidant activity in these fractions.

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

187

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade.In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufacturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

2001-12-01

188

Biodiversity of Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages isolated from cheese whey starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-one Lactobacillus helveticus bacteriophages, 18 isolated from different cheese whey starters and three from CNRZ collection, were phenotypically and genetically characterised. A biodiversity between phages was evidenced both by host range and molecular (RAPD-PCR) typing. A more detailed characterisation of six phages showed similar structural protein profiles and a relevant genetic biodiversity, as shown by restriction enzyme analysis of total DNA. Latent period, burst time and burst size data evidenced that phages were active and virulent. Overall, data highlighted the biodiversity of Lb. helveticus phages isolated from cheese whey starters, which were confirmed to be one of the most common phage contamination source in dairy factories. More research is required to further unravel the ecological role of Lb. helveticus phages and to evaluate their impact on the dairy fermentation processes where whey starter cultures are used. PMID:25827218

Zago, Miriam; Bonvini, Barbara; Rossetti, Lia; Meucci, Aurora; Giraffa, Giorgio; Carminati, Domenico

2015-05-01

189

Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1 wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus, pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil-enriched emulsion was responsible for the remarkably high oxidative stability and was able to protect the n-3 PUFA against oxidative deterioration. It should be considered that this strong antioxidative effect of yoghurt might mask potential antioxidative effects of the other ingredients in the drinking yoghurt.

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Klein, Anna

2009-01-01

190

7 CFR 58.415 - Starter vats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR APPROVED PLANTS AND STANDARDS FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants...415 Starter vats. Bulk starter vats shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion resistant metal and should be...

2010-01-01

191

Microbial Ecology of the Soppressata of Vallo di Diano, a Traditional Dry Fermented Sausage from Southern Italy, and In Vitro and In Situ Selection of Autochthonous Starter Cultures?  

OpenAIRE

The microbial ecology of “soppressata of Vallo di Diano,” a traditional dry fermented sausage from southern Italy, was studied by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The ripened fermented sausages were characterized by high microbial loads of both staphylococci and lactobacilli. Using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) targeting the variable V3 and V1 regions of the 16S rRNA gene and direct DNA sequencing, it was possible to identify Staphy...

Villani, Francesco; Casaburi, Annalisa; Pennacchia, Carmela; Filosa, Luisa; Russo, Federica; Ercolini, Danilo

2007-01-01

192

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characterization of Small-Scale Cocoa Fermentations and Screening of Yeast and Bacterial Strains To Develop a Defined Starter Culture  

OpenAIRE

Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations performed under bench- and pilot-scale conditions were studied using an integrated microbiological approach with culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques, as well as analyses of target metabolites from both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both fermentation ecosystems reached equilibrium through a two-phase process, starting with the simultaneous growth of the yeasts (with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as the dominant species) and lactic acid bacteria (LA...

Pereira, Gilberto Vini?cius Melo; Miguel, Maria Gabriela Da Cruz Pedrozo; Ramos, Ci?ntia Lacerda; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2012-01-01

193

Formulating Fruit Yoghurt by Concentrated Milk and Evaluating its Quality During Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effect of “Osmodehydrofrozen” fruit addition on sensory, physical, chemical and microbiological properties of concentrated yoghurt and its quality during storage was evaluated. This research was done in two stages. At the first stage, fruit percentage, type and addition time (before and after fermentation was determined. The results indicated yoghurts containing 10% apple or 13% strawberry, which was added before fermentation had a better quality. Because of high osmotic activity of apple, the synersis was lower in apple yoghurt in comparison with strawberry yoghurt. According to osmotic activity of both fruits, the synersis value was much lower than that of fruit yoghurts, which contained untreated fruits. Taste value was higher in strawberry yoghurt and texture and mouth feel values were higher at low percentages of fruit. The results of the second stage (quality evaluation during storage indicated that storage had a significant effect on pH, acidity, synersis, taste and texture (P

N Vahedi

2009-07-01

194

Instant Spring for Android starter  

CERN Document Server

Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

Dahanne, Anthony

2013-01-01

195

Instant CloudFlare starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

Dickey, Jeff

2013-01-01

196

Instant OpenNMS starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starters' guide to learning OpenNMS with ease, with a focus on immediate results.Instant OpenNMS Starter is for network administrators of any level with a slight focus on the novice that would enjoy a swift glance at what OpenNMS has to offer. It assumes the reader will have knowledge of basic network operations and protocols such as the Internet Protocol Suite.

Hachey, Ghislain

2013-01-01

197

Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein. PMID:15545049

Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-08-01

198

The Effect of a Mixed-Starter Culture of Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Characteristics of Pickled Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, fermentation process was carried out on orange-fleshed sweet potato cubes to produce sweet potato pickle using a mixed culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides at 30 oC over 12 d period. Spontaneous fermentation was also performed as a control. Samples were withdrawn at various time intervals for analyses of reducing sugar content, total number of lactic acid and non-lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid concentration, pH, and sensory attributes. The results showed that using a mixed culture of L. plantarum and L. mesenteroides could greatly reduce contamination of non-lactic acid bacteria, retaining low amount of reducing sugar, rapidly producing lactic acid and consequently decreasing pH value of the pickle, as well as giving better sensory score. After 12 d of fermentation, sample of pickle inoculated with mixed culture showed the following characters: total lactic acid content 0.5%, total lactic acid bacteria 8.46 log10 CFU mL-1, total non-lactic acid bacteria 1 log10 CFU mL-1, total reducing sugar 0.84 g L-1, texture 64.92 mm 50 g-1 s-1, and hedonic sensory score for both taste and aroma 4 (like in a scale of 5. These results indicated the potential ability of the mixed culture of lactic acid bacteria to improve the quality of the pickle fermented spontaneously.

NETI YULIANA

2013-03-01

199

Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production  

OpenAIRE

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates comp...

Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

2006-01-01

200

Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

2012-10-01

201

Population heterogeneity and dynamics in starter culture and lag phase adaptation of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii to weak acid preservatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii shows great resistance to weak-acid preservatives, including sorbic acid (2, 4-hexadienoic acid). That extreme resistance was shown to be due to population heterogeneity, with a small sub-population of cells resistant to a variety of weak acids, probably caused by a lower internal pH reducing the uptake of all weak acids. In the present paper, it was found that resistant cells were extremely rare in exponential cultures, but increased by up to 8000-fold in stationary phase. Inoculation of media containing sorbic acid with a population of Z. bailii cells gave rise to what appeared to be a prolonged lag phase, suggesting adaptation to the conditions before the cells entered the period of exponential growth. However, the apparent lag phase caused by sorbic acid was largely due to the time required for the resistant sub-population to grow to detectable levels. The slow growth rate of the sub-population was identical to that of the final total population. The non-resistant bulk population remained viable for 3 days but had lost viability by 6 days and, during that time, there was no indication of any development of resistance in the bulk population. The sub-population growing in sorbic acid showed very high population diversity in colony size and internal pH. After removal of sorbic acid, the population rapidly reverted back to the normal, largely non-resistant, population distribution. The data presented suggest that a reevaluation of the lag phase in microbial batch culture is required, at least for the resistance of Z. bailii to sorbic acid. Furthermore, the significance of phenotypic diversity and heterogeneity in microbial populations is discussed more broadly with potential relevance to bacterial "persisters", natural selection and evolution. PMID:24813627

Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Avery, Simon V; Novodvorska, Michaela; Archer, David B

2014-07-01

202

Instant MinGW starter  

CERN Document Server

This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

Shpigor, Ilya

2013-01-01

203

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle. A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR, °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado.Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necessity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control. Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Reducing sugars (RS, °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

Larissa Dias de Avila

1997-06-01

204

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos / Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a [...] freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle). A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR), °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado. Abstract in english Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necess [...] ity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control). Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars (RS), °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were showed.

Larissa Dias de, Avila; Carlos Eugenio, Daudt.

1997-06-01

205

Development of an alternative culture medium for the selective enumeration of Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring the populations of probiotic strains of the species Lactobacillus casei in food is required by food industries in order to assure that a minimum concentration of these organisms will be ingested by consumers. In this context, Petrifilm™ AC plates can be used along with selective culture media to allow the enumeration of specific groups of lactic acid bacteria. The present study aimed to assess chemical substances as selective agents for Lb. casei in order to propose a selective culture medium to be used with Petrifilm™ AC plates as an alternative protocol for the enumeration of probiotic strains of this species in fermented milk. Twenty-six probiotic and starter cultures (including six strains of Lb. casei) were plated on de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar with distinct concentrations of nalidixic acid, bile, lithium chloride, metronidazole, sodium propionate, and vancomycin. Vancomycin at 10 mg/L demonstrated selective activity for Lb. casei. In addition, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chlorine was identified as a compound that did not inhibit Lb. casei, and Petrifilm™ AC plates used with MRS and vancomycin at 10 mg/L (MRS-V) demonstrated more colonies of this organism when incubated under anaerobic conditions than aerobic conditions. Acidophilus milk and yoghurt were prepared, added to Lb. casei strains, and stored at 4 °C. Lb. casei populations were monitored using MRS-V and MRTLV by conventional plating and associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates. All correlation indices between counts obtained by conventional plating and Petrifilm™ AC were significant (p < 0.05), but the best performance was observed for growth on MRS-V. The obtained data indicate the efficiency of using MRS-V associated with Petrifilm™ AC plates for the enumeration of Lb. casei strains in fermented milk. However, the selective potential of this culture medium must be evaluated considering the specific strains of Lb. casei and the starter cultures inoculated in the fermented milk that requires monitoring. PMID:24387857

Colombo, Monique; de Oliveira, Aline Evelyn Zimmermann; de Carvalho, Antonio Fernandes; Nero, Luís Augusto

2014-05-01

206

Reproducibility of esophageal scintigraphy using semi-solid yoghurt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Esophageal scintigraphy is a non-invasive method which evaluate esophageal function quantitatively. We applied new technique using semi-solid yoghurt, which can evaluate esophageal function in a sitting position. To evaluate the reproducibility of this method, scintigraphy were performed in 16 healthy volunteers. From the result of four swallows except the first one, the mean coefficients of variation in esophageal transit time and esophageal emptying time were 12.8% and 13.4% respectively (interday variation). As regards the interday variation, this method had also good reproducibility from the result on the 2 separate days. (author)

207

Microbiological safety of traditional and starter-mediated processes for the manufacture of Italian dry sausage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological changes occurring during the commercial manufacture of Italian dry sausages (Genoa and salametti) were studied in two urban Canadian centres over a 5 month period. A comparison was made between 6 plants which used bacterial starter cultures and 4 plants where more traditional processes (without starters) were used. A total of 600 samples of raw, fermented and finished products were tested for the presence of coliforms, salmonellae, staphylococci, streptococci, the rate of pH reduction and final water activity (aW). Numbers of total bacteria peaked earlier and were significantly higher in sausages at the fermentation stage produced with starter cultures than in those traditionally manufactured. This corresponded with a more rapid drop in pH of the starter-inoculated products. Staphylococci and streptococci were significantly higher in starter-fermented Genoa sausages at the fermentation stage, but no significant differences were seen in the microbiological content or aW of mature finished sausages manufactured by the two different techniques. Of 128 randomly chosen isolates of coagulase-positive staphylococci, 34.4% were enterotoxin producers and 80% of these produced type A toxin. Enterotoxigenic staphylococci were found in 2 different samples of finished salametti and one sample of finished Genoa made with starter cultures and in one sample of finished Genoa made without added culture. Total numbers of staphylococci in these samples were not greater than 500/g. No correlation between the method of manufacture and presence of enterotoxigenic staphylococci could be made. Five subsamples from one lot of raw Genoa were the only samples positive for Salmonella during this study. Results indicated that low temperature traditional fermentations can yield products which are as safe as those produced by the higher temperature starter-controlled process. One of the most important elements in the traditional process was believed to be the selection and use of raw materials of the highest possible quality. PMID:3275310

Holley, R A; Lammerding, A M; Tittiger, F

1988-08-01

208

Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of 0 to 50% renneted skim milk (RSM as a fat mimetic upon the physico-chemical, physical, rheological and sensory characteristics of nonfat yoghurt in comparison to control samples (full fat and skim yoghurt. By increasing RSM content, the chemical characteristics (titratable acidity, pH as well as the content of fat and total protein of yoghurts did not alter except decrease of total solid in sample with 50% RSM. The yoghurts with more content of RSM exhibited higher b*and a* values, while the highest L* value, viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC, firmness and lowest syneresis were found in sample containing 30% RSM. It seems that new interaction in gel network of yoghurts containing RSM, exhibited greater ability to bind water than control skim yoghurt. In addition, probably new bridges between milk proteins (interacting partially hydrolyzed casein with casein can increase the number of bounds between protein particles leading to lower syneresis. However, excessive RSM content (higher than 30% did not increase the L* value, viscosity and WHC of samples probably because of too much aggregation of casein. Sensory results revealed that sample containing 30% RSM was exactly alike to full fat yoghurt in terms of overall sensory attributes. New formulation of palatable skim yoghurt was developed using 3% RSM successfully.

Marjan Nouri

2011-08-01

209

SPSS for Starters, Part 2  

CERN Document Server

The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

Cleophas, Ton J

2012-01-01

210

Instant forgedUI starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

Luiz, Joseandro

2013-01-01

211

Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

Khan, Joseph

2013-01-01

212

Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts as a source of biodiversity for the selection of starters for specific fermentations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The long-time studies on wine yeasts have determined a wide diffusion of inoculated fermentations by commercial starters, mainly of Saccharomyces. Although the use of starter cultures has improved the reproducibility of wine quality, the main drawback to this practice is the lack of the typical traits of wines produced by spontaneous fermentation. These findings have stimulated wine-researchers and wine-makers towards the selection of autochthonous strains as starter cultures. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodiversity of 167 S. cerevisiae yeasts, isolated from spontaneous fermentation of grapes. The genetic variability of isolates was evaluated by PCR amplification of inter-? region with primer pair ?2/?12. The same isolates were investigated for characteristics of oenological interest, such as resistance to sulphur dioxide, ethanol and copper and hydrogen sulphide production. On the basis of technological and molecular results, 20 strains were chosen and tested into inoculated fermentations at laboratory scale. The experimental wines were analyzed for the content of some by-products correlated to wine aroma, such as higher alcohols, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. One selected strain was used as starter culture to perform fermentation at cellar level. The selection program followed during this research project represents an optimal combination between two different trends in modern winemaking: the use of S. cerevisiae as starter cultures and the starter culture selection for specific fermentations.

Capece Angela

2014-01-01

213

Development of buckwheat and teff sourdoughs with the use of commercial starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the suitability of commercial starters for the production of gluten free sourdoughs. For this purpose, four different laboratory scale sourdoughs were developed from the flours buckwheat or teff. Two different starters (SA, SB) were used to start the fermentations, which were carried out under two technological conditions. Sourdoughs were propagated by back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable sourdoughs was investigated by culture dependent techniques and the development of the dominant biota was monitored by PCR-DGGE. Unique and complex LAB and yeasts communities were detected in each sourdough, comprising strains which originated from the flours. The competitiveness of the starter LAB varied according to the substrate and the fermentation conditions applied. Among the LAB present in both SA and SB, L. helveticus and L. paracasei strains did not persist in buckwheat or teff sourdoughs. Lc. argentinum was competitive only in buckwheat sourdoughs, whereas L. reuteri persisted only in teff sourdough. L. fermentum and L. helveticus present in both starters dominated only the sourdoughs fermented at the higher temperature. Remarkably, the starter yeasts were outcompeted by spontaneous yeast strains, i.e. Kazachstania barnetti and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in teff sourdoughs, whereas no yeasts were isolated from buckwheat sourdoughs. The isolation of autochthonous LAB and yeasts from the stable teff and buckwheat sourdoughs indicates that both flours represent an important reservoir for the isolation of novel and competitive starters for the production of gluten free sourdough bread. PMID:20643489

Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Morrissey, John P; Dal Bello, Fabio

2010-08-15

214

KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

215

Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit  

CERN Document Server

Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

Shipside, Steve

2012-01-01

216

PFP supply fan motor starters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) is currently stabilizing about 25 kg of Pu sludge; upon completion of this task, PFP will be maintained in a safe standby condition to await decision from the PFP NEPA review. It can take about 10 years to initiate and complete terminal cleanout after this; the facility will then be decommissioned and decontaminated. The 234-5Z ventilation system must continue to operate until terminal cleanout. Part of the ventilation system is the seismic fan shutdown system which shuts down the ventilation supply fans in case of strong earthquake. This document presents criteria for installing solid state, reduced voltage motor starters and isolation contactors for the 8 main ventilation supply fans. The isolation contactors will shutdown the supply fans in event of earthquake

217

Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determi...

Carlos Raimundo Ferreira Grosso; Carmen Sílvia Fávaro-Trindade

2004-01-01

218

The Use of Skim Milk and Essential Fatty Acids as an Alternative Method on Improving Yoghurt Nutrition Quality  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the research was to investigate the effects of addition of different levels lemuru seafish oil on skim milk-based yoghurt in order to produce good quality and marketable yoghurt. The experiment consisted of lemuru seafish oil fractination based on its freesing point and the addition of extracted lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt at 0.50%; 1%; 1.50%; 2%. Yoghurt with 0% lemuru seafish oil was included as a control. A Completely Randomised Design was employed and ...

Triana Yuni Astuti; Triana Setyawardani

2006-01-01

219

Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates of S. thermophilus were cultured in artificial gastric fluid (with pepsin added and in artificial duodenal fluid (with the enzyme complex added, and in M17 broth containing cholesterol at an initial concentration of 600 µg/mL, as well as in M17 broth without cholesterol. Immediately after the adding of bacteria inoculums and at the end of experiment, the concentration of cholesterol and the number of bacteria were measured. Results. S. thermophilus did not remove statistically significant amounts of cholesterol from artificial gastric fluid. The isolates showed the ability to uptake cholesterol from M17 broth and artificial duodenal fluid, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depended on the isolate. All isolates of S. thermophilus remove much more cholesterol from M17 broth than from artificial duodenal fluid. All S. thermophilus isolates had worse survival in artificial gastric or duodenal fluids than in M17 broth. Conclusions. The ability of S. thermophilus cells to survive in artificial gastric fluid and artificial duodenal fluid varied according to the isolates.

Ma?gorzata Ziarno

2010-03-01

220

Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring ( ogiri egusi”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

2013-01-01

221

Effect of Various Stabilizers on Whey Separation (Syneresis and Quality of Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effect of various stabilizers on whey seperation (syneresis and the quality of set yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using seven various stabilizers like pectin, guargum, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, carrageenan, sodium alginate, cornstarch and gelatin @ 0.4% in milk containing 3.5% milk fat and total solids 16.6%. Various determinations such as pH, acidity, lactose and syneresis level were made at 0,5,10 and 15 days of storage interval. It was observed that there was gradual decrease in pH and increase in acidity in all samples during 15 days at 10°C±1. Lactose contents decrease in all Yoghurt samples during storage due to its conversion into lactic acid. It was observed that cornstarch tend to reduce syneresis followed by gelatin, pectin, guargum, CMC, Carrageenan, sodium alginate while comparing with control.

Izhar Hussain Athar

2000-01-01

222

Semiconductor Sensor Array Based Electronic Nose for Milk, Rancid Milk and Yoghurt Odors Identification  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the use semiconductor sensor array based electronic nose for the identification of milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors. A low cost sensor array, serial data acquisition system and E-nose software package (ESP) tool are used to generate the database, feature extraction and normalization. The MLP NN is trained using the NeuroSolutions for the identification. The network has successfully classified milk, rancid milk and yoghurt odors with 96% success rate. A sensitivity analysis is done to test the performance of the sensor data in the trained network

Botre, B.; Gharpure, D.; Shaligram, A.; Sadistap, S.

2009-05-01

223

Spark starter of the referent position  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: A new type of starter was constructed for the need of chopper application by applying a spark for signalling the coincidence of the 0.5 mm gap on the stator and rotor of the mechanical selector. Sparks are created when the voltage is between 1000 and 2000 V between the static and movable needles. Moment when the spark is created is strictly defined and depends on the position and shape of the needles as well as on the voltage. Spark is extinguished when the distance is more than hundred times bigger than the distance when the spark is created. Characteristics of the pulse are: length 1 ? sec, rise time 10 m ? sec, amplitude 80 V at voltage of 1600 V. Compared to the magnetic or optical starter, the spark starter is more suitable for application due to simplicity, equal or higher precision, high repetitive frequency and reliability. No preamplifiers, pulse shaping circuits, photocells or reflectors are needed for te spark starter

224

Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter  

CERN Document Server

A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

Volpe, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

225

STUDY REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOGHURT WITH RED BEETROOT JUICE  

OpenAIRE

The study presents some physical - chemical characteristics of the beetroot juice yoghurt. The following determinations were carried out: the determination of the acidity by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) N/10, the determination of the fat content by the acid-butirometric method and the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature.

Natalia Prodaniuc

2009-01-01

226

STUDY REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOGHURT WITH RED BEETROOT JUICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study presents some physical - chemical characteristics of the beetroot juice yoghurt. The following determinations were carried out: the determination of the acidity by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH N/10, the determination of the fat content by the acid-butirometric method and the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature.

Natalia Prodaniuc

2009-12-01

227

Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4 degrees C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

Kourkoutas, Y; Kandylis, P; Panas, P; Dooley, J S G; Nigam, P; Koutinas, A A

2006-09-01

228

Staphylococcus aureus growth and survival during curding of Manchego type cheese produced with normal and subnormal starter activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Manchego type cheese was manufactured from milk from cows, goats and ewes artificially contaminated with 2 X 10(4) S. aureus cells ml. Lactic starter culture was added to the milk at the rate of 1.0 or 0.1% (v/v). the industrial process of Manchego type cheese manufacture was imitated. Cheeses were analyzed for both staphylococcal and non-staphylococcal total aerobic counts, as well as for the pH and enterotoxin production. Growth differences in staphylococcal counts in cheeses prepared with both starter concentrations were seen only after the brine treatment, the counts were 10 times greater with the 0.1% starter. Nevertheless, with the 1% starter culture the staphylococcal counts did not decrease from the moment of inoculation remaining high after brine treatment. For a similar inoculum, the strains used responded in a different manner, the highest values corresponding to strains FRI-100, S6 and FRI-472, and the lowest to FRI-137 and FRI-361. No differences in pH were seen between batches prepared with both starter concentrations. PMID:3590995

Gomez-Lucia, E; Goyache, J; Blanco, J L; Vadillo, S; Garayzabal, J F; Suarez, G

1987-04-01

229

Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not s>-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

230

Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for milk, yoghurt, and dressing. Yoghurt and dressing enriched with neat fish oil were more stable than those enriched with afish-oil-in-water emulsion, whereas milk enriched with neat fish oil was less stable than milk enriched with the fish-oil-in-water emulsion. Overall, it seemed that application of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad dressing.

Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

231

The Use of Tiger-Nut (Cyperus esculentus), Cow Milk and Their Composite as Substrates for Yoghurt Production  

OpenAIRE

Yoghurt was produced from skimmed cow milk and tiger nut milk. The pH of the yoghurt was found to increase with increasing tiger nut milk in the composite. From the comparison made of the sensory attributes of the three samples of yoghurt composite, the yoghurt produced from the combination of cow milk and tiger nut milk had the highest mean score in all the parameters even though the difference between the means of cow milk-tiger nut composite and that of pure cow milk was insignificant. Thu...

Sanful, Rita E.

2009-01-01

232

The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of FOS and decrease in syneresis of obtained bio-yoghurts.  

Waldemar Gustaw

2011-12-01

233

Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt  

OpenAIRE

For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was ca...

Marjan Nouri; Hamid Ezzatpanah; Soleiman Abbasi

2011-01-01

234

Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt  

OpenAIRE

Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeli?i?; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božani?

2011-01-01

235

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior

2012-01-01

236

Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet, 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1 and starter (Assay 2 diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X² and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X. Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X. Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X² and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

2012-04-01

237

Poultry viscera and bone meal in broiler pre-starter and starter diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of viscera and bone meal in poultry pre-starter and starter diets and its effects on performance, digestive organ development and digestibility and nutrient retention were evaluated. In the first assay, 280-day-old Avian Cobb® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replic [...] ates of 14 birds each, in the pre-starter phase; in the second assay, 280 eight-day-old Avian Cobb 48® chicks were allotted in four experimental groups with five replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diet consisted of increasing levels of viscera and bone meal: 0% (control diet), 3%, 6% and 9% in pre-starter (Assay 1) and starter (Assay 2) diets, to meet nutritional requirements and feed composition proposed by the Brazilian Tables, all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed and the total excreta collection was performed from the 4th to the 7th days in Assay 1 and from the 14th to the 17th days in Assay 2. On these days, one chick per experimental unit, representing the mean body weight of the parcel, was euthanized to perform digestive organ morphometry. Mean body weight was 45.4±0.4 on the 1st day in Assay 1 and 179.5±0.8 at 8 days of age in Assay 2. In Assay 1, a negative linear effect was observed for weight gain. Levels of viscera and bone meal influenced quadratically nitrogen digestibility index (Y = 66.0101 + 0.482425X - 0.0481086X²) and linearly the digestibility of dry matter (Y = 71.7775 - 0.615792X) and ether extract (Y = 78.3678 - 0.309136X). Morphometric measures of digestive organs were not influenced by viscera and bone meal levels. For Assay 2, negative and linear effect was observed for viscera and bone meal levels on weight gain (Y = 551.667 - 5.08341X) and feed intake (Y = 955.961 - 7.48435X). Quadratic effect was observed for ether extract digestibility (Y = 82.557 + 1.12021X - 0.150117X²) and maximum point was obtained at 3.7% viscera and bone meal inclusion for ether extract retention. Mortality was not affected by treatments in either of the assays. Viscera and bone meal can be used at 3 or 4% inclusion in broiler pre-starter and starter diets.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes, Xavier; José Henrique, Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de, Brito; Marcos Barcellos, Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca, Leandro; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Michele, Laboissière.

2012-04-01

238

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Rodrigo Santana Toledo

2011-10-01

239

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days) phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days) phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environmen [...] ts (clean and dirty environment), with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively) were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Rodrigo Santana, Toledo; Horacio Santiago, Rostagno; Luiz Fernando Teixeira, Albino; Marli Arena, Dionizio; Débora Cristine de Oliveira, Carvalho; Eduardo Terra, Nogueira.

2205-22-01

240

Microbiological and fermentative properties of baker's yeast starter used in breadmaking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the levels of microbial contaminants in liquid, compressed and dry commercial baker's yeasts used as starters in breadmaking. Eumycetes, Enterobacteriaceae, total and fecal coliforms, Bacillus spp., and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in particular enterococci, were quantified. Results obtained in this study highlighted that baker's yeast could represent a potential vehicle of spoilage and undesirable microorganisms into the baking environment, even if these do not influence the leavening activity in the dough, as ascertained by rheofermentometer analysis. Different microbial groups, such as spore-forming bacteria and moulds, were found in baker's yeast starters. Moreover, different species of LAB, which are considered the main contaminants in large-scale yeast fermentations, were isolated and identified by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most recurrent species were Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus durans, isolated from both compressed and dry starters, whereas strains belonging to Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera were found only in dry ones. Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) were also used to highlight the biodiversity of the different commercial yeast strains, and to ascertain the culture purity. PMID:23957411

Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Succi, M; Tremonte, P; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E

2013-08-01

241

Nutritional requirements of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae starter culture used in the elaboration of wine from orange / Requerimientos nutricionales de un cultivo iniciador de Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizado en la elaboración de vino de naranja  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El estudio de levaduras autóctonas para ser usadas en la elaboración de vino de naranja, incluye aislamiento, identificación y obtención de biomasa. Para optimizar su crecimiento se deben establecer los requerimientos nutricionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue definir las necesidades de vitamina [...] s y factores orgánicos de crecimiento de S. cerevisiae aislada de jugo de naranja fermentado. Se formuló un medio de cultivo con sacarosa (4 g/L) como fuente de carbono y energia (FCE) y urea como fuente de nitrógeno (FN), con 6 vitaminas (pantotenato de calcio, piridoxina, tiamina, biotina, niacina, ác. fólico) e inositol y ácido p-aminobenzoico (PABA) como factores de crecimiento. El medio completo se usó como testigo, preparándose además otros tres medios: con ausencia de todas las vitaminas y factores orgánicos de crecimiento, con pantotenato de Ca, piridoxina, tiamina, biotina e inositol y con esas 4 vitaminas, pero sin inositol. Finalmente, se procedió a eliminar una vitamina. Los cultivos se realizaron en aerobiosis a 30 ºC y pH 5,0. La cepa autóctona de S. cerevisiae requiere las vitaminas pantotenato de calcio, piridoxina, tiamina y biotina para crecer adecuadamente en condiciones aeróbicas en sistema batch; en cambio, no es auxótrofa para niacina, ácido fólico, PABA e inositol. Abstract in english The study of the yeasts present in the orange juice microbiota and used in the winemaking involves the isolation, identification and production of biomass. In order to optimize the yeast growth, the nutritional requirements should be determined. The aim of this work was to determine the vitamin and [...] other growth organic factors demand for the S. cerevisiae isolated from fermented orange juice. The culture medium was formulated with sucrose (4 g/L) as carbon and energy source (CES), urea as nitrogen source (NS), six vitamins (calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine, biotin, niacin, folic acid), and inositol and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as growth factors. The complete culture medium was used as blank, and three other media were prepared: without the vitamins and growth organic factors, with calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine, biotin and inositol and with the latter four vitamins, but for inositol. Finally, four new media were obtained by elimination of one vitamin at a time. The temperature was set at 30 ºC and the pH, at 5.0. The S. cerevisiae present in the orange juice needs calcium pantothenate, pyridoxine, thiamine and biotin to grow adequately under aerobic conditions in a batch system, not being auxotroph for niacin, folic acid, PABA and inositol.

María Mercedes, Ferreyra; María del Carmen, Schvab; Liliana Mabel, Gerard; Cristina Verónica, Davies; María Cristina, Cayetano Arteaga; Andreína, Stefani Leal.

2014-06-01

242

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30 kDa, 10 kDa and 3 kDa. The fractions were tested for antioxidant activity by investigating the inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles, tocopherol and sensory characteristics, the lower molecular weight fractions 3–10 kDa and

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

243

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 ?mol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 ?mol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 ?mol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

Frane Delaš

2012-09-01

244

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

OpenAIRE

Dehydroacetic acid (DHA) and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(ptolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT) and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(p-tolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT) were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0...

Frane Delaš; Lejla Durakovi?; Alma Tudi?; Katarina Hui?-Babi?; Sulejman Redžepovi?

2012-01-01

245

Autochthonous starter effect on the microbiological, physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of Ibores goat's milk cheeses  

OpenAIRE

The effect of adding four Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis autochthonous strains as single starters (A, B, C and D) on the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Ibores raw goat's milk cheese was investigated. Batches with a commercial starter (E) and with raw goat's milk without starter (F) were also made as controls. At the first day of ripening, the pH values of cheeses manufactured with any type of starter were significantly lower than those made without starter. Th...

Gonzalez, Jose?; Mas, Matilde; Tabla, Rafael; Moriche, Javier; Roa, Isidro; Rebollo, Jose?; Ca?ceres, Pilar

2003-01-01

246

Aislamiento e identificación de cepas del género Bifidobacterium presentes en productos lácteos fermentados tipo yogur / Isolation and identification of strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus found in fermented yoghurt type milk products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La identificación de microorganismos probióticos del género Bifidobacterium es de gran importancia por su uso como suplemento que favorece la salud del consumidor. En Venezuela son pocos los estudios sobre caracterización microbiológica de estas bacterias y no existen métodos oficiales para su estud [...] io en alimentos. Esta investigación reporta la estandarización de técnicas microbiológicas y moleculares para el aislamiento e identificación de bifidobacterias aisladas de dos productos tipo yogur, I con probiótico y II sin probiótico. Se analizaron 10 muestras de cada yogur, una por semana, aislando 3 colonias por muestra. Los resultados mostraron que de los 60 aislados analizados, 27 colonias del Yogur I y 11 del Yogur II concordaron con las características de bifidobacterias. Se comparó el crecimiento bacteriano en dos medios de cultivo (MRS-m, RCA), sembrando por profundidad en placas y en tubos Miller-Pricket, obteniéndose mejores resultados con el medio MRS-m y las siembras por profundidad en tubos. De las extracciones de ADN se obtuvieron los patrones de ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR, determinándose que 34 aislados eran clones indistinguibles, mostrando el patrón de B. lactis utilizado como control positivo. Esta metodología puede ser utilizada por la industria y los entes encargados del control de la calidad de los productos probióticos Abstract in english The identification of probiotic microorganisms belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus is very important due to their use as supplements favorable for consumer’s health. In Venezuela there have been few studies of the microbiological characterization of these bacteria and there are no official method [...] s for their study in food. This investigation reports the standardization of microbiological and molecular techniques for the isolation and identification of bifidobacteria isolated from two yoghurt type products: I with probiotic and II without probiotic. Ten samples from each yoghurt type product were analyzed, one per week, and 3 colonies were isolated per sample. Results showed that of the 60 isolates analyzed, 27 colonies of Yoghurt I and 11 of Yoghurt II coincided with the characteristics of bifidobacteria. Bacterial growth was compared in two culture media (MRS-m, RCA), inoculating in-depth in plates and Miller-Pricket tubes; the best results were obtained with MRS-m medium and in-depth inoculations in tubes. By DNA extraction we obtained ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns, determining that 34 isolates were indistinguishable clones, showing the same pattern of the B. lactis used as positive control. This methodology can be used by the industry and the institutions in charge of quality control of probiotic products

Indira, Pérez; Aura, Falco; María Soledad, Tapia; Guillermina, Alonso.

2012-06-01

247

The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

Marisa Jatupornpipat

2007-07-01

248

Ripening of ovine milk cheeses: effects of plant rennet, pasteurization, and addition of starter on lipolysis  

OpenAIRE

The influences of type of rennet (from animal sources or from flowers of Cynara cardunculus), pasteurization (or not) of the milk, and addition (or not) of starter cultures prior to cheesemaking, on the release of major fatty acid residues of ovine milk cheese were evaluated throughout the ripening period. The long-chain saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) and unsaturated (C18:1, C18:2 and C18:3) free fatty acids (FFA) were the most abundant types at all stages of ripening. The overall concentrations...

Sousa, Maria J.; Malcata, F. Xavier

1997-01-01

249

Soft starter as a start option; Softstarter als Startmoeglichkeit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The starting and the running-up of machines require a high amount of energy. However, this energy component can be reduced with special starters - an important aspect in the field of machine drives. The soft starter is a smart and cost-effective alternative to conventional starting process. From the perspective of the new switch off regulation and a cross-linked flexible load management, considerable costs of energy can be reduced.

Mueller, Michael [Rockwell Automation, Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereiche Antriebs-, Sicherheitstechnik und Schaltgerate

2013-07-01

250

Aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt produced in Guilan province of Iran using immunoaffinity column and high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was aimed to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in 120 natural yoghurt samples consisting of 80 samples of commercial and 40 samples of traditional yoghurt in Guilan province in the north of Iran. The occurrence and concentration range of AFM(1) in samples were determined by immunoaffinity column extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of yoghurts showed that all the samples were contaminated with AFM(1) in concentration levels ranging from 4.2 to 78.9 ng/kg. In general, 16 samples (13.33%) had higher AFM(1) level than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/kg) accepted by European Union, but the contamination level was lower than 500 ng/kg in all the samples, which is accepted by Codex Alimentarius and National Standard. The concentration of AFM(1) in 26 samples (21.66) was lower than 10 ng/kg. The range of contamination of AFM(1) was comparatively higher in traditional yoghurt (average concentration of 32.9 ng/kg) than that in commercial yoghurt (average concentration of 21.6 ng/kg; p < 0.01). Because yoghurt is the most popular dairy product consumed in Iran, the AFM(1) contamination is a serious problem for public health. This study reports the data of a first survey on the presence of AFM1 in yoghurt in Guilan, Iran. PMID:22637575

Tabari, Mahsa; Tabari, Khashayar; Tabari, Orod

2013-02-01

251

Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”)  

OpenAIRE

Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as sta...

Peter-ikechukwu, A. I.; Ahaotu, I.; Owuamanam, C. I.; Ogueke, C. C.

2013-01-01

252

7 CFR 58.330 - Butter starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED...FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications...Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw...in butter and related products shall have a...

2010-01-01

253

Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits  

OpenAIRE

Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under ...

Panesar, Parmjit S.

2011-01-01

254

Suicides by starter's pistols and air guns.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 25-year-old depressed woman who committed suicide with a starter's pistol loaded with CS tear-gas ammunition. The propellant gases of the contact shot entered her chest through the left sixth intercostal space. Exsanguination was caused by perforations of the pericardium and apex of the heart. Autopsy did not reveal any metallic or other foreign bodies that might have originated from the propellant, the cartridge, or any bulletlike material. Her injuries were thus caused by the propellant alone. 0.5 mg L-1 of the CS degradation product cyanide was detected in the cardiac blood. We also report the case of a 54-year-old man, suffering from depressive psychosis, who committed suicide with an air rifle. The lead-pointed Diabolo bullet entered his brain through the right large wing of the sphenoid bone, traversed the right temporal brain pole, damaged the right middle cerebral artery and the right optic tract, and finally lodged in the left central ganglia. There was extensive basal subdural hemorrhage and tamponade of all cerebral ventricles. Death was attributed to cerebral failure. We furthermore list another 26 cases of suicide by rarely used weapons from 1947 to 1989. PMID:2275462

Jacob, B; Huckenbeck, W; Daldrup, T; Haarhoff, K; Bonte, W

1990-12-01

255

Isolation of cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and molecular comparison with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To isolate cultivable thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from cheeses made with mesophilic starter and compare them with dairy-related Lactobacillus helveticus strains using molecular typing methods. Methods and Results: The number of thermophilic bacteria in seven commercial cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starters was estimated to be <10 CFU g-1. Implementation of an enumeration step in the isolation method made it possible to isolate one thermophilic strain from each of five of seven cheeses. Comparing repetitive sequence PCR (rep-PCR) profiles of the isolates with dairy-related Lact. helveticus strains indicated that one isolate was a Lact. helveticus. Partial sequencing of 16S rRNA confirmed this, and the remaining four strains were identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus fermentum and Enterococcus faecium. The rep-PCR profile of the isolated Lact. helveticus was identical to the rep-PCR profile of the Lact. helveticus adjunct culture used in the specific cheese, but their pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiles differed slightly. Conclusion: It was possible to isolate cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses manufactured with mesophilic starter and thermophilic adjunct cultures by using an enumeration step. Significance and Impact of the Study: Isolation of cultivable thermophilic bacteria from ripened cheeses made with mesophilic starters offers an original source for new dairy-relevant cultures.

Jensen, Marie Elisabeth Penderup; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

2009-01-01

256

Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

2011-12-01

257

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro, com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente, e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente, em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC, cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia.Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm, varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias

2013-03-01

258

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais / Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Fo [...] ram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were u [...] sed and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos, Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva, Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva, Rosa; Bárbara Amorim, Silva.

2013-03-01

259

Robustness of Lactobacillus plantarum starters during daily propagation of wheat flour sourdough type I.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at investigating the robustness of selected sourdough strains of Lactobacillus plantarum. Seven strains were singly used as sourdough type I starters under daily back-slopping propagation (ten days) using wheat flour. Cell numbers of presumptive lactic acid bacteria varied slightly (median values of 9.13-9.46 log cfu g(-1)) between and within started sourdoughs, as well as the acidifying activity (median values of 1.24-1.33). After three days also the control sourdough (unstarted) had the same values. As shown by RAPD-PCR analysis, five (DB200, 3DM, G10C3, 12H1 and LP20) out of seven strains maintained elevated cell numbers (ca. 9 log cfu g(-1)) throughout ten days. The other two strains progressively decreased to less than 5 log cfu g(-1). As identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA and recA genes, L. plantarum (11 isolates), pediococci (7), Lactobacillus casei (3) and Lactobacillus rossiae (2) dominated the flour microbiota. Monitoring of lactic acid bacteria during sourdough propagation was carried out by culture dependent approach and using PCR-DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Except for the sourdough started with L. plantarum LP20, in all other sourdoughs at least one autochthonous strain of L. plantarum emerged. All emerging strains of L. plantarum showed different RAPD-PCR profiles. L. rossiae and Pediococcus pentosaceus were only found in the control and sourdough started with strain 12H1. The characterization of the catabolic profiles of sourdoughs (Biolog System) showed that sourdoughs containing persistent starters behaved similarly and their profiles were clearly differentiated from the others. One persistent strain (DB200) of L. plantarum and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis LS44, previously shown to be persistent (Siragusa et al., 2009), were used as the mixed starter to produce a wheat flour sourdough. Both strains cohabited and dominated during ten days of propagation. PMID:20688231

Minervini, Fabio; De Angelis, Maria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Pinto, Daniela; Siragusa, Sonya; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

2010-10-01

260

Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures.

DilekHeperkan

2013-06-01

261

Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

2010-01-01

262

Assessment of the effect of the technological processing and the storage term on the fatty acid composition of buffalo yoghurt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fatty acid composition of the milk fat of buffalo yoghurt after lyophilization and gamma ray treatment with dozes 2 and 4 kGy has been investigated.It has been established that the fatty acid spectrums of these fat contain a considerable number of short, medium and long chain fatty acids.The buffalo milk fat after treatment has fatty acid composition a typical specific quantitative balancing

263

Fingerprint based bio-starter and bio-access  

CERN Document Server

In the paper will be presented a safety and security system based on fingerprint technology. The results suggest a new scenario where the new cars can use a fingerprint sensor integrated in car handle to allow access and in the dashboard as starter button.

Iovane, G; Iovane, C; Rotulo, F

2003-01-01

264

Effect of Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent on Growth and Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for Production of Probiotic Herbal Milk and Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40° Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 109. All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.

P. Gholami

2013-01-01

265

Effect of denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on growth and survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities. PMID:24517020

Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M

2013-12-15

266

Analytic determinations of minerals content by XRF, ICP and EEA in ultrafiltered milk and yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english The application of ultrafiltration for milk concentration allows obtaining a raw material for yoghurt elaboration, with total solids increased. The products have special characteristics due to different ratios proteins/lactose can be obtained, as well as they have nutritional properties with benefic [...] ial effects in human health. In this study the content of calcium, potassium, phosphorous, iron, zinc, magnesium and sodium in milk, its distribution during ultrafiltration and in the fermented product have been studied by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The results show that XRF technique has been successfully used for determination of minerals content in dairy products, still for trace species. The minerals measures were validated with other analytical techniques with high accuracy and versatility as inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP) and atomic emission spectrometry (EEA). Furthermore the proteins content was increased 13 % and lactose content has been reduced in 30 %, in compared with some commercial products.

A.N., Rinaldoni; M.E., Campderrós; A., Pérez Padilla; E., Perino; J.E., Fernández.

2009-04-01

267

Pellet starters in layering technique using concentrated drug solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characteristics of inert starters in drug solution layering are important for successful active pellet formation. Four types of starters composed of sucrose or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) or lactose and MCC were compared in our study. The active pellets were prepared using Wurster type apparatus. Yield and pellet quality parameters were determined. The highest yield (85.66-89.41%) was obtained for cores composed of MCC due to their insolubility in water (the drug solvent) and good mechanical properties. On the contrary, soluble and brittle sucrose cores dissolved partially during the process forming undesirable agglomerates and giving lower yield (76.2%). All pellet samples showed good flow properties and drug content from 82.4 to 94.5% of the theoretical drug amount. PMID:18618309

Gryczová, Eva; Rabisková, Miloslava; Vetchý, David; Krejcová, Katerina

2008-12-01

268

Leadership without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Online Collective Action  

OpenAIRE

The Internet has been ascribed a prominent role in collective action, particularly with widespread use of social media. But most mobilisations fail. We investigate the characteristics of those few mobilisations that succeed and hypothesise that the presence of 'starters' with low thresholds for joining will determine whether a mobilisation achieves success, as suggested by threshold models. We use experimental data from public good games to identify personality types associa...

Margetts, Helen Z.; John, Peter; Hale, Scott A.; Reissfelder, Ste?phane

2013-01-01

269

Reducing the risk of infection in the elderly by dietary intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immune senescence potentially leads to an increased risk of infections. It is desirable to augment the immune system and protect against infections by daily consumption of immunostimulatory food. The present study evaluated whether the intake of yoghurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) OLL1073R-1 has an effect on resistance to the common cold. We conducted two independent studies, in which fifty-seven (median age 74.5 years) and eighty-five healthy elderly individuals (median age 67.7 years) were participants. In each study, the subjects were divided into two groups based on age and sex and instructed to eat 90 g yoghurt or drink 100 ml milk once per d over an 8- or 12-week period. A meta-analysis of the results of these two independent studies showed the risk of catching the common cold was about 2.6 times lower (OR 0.39; P = 0.019) in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the increase of natural killer cell activity was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group (P = 0.028). In addition, the quality of life score for the 'eye/nose/throat' system after intake was significantly higher in the yoghurt group than in the milk group and the improvement of the score was correlated with the promotion of natural killer cell activity. In conclusion, consumption of yoghurt fermented with L. bulgaricus OLL1073R-1 augmented natural killer cell activity and reduced the risk of catching the common cold in elderly individuals. PMID:20487575

Makino, Seiya; Ikegami, Shuji; Kume, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Hajime; Orii, Naoki

2010-10-01

270

Effects of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Inflammatory Factors in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (107 CFU g-1 for each or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation. Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-a, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.441.56 to 7.441.03 g mL-1 (p = 0.041. There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.551.57 to 14.511.62 g mL-1, p = 0.202. The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-a (from 73.756.59 to 77.915.61 pg mL-1, p = 0.633. Serum TNF-a did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134. In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-a.

Abbas Rahim Foroushani

2011-01-01

271

Bacteriocins produced by wild Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from traditional, starter-free cheeses made of raw milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty bacterial strains were encountered by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) typing in a series of 306 Lactococcus lactis isolates collected during the manufacturing and ripening stages of five traditional, starter-free cheeses made from raw milk. Among the 60 strains, 17 were shown to produce bacteriocin-like compounds in both solid and liquid media. At a genotypic level, 16 of the strains were identified by molecular methods as belonging to L. lactis subsp. lactis and one to L. lactis subsp. cremoris. Among the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains, phenotypic and genetic data determined that eleven produced either nisin A (nine strains) or nisin Z (two strains), and that five produced lactococcin 972. Variable levels of the two bacteriocins were produced by different strains. In addition, nisin was shown to be produced in inexpensive, dairy- and meat-based media, which will allow the practical application of its producing strains in industrial processes. Specific PCR and nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence analysis identified the inhibitor produced by the single L. lactis subsp. cremoris isolate as a lactococcin G-like bacteriocin. Beyond the use of bacteriocins as functional ingredients for the biopreservation of foods, the newly identified bacteriocin-producing L. lactis strains from traditional cheeses may also be useful for designing starter cultures with protective properties and/or adjunct cultures for accelerating cheese ripening. PMID:20708289

Alegría, Angel; Delgado, Susana; Roces, Clara; López, Belén; Mayo, Baltasar

2010-09-30

272

Evaluation of Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08 as a co-starter in wine fermentation for the improvement of ethyl esters production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zygosaccharomyces bailii BCV 08, a yeast isolated from red wine barrels in Brazil, was evaluated as co-starter in fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Z. bailii BCV 08 was preliminarily shown to produce high levels of esters, and the production was optimized in bench and bioreactor scales using grape must. White wine vinifications were conducted with mixed cultures containing different proportions of Z. bailii BCV 08 and an enological strain of S. cerevisiae. In all trials that contained Z. bailii BCV 08, the production of ethyl esters was enhanced in comparison to the vinification control. Our results clearly show the potential of Z. bailii BCV 08 as a mixed starter with S. cerevisiae in order to increase the aromatic complexity of wine. PMID:25801972

Garavaglia, Juliano; Schneider, Rosana de Cassia de Souza; Camargo Mendes, Sandra Denise; Welke, Juliane Elisa; Zini, Cláudia Alcaraz; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Valente, Patrícia

2015-04-01

273

Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for Nero d'Avola wine and evaluation of selected starter implantation in pilot fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research studied Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts isolated from Nero d'Avola grapes, collected in different areas of the Sicily region. RAPD-PCR analysis with M13 primer was used for preliminary discrimination among 341 S. cerevisiae isolates. Inoculated fermentations with S. cerevisiae strains, exhibiting different RAPD-PCR fingerprinting, revealed the impact of selected strains on volatile compound concentration. Two selected strains were used in fermentation at cellar level and the restriction analysis of mtDNA on yeast colonies isolated during fermentation was used to control strain implantation. This study represents an important step to establish a collection of indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a unique environment, such as Nero d'Avola vineyards. Different starter implantation throughout inoculated fermentation represents an additional character, which might be considered during the selection program for wine starter cultures. PMID:20933292

Capece, Angela; Romaniello, Rossana; Siesto, Gabriella; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Massari, Carmela; Poeta, Cinzia; Romano, Patrizia

2010-11-15

274

Instant Django 1.5 application development starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

Rocco, Mauro

2013-01-01

275

Dietary Inclusion Rate of Cocoa Husk for Starter Cockerels  

OpenAIRE

Growth performance and economics of production were measured to assess the dietary inclusion rate of cocoa husk for starter cockerels. The study involved 156, 2-week-old cockerels which were reared for 6 weeks on four diets incorporating 0, 10, 15 and 20% cocoa husk meal (CHM) at the expense of maize. Body weight gain and feed conversion were depressed beyond the 10% CHM level. Although cost of feed consumed decreased across treatments, feed cost/kg body weight gain was reduced beyond the 10%...

Olubamiwa, O.; Otun, A. R.; Longe, O. G.

2002-01-01

276

Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine  

OpenAIRE

The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

Ngo Thi Phuong Dung

2004-01-01

277

Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

?.?. ??????

2004-04-01

278

Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter) with possible early weaning and ground starter (control), were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males). Animals [...] were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05), despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P

Amália Saturnino, Chaves; Suely de Fátima, Costa; Leandra Queiroz de, Melo; Marcos Neves, Pereira.

2014-09-01

279

Avaliação da preferência, quanto ao sabor, do iogurte de "leite" de soja adicionado de leite de vaca perante o tradicional / Evaluation of the flavor preference of the soybean milk yoghurt added of cow's milk confronted with the traditional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudou-se a avaliação de preferência, quanto ao sabor, do iogurte de "leite" de soja adicionado de leite de vaca (85 e 15%, respectivamente) perante o tradicional, ambos nos sabores coco e morango. Os resultados da aplicação do teste sequencial bicaudal pareado - preferência na avaliação organolept [...] ica do sabor dos iogurtes, mostraram que a preferência ê pelo tradicional, embora o novo produto seja aceitável quanto ao sabor. Abstract in english A test was made to evaluate flavor preference between cow milk added soybean milk yoghurt (85 and 15% respectively), and traditional yoghurt. The results of the application of the sequential two-sided paired preference comparison test in the organoleptic evaluation of the flavor of the yoghurts show [...] ed that the preference is for the traditional yoghurt, not with standing the acceptable flavor of the new product.

G. de, Souza; A.J.de, Oliveira; I., Shirose; J.L.E. do, Valle.

280

INFLUENCE OF THE LOW FREQUENCIES OF STARTING CULTURES ACTIVATED BY AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON MEAT RAW MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of the studies of the effects of low-frequency electromagnetic field on starter cultures. It suggests a possibility of using electromagnetic technology in smoked sausages

Nesterenko A. A.

2014-05-01

281

Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB. The occurrence of cracks was higher in cheeses with more hydrolyzed a(S1)- and ß-casein, higher content of free amino acids, lower strain at fracture (shorter texture), and a greater number of PAB

Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

2011-01-01

282

Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed. PMID:19239979

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

2009-04-15

283

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige [...] was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H, Malik; L, Holm; E, Johansson.

2012-12-01

284

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H Malik

2012-12-01

285

The effects of marketing activities on fast moving consumer good purchases: the case of yoghurt Italian market  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines whether sales promotions effectiveness depends upon the consumer’s brand loyalty and her buying behaviour and whether consumer’s behavioural characteristics in term of purchase frequency and level affect the response to promotional activities and moderate the effect of brand loyalty during the consumer choice process. Different specifications for the utility function, exploiting information on selling price, promotional activities such as displays usage, ad features in the store, 3x2 and discount, and differently brand loyalty measures have been estimated into a discrete choice framework, that is into the rational brand choice paradigm, paying attention to their effects on individuals’ probabilities to choose the specific brand during each purchase occasion. The application is run on a ACNielsen dataset of Italian households consumer panel, observed to buy at least two yoghurt packages during a year, matched to store panel data with respect to quantities, prices and promotions.

Sergio Brasini

2007-10-01

286

Efeito do tratamento térmico do leite na qualidade do iogurte / Effect of milk heat treatment on yoghurt quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O efeito do tratamento térmico do leite na qualidade do iogurte foi investigado aquecendo-se leite em banho-maria a 65°C por 30 min., 75°C por 10, 20 e 30 min., e 85°C por 10, 20 e 30 min.. A qualidade do iogurte foi avaliada por um painel de dez degustadores, utilizando-se a escala hedônica. Aos de [...] gustadores foi pedido julgarem o aroma, sabor e consistência do produto. A análise estatística dos resultados mostrou uma preferência significativa pelo produto feito com o leite tratado a 85°C por 30 minutos, embora os produtos obtidos a partir dos tratamentos térmicos a 75°C por 10, 20 e 30 minutos tenham sido efetivos em produzir o iogurte com as características de pH e ací-dez titulável desejáveis. Abstract in english Effect of milk treatment on yoghurt quality was investigated by heating the milk in water bath at 65°C for 30 min., 75°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. and 85°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Yoghurt quality was evaluated by a ten trained panelists using a hedonic scale from 0 to 6. The panelists were asked to judg [...] e flavor and consistence of the product. The statistical analysis of the results showed a significant preference for the product made from milk heat-treated at 85°C for 30 minutes, although the products made from milk heated at 75°C for 10, 20 and 30 minutes had pH and titratable acidity as desired.

W.M.C., Araújo; J.G.B., Caruso; A.J.de, Oliveira.

287

C-Codes: Cyclic Lowest-Density MDS Array Codes Constructed Using Starters for RAID 6  

OpenAIRE

The distance-3 cyclic lowest-density MDS array code (called the C-Code) is a good candidate for RAID 6 because of its optimal storage efficiency, optimal update complexity, optimal length, and cyclic symmetry. In this paper, the underlying connections between C-Codes (or quasi-C-Codes) and starters in group theory are revealed. It is shown that each C-Code (or quasi-C-Code) of length $2n$ can be constructed using an even starter (or even multi-starter) in $(Z_{2n},+)$. It is...

Li, Mingqiang; Shu, Jiwu

2011-01-01

288

Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

Stojkovi?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Sokovi?, Marina

2014-07-25

289

Efecto de la concentración de cultivos iniciadores y dextrosa sobre la calidad de la maduración y vida útil sensorial del pepperoni / Effect of the concentration of starter cultures and dextrose on the quality of the maturation and the sensory life of pepperoni / Efeito da concentração de cultivos iniciadores e dextrose sobre a qualidade da maturação e vida útil sensorial do pepperoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Introdução. A automatização dos processos na indústria cárnica, e a combinação entre cultivos de rápida fermentação e substratos fermentables que permitam elaborar produtos madurados secos de alta qualidade em curto tempo e com novas características sensoriais são os fatores a ter em conta para melh [...] orar, estandarizar e diminuir o tempo de elaboração tradicional deste tipo de alimentos, permitindo às empresas cárnicas diversificar seus produtos e proporcionar ao consumidor alimentos com novos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demonstrar as vantagens de controlar os parâmetros de temperatura e umidade, em câmara de estufaje e a incorporação de diferentes dosificações de cultivo iniciador e dextrose nas etapas de fermentação, maturação, e na conservação do pepperoni. Materiais e métodos. Para avaliar o efeito das concentrações de dextrose e cultivos iniciadores sobre a maturação do pepperoni, avaliaram-se 4 combinações entre as concentrações 0.03% e 0.05% do cultivo Bactoferm LHP, e 0.5% e 1% de dextrose. A fermentação e maturação se realizou em condições controladas de umidade e temperatura. O tempo de vida útil foi avaliado num período de 100 dias, analisando as características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais do alimento cada 30 dias, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. As principais diferenças encontradas, durante o armazenamento, nos pepperoni com percentagens maiores de 0,5 de dextrose, foi a aparição de defeitos no produto final como cores marrons, sabor ácido e gorduroso nos produtos finais. Pelo contrário, concentrações de 0,03% de cultivo starter e 0,5% de dextrose permitiram obter produtos com maior retenção de umidade, melhorando a aparência e textura do produto. O estudo de vida útil do pepperoni determinou que os tratamentos avaliados garantiram a inocuidad do produto por 94 dias a 26° C, como resultado do efeito sinérgico dos metabólitos das bactérias ácido-lácticas, que evitaram o desenvolvimento de microorganismos alterantes e patogênicos. Conclusão. A utilização de dextrose como substrato fermentable para os cultivos iniciadores foi essencial para controlar a velocidade de acidificación do pepperoni durante a fermentação, e evitar assim o rápido descenso do PH e a formação de defeitos sensoriais no produto final; desta maneira, consegue-se a estabilidade sensorial do produto em condições de armazenamento ao ambiente. Abstract in spanish Introducción. La automatización de los procesos en la industria cárnica, y la combinación entre cultivos de rápida fermentación y sustratos fermentables que permitan elaborar productos madurados secos de alta calidad en corto tiempo y con nuevas características sensoriales son los factores a tener e [...] n cuenta para mejorar, estandarizar y disminuir el tiempo de elaboración tradicional de este tipo de alimentos, permitiendo a las empresas cárnicas diversificar sus productos y proporcionar al consumidor alimentos con nuevos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demostrar las ventajas de controlar los parámetros de temperatura y humedad, en cámara de estufaje, y la incorporación de diferentes dosificaciones de cultivo iniciador y dextrosa en las etapas de fermentación, maduración, y en la conservación del pepperoni. Materiales y métodos. Para evaluar el efecto de las concentraciones de dextrosa y cultivos iniciadores sobre la maduración del pepperoni, se evaluaron 4 combinaciones entre las concentraciones 0.03% y 0.05% del cultivo Bactoferm LHP, y 0.5% y 1% de dextrosa. La fermentación y maduración se realizó en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura. El tiempo de vida útil fue evaluado en un período de 100 días, analizando las características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales del alimento cada 30 días, durante el almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. Las principales diferencias encontradas, durante el almacenamiento, en los pepper

Julio, Montes Álvarez; Claudia, Restrepo Flórez; Jairo, Patiño Gómez; Jaime Andrés, Cano Salazar.

2013-01-01

290

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

2014-01-01

291

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433  

OpenAIRE

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera.

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A.; Mesquita, Milene Miranda A.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Gomez-gil, Bruno; Valle, Roge?rio; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

2014-01-01

292

Method for assessing lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in high-density polyethylene packaging and study of the migration into yoghurt and simulant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to assess the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packaging intended for contact with yoghurt and the migration of these elements using the food itself and 3% acetic acid as a food simulant in accordance to ANVISA, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. In order to perform this study, it was necessary to develop and validate a method by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. For method validation, the parameters linearity, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), accuracy and precision were determined. Fifteen commercial samples of yoghurt, marketed in Campinas - São Paulo (Brazil), were used for the analysis. The packaging and yoghurt were digested in high-pressure ashing equipment (HPA) and the migration of the elements into simulant were determined directly in the solution. The validated method proved adequate and the results obtained showed that all the packaging had levels of Hg and Cd below the LOQ, corresponding to 1.0 and 1.5 ?g l(-1), respectively. The highest levels of As and Pb were 0.87 and 462.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. The migration of these elements to the yoghurt after 45 days of contact at 4ºC was below the LOQ for all the samples assessed. The results of specific migration into 3% acetic acid simulant showed the concentrations of Cd, Hg and As below 5, 5 and 10 µg kg(-1), respectively, which are the maximum limits set by ANVISA. However, for three samples the packaging lid showed migration of Pb into simulant ranging from 30.6 to 40.2 ?g kg(-1), exceeding the limit set by ANVISA of 10 ?g kg(-1). PMID:24444394

Kiyataka, Paulo Henrique M; Dantas, Sílvia T; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

2014-01-01

293

Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for final healthy product - natural preservatives in yoghurt  

OpenAIRE

Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both s...

Stojkovic?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S.; Glamoc?lija, Jasmina; C?iric?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Griensven, Leo J. I. D.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Sokovic?, Marina

2014-01-01

294

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh) and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

OpenAIRE

Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservat...

Zahra Esfandiari; Mohammad Badiey; Pooya Mahmoodian; Reza Sarhangpour; Elham Yazdani; Maryam Mirlohi

2013-01-01

295

Influence of feeding Mediterranean food industry by-products and forages to Awassi sheep on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding agro-industrial by-products and unconventional forages, rich in potentially anti-nutritional factors, may influence the quality of the raw milk and the dairy products prepared therefrom. The aim of the present study was to determine side-effects on physicochemical properties of milk, yoghurt and cheese of feeding diets where one third were feeds either rich in lipids (tomato pomace and olive cake) or phenols (olive leaves and lentil straw) or electrolytes (Atriplex leaves). The diets, including a control diet, were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. They were fed in amounts of 25 kg dry matter/day per head during 50 days to 6×10 multiparous fat-tailed Awassi ewes. Milk samples were analysed for various physicochemical traits and fatty acid composition on days 0, 24, 36 and 48. Three times, milk pooled by group was processed to yoghurt and non-aged farmer-type cheese, which were analysed for their gross and fatty acid composition and texture, and were subjected to sensory evaluation. Feeding olive cake and tomato pomace reduced milk casein, but increased proportions of monounsaturated fatty acids. There were some variations in minerals among test diets but, contrary to expectations, Atriplex did not increase milk sodium. The nutritional composition of yoghurt and cheese was not varied much by the test feeds, except for some changes in fatty acid profile similar to the milk. Yoghurt firmness declined with all test diets, but texture score tended to be lower only for olive cake and leaf diets relative to control. Cheese firmness was increased by feeding the Atriplex leaf and olive cake diets which was also reflected in the texture scores. No off-flavours were reported. Possible reasons for effects on the dairy products are discussed. In conclusion, the feeds investigated had certain effects on the physicochemical properties of dairy products, but these were neither very systematic nor large thus not prohibiting their use in Mediterranean sheep milk production systems. PMID:22004605

Abbeddou, Souheila; Rischkowsky, Barbara; Hilali, Muhi El-Dine; Hess, Hans Dieter; Kreuzer, Michael

2011-11-01

296

Method validation for aflatoxin M1 determination in yoghurt using immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yoghurt is a popular dairy product in Iran because of its beneficial influence on human health and nutritional value. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the metabolite of potential carcinogen aflatoxin B1, which can contaminate milk through the feed and is not eliminated by common processing heat treatment. An analytical method using immunoaffinity column for extraction and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification was developed for AFM1 in this study. An HPLC method with fluorimetric detection for the determination of AFM1 in yoghurt milk has been optimized and validated according to Commission Decision BS EN ISO 14501: 2007 by using the conventional validation approach. The procedure for determining selectivity, recovery, precision, decision limit (CC?) and detection capability (CC?) of the method has been reported. The results of the validation process demonstrate the agreement of the method with the provisions of Commission Regulation 401: 2006:EC. A new HPLC method with fluorescence detection was developed to determine aflatoxin M1. The detection limit was 1 ng/kg for yoghurt. The calibration curve was linear from 0.1 to 3.0 ?g l?¹ injected. The method includes a preliminary clean-up and the average recoveries determined on three different days at the concentration levels of 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 ?g kg?¹ were in the range of 72.57%-86.66% with RSD in the range of 2.56%-8.41%. The interday and interlevel mean recovery value, which has been used to correct routine analysis results, was 80%. The method is rapid, easily automatable and therefore useful for accurate and precise screening of aflatoxin M1 in yoghurt. PMID:21385770

Tabari, Mahsa; Karim, Guity; Ghavami, Mehrdad; Chamani, Mohammad

2011-08-01

297

Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O) and a thermophilic strain of Lactobacillus plus O-culture (OLb) having different abilities to release amino acids, contribute to the structure and flavour development in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Cheeses manufactured using the four combinations of coagulants and cultures were analysed during a 28-week ripening period for the composition of casein, peptides, free amino acids, rheological properties and for sensory properties at end of ripening. Cheeses with CC, showed less extensive primary proteolysis, lower levels of bitterness and higher stress at fracture, which correlates to a harder structure. Whereas cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb-culture had a higher amount of free amino acids and lower strain at fracture, which correlates to a shorter structure, and the peptide profiles of cheeses produced with BC and CC were rather similar after 28 weeks in contradiction to cheeses with O-culture. Replacing the traditional coagulant BC with CC reduced bitterness but increased hardness of the reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Replacing O- with OLb-culture also reduced bitterness but resulted in a shorter structure. The results highlight tools which could be employed to alter primary proteolysis and amino acid release, respectively, for the optimisation of flavour and structure of reduced-fat cheese.

Borsting, M. W.; Qvist, K. B.

2012-01-01

298

Thermal comfort zones for starter meat-type quails  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine thermal comfort ranges, as evaluated by air temperature and black-glove temperature and humidity index (BGTHI), for starter meat-type quails. Nine hundred quails were randomly distributed into five environmental chambers. Each chamber was programmed to pr [...] ovide different temperatures weekly. The following thermal environments were provided: SC - severe cold, MC - moderate cold, TC - recommended comfort environment, MH - moderate heat, and SH - severe heat. The best live performance was obtained when quails were submitted to temperatures of 36-39 ºC and BGTHI of 87.1 ± 0.4 and 91.4 ± 0.6 during the first week of rearing. Temperatures of 27-30 ºC and BGTHI of 75.8 ± 0.4 and 79.9 ± 0.6, during the second week, and temperature of 24 ºC and BGTHI of 70.8 ± 0.5 during the third week of rearing.

MS, Sousa; I de FF, Tinôco; AG, Amaral; KRA, Inoue; SL, Barreto; H, Savastano Jr; CF, Souza; MO, Paula.

2014-09-01

299

Interaction between the physical form of the starter feed and straw provision on growth performance of Holstein calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of physical form of a starter feed with or without straw supplementation on growth performance of Holstein calves. In experiment 1, a total of 32 calves were randomly assigned at 7 d of age to texturized starter feed (containing rolled barley, corn, and oats) without straw, texturized starter feed with chopped straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered 4 L of pasteurized whole milk twice daily from 7 to 35 d of age, 2 L of milk twice daily from 36 to 42 d of age, and 2 L of milk from 43 to 49 d of age. Animals were weaned at 50 d of age, and the study finished when calves were 63 d old. In experiment 2, a total of 60 calves (8 d of age) were randomly assigned to texturized starter feed (containing whole corn) without straw, pelleted starter feed without straw, and pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. All calves were offered the same milk replacer (MR; 23% crude protein and 19.5 fat) at 11% dry matter concentration, 4 L/d of MR until 14 d of age, 6 L/d of MR from 14 to 37 d, 3 L/d of MR from 38 to 44 d, and 1.5 L/d of MR from 45 to 52 d of age. The experiment finished when calves were 58 d old (1 wk after weaning). Rumen liquid pH was measured after weaning. In both studies, calves were individually housed in pens on sawdust bedding and starter feed and chopped straw were offered free choice in separate buckets. In experiment 1, starter feed and straw intake and growth did not differ among treatments. However, calves receiving straw showed a greater rumen pH compared with those not receiving straw. In experiment 2, pelleted started feed supplemented with straw fostered an increase in solid feed intake (as percentage of body weight) compared with a pelleted or texturized starter feed without straw supplementation. However, calves that received the texturized starter feed containing whole corn had rumen pH similar to those fed a pelleted starter feed with straw. Feeding a texturized starter feed containing rolled barley, corn, and oats (with or without straw provision) was not able to maintain rumen pH or promote growth and intake compared with offering a pelleted starter feed with chopped straw. However, when whole corn was used in the texturized starter feed, rumen pH was equivalent to that obtained with a pelleted starter feed and straw supplementation. PMID:25497821

Terré, M; Castells, Ll; Khan, M A; Bach, A

2015-02-01

300

Anti-Listeria starters: in vitro selection and production plant evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-Listeria bacterial starters are highly demanded by the meat industry. Novel bioprotective anti-Listeria starters were searched among Lactobacillus species strains isolated from artisanal sausages. The screening confirmed that anti-Listeria activity is a strain-specific property and yielded only 1 strain (of 36) exhibiting a satisfactory level of inhibition, L. delbrueckii WC0286. This strain was compared with two commercial bioprotective starters, SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20, in a model simulating in vitro the first step of the fermentation process. The presence of the bioprotective starters did not modify the pH in such a way that could affect the safety or organoleptic properties of the product. Both SafePro B-SF-43 and SafePro B-LC-20 effected an important reduction of Listeria counts (0.56 and 0.72 log CFU g(-1), respectively, in 72 h), while the anti-Listeria effect of L. delbrueckii WC0286 was minor (0.15 log CFU g(-1)). These results discouraged the utilization of L. delbrueckii WC0286 for a challenge test in a pilot salami production, in favor of the best-performing bioprotective starter, SafePro B-LC-20. The test confirmed that SafePro B-LC-20 did not alter the acidification trend of sausages and was capable of inhibiting Listeria, which decreased by 1.21 log CFU g(-1). This information is relevant to address research activity toward the development of new bioprotective starters. The data herein presented demonstrate that the efficacy in Listeria control of potentially bioprotective bacterial starters requires further validation in real meat matrixes, possibly by using in vitro meat fermentation experiments to narrow down the list of candidates before pilot scale challenge tests. PMID:24780342

Raimondi, Stefano; Popovic, Mina; Amaretti, Alberto; Di Gioia, Diana; Rossi, Maddalena

2014-05-01

301

Nutrient and energy utilization in enzyme-supplemented starter and grower diets for White Pekin ducks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of enzyme supplementation on energy and nutrient utilization in White Pekin ducks fed starter and grower diets. In each of 2 experiments, 8 ducks were assigned to each starter or grower diet without or with enzyme supplementation at 1 g/kg of diet in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments for a 120-h nutrient utilization assay. Starter and grower diets in experiment 1 contained 3.68 and 2.51% N, respectively, and 4.321 and 4.274 kcal/ g of gross energy, respectively. Corresponding values in experiment 2 were 2.93 and 2.89% and 3.994 and 3.930 kcal/g. The enzyme supplement was a cocktail containing 7,500 units of protease and 44 units of cellulase per gram. Endogenous energy losses were from 23 to 44 kcal in the 2 experiments, and endogenous amino acid (AA) losses ranged from 14 mg for Trp to 137 mg for Asp. In experiment 1, a lower energy output of ducks fed the grower diet, coupled with lower N output, resulted in greater (P < 0.05) diet AME(n) for the grower than the starter diet. Apparent digestibilities of all AA were higher (P < 0.05) in the starter diet than in the grower diet regardless of enzyme supplementation, more so for the S-containing AA. Average true digestibility of all AA was 93.7 and 90.4% for the starter and grower diets, respectively. There was no effect of enzyme supplementation of diet on the true digestibility of AA except for Met. Average true digestibility of all AA for diets not supplemented or supplemented with enzyme were 91.3 and 92.8%, respectively. In experiment 2, energy utilization of the grower diet was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the starter diet. Lysine and Asp showed lower (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility in the grower than in the starter diet. Enzyme supplementation of starter or grower diets did not affect the apparent digestibility of AA, except for Met, whose digestibility was increased by 2.4 percentage points in an enzyme-supplemented diet (P < 0.05). Except for Trp, true digestibility of AA was not affected by diet type or enzyme supplementation. The results show that the enzyme cocktail evaluated improved AA and energy utilization in White Pekin ducks and that such an enzyme-related response is diet composition-dependent. PMID:18212368

Adeola, O; Shafer, D J; Nyachoti, C M

2008-02-01

302

Photographic and lightning mapping observations of a blue starter over a New Mexico thunderstorm  

Science.gov (United States)

On 4 August 2010 a small blue starter was observed over an active thunderstorm in west-central New Mexico. The storm was of normal polarity with upper positive charge over midlevel negative charge. The event was visually observed and photographed, and mapped by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) at Langmuir Laboratory. The blue starter occurred during a seven-stroke negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) flash that was detected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and data from the LMA show that it initiated between upper positive charge and inferred negative screening charge at the cloud top. Upward positive streamers of the blue starter emerged from the cloud top at 15.2 km altitude and reached a terminal altitude of ˜17 km. The observation confirms that blue starters can be initiated by the electric field changes associated with -CG flashes, which enhance the electric field between upper positive charge and negative screening charge. It also confirms that the upward leaders and streamers of blue starters in normal-polarity storms are of positive polarity.

Edens, H. E.

2011-09-01

303

Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil / Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Setenta e duas embalagens de iogurtes de quatro indústrias diferentes foram analisadas durante três épocas diferentes com intervalo mensal. A população microbiana total encontrada foi em torno de 6 x 10(7) células g-1 de iogurte. A contagem de leveduras variou entre 1 a 2.700 células g-1. Não foi po [...] ssível observar uma sistemática contaminação, mas este estudo longitudinal revelou que contaminação ad hoc e armazenamento impróprio pode levar a elevadas populações de leveduras. De modo geral foi detectada uma contaminação maior nos meses mais quentes do ano mas em valores inferiores aos encontrados em outros países. Um total de 577 isolados de leveduras foram identificados como pertencentes a 10 espécies. As leveduras mais abundantes foram, em ordem, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii e Candida maltosa. A levedura psicrófila, Mrakia frigida foi pela primeira vez mencionada como isolada a partir de iogurtes. Foi encontrada em algumas amostras uma pequena contaminação por espécies de Monilia e Penicillium. Os testes utilizados para crescimento sugeriram que habilidade para fermentar sacarose, crescimento a 5ºC e na presença de 300 µg g-1 de sorbato foram as três propriedades fisiológicas mais importantes para a presença destas leveduras em iogurtes. Os dados também sugerem que clima mais quente e refrigeração inadequada são as principais causas de alta nível de contaminação, aumento da diversidade e mudança na microbiota presente. Abstract in english Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7) cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal [...] study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.

Silvia Regina, Moreira; Rosane Freitas, Schwan; Eliana Pinheiro de, Carvalho; Alan E., Wheals.

2001-06-01

304

Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7 cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.Setenta e duas embalagens de iogurtes de quatro indústrias diferentes foram analisadas durante três épocas diferentes com intervalo mensal. A população microbiana total encontrada foi em torno de 6 x 10(7 células g-1 de iogurte. A contagem de leveduras variou entre 1 a 2.700 células g-1. Não foi possível observar uma sistemática contaminação, mas este estudo longitudinal revelou que contaminação ad hoc e armazenamento impróprio pode levar a elevadas populações de leveduras. De modo geral foi detectada uma contaminação maior nos meses mais quentes do ano mas em valores inferiores aos encontrados em outros países. Um total de 577 isolados de leveduras foram identificados como pertencentes a 10 espécies. As leveduras mais abundantes foram, em ordem, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii e Candida maltosa. A levedura psicrófila, Mrakia frigida foi pela primeira vez mencionada como isolada a partir de iogurtes. Foi encontrada em algumas amostras uma pequena contaminação por espécies de Monilia e Penicillium. Os testes utilizados para crescimento sugeriram que habilidade para fermentar sacarose, crescimento a 5ºC e na presença de 300 µg g-1 de sorbato foram as três propriedades fisiológicas mais importantes para a presença destas leveduras em iogurtes. Os dados também sugerem que clima mais quente e refrigeração inadequada são as principais causas de alta nível de contaminação, aumento da diversidade e mudança na microbiota presente.

Silvia Regina Moreira

2001-06-01

305

Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7%) to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used...

Mortada Mohammed Salih; Omer Ibrahim Ahmed Hamid

2013-01-01

306

Production of Synbiotic Yogurt-Like Using Indigenous Lactic Acid Bacteria as Functional Food  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as culture starter. Indigenous probiotic lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum 2C12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus 2B4, were applied in the making of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like with 5% of fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS as a prebiotic source. The aim of this study was to determine the best formula of functional synbiotic yoghurt-like among four formulas: F1 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus, F2 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12, F3 (L. bulgaricus+ S. thermophilus + L. acidophilus 2B4, and F4 (L. bulgaricus + S. thermophilus + L. plantarum 2C12 + L. acidophilus 2B4 to be choosen and followed detection of it’s flavor to improve the product quality and consumer acceptance. The results showed that the F3 synbiotic yogurt made from mixed culture L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus, and L. acidophilus 2B4 had the highest antibacterial effect against Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Addition of 1.75% natural corn starch as a stabilizer produced optimum improvement in yoghurt consistency and minimize whey separation. Result of sensory evaluation indicated that the yoghurt with addition of 1% strawberry flavor and 0.1% vanilla flavor were ranked at first and second. Yoghurts were still good to be consumed after 15 d storage period at the refrigeration temperature (10 oC.

M. Astawan

2012-04-01

307

Experimental Study and Comparative Analysis of Transients of Induction Motor with Soft Starter Startup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of the parameters of the machine and of the soft starter on the dynamics of the induction machine start. In order to evaluate the effects of this variation we have used a design of experiments (DOE. The situations may reproduce actual situations occurred in practice, for example the variation of initial voltage Ui , modification of the start time and load value. In the present paper we have investigated the relation between the inrush current, voltage dip at the startup of one industrial soft starter. Using an already predefined fire angle characteristic the influence of the initial voltage was also evaluated.

POPA, G. N.

2010-08-01

308

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

OpenAIRE

Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and...

Am, Kessler; Ds, Lubisco; Mm, Vieira; Aml, Ribeiro; Am, Penz Jr

2009-01-01

309

Photographic and LMA observations of a blue starter over a New Mexico thunderstorm  

Science.gov (United States)

On the evening of August 3, 2010 we photographed a blue starter over an electrically active storm complex about 120 km to the WNW of Langmuir Laboratory in central New Mexico. The event occurred close to a broad overshooting top at an altitude of 15 km above MSL. It was also observed visually and detected by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) deployed around the mountaintop observatory. The blue starter appears as a white-blue leader channel propagating away from the storm top not straight upward but at a large angle from vertical, slightly curving upward and transitioning to an increasingly diffuse blue glow. In addition to this leader, a more diffuse glow of blue light from one or two additional leaders is seen in the background. The curved channel of the main leader and the fact that it did not propagate along a straight path upward indicates that a relatively strong local electric field near the storm top existed that dictated leader propagation and direction rather than the large-scale storm electric field. The visible part of the starter is estimated to have developed to about 1 km above the storm top. From the LMA data we infer that the blue starter was a screening layer discharge that initiated between upper positive charge and a negatively charged screening layer. A negative leader appears to initiate at 15 km altitude and propagates downward for 2 to 3 km, after which scattered and ill-defined activity occurred in the cloud between 10 to 15 km altitude. This indicates that the visible part of the blue starter emanating out of the storm top, which was photographed but not detected by the LMA, was positive breakdown. The event lasted for 100 ms in the LMA data. The storm where the starter occurred in was producing predominantly intracloud (IC) flashes at a rate of about 20 per minute. The starter itself occurred independently of other discharges in the storm about 4 seconds after a normal polarity IC flash. About 5 minutes after the first blue starter, a second luminous event was recorded further away above the cloud top, which was similar but smaller in extent both optically and as detected by the LMA. It too was preceded by a regular IC flash 5 seconds earlier.

Edens, H. E.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Hunyady, S. J.

2010-12-01

310

Selection and use of autochthonous mixed starter for lactic acid fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, Weissella soli/Weissella koreensis, Enterococcus faecalis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus fermentum were identified from raw carrots, French beans and marrows by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence. L. plantarum M1, Leuc. mesenteroides C1 and P. pentosaceus F4 were selected based on the rates of growth and acidification in vegetable juice media, and used as the autochthonous mixed starter for the fermentation of carrots, French beans or marrows. An allochthonous starter, consisting of the same species, was also used for fermentation. A two-step fermentation process (1 day at 25 degrees C and 7 days at 15 degrees C) in brine (1% w/v) followed by storage at room temperature in olive oil until 40 days was set up. Unstarted vegetables subjected to the same treatments were used as the controls. Cell numbers of lactic acid bacteria in the started vegetables were ca. 10,000 (autochthonous starter) and 1000 (allochthonous starter) times higher than unstarted samples throughout the process. When fermented with the autochthonous starter, carrots, French beans or marrows were characterized by the rapid decrease of pH (yeasts. Fermentation with the allochthonous starter did not acidify and inhibit bacteria and yeasts so rapidly. After 40 days, carrots, French beans and marrows fermented with the autochthonous starter had significantly (P<0.05) higher total concentration of vitamin C (ascorbate+dehydroascorbate) with respect to those fermented with the allochthonous starter and, especially unstarted vegetables. The same was found for the indexes of color. Firmness of both started vegetables was higher than unstarted vegetables. Sensory analysis differentiated started vegetables. Carrots and French beans fermented with the autochthonous starter were, especially, appreciated for fragrance. Appearance was the sensory attribute that mainly distinguished marrows fermented with the autochthonous starter. PMID:18710789

Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda F; Siragusa, Sonya; De Angelis, Maria; Paradiso, Annalisa; Minervini, Fabio; De Gara, Laura; Gobbetti, Marco

2008-10-31

311

Isolation and Identification of Lactobacilli From Cheese, Yoghurt and Silage by 16S rDNA Gene and Study of Bacteriocin and Biosurfactant Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Background: The Lactobacilli belong to lactic acid bacteria, whose primary fermentation end product from sugars is lactic acid and that is why foods are conserved. Lactic acid bacteria have been used for millennia in the production of silage. Therefore, they are an indispensable part of intestinal microflora in human and animals. .Objectives: This research meant to isolate lactic acid bacteria with significant effects from different environments. .Materials and Methods: In this study, heterofermentative LAB were isolated from cheese, yoghurt and corn silage in Broujerd ,Iran. The standard biochemical methods were applied. Acid tolerance was studied by exposure to acidic PBS and growth in bile salt was measured by the spectrophotometric method. The isolated bacteria were studied for antagonistic effects on environment isolated E.coli, bacteriocin and biosurfactant production. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and amplified by PCR method. .Results: The 3 isolates from cheese, yoghurt and silage were effective against isolated E.coli and could produce biosurfactants. Phylogenic relationships of the 3 potential candidates were determined comparing the 16Sr DNA gene sequences, they were found to be as 3 isolates of Lactobacillus buchneri, L.brevis and L.kefiri that were effective on the isolated E.coli from environment. .Conclusions: It was found that the isolated bacteria produced biosurfactants that had a great potential for different industries.

Sharareh Peymanfar

2012-09-01

312

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

Zahra Esfandiari

2013-08-01

313

Inrush Current Limitation in Wind Generators by SCR Based Soft-starter during grid connection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Inrush current & harmonics is a generic problem wind generators during grid connection.The designed SCR based soft-starter successfully limits the high inrush current during the connection of the wind-turbine system to the grid. The proposed SCR based soft starter using will be simulating in PSCAD on a three-phase induction generator. Expected results will show a significant reduction in high inrush current and smooth connection of the three phase induction generator to the grid with small impact on the power quality. A small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator is an attractive choice for an isolated grid hybrid power system in remote areas because of its low cost, compactness, ruggedness, high reliability, low inertia and ease in control. In this work, a SCR based soft starter for limiting the high inrush current during the connection of the small-scale wind turbine coupled three phase induction generator to an isolated weak grid has been proposed. Soft-starter is designed to reduce inrush current or surge in current while achieving a proper synchronism between the generator and the grid.

Sanjay Mishra

2013-10-01

314

Adjunct starter properties affect characteristic features of Swiss-type cheeses.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of microorganisms, both starter microorganisms and non-starter lactic acid bacteria originating from the base milk, or from various contamination sources during cheese manufacture, is associated with cheese ripening and the formation of flavour, texture and aroma. Under controlled conditions, Emmental and Bergkäse, a Gruyère-type cheese variety, were produced from pasteurised milk with standard starters and defined strains of facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli (FHL), and partly with addition of a defined mixture of enterococci. Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei and L. rhamnosus (two strains each) were selected with respect to their potential for the utilisation of citric acid and ribose as sole energy source. The FHL developed up to 10(8) cfu/g within the first weeks of ripening, and viable counts in mature cheeses were 10(7) cfu/g, independent of the cheese variety. Bergkäse made with addition of L. rhamnosus strains showed a more pronounced proteolysis, resulting in reduced firmness and elasticity values of the cheese body, and FHL strains able to utilise citric acid improved the appearance of the cheeses by increasing the number of small eyes to the desired level. In Emmental cheese, the citric acid (+) strains reduced the intensity of propionic acid formation as the FHL apparently competed with the propionibacteria, and enterococci disappeared completely during maturation. Although further work is needed the study shows that, depending on the cheese variety, particular properties of FHL adjunct starters significantly affect important quality attributes of the resulting cheeses. PMID:15053357

Weinrichter, Brigitte; Sollberger, Heinz; Ginzinger, Wolfgang; Jaros, Doris; Rohm, Harald

2004-02-01

315

Impact of high pressure processing on the quality traits of starter-free Queso Fresco  

Science.gov (United States)

Queso Fresco (QF), a popular high-moisture, high-pH Hispanic cheese sold in the U.S., underwent high- pressure processing (HPP) to determine if this process, which has the potential to improve the safety of cheese, would alter its quality traits. Starter-free rennet-set QF (manufactured from pasteur...

316

A qualified presumption of safety approach for the safety assessment of Grana Padano whey starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Qualified Presumption of Safety (QPS) approach was applied to dominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with Grana Padano cheese whey starters. Thirty-two strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus fermentum, and representing the overall genotypic LAB diversity associated with 24 previously collected whey starters [Rossetti, L., Fornasari, M.E., Gatti, M., Lazzi, C., Neviani, E., Giraffa, G., 2008. Grana Padano cheese whey starters: microbial composition and strain distribution. International Journal of Food Microbiology 127, 168-171], were analyzed. All L. helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, and S. thermophilus isolates were susceptible to four (i.e. vancomycin, gentamicin, tetracycline, and erythromycin) of the clinically most relevant antibiotics. One L. fermentum strain displayed phenotypic resistance to tetracycline (Tet(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml, and gentamycin (Gm(R)), with MIC of 32 microg/ml. PCR was applied to this strain to test the presence of genes tet(L), tet(M), tet(S), and aac(6')-aph(2')-Ia, which are involved in horizontal transfer of Tet(R) and Gm(R), respectively but no detectable amplification products were observed. According to QPS criteria, we conclude that Grana cheese whey starters do not present particular safety concerns. PMID:19187995

Rossetti, Lia; Carminati, Domenico; Zago, Miriam; Giraffa, Giorgio

2009-03-15

317

Genome Sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. Strain SXCC-1, Isolated from Chinese Vinegar Fermentation Starter?  

OpenAIRE

Gluconacetobacter strains are prominent bacteria during traditional vinegar fermentation. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of Gluconacetobacter sp. strain SXCC-1. This strain was isolated from a fermentation starter (Daqu) used for commercial production of Shanxi vinegar, the best-known vinegar of China.

Du, Xin-jun; Jia, Shi-ru; Yang, Yue; Wang, Shuo

2011-01-01

318

Selection of Lactobacillus plantarum strains for their use as starter cultures in Algerian olive fermentations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate some technological traits of L. plantarum strains previously isolated from fermented olives. For this purpose, 11 strains were tested for their in vitro antibiotic susceptibility, resistance to low pH values, acidifying activity, proteolytic activity, haemolytic activity, lactic acid and exopolysaccharide production and resistance to freeze-drying .Collectively, the strains were susceptible to most of the antibiotics tested and showed survival at pH 2. Most strains showed high (1.035 ± 0.29 to 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l ± sd of lactic acid or medium (0.556 ± 0.29 to 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l ±sd acidification activity with good proteolytic activity (1.49 ± 0.25 to 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tyrosine. None of the strains produced exopolysaccharides or haemolysis in sheep's blood.El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar algunos aspectos tecnológicos de cepas de L. plantarum previamente aisladas de aceitunas fermentadas. Para este propósito, 11 cepas fueron usadas para estudiar su susceptibilidad a antibióticos in vitro, resistencia a valores de pH bajos, actividad acidificante, proteolítica, y hemolítica, producción de ácido láctico y exopolisacáridos, y resistencia a la liofilización. En general, las cepas fueron susceptibles a la mayoría de los antibióticos ensayados y mostraron supervivencia a pH 2. La mayoría de las cepas mostraron una actividad de acidificación alta (1.035 ± 0.29 a 0.912 ± 0.21 mmol/l de ácido láctico o media (0.556 ± 0.29 a 0.692 ± 0.18 mmol/l con una buena actividad proteolítica (1.49 ± 0.25 a 5.25 ± 0.11 mg L-1 tirosina. Ninguna de las cepas produjo exopolisacáridos o hemolisis en sangre de oveja.

Mokhbi, Abdelouahab

2009-03-01

319

Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

1980-01-01

320

Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures  

OpenAIRE

The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best...

Jasna Mrv?i?; Damir Stanzer; Dragana Boži?; Vesna Stehlik-Tomas

2008-01-01

321

Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

Sozzi, T; Smiley, M B

1980-11-01

322

Saccharification of cassava starch by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera YCY1 isolated from Loog-Pang (rice cake starter  

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Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to select amylolytic yeasts from Loog-Pang, a traditional starter culture for production of alcoholic foods and drinks in southern Thailand, and to optimize the saccharification of cassava starch to reducing sugar by the selected yeast isolate. Seventy-four yeast isolates were obtained from ten samples of Loog-Pang. The isolates were tested for amylolytic activity on Yeast-Peptone Cassava medium (YPC contained 30 g/l of cassava starch.Only three isolates showed amylolytic activity which produced clear zone on the YPC agar. The best amylolytic strain with clear zone of 8 mm was identified by 26s rDNA as Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. The optimum medium for saccharification by Saccharomycopsis fibuligera. YCY1 was only 50 g/l of cassava starch in distilled water without nitrogen sources added and pH adjustment. The optimal saccharification conditions were 200 ml cassava starch (50 g/l in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flask, shaking at 100 rpm and 37oC. Under these conditions, the highest reducing sugar was obtained 46±0.53 g/l after 120 h cultivation (84% of the theoretical yield.

Aran H-Kittikun

2008-04-01

323

Aplicación de la metodología de superficie de respuesta para evaluar el efecto de la concentración de azúcar y de cultivos iniciadores comerciales sobre la cinética de fermentación del yogurt / Application of response surface methodology to evaluate the effect of the concentration of sugar and commercials starters on the fermentation kinetics of yogurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo, mediante la metodología de diseño experimental de superficie de respuesta de optimización (MSRO) se evaluó la concentración de dos cultivos iniciadores comerciales (YO-MIX TM 204 (L) y YOFLEX® (Y)) y el porcentaje de azúcar añadido (5, 7.5 y 10 %) como factores influyentes sobre el [...] proceso de fermentación de yogurt, con el fin de identificar la tasa de acidificación más alta. De igual forma, se planteó la caracterización del crecimiento microbiano durante el proceso de acidificación. Las condiciones óptimas de acidificación para L se dan a los porcentajes de azúcar más bajos y concentraciones de inóculo más altas, mientras que para Y se dan a los porcentajes de azúcar medios y concentraciones de inóculos más altas para tiempos totales de proceso de 4.4 y 4.2 horas, respectivamente. Se determinó la tasa de crecimiento para cada cultivo iniciador dando como resultado menores tasas de crecimiento para estreptococos (0.705 h?1 para L y 0.367 h?1 para Y) que para lactobacilos (0.733 h?1 para L y 0.389 h?1 para Y) en cada cultivo iniciador. Finalmente se encontraron diferencias significativas en el tiempo en el que se alcanzó la máxima tasa de acidificación para los cultivos iniciadores evaluados a una misma concentración de azúcar. Abstract in english In this work, the concentration of two commercials starters (YO-MIX TM (L) 204 and YOFLEX® (Y)) and sugar percentage (5, 7.5 and 10%) were evaluated by optimization response surface methodology (ORSM), in order to identify the higher acidification rate. The starters growth was followed during the ac [...] idification process. The results showed that optimal acidification conditions for L were at the lowest value of sugar and the highest value of the starter concentration. In the case of Y the optimal acidification conditions were with the highest starter concentration but at medium sugar levels. Total acidification times were 4.4 and 4.2 hours, respectively. The growth rate for each starter culture was determined by nonlinear regression resulting lower growth rates for streptococcus (0.705 h?1 for L and 0.367 h?1 for Y) than for lactobacillus (0.733 h?1 for L and 0.389 h?1 for Y) in each starter. Finally, significant differences were found in the time necessary to reach the maximum acidification rate for starter cultures evaluated at the same concentration of sugar. This kind of studies should continue because it offers the possibility of growth in the dairy sector by standardizing production processes.

J.M., Rodríguez-Bernal; J. A., Serna-Jiménez; M.A., Uribe-Bohórquez; B., Klotz; M. X., Quintanilla-Carvajal.

324

Correlation of Activities of the Enzymes ?-Phosphoglucomutase, UDP-Galactose 4-Epimerase, and UDP-Glucose Pyrophosphorylase with Exopolysaccharide Biosynthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus LY03  

OpenAIRE

The effects of different carbohydrates or mixtures of carbohydrates as substrates on bacterial growth and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production were studied for the yoghurt starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus LY03. This strain produces two heteropolysaccharides with the same monomeric composition (galactose and glucose in the ratio 4:1) but with different molecular masses. Lactose and glucose were fermented by S. thermophilus LY03 only when they were used as sole energy and carbohydrate s...

Degeest, Bart; Vuyst, Luc

2000-01-01

325

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers  

OpenAIRE

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performa...

Onu P.N.

2012-01-01

326

Fuzzy and ANFIS based soft starter fed induction motor drive for high performance applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soft starters are used with induction motors in blowers, fans, pumps and the crane hoist drives. AC voltage controllers are used as soft starters in induction motors for starting and to adjust its speed. This paper highlights the intelligent controllers such as Fuzzy and Neuro fuzzy based ac voltage controllers to generate the firing pulses for appropriate thyristors for any given operating torque, speed of the motor and the load. FUZZY and ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System models have been designed to achieve the proposed algorithm. MATLAB/SIMULINK package was used to simulate the proposed methods. Simulation results presented in this paper explain the advantages of proposed soft starting methods over conventional method. The advantages of intelligent methods proposed in this paper are its simplicity, stability, accuracy and fast response.

L. Rajaji

2008-08-01

327

A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. PMID:23859403

Altay, Filiz; Karbanc?oglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

2013-10-01

328

Physical, Chemical and Performance Evaluation of Different Commercial Brands of Layers, Broilers Starter and Finisher Feeds  

OpenAIRE

In completely randomized design that comprised two studies, physical, chemical and performance evaluations were conducted to determine the quality of commercial four layers feeds, three broiler starter and three broiler finisher feeds. In study 1, eighty 20-week in–lay black harco hens were used in four replicate groups to evaluate the effects of the selected layer feeds on their laying performance for twelve weeks. While in study 2, seventy two broiler chicks were used (0-8 weeks) in three...

Oyedeji, Johnson O.; Olupitan, Titilayo C.; Ajayi, Helen I.; Imouokhome, James I.; Sonuyi, Olujumoke O.; Iyede, O.

2013-01-01

329

Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing  

OpenAIRE

Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce ...

Francisco NoéArroyo López; AmparoQuerol Simon

2012-01-01

330

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames  

OpenAIRE

O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN...

Castro, Lui?s Ce?sar; Luchese, Rosa Helena; Martins, Jose? Francisco P.

2000-01-01

331

Antibiotic Resistances of Starter and Probiotic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria?  

OpenAIRE

The antibiotic resistances of 45 lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc were investigated. The objective was to determine antibiotic resistances and to verify these at the genetic level, as is currently suggested by the European “qualified presumption of safety” safety evaluation system for industrial starter strains. In addition, we sought to pinpoint possible problems in resistance determinations. Prim...

Hummel, Anja S.; Hertel, Christian; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Franz, Charles M. A. P.

2006-01-01

332

Efecto de la Microencapsulación sobre las Propiedades Reológicas y Fisicoquímicas del Yogurt Blando / Microencapsulation Effects on the Rheological and Physico-chemical Properties of Soft Yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se estudió la influencia de la microencapsulación de Lactobacillus acidophilus empleando un sistema gelificante binario, en la obtención de yogures blandos, evaluando los parámetros fisicoquímicos y reológicos después del proceso de incubación. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que [...] la microencapsulación de L. acidophilus incrementa la viscosidad y carácter visco elástico del yogurt. Sin embargo, el análisis sensorial llevado a cabo no mostró diferencias entre los yogures obtenidos con L. acidophilus microencapsulado y en estado libre. En cuanto a los análisis fisicoquímicos, los cambios en los valores de lactosa, grasa y proteína sugieren una mayor actividad metabólica por parte de Lactobacillus acidophilus microencapsulado, lo cual se evidencia por el mayor número de células bacterianas obtenidas. Por tal motivo, la microencapsulación bacteriana puede ser una técnica interesante para llevar a cabo la inclusión de bacterias probióticas en sistemas alimentarios ácidos, sin ocasionar pérdida de los atributos sensoriales del producto alimenticio. Abstract in english In this paper the influence of Lactobacillus acidophilus microencapsulation using a gelling binary system, in obtaining of soft yogurts, was studied, evaluating bromatological and rheological parameters. The results show that L. acidophilus microencapsulation increases viscosity and viscoelastic yog [...] urt characteristics. However, the sensory analysis conducted did not show differences between yoghurt elaborated with L. acidophilus microencapsulated and yoghurt in free state. With respect to the physicochemical analysis, changes in the lactose, fat and protein values suggest an increase in the metabolic activity by L. acidophilus microencapsulated, which is evidenced by the increasing number of bacterial cells obtained at the end of the incubation period. Therefore, bacterial microencapsulation can be an interesting technique to perform the inclusion of probiotic bacteria in acidic food systems, without causing loss of the sensory attributes of the food product.

Rafael E, González Cuello; Jaime, Pérez Mendoza; Néstor A, Urbina Suarez.

333

Microbial Ecophysiology of Whey Biomethanation: Comparison of Carbon Transformation Parameters, Species Composition, and Starter Culture Performance in Continuous Culture  

OpenAIRE

Changes in lactose concentration and feed rate altered bacterial growth and population levels in a whey-processing chemostat. The bacterial population and methane production levels increased in relation to increased lactose concentrations comparable to those in raw whey (6%) and converted over 96% of the substrate to methane, carbon dioxide, and cells. Sequential increases in the chemostat dilution rate demonstrated excellent biomethanation performance at retention times as low as 25 h. Reten...

Chartrain, M.; Bhatnagar, L.; Zeikus, J. G.

1987-01-01

334

Lactococcus bacteriophages isolated from whey and their effects on commercial lactic starters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incidence of phages of lactic acid bacteria in milk industry and their effects on acidification ability of commercial lactic acid starters were studied. Cheese whey samples (33 samples were collected from 17 factories. A total of 16 bacteriophages were isolated (12 specific for Lactococcus lactis, 3 for L. diacetylactis and one capable of lysing both species. The results showed that 10% reduction in acidification tests was not good indication of phage in the sample. The majority of samples showed reduction higher than 10%, although only 65% were phage positive. The isolated phages were quite stable and showed no reduction in infectivity even after 20 daily replications. A pool of bacteriophages was prepared from isolates and inoculated in 12 commercial lactic starters. After 8 hours of incubation, only 2 showed reduced acidification. Bacterial strains isolated from commercial starters were tested regarding the phage resistance. Considerable difference in phage sensitivity was observed among different starters (BD, D, O and L. diacetylactis. Five bacteriophages showed no infectivity on any isolates but one was infective for most of isolates.Para ampliar conhecimentos sobre a incidência de bacteriófagos de bactérias lácticas na indústria de leite do Estado de São Paulo e a sua influência sobre a capacidade acidificante de fermentos lácticos disponíveis em nosso mercado, o presente trabalho foi conduzido com o intuito de esclarecer a real situação dos laticínios no Estado. Foram coletadas 33 amostras de soro de queijo em 17 laticínios. Foram isolados 16 bacteriófagos, 12 específicos para Lactococcus lactis, 3 para L. diacetylactis e um capaz de lisar ambos os microrganismos. Os experimentos mostraram que, uma diminuição de 10% na acidez em presença de soro suspeito, ao contrário do estabelecido na literatura, não reflete a veracidade da presença de bacteriófagos na amostra, uma vez que a maioria apresentou redução acima desse valor embora atividade fágica estivesse presente em apenas 65% das indústrias avaliadas. Utilizando uma mistura de bacteriófagos isolados, procedeu-se testes com 12 fermentos lácticos comerciais, e, em 8 horas, somente 2 tipos mostraram diferença na capacidade de acidificação. Verificou-se também que os fermentos, quando submetidos a repicagem diária, mantiveram os bacteriófagos após 20 subcultivos. A partir dos fermentos comerciais foram obtidas as bactérias componentes, que foram testadas individualmente quanto à resistência aos bacteriófagos, mostrando que o nível de sensibilidade varia consideravelmente entre os diferentes tipos de fermentos (BD, D, O e um de L. diacetylactis. Cinco bacteriófagos isolados não se mostraram infectivos a nenhum dos microrganismos isolados, enquanto 1 deles, mostrou-se infectivo para a quase totalidade dos isolados.

Maria Raquel de Godoy Oriani

2004-08-01

335

Development of an advanced ceramic turbine wheel for an air turbine starter  

Science.gov (United States)

A ceramic turbine wheel has been designed as a retrofit for Waspaloy for a military cartridge mode air turbine starter. This results in reduced cost and weight while increasing resistance to temperature, erosion, and corrosion. Techniques used to perform ceramic turbine three-dimensional fast fracture reliability analysis were verified with spin testing of ceramic test rotors and correlated well with burst speed predictions. Reliability estimates have been made for design and proof conditions, providing guidance for selecting a ceramic supplier and for determining proof test yield. Room temperature whirlpit burst testing is planned to verify the mechanical design and reliability of the wheel.

Poplawsky, Carl J.; Lindberg, Laura; Robb, Scott; Roundy, James

1992-10-01

336

Lactococcus bacteriophages isolated from whey and their effects on commercial lactic starters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Para ampliar conhecimentos sobre a incidência de bacteriófagos de bactérias lácticas na indústria de leite do Estado de São Paulo e a sua influência sobre a capacidade acidificante de fermentos lácticos disponíveis em nosso mercado, o presente trabalho foi conduzido com o intuito de esclarecer a rea [...] l situação dos laticínios no Estado. Foram coletadas 33 amostras de soro de queijo em 17 laticínios. Foram isolados 16 bacteriófagos, 12 específicos para Lactococcus lactis, 3 para L. diacetylactis e um capaz de lisar ambos os microrganismos. Os experimentos mostraram que, uma diminuição de 10% na acidez em presença de soro suspeito, ao contrário do estabelecido na literatura, não reflete a veracidade da presença de bacteriófagos na amostra, uma vez que a maioria apresentou redução acima desse valor embora atividade fágica estivesse presente em apenas 65% das indústrias avaliadas. Utilizando uma mistura de bacteriófagos isolados, procedeu-se testes com 12 fermentos lácticos comerciais, e, em 8 horas, somente 2 tipos mostraram diferença na capacidade de acidificação. Verificou-se também que os fermentos, quando submetidos a repicagem diária, mantiveram os bacteriófagos após 20 subcultivos. A partir dos fermentos comerciais foram obtidas as bactérias componentes, que foram testadas individualmente quanto à resistência aos bacteriófagos, mostrando que o nível de sensibilidade varia consideravelmente entre os diferentes tipos de fermentos (BD, D, O e um de L. diacetylactis). Cinco bacteriófagos isolados não se mostraram infectivos a nenhum dos microrganismos isolados, enquanto 1 deles, mostrou-se infectivo para a quase totalidade dos isolados. Abstract in english The incidence of phages of lactic acid bacteria in milk industry and their effects on acidification ability of commercial lactic acid starters were studied. Cheese whey samples (33 samples) were collected from 17 factories. A total of 16 bacteriophages were isolated (12 specific for Lactococcus lact [...] is, 3 for L. diacetylactis and one capable of lysing both species). The results showed that 10% reduction in acidification tests was not good indication of phage in the sample. The majority of samples showed reduction higher than 10%, although only 65% were phage positive. The isolated phages were quite stable and showed no reduction in infectivity even after 20 daily replications. A pool of bacteriophages was prepared from isolates and inoculated in 12 commercial lactic starters. After 8 hours of incubation, only 2 showed reduced acidification. Bacterial strains isolated from commercial starters were tested regarding the phage resistance. Considerable difference in phage sensitivity was observed among different starters (BD, D, O and L. diacetylactis). Five bacteriophages showed no infectivity on any isolates but one was infective for most of isolates.

Maria Raquel de Godoy, Oriani; Fumio, Yokoya.

2004-08-01

337

Math starters 5- to 10-minute activities aligned with the common core math standards  

CERN Document Server

A revised edition of the bestselling activities guide for math teachers Now updated with new math activities for computers and mobile devices-and now organized by the Common Core State Standards-this book includes more than 650 ready-to-use math starter activities that get kids quickly focused and working as soon as they enter the classroom. Ideally suited for any math curriculum, these high-interest problems spark involvement in the day's lesson, help students build skills, and allow teachers to handle daily management tasks without wasting valuable instructional time. A n

Muschla, Judith A; Muschla, Erin

2013-01-01

338

Two alternative starter modules for the non-ribosomal biosynthesis of specific anabaenopeptin variants in Anabaena (Cyanobacteria).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anabaenopeptins are a diverse family of cyclic hexapeptide protease inhibitors produced by cyanobacteria that contain a conserved ureido bond and D-Lys moiety. Here we demonstrate that anabaenopeptins are assembled on a nonribosomal peptide synthetase enzyme complex encoded by a 32 kb apt gene cluster in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain 90. Surprisingly, the gene cluster encoded two alternative starter modules organized in separate bimodular proteins. The starter modules display high substrate specificity for L-Arg/L-Lys and L-Tyr, respectively, and allow the specific biosynthesis of different anabaenopeptin variants. The two starter modules were found also in other Anabaena strains. However, just a single module was present in the anabaenopeptin gene clusters of Nostoc and Nodularia, respectively. The organization of the apt gene cluster in Anabaena represents an exception to the established colinearity rule of linear non-ribosomal peptide synthetases. PMID:20338518

Rouhiainen, Leo; Jokela, Jouni; Fewer, David P; Urmann, Marina; Sivonen, Kaarina

2010-03-26

339

Use of a Remote Car Starter in Relation to Smog and Climate Change Perceptions: A Population Survey in Québec (Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Remote car starters encourage motorists to warm up their vehicles by idling the motor – thus increasing atmospheric pollutants, including several greenhouse gas (GHG with impacts on public health. This study about climate change (CC adaptation and mitigation actions examined perceptions on air pollution and climate change and individual characteristics associated with the use of a remote car starter. A telephone survey (n = 2,570; response rate: 70% of adults living in Québec (Canada measured the respondents’ beliefs and current behaviours regarding CC. Approximately 32.9% (daily car users and 27.4% (occasional users reported using a remote car starter during winter. The odds of the use of a remote car starter was higher in the less densely populated central (OR: 1.5 and peripheral regions (OR: 2.7 compared to the urban centers (ex. Montreal. The odds was also higher in population with a mother tongue other than English or French (OR: 2.6 and francophones than anglophones (OR: 2.1, women than men (OR: 1.5, daily drivers than occasional ones (OR: 1.2, and respondents who at least sometimes consulted temperature/humidity reports than those who consulted them less often (OR: 1.5. In multivariate analysis, the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, being aware of smog warnings, or the belief in the human contribution to CC did not significantly influence the use of a remote car starter. The use of remote car starters encourages idling which produces increased atmospheric pollution and GHG production and it should be more efficiently and vigorously managed by various activities. A five-minute daily reduction in idling is equivalent to reducing the total car emissions by 1.8%. This would constitute a “no-regrets” approach to CC as it can simultaneously reduce GHG, air pollution and their health impacts.

Belkacem Abdous

2009-02-01

340

Diversity and dynamic of lactic acid bacteria strains during aging of a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to explore diversity and dynamic of indigenous LAB strains associated with a long ripened hard cheese produced from raw milk and undefined natural starter such as PDO Grana Padano cheese. Samples of milk, curd, natural whey culture and cheeses (2nd, 6th, 9th and 13th months of ripening) were collected from 6 cheese factories in northern Italy. DNA was extracted from each sample and from 194 LAB isolates. tRNA(Ala)-23S rDNA-RFLP was applied to identify isolates. Strain diversity was assessed by (GTG)5 rep-PCR and RAPD(P1)-PCR. Finally, culture-independent LH-PCR (V1-V2 16S-rDNA), was considered to explore structure and dynamic of the microbiota. Grana Padano LAB were represented mainly by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus and Pediococcus acidilactici, while the structure and dynamic of microbiota at different localities was specific. The strength of this work is to have focused the study on isolates coming from more than one cheese factories rather than a high number of isolates from one unique production. We provided a valuable insight into inter and intraspecies diversity of typical LAB strains during ripening of traditional PDO Grana Padano, contributing to the understanding of specific microbial ecosystem of this cheese. PMID:24010599

Poga?i?, Tomislav; Mancini, Andrea; Santarelli, Marcela; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Gatti, Monica

2013-12-01

341

Short communication: Effect of inclusion rate of microencapsulated sodium butyrate in starter mixture for dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different inclusion rates of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (M-SB) in the starter mixture (SM) on performance of dairy calves. Forty female Holstein calves with a mean (± SD) age of 12.8 (±1.5) d were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments (10 calves/treatment) and fed SM without (M-SB-0) or with 0.3% (M-SB-0.3), 0.6% (M-SB-0.6), or 0.9% (M-SB-0.9) of M-SB (as fed) during a 49-d period of milk replacer feeding. The milk replacer was fed at 670g/d divided into 2 equal meals. Starter mixture with or without M-SB was offered for ad libitum consumption beginning on the first day of the trial. Body weight of calves was recorded weekly, whereas intakes of milk replacer and SM and fecal fluidity were recorded daily. Intake of SM decreased linearly with increasing M-SB inclusion rate. Average daily gain decreased and body weight gain tended to decrease linearly with increasing amounts of M-SB in SM, but feed efficiency was not affected. Fecal score and number of days with diarrhea increased cubically with increasing M-SB inclusion rate in SM. Under the conditions of the current study, supplementation of SM with M-SB had a negative effect on performance of calves. PMID:25648817

Wanat, P; Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M

2015-04-01

342

Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth, and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favorable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non-assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes), a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2, and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Kluyveromyces lactis, among others), have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future. PMID:22558000

Arroyo-López, Francisco N; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Bautista-Gallego, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino; García-García, Pedro; Querol, Amparo; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio

2012-01-01

343

Potential benefits of the application of yeast starters in table olive processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yeasts play an important role in the food and beverage industry, especially in products such as bread, wine, and beer, among many others. However, their use as a starter in table olive processing has not yet been studied in detail. The candidate yeast strains should be able to dominate fermentation, together with lactic acid bacteria, but should also provide a number of beneficial advantages. Technologically, yeasts should resist low pH and high salt concentrations, produce desirable aromas, improve lactic acid bacteria growth and inhibit spoilage microorganisms. Nowadays, they are being considered as probiotic agents because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show favourable effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve the health of consumers by means of the degradation of non assimilated compounds (such as phytate complexes, a decrease in cholesterol levels, the production of vitamins and antioxidants, the inhibition of pathogens, an adhesion to intestinal cell line Caco-2 and the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually found in table olive processing (Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, Kluyveromyces lactis, among others, have exhibited some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters in this fermented vegetable, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in the near future.

Francisco NoéArroyo López

2012-04-01

344

Effect of the crack-starter weld condition on the nil-ductility transition temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In ASME Code Sec. III, the value of the reference nil-ductility temperature RT sub(EDT) has an important significance to determine the result of the fracture mechanics evaluation. While in the standard both the drop-weight test and Charpy impact test are required to determine the RT sub(NDT), in practice it is normally determined only by the nil-ductility transition temperature (T sub(EDT)) obtained by the drop-weight test. The cases of data scatter in T sub(NDT) were investigated to establish appropriate conditions of crack-starter bead welding. Drop-weight tests were carried out for nuclear vessel steels by changing welding conditions to examine the effects of welding amperage and shapes of welding table on T sub(NDT). The results show that the preparation of crack-starter bead by small welding amperage should not be allowed, because it makes the measured T sub(NDT) non-conservative, and that it is important to use a welding table which increases the cooling rate of specimen. Furthermore, the authors proposed methods for estimating T sub(NDT) of nuclear vessel steels by using Charpy transition temperatures. (author)

345

Fermented mixture of cassava peel and caged layer manure as energy source in broiler starter diet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five parts of sun-dried cassava peel a (fibrous and low protein) by-product of cassava tuber processing industry was ground and mixed thoroughly with one part of ground sun-dried caged layers' manure in a vertical feed mill mixer. Rumen filtrate (100ml) from slaughtered bovine, containing rumen microbes was used to spray and inoculate the mixture of the cassava peel and caged layers' manure in a 50 L black plastic vat. The content of the vat was again thoroughly mixed using plastic scoop and was immediately covered airtight with black polythene sheet to ensure fermentation for a period of 14 d. The fermented cassava peel and caged layers' manure (FCPCLM) was analyzed for proximate composition and amino acids. It contained 8.71% crude protein (CP), 11.58% crude fibre (CF), 73.52% Nitrogen free extract (NFE), 2.75% Ether extract (EE), 3.97% Ash. The analyzed essential amino acids in FCPCLM are Lysine 2.16%, Methionine 0.78%, Valine 3.64%, Histidine 1.64%, Leucine 5.13%, Threonine 2.13%, Phenyalanine 3.17%, Arginine 4.00%, Isoleucine 3.01%. FCPCLM was then mixed with other ingredients in broiler starter diets (control) to replace maize at 25% and 50% while other ingredients in the diet remain constant. The objective is to ascertain the performance, serum indices and cost benefit of FCPCLM to partially replace maize as source of energy, which has become expensive because of recent use as raw material for biofuels and to focus on farm residue resource readily available to arm residue resource readily available to small-scale farmers for sustainability of poultry products without sophistication in technological approach. The control diet had the following ingredients viz; Maize 40%, Wheat offal 19%, Soybean meal 23%, Fish meal 1.20%, Groundnut cake 12%, Bone meal 2%, Oyster shell 2%, Broiler starter Premix 0.25%, Salt 0.25%, Methionine 0.10%, Lysine 0.1% and Feed antibiotic 0.1%. The prediction equation: metabolisable energy (ME) of FCPCLM = 37x%CP + 81.8x%EE + 35.5 x % NFE which is 3157.18 kcal/kg was used to calculate ME. Ninety broiler starter day old chicks of Anark breed, weighing averagely 38.89 g were used in this feeding trial for 28 d. The birds were divided into three groups of three replicates each containing 10 chicks in a completely randomized design experiment. Results showed a significant (P < 0.05) linear increase in the feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. The serum chemistry indices viz; total protein, albumin, globulin and alanine aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.2) and aspartate aminotransaminase (EC 2.6.1.1) all indicated good quality protein that is also confirmed by the essential amino acid content stated above. Some cut parts of the carcass of the starter chicks is presented in. Eviscerated weight, wing, head and other cut-parts (all as percent live weight) significantly increased (P < 0.05) as the replacement of maize by FCPCLM increased in the broiler chicks' diets. The values obtained for birds fed 25% and 50% replacement for maize were better for all the cut-parts than for those fed the control diet. Conclusively, FCPCLM can be used in broiler starter diet at optimum inclusion level of 50%. This becomes useful and relevant as the price of maize the major component as energy source is on the increase due to it use for biofuels which brought a lot of competition on the cereal and environmental management of poultry waste. This study shows that an alternate to maize can be found in FCPCLM. (author)

346

High specification starter diets improve the performance of low birth weight pigs to 10 weeks of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Piglets born with low birth weights (LBiW) are likely to be lighter at weaning. Starter regimes tailored for pigs of average BW therefore may not be optimal for LBiW nursery performance. The objective was to determine if LBiW pigs benefit from a high specification starter regime and the provision of extra feed (additional allowance of last phase diet of the starter regime) in comparison to a standard commercial regime. Additionally, the effect of starter regime on performance of normal birth weight (NBiW) pigs at weaning was determined and compared to that of LBiW pigs. Finally, the cost effectiveness of the treatments was determined. The experiment was therefore an incomplete 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design, as the provision of extra feed was given only to LBiW pigs (n = 6 replicates per treatment; 5 pigs per replicate). Treatments comprised birth weight (LBiW or NBiW), starter regime (high specification [HS] or standard starter [SS]), and extra feed 3 quantity (yes [YF] or no [NF], for LBiW pigs only; feed 3 corresponded to the last phase diet of the starter regime). At weaning (d 28), pigs were randomly assigned within each birth weight category to treatment groups. Nutritional treatments were fed ad libitum on a kilogram/head basis for approximately 3 wk followed by a common weaner diet fed ad libitum until d 70. Starter regime (P = 0.019), feed 3 amount (P = 0.010), and their interaction (P = 0.029) had an effect on ADG of LBiW pigs from d 28 to 49, with pigs on HS followed by YF (HY) performing best. An improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR) was noted between d 28 and 49 for pigs fed the additional feed 3 (P = 0.030); between d 49 and 70, the only residual effect seen was of starter regime (P = 0.017) on ADG. In contrast, there was no significant effect of starter regime from d 28 to 70 on ADG, ADFI, or FCR of NBiW pigs. By d 49 and 70, LBiW pigs on regime HY weighed the same as NBiW pigs (d 70 BW; 30.0 vs. 30.6 kg; P = 0.413), with similar growth rates from d 28 to 70 (0.570 vs. 0.533 kg/d; P = 0.137). Despite highest feed cost for regime HY at US$12.30 per pig, its margin over feed was greatest ($23.40). Conversely, regime SS gave the best margin over feed for NBiW pigs at $22.70 per pig. In conclusion, a postweaning feeding regime formulated for LBiW pigs improved the ADG and FCR to the end of the nursery phase enabling them to achieve the same weight as NBiW. Targeting the provision of the high quality expensive regime only to light pigs will ensure maximum growth and increased profitability. PMID:25184839

Douglas, S L; Wellock, I; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

2014-10-01

347

Starter substrate specificities of wild-type and mutant polyketide synthases from Rutaceae.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chalcone synthases (CHSs) and acridone synthases (ACSs) belong to the superfamily of type III polyketide synthases (PKSs) and condense the starter substrate 4-coumaroyl-CoA or N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA with three malonyl-CoAs to produce flavonoids and acridone alkaloids, respectively. ACSs which have been cloned exclusively from Ruta graveolens share about 75-85% polypeptide sequence homology with CHSs from other plant families, while 90% similarity was observed with CHSs from Rutaceae, i.e., R. graveolens, Citrus sinensis and Dictamnus albus. CHSs cloned from many plants do not accept N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA as a starter substrate, whereas ACSs were shown to possess some side activity with 4-coumaroyl-CoA. The transformation of an ACS to a functional CHS with 10% residual ACS activity was accomplished previously by substitution of three amino acids through the corresponding residues from Ruta-CHS1 (Ser132Thr, Ala133Ser and Val265Phe). Therefore, the reverse triple mutation of Ruta-CHS1 (mutant R2) was generated, which affected only insignificantly the CHS activity and did not confer ACS activity. However, competitive inhibition of CHS activity by N-methylanthraniloyl-CoA was observed for the mutant in contrast to wild-type CHSs. Homology modeling of ACS2 with docking of 1,3-dihydroxy-N-methylacridone suggested that the starter substrates for CHS or ACS reaction are placed in different topographies in the active site pocket. Additional site specific substitutions (Asp205Pro/Thr206Asp/His207Ala or Arg60Thr and Val100Ala/Gly218Ala, respectively) diminished the CHS activity to 75-50% of the wild-type CHS1 without promoting ACS activity. The results suggest that conformational changes in the periphery beyond the active site cavity volumes determine the product formation by ACSs vs. CHSs in R. graveolens. It is likely that ACS has evolved from CHS, but the sole enlargement of the active site pocket as in CHS1 mutant R2 is insufficient to explain this process. PMID:15680984

Lukacin, Richard; Schreiner, Stephan; Silber, Katrin; Matern, Ulrich

2005-02-01

348

Desenvolvimento de bebida láctea sabor morango utilizando diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo obtidos com leite de búfala Development of strawberry-flavored milk drink using different yoghurt levels and whey obtained from buffalo's milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de bebidas lácteas elaboradas com leite de búfala e diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo. Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações à base de leite de búfala, soro de queijo tipo frescal e iogurte. Os tratamentos foram: T1=10% leite, 10% soro e 80% iogurte; T2=10% leite, 20% soro e 70% iogurte; T3=10% leite, 30% soro e 60% iogurte; T4=10% leite, 40% soro e 50% iogurte; e T5=10% leite, 50% soro e 40% iogurte. Para o leite e soro, foram determinadas acidez titulável (°D, densidade a 15°C, gordura, EST e ESD. As bebidas lácteas foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável, gordura, proteína, viscosidade, cor (CIEL*a*b*, teste de aceitação sensorial com escala hedônica de cinco pontos, ordenação da preferência, enumeração de coliformes a 35 e 45°C e contagem de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios. Os resultados obtidos, submetidos ao teste de ANOVA e teste de médias com nível de significância a 5%, revelaram que os níveis de soro influenciaram os valores de pH, acidez, gordura, proteína, viscosidade e L* das bebidas lácteas, enquanto as coordenadas de cromaticidade a* e b* não sofreram influência. As formulações com 10 e 20% de soro foram as mais aceitas no teste de aceitação sensorial, bem como na preferência pelos julgadores.This research was carried out to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of dairy beverages elaborated with buffalo milk and different levels of yoghurt and whey. Five formulations were developed based on buffalo's milk, cheese whey and yogurt. The treatments were: T1=10% milk, 10% whey and 80% yoghurt; T2=10% milk, 20% whey and 70% yoghurt; T3=10% milk, 30% whey and 60% yoghurt; T4=10% milk, 40% whey and 50% yoghurt; T5=10% milk, 50% whey and 40% yoghurt. It was determined the acidity (°D, density at 15°C, fat, total solids (TS and non-fat solids (SNF. The dairy beverage was evaluated on: pH, titratable acidity, percentages of fat and protein, viscosity, color (CIEL*a*b*, sensorial acceptance test with hedonic scale of five points and preference ordination, coliforms enumeration s at 35°C and 45°C, count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. The obtained results, submitted to ANOVA and Tukey Test with significance level of 5% revealed that the whey rates of the dairy beverage influenced pH, acidity, fat, protein, viscosity, L*, and water activity, while the chromaticity coordinates a* and b* did not suffer influence. The formularizations with 10% and 20% whey were the most accepted in the sensorial acceptance test, as well as in the preference of the judges.

Luciana Albuquerque Caldeira

2010-10-01

349

Desenvolvimento de bebida láctea sabor morango utilizando diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo obtidos com leite de búfala / Development of strawberry-flavored milk drink using different yoghurt levels and whey obtained from buffalo's milk  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar as características físico-químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas de bebidas lácteas elaboradas com leite de búfala e diferentes níveis de iogurte e soro lácteo. Foram desenvolvidas cinco formulações à base de leite de búfala, soro de queijo tipo [...] frescal e iogurte. Os tratamentos foram: T1=10% leite, 10% soro e 80% iogurte; T2=10% leite, 20% soro e 70% iogurte; T3=10% leite, 30% soro e 60% iogurte; T4=10% leite, 40% soro e 50% iogurte; e T5=10% leite, 50% soro e 40% iogurte. Para o leite e soro, foram determinadas acidez titulável (°D), densidade a 15°C, gordura, EST e ESD. As bebidas lácteas foram avaliadas quanto aos parâmetros: pH, acidez titulável, gordura, proteína, viscosidade, cor (CIEL*a*b*), teste de aceitação sensorial com escala hedônica de cinco pontos, ordenação da preferência, enumeração de coliformes a 35 e 45°C e contagem de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios. Os resultados obtidos, submetidos ao teste de ANOVA e teste de médias com nível de significância a 5%, revelaram que os níveis de soro influenciaram os valores de pH, acidez, gordura, proteína, viscosidade e L* das bebidas lácteas, enquanto as coordenadas de cromaticidade a* e b* não sofreram influência. As formulações com 10 e 20% de soro foram as mais aceitas no teste de aceitação sensorial, bem como na preferência pelos julgadores. Abstract in english This research was carried out to evaluate the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial characteristics of dairy beverages elaborated with buffalo milk and different levels of yoghurt and whey. Five formulations were developed based on buffalo's milk, cheese whey and yogurt. The treatments we [...] re: T1=10% milk, 10% whey and 80% yoghurt; T2=10% milk, 20% whey and 70% yoghurt; T3=10% milk, 30% whey and 60% yoghurt; T4=10% milk, 40% whey and 50% yoghurt; T5=10% milk, 50% whey and 40% yoghurt. It was determined the acidity (°D), density at 15°C, fat, total solids (TS) and non-fat solids (SNF). The dairy beverage was evaluated on: pH, titratable acidity, percentages of fat and protein, viscosity, color (CIEL*a*b*), sensorial acceptance test with hedonic scale of five points and preference ordination, coliforms enumeration s at 35°C and 45°C, count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. The obtained results, submitted to ANOVA and Tukey Test with significance level of 5% revealed that the whey rates of the dairy beverage influenced pH, acidity, fat, protein, viscosity, L*, and water activity, while the chromaticity coordinates a* and b* did not suffer influence. The formularizations with 10% and 20% whey were the most accepted in the sensorial acceptance test, as well as in the preference of the judges.

Luciana Albuquerque, Caldeira; Sibelli Passini Barbosa, Ferrão; Sérgio Augusto De Albuquerque, Fernandes; Ana Prudência Assis, Magnavita; Tayse Dantas Rebouças, Santos.

2193-21-01

350

Effects of high non-phytate phosphorus starter diet on subsequent growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

The trial was performed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) in the starter and grower (with phytase inclusion) periods on carcass characteristics, organ weight and weekly variations of growth performance in the grower period. Seven hundred and twenty-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 12 treatments in a completely randomized design. Chickens received two dietary treatments (4.5 g/kg and 6 g/kg nPP) in the starter (0-21 days) and six experimental diets (4 g/kg, 3.1 g/kg, 2.3 g/kg and 2.3 g/kg + 1000 FTU/Kg of feed phytase, 1.5 g/kg, 1.5 g/kg nPP + 1000 FTU/Kg of feed phytase) in the grower period (22-42 days). Results showed that phytase inclusion in the second and third weeks of grower period could increase feed intake significantly. Also, decrease in the concentrations of nPP to 1.5 g/kg caused to decline body weight gain markedly. Moreover, there is a significant difference between 4.5 g/kg and 6 + 4 g/kg nPP (starter+grower) and 1.5 g/kg nPP. Phytase inclusion increased carcass yield and declined liver weight significantly. Dietary treatment of 4.5 + 1.5 g/kg nPP enhanced heart and liver weight markedly. It is concluded that starter diets with increased concentration of nPP (6 g/kg nPP) had no beneficial effects on growth performance in the starter and grower period in the total (0-42 days). Also, it is possible to decrease nPP concentration of grower diets to 1.5 and 2.3 g/kg with and without phytase inclusion respectively. PMID:23957471

Baradaran, N; Shahir, M H; Asadi Kermani, Z; Waldroup, P W; Sirjani, M A

2014-08-01

351

Efecto del Salvado de Trigo en las Propiedades Fisicoquímicas y Sensoriales del Yogurt de Leche de Búfala / Effect of Bran Wheat on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Buffalo Milk Yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de la adición de salvado de trigo (en concentraciones 0, 1, 3 y 5% p/v) y el tiempo de almacenamiento en las propiedades fisicoquímicas y sensoriales del yogurt de leche de búfala. Al producto obtenido se le realizaron pruebas fisicoquímicas (acidez, pH, materia grasa, sólidos to [...] tales, sinéresis y densidad) y análisis de aceptación sensorial utilizando una escala hedónica de 9 puntos con 50 catadores. La adición de salvado de trigo influyó de manera directamente proporcional sobre la acidez, sinéresis, sólidos totales y densidad, e inversamente sobre el pH y la aceptación sensorial del producto. Durante el tiempo de almacenamiento se observó un aumento de la acidez y sinéresis, lo cual evidenció pérdida de calidad del producto. El análisis sensorial mostró que el yogurt de leche de búfala con 1% de adición de salvado de trigo presenta características organolépticas similares al yogurt con leche de búfala sin adición de fibra. Abstract in english The effect of adding wheat bran (at concentrations of 0, 1, 3 and 5% w/v) and of the storage time on physicochemical and sensory properties of buffalo milk yoghurt were evaluated. Physicochemical tests, such as acidity, pH, fat, total solids, syneresis and density were done and sensory acceptance an [...] alysis using the 9-point hedonic scale with 50 tasters were performed. The addition of wheat bran directly influenced acidity, syneresis, total solids and density, and inversely influenced pH and sensory acceptance of the product. During the storage period there was an increase in acidity and syneresis, which showed loss of product quality. Sensory analyses showed that buffalo milk yoghurt with 1% of wheat bran presented organoleptic characteristics similar to that of yoghurt without bran addition.

Mónica M, Simanca; Ricardo D, Andrade; Margarita R, Arteaga.

352

Final report for the 1996 Engineer Starters Program (Pre-Freshmen Enrichment Program)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report has been developed for the North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University College of Engineering, Department of Energy and other foundations/corporations sponsoring the 1996 Engineer Starters Program and for general information. The College of Engineering conducted its Annual outreach program for Middle and High School students from July 8 to August 2, 1996. The continuing primary goal of this program is to expose youth to the various challenging opportunities in the Mathematics and Science based careers, Engineering and Technology. The curriculum for the summer of 1996 included: Mathematics; Science; Computers; Graphics; Problem Solving; Career Explorations; Communications; Field Trips to Manufacturing Plants/Industries; and Engineering Projects/Designs. The 1996 program included rising seventh through tenth graders. Parental involvement was instituted as a vital component of the summer experiences. The primary objective is to increase the number of minorities entering engineering and science professions.

Sharpe, L. Jr.

1996-08-15

353

Side-band injection of acidified cattle slurry as starter P-fertilization for maize seedlings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Accumulation of phosphorus (P) in agricultural soils has caused increasing environmental concerns. Maize cropped for fodder implies return of animal manures rich in nutrients. In addition, starter fertilization with mineral P is used in cold conditions for maize cropping. It was hypothesized that the use of the additional mineral P could be excluded by increased availability of the P applied by animal manures. In a growth chamber experiment we investigated the effect of acidified slurry on the growth and nutrient uptake in maize seedlings. In special designed pot the slurries and mineral reference treatments were banded next to the seed row. Plants were harvested on nine dates with 4-6 days interval and an exponential growth function was fitted to the recordings. The P-uptake from acidified cattle slurry was clearly increased compared to raw slurry, and comparable to the mineral P-reference treatment. The effect of untreated raw slurry was similar to the mineral reference without P.

Petersen, Jens; Lemming, Camilla

354

Níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível em rações com fitase para frangos de corte nas fases pré-inicial e inicial / Calcium and available phosphorus levels in diets with phytase for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Dois experimentos independentes, um na fase pré-inicial (1 a 7 dias) e outro na fase inicial (8 a 21 dias de idade), foram realizados com frangos de corte para avaliar níveis de cálcio e fósforo disponível (Pdisp) em rações suplementadas com 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração. Cada expe [...] rimento constou de um ensaio de desempenho e outro de metabolismo e foi conduzido em esquema fatorial (3 × 4) + 1, sendo três níveis de Pdisp (0,42; 0,37; 0,32% na fase pré-inicial e 0,39; 0,34; 0,29% na fase inicial), quatro níveis de cálcio (0,94; 0,84; 0,74; 0,64% na fase pré-inicial e 0,88; 0,78; 0,68; 0,58% na fase inicial) mais uma ração controle. O controle correspondeu à única ração sem fitase e continha 0,47% de Pdisp e 0,94% de cálcio (fase pré-inicial) ou 0,44% de Pdisp e 0,88% de cálcio (fase inicial). Nos ensaios de desempenho, aos 7 e aos 21 dias de idade, foram avaliados o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o teor de cinzas na tíbia. Nos ensaios de metabolismo, determinaram-se a energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn) das rações e os coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca (CMMS). Na fase pré-inicial, os níveis de cálcio influenciaram o consumo de ração, a EMAn e o CMMS e, na fase inicial, afetaram o conteúdo de cinzas ósseas, a EMAn e o CMMS. Os níveis de Pdisp influenciaram o teor de cinzas na tíbia, a EMAn e o CMMS na fase pré-inicial e as cinzas ósseas e o CMMS na fase inicial. Adicionando 500 unidades de atividade de fitase/kg de ração, é possível reduzir, respectivamente, os níveis de cálcio e Pdisp para 0,64% e 0,37% na fase pré-inicial e 0,58% e 0,29% na fase inicial, pois essa redução não tem efeito negativo sobre o desempenho e a mineralização óssea dos frangos de corte nessas fases. Abstract in english Two independent experiments, one in pre-starter phase (1 to 7 days) and the other in the starter phase (8 to 21 days of age), were carried out with broilers to evaluate levels of calcium and available phosphorus (aP) in diets supplemented with 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet. Each experimen [...] t consisted of a performance and a metabolic assay, and was conducted in a factorial schedule (3 × 4) + 1, with three aP levels (0.42, 0.37, 0.32% in the pre-starter phase and 0.39, 0.34, 0.29% in the starter phase), four calcium levels (0.94, 0.84, 0.74, 0.64% in the pre-starter phase and 0.88; 0.78, 0.68, 0.58% in the starter phase) plus a control diet. The control corresponded to the only diet without phytase and contained 0.47% of aP and 0.94% of calcium (pre-starter phase) or 0.44% of aP and 0.88% of calcium (starter phase). In the performance assays, at 7 and 21 days of age the feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion and the ash content in the tibia were evaluated. In the metabolic assays the apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) of the feed, and dry matter digestibility coefficients (DMDC) were determined. Calcium levels influenced the feed intake, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and in the starter phase they influenced bone ash, AMEn and DMDC. The aP levels influenced the content of tibia ash, AMEn and DMDC in the pre-starter phase, and bone ash and DMDC in the starter phase. By adding 500 units of phytase activity/kg of diet, it is possible to reduce, respectively, the calcium and aP levels to 0.64% and 0.37% in the pre-starter phase, and to 0.58% and 0.29% in the starter phase, since this reduction does not cause a negative effect on performance or bone mineralization of broilers in the evaluated periods.

Luziane Moreira dos, Santos; Paulo Borges, Rodrigues; Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de, Freitas; Antônio Gilberto, Bertechini; Elias Tadeu, Fialho; Elisangela Minati, Gomide; Luciana de Paula, Naves.

2476-24-01

355

Impact of curd milling on the chemical, functional, and rheological properties of starter-free Queso Fresco.  

Science.gov (United States)

The manufacture of Queso Fresco (QF), a high-moisture fresh Mexican cheese that is popular in the Americas, varies from country to country, with many manufacturers milling the curd before forming the cheese block to disrupt the protein matrix and ensure the crumbly nature of the QF. Because this traditional milling step does take time and may be an unnecessary point of microbial contamination, this study was undertaken to determine whether the curd-milling step could be omitted without altering the chemical, functional, and textural properties of the QF. Starter culture-free, rennet-set QF was prepared from pasteurized, homogenized milk. Curds were cooked at 39°C for 30 min, wet salted at 1.45 g of NaCl/100 g of milk, chilled, and divided into 4 portions. Curds were not milled or were subjected to coarse, medium, or fine milling and hand-packed into molds. After 12h at 4°C, the cheese was divided, vacuum packaged, and stored at 4°C for up to 8 wk. Fresh QF contained 57.3 ± 1.2% moisture, 20.9±0.8% fat, 16.0 ± 1.3% protein, 2.61 ± 0.15% lactose, and 2.25 ± 0.22% salt and had a pH of 6.36 ± 0.03%. Moisture decreased over the 8 wk of storage, whereas the fat level tended to increase. All cheeses lost 1.3 to 1.7% of their weight in whey during the first week after manufacture, and the weight gradually increased to 2.1% (nonmilled) to 3.2% (milled) by wk 8. Milling did result in QF that were softer, less chewy, and less rigid and with lower viscoelastic properties than nonmilled cheeses. Sensory panelists differentiate the finely milled QF from the other treatments, but they detected no significant differences among the nonmilled, coarsely milled, and medium-milled QF. Milling of the curd did not affect the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to grow on the cheese surface. Results from this study indicate that the milling step, which lengthens the manufacturing time, does increase wheying off during storage and results in a more fragile protein matrix. Cheese manufacturers can use this information to produce a QF that meets the demands of their customers. PMID:22884346

Van Hekken, D L; Tunick, M H; Leggett, L N; Tomasula, P M

2012-10-01

356

Motivation for choice and healthiness perception of calorie-reduced dairy products. a cross-cultural study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding consumers' motives for selecting calorie-reduced dairy products are important to provide targeted communication to different consumer segments. The aim of this study was to identify motives for consumption of calorie-reduced dairy products among young consumers, and to identify how these consumers perceive the healthiness of such products compared to other food products. Consumers, aged 18-30 years, from Norway (n=118), Denmark (n=125), and California (n=127) participated in this cross-cultural study. The respondents sorted 24 statements referring to motives for choosing calorie-reduced yoghurt and cheese. The study also assessed the aspect of perceived healthiness of these products in comparison with a selection of other food products using a two-step ranking procedure. The data were analysed using chi-square analysis, Friedman's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results show that fat content, healthiness and taste were the most important motivators for choice of the calorie-reduced dairy products. In all three countries salmon was perceived as the healthiest among the products presented. The calorie-reduced dairy products were ranked as relatively healthy, with yoghurt ranked as healthier than cheese. Although cross-cultural differences existed in motives for choice and perceived healthiness of the products, the similarities between the countries were evident in this study. PMID:21093506

Johansen, Susanne Bølling; Næs, Tormod; Hersleth, Margrethe

2011-02-01

357

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconu [...] t fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and dry matter (DMM), crude protein (CPM), and crude fat (CFM) metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS), acid soybean oil (ASO), or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO). Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

AM, Kessler; DS, Lubisco; MM, Vieira; AML, Ribeiro; AM, Penz Jr.

2009-03-01

358

TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

A FASUYI

2008-07-01

359

EFFECT OF DIET DILUTION IN THE STARTER PERIOD ON PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF BROILER CHICKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of energy and protein dilution in the starter period (8 to 14 days of age, on performance and carcass characteristics of 360 Arian male chicks was studied in a completely randomised design. This experiment consisted of 6 treatments, 4 replicates, with 15 chicks per replicate. In order to dilute the diets six levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 percent of ground wood charcoal was used. Chicks were fed with starter and grower diet from 15 to 21 and 22 to 42 days of age respectively. During the experiment feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio were measured weekly. Mortality was measured throughout the experiment. At 43 day of age 4 chicks each treatment was selected and carcass characteristics were measured. The results indicated that dilution of diet from 8 to 14 days of age increased feed intake in this period but the differences were not signifi cant. With increasing dilution rate body weight gain of chicks signifi cantly decreased in comparison to control group (P< 0.05. Due to compensatory growth after restricted period, there was not signifi cant difference in body weight among restricted and control groups at 42 days of age. There was not signifi cant difference among the treatments for feed conversion ratio in whole period of the experiment (8 to 42 day. Similarly, there was not signifi cant difference among the treatments for caloric conversion ratio in whole period of the experiment (8 to 42 day. Mortality rate in restricted groups was signifi cantly lower than control group (P<0.05. Diet dilution hadn’t signifi cant effect on carcass, breast meat, drumsticks, thighs, liver, intestine, abdominal fat percentages. The results of the present study indicated that broiler chicks could withstand a 7-day period (from 8 to 14 days feed restriction with ground wood charcoal in early age without loss in performance.

M REZAEI

2006-10-01

360

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2 no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL, umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP, aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7esporos mL-1 mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05 ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo.

CASTRO Luís César

2000-01-01

361

Antibiotic resistances of starter and probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antibiotic resistances of 45 lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Leuconostoc were investigated. The objective was to determine antibiotic resistances and to verify these at the genetic level, as is currently suggested by the European "qualified presumption of safety" safety evaluation system for industrial starter strains. In addition, we sought to pinpoint possible problems in resistance determinations. Primers were used to PCR amplify genes involved in beta-lactam antibiotic, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin resistance. The presence of ribosomal protection protein genes and the ermB gene was also determined by using a gene probe. Generally, the incidences of erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, or beta-lactam resistances in this study were low (resistances were higher than 70%, indicating that these may constitute intrinsic resistances. The genetic basis for ciprofloxacin resistance could not be verified, since no mutations typical of quinolone resistances were detected in the quinolone determining regions of the parC and gyrA genes. Some starter strains showed low-level ampicillin, penicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline resistances, but no known resistance genes could be detected. Although some strains possessed the cat gene, none of these were phenotypically resistant to chloramphenicol. Using reverse transcription-PCR, these cat genes were shown to be silent under both inducing and noninducing conditions. Only Lactobacillus salivarius BFE 7441 possessed an ermB gene, which was encoded on the chromosome and which could not be transferred in filter-mating experiments. This study clearly demonstrates problems encountered with resistance testing, in that the breakpoint values are often inadequately identified, resistance genes may be present but silent, and the genetic basis and associated resistance mechanisms toward some antibiotics are still unknown. PMID:17122388

Hummel, Anja S; Hertel, Christian; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H; Franz, Charles M A P

2007-02-01

362

Fatty-Acid composition of free-choice starter broiler diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO, acid corn oil (ACO, linseed oil (LO or coconut fat (CoF. Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA x (2 n6:n3 ratios x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC. Performance responses and dry matter (DMM, crude protein (CPM, and crude fat (CFM metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS, acid soybean oil (ASO, or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO. Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.

AM Kessler

2009-03-01

363

Inhibitory activity of Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 against Listeria innocua when used as an adjunct starter in the manufacture of cheese  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Abstract Lactobacillus plantarum LMG P-26358 isolated from a soft French artisanal cheese produces a potent class IIa bacteriocin with 100% homology to plantaricin 423 and bacteriocidal activity against Listeria innocua and Listeria monocytogenes. The bacteriocin was found to be highly stable at temperatures as high as 100°C and pH ranges from 1-10. While this relatively narrow spectrum bacteriocin also exhibited antimicrobial activity against species of enterococci, it did not inhibit dairy starters including lactococci and lactobacilli when tested by well diffusion assay (WDA). In order to test the suitability of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 as an anti-listerial adjunct with nisin-producing lactococci, laboratory-scale cheeses were manufactured. Results indicated that combining Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 (at 108 colony forming units (cfu)\\/ml) with a nisin producer is an effective strategy to eliminate the biological indicator strain, L. innocua. Moreover, industrial-scale cheeses also demonstrated that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 was much more effective than the nisin producer alone for protection against the indicator. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry confirmed the presence of plantaricin 423 and nisin in the appropriate cheeses over an 18 week ripening period. A spray-dried fermentate of Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 also demonstrated potent anti-listerial activity in vitro using L. innocua. Overall, the results suggest that Lb. plantarum LMG P-26358 is a suitable adjunct for use with nisin-producing cultures to improve the safety and quality of dairy products.

2011-08-30

364

A mixed culture of Propionibacterium jensenii and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei inhibits food spoilage yeasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Screening for antimicrobial features of 197 propionibacteria and tests with several antifungal lactobacilli led to the development of three protective cultures containing Propionibacterium jensenii SM11 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei strain SM20, SM29 or SM63. These cultures showed inhibitory activities (up to 5 orders of magnitude) against yeasts in dairy products such as yoghurt or cheese surface at refrigerator temperatures (6 degrees C) without an influence on the quality properties of the food. Initial cell numbers of 5 x 10(7) cells/g of propionibacteria and 1 x 10(8) cells/g of lactobacilli were the optimal concentrations to yield a total inhibition of the spoilage yeasts (Candida pulcherrima, Candida magnoliae, Candida parapsilosis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii). PMID:15046312

Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher; Meile, Leo

2004-03-01

365

Optimization of an effective growth medium for culturing probiotic bacteria for applications in strict vegetarian food products  

OpenAIRE

Background: This study aimed to modify de Man Rogosa Sharpe culture medium (termed MRS) for selective cultivation of probiotics strain for the consumption by the strictly vegetarian human population. Vegetarian probiotic foods by definition must be free from all animal-derived ingredients. This not only includes the product ingredients but the probiotic inoculum as well. Probiotic starter cultures are traditionally grown and stored in media containing milk or meatderived ingredients. The pre...

Manju Pathak; Danik Martirosyan

2012-01-01

366

Effect of hydrocolloid type on physiochemical properties of nonfat drinkable yogurt fermented with ropy and non-ropy yogurt cultures  

OpenAIRE

Drinkable yogurt is defined as a dairy-based yogurt that is drinkable in a liquid form and may or may not include fruit or fruit flavoring. Mouthfeel defects may be affected by processing conditions, starter cultures and stabilizer selection. This research was investigated the effect of hydrocolloid type (gelatin, carboxymethylcellulose or high methoxy pectin) on the sensory characteristics and rheological properties of drinkable yogurts fermented with nonropy and ropy yogurt cultures. The re...

Ahmed Saad Gad; Sahar Hassan Salah Mohamad

2014-01-01

368

The Effect of Increased Protein Intake During the Starter and Prebreeder Periods on Reproductive Performance of Ultra High Yield Broiler Breeder Hens  

OpenAIRE

This study evaluated the provision of additional protein to broiler breeder pullets during the starter and prebreeder phases and its effect on production. The effect of lower body weight during rearing was also evaluated. Pullets were fed to reach breeder recommended target weights (H) or to be approximately 90 g smaller (L) than targets. Groups of H pullets were fed starter rations (19% CP) for one (H5) or two (H6) extra weeks and then according to breeder guidelines. Separate groups ...

Marc de Beer; Coon, Craig N.

2006-01-01

369

Effects of different physical forms of wheat grain in corn-based starter on performance of young Holstein dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of partially replacing corn with 2 forms of wheat grain on daily intake of starter feed, average daily gain, feed efficiency, rumen pH, fecal score, weaning weight, skeletal growth, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Thirty-two male and female Holstein dairy calves (n=8 calves per treatment) were used in a completely randomized block design. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly allocated to different treatments consisting of a starter diet with 60% ground corn (control), a starter diet with 60% whole corn, a starter diet with 30% ground corn plus 30% ground wheat (GCGW), and a starter with 30% ground corn plus 30% whole wheat (GCWW), with all other components in a meal form. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk replacer/d from d 3 to 50 and 2 L/d from d 50 to 52; weaning occurred at the end of d 52. Feed intake was recorded daily and body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 10 and every 10 d thereafter. Rumen pH was measured on d 30, 45, and 60. Blood sample were collected on d 30 and every 10 d thereafter through d 70. Data were analyzed using MIXED procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Over the experimental period (d 1-70), the starter intake for the GCWW group was significantly different from the control group, but not different from the other groups. Calves fed whole wheat had a significantly greater average daily gain compared with other groups over the experimental period (d 1-70). Feed efficiency was only better in calves fed the GCWW diet than the GCGW group for postweaning and overall periods. No differences were observed for preweaning in body length, hip height, or withers height among the treatments; however, differences were significant in heart girth and body barrel. Postweaning, some of the body measurements were greater in calves fed the GCWW and GCGW starter diets. Blood glucose concentration reduced with age; however, blood urea nitrogen, ?-hydroxybutyrate, albumin, and total protein increased with age. Treatment × time effects on blood urea nitrogen and total protein concentrations were detected. Blood urea nitrogen concentration (mg/dL) was affected by dietary treatments on d 30, 40, and 70, but no significant difference was detected on d 50 and 60. Serum total protein concentration (g/dL) was also affected by dietary treatments on d 40 and 70, but no significant difference was detected on d 40, 50, and 60. Whereas rumen pH was significantly reduced for the control compared with the GCWW treatment on d 45, comparison of the fecal scores showed no detectable differences among the treatments. Overall, the results of the current study indicate that starter diets containing whole wheat and ground corn can improve performance in young dairy calves compared with diets containing ground corn/ground wheat, whole corn, or ground corn, under our experimental conditions. PMID:25064647

Pezhveh, N; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

2014-10-01

370

Utilization of Duckweed (Lemna paucicostata in Least-cost Feed Formulation for Broiler Starter: A Linear Programming Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was on the economic use of locally available and non-conventional feedstuff - Duckweed (Lemna paucicostata as dietary component of feed for broilers aged between 0 and 5 weeks old using Linear Programming (LP technique to investigate, analyse and determine the most efficient way of compounding the least-cost ration. Mathematical models were constructed, taking into consideration nutrient composition of each of the available ingredient, raw material specifications, costs and nutrient requirements of the broiler starter`s mash. Simplex algorithm was used in solving the resulting linear programming models. The LP model gave least cost feed formulation containing duckweed as optimum at iteration 26. The result shows that utilization of diet containing 26.09% of duckweed is cost-effective by reducing the cost of the feed by 10.64% and this will invariably improve profitability in broiler production.

T.O.S. Olorunfemi

2006-01-01

371

Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160?mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80?mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

P N, Onu

2012-01-01

372

System-level Modeling and Simulation of a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor for an Integrated Starter Alternator  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper first presents an overview of various hybrid electric vehicle architectures with an emphasis on the Integrated Starter Alternator (ISA hybrid architecture. The operation modes of an ISAsystem and the constraints for an electric machine acting as an ISA are detailed. Finally a model for a ISA hybrid vehicle, developed in AMESim is presented and the results of a simulated drive cycle are assessed.

HANGIU Radu-Petru

2012-10-01

373

Growth Indices and Economy of Feed Intake of Broiler Chickens Fed Changing Commercial Feed Brands at Starter and Finisher Phases  

OpenAIRE

Growth and feed intake data obtained from broiler chickens were analyzed to determine the effect of changing commercial feed brands on broiler performance. Mean total weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and growth efficiency (GE) were influenced by treatment at both starter and finisher phases with birds receiving changing feed brands having higher values. Economics of feed intake showed that feed cost/kg, feed cost/bird and feed cost/kg gain were higher for birds fed changing comm...

Orheruata, A. M.; Nwokoro, S. O.; Alufohai, G. O.; Omagbon, B. I.

2006-01-01

374

BEGA Starter/Alternator - Vector Control Implementation and Performance for Wide Speed Range at Unity Power Factor Operation  

OpenAIRE

Biaxial Excitation Generator for Automobile (BEGA) is proposed as a solution for integrated starter/alternator systems used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This paper demonstrates through experiments and simulations that BEGA has a very large constant power speed range (CPSR), theoretically to infinite. A vector control structure is proposed for BEGA operation during motoring and generating, at unity power factor with zero d-axis current (id) and zero q-axis flux (?q) control. In such co...

Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion; Coroban-schramel, Vasile; Andreescu, Gheorge-daniel; Scridon, Sever

2009-01-01

375

Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. PMID:23796063

Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

2014-06-01

376

Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry for the study of the production of volatile compounds by bakery yeast starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aromatic impact of bakery yeast starters is currently receiving considerable attention. The flavor characteristics of the dough and the finished products are usually evaluated by gas chromatography and sensory analysis. The limit of both techniques resides in their low-throughput character. In the present work, proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled to a time-of-flight mass analyzer, was employed, for the first time, to measure the volatile fractions of dough and bread, and to monitor Saccharomyces cerevisiae volatile production in a fermented food matrix. Leavening was performed on small-scale (1?g) dough samples inoculated with different commercial yeast strains. The leavened doughs were then baked, and volatile profiles were determined during leavening and after baking. The experimental setup included a multifunctional autosampler, which permitted the follow-up of the leavening process on a small scale with a typical throughput of 500 distinct data points in 16?h. The system allowed to pinpoint differences between starter yeast strains in terms of volatile emission kinetics, with repercussions on the final product (i.e. the corresponding micro-loaves). This work demonstrates the applicability of PTR-MS for the study of volatile organic compound production during bread-making, for the automated and online real-time monitoring of the leavening process, and for the characterization and selection of bakery yeast starters in view of their production of volatile compounds. PMID:25230182

Makhoul, Salim; Romano, Andrea; Cappellin, Luca; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Benozzi, Elisabetta; Märk, Tilmann D; Aprea, Eugenio; Gasperi, Flavia; El-Nakat, Hanna; Guzzo, Jean; Biasioli, Franco

2014-09-01

377

Digestible Lysine and Sulfur Amino Acid Requirements of Young Male Broilers in the Starter Period  

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Full Text Available Digestible lysine and sulfur amino acid (SAA requirements of Ross male broilers were determined during the starter period in two experiments. Broilers were fed a control corn-soy diet (3200 kcal MEn/kg and 23% CP for 6 days and then randomly assigned to dietary treatments until 16 days of age. The basal diet containing 19% CP was prepared in order to be deficient in lysine for experiment 1 and SAA for experiment 2. Seven graded increment levels of L-lysine HCl or Dl-methionine were added in absences of starch in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. All diets contained 3200 kcal MEn/kg and all essential amino acids, except for the test amino acid, were 10% higher than the NRC (1991 recommendations. The digestible lysine requirements of broilers based on broken-line and exponential models were 1.04 and 1.01%, respectively. The digestible SAA requirements for the mentioned models were 0.846 and 0.841%, respectively.

H. Kermanshahi

2005-01-01

378

Determination of optimal regimes in obtaining kilka protein hydrolysates for sturgeon starter diets  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the optimal regimes of obtaining hydrolysates of minced fish (Clupeonella sp., kilka with a predictable output of water-soluble protein and non-protein nitrogen compounds in them. The technological process has been studied by two types of raw material: whole fish and fish without head and entrails. Studying the process of obtaining kilka hydrolysates for sturgeon starter diets showed that the most rational way of hydrolysis in this case is enzymatic-acid method by pre-grinding of raw materials in meat-mincer with a die diameter 4.5 mm. The following optimal process parameters have been identified: temperature – 55 °C, the duration of hydrolysis – 3 days at duty of water – 1 : 3; a dose of formic acid – 3 % and a dose of sodium chloride – 0.25 %. Comparison of the experimental results showed that hydrolysates reception from intact kilka is much more efficient than that of gutted kilka. Optimal regimes, both in the first and in the second case, practically do not differ.

Alamdari Hojatollah

2013-04-01

379

Selection of yeasts with multifunctional features for application as starters in natural black table olive processing.  

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Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms with a great importance in the elaboration on many foods and beverages. In the last years, researches have focused their attention to determine the favourable effects that these microorganisms could provide to table olive processing. In this context, the present study assesses, at laboratory scale, the potential technological (resistance to salt, lipase, esterase and ?-glucosidase activities) and probiotic (phytase activity, survival to gastric and pancreatic digestions) features of 12 yeast strains originally isolated from Greek natural black table olive fermentations. The multivariate classification analysis carried out with all information obtained (a total of 336 quantitative input data), revealed that the most promising strains (clearly discriminated from the rest of isolates) were Pichia guilliermondii Y16 (which showed overall the highest resistance to salt and simulated digestions) and Wickerhamomyces anomalus Y18 (with the overall highest technological enzymatic activities), while the rest of strains were grouped together in two clearly differentiated clusters. Thus, this work opens the possibility for the evaluation of these two selected yeasts as multifunctional starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, in real table olive fermentations. PMID:25475268

Bonatsou, S; Benítez, A; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Panagou, E Z; Arroyo-López, F N

2015-04-01

380

Application of the Chinese steamed bun starter dough (CSB-SD) in breadmaking.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of Chinese steamed bun starter dough (CSB-SD) in breadmaking was investigated. The activation of CSB-SD to activate the growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to increase the number of yeast, prior to making bread, was conducted by mixing CSB-SD with wheat flour and water and then incubating for 24 h. Wheat flour was then substituted by this activated CSB-SD (aCSB-SD) at 10%, 30%, and 50% (w/w) to make bread. Dough and bread properties were studied comparing to the control (without aCSB-SD). From the farinograph results, a high aCSB-SD substitution level resulted in a less stability in dough with a higher degree of softening. Extensigraph results suggested that after aging, all the substituted dough yielded a greater resistance to extension with lower extensibility values than the control. Substitutions with 30% and 50% (w/w) aCSB-SD significantly increased the total CO(2) gas generation. Scanning electron microscopy SEM images of the 30% and 50% (w/w) substituted dough showed a well-developed gluten matrix. The 50% (w/w) substituted breads obtained a greater risen volume, finer crumb grain, and retained more softness after 5-d storage than the control. In addition, both the 30% and 50% (w/w) substituted breads showed a slightly increased mold stability, as compared to the 0% and 10% (w/w) substituted breads. PMID:21535594

Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Luangsakul, Naphatrapi; Otsuka, Shinya; Sakai, Shigeru; Hatano, Yasushi; Tanasupawat, Somboon

2010-01-01