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CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES  

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Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

Ma?gorzata Ziarno

2007-03-01

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STUDY OF THE COMBINED EFFECTS OF ARABINOGALACTAN AND LACTULOSE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STARTER CULTURES FOR YOGHURT ???????????? ??????????? ??????? ???????????????? ? ????????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ???????  

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In this article, we present the results of the research of influence of polysaccharides and prebiotics on physical, chemical, rheological, microbiological and organoleptic indicators of a sour-milk product on the basis of ferment starting cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The optimum dose of polysaccharides and prebiotics adding into a sour-milk product is proved

Zavezenova I. V.; Ryabtseva S. A.; Abakumova E. A.

2013-01-01

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PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics  

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Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of rando...

Elok Zubaedah1); Joni Kusnadi; Ima Andriastuti2)

2003-01-01

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Yoghurt Production Using Soyamilk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soyamilk was extracted from soaked dehulled crushed soyabeans by mixing with water and then filtering using a muslim cloth to separate the milk from residue. The filtered soyamilk was then pasteurised to inactivate anti-nutritional factors and undesirable enzymes. The extracted soyamilk had a lower acidity (0.03%) and fat content (1.0%) than cows milk (0.14 and 3.5% acidity and fat content respectively). Organoleptic (sensory) evaluation was carried by a panel and the results were analysed using the Anova an mean separation by using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Quality attributes of soyamilk that were significant (P > 0.05) affected were consistency and flavour. A 75:25 (cow milk:soyamilk) was not significantly different from 100% cow milk. The 25:75 cow milk:soyamilk and 100% soyamilk were not acceptable because of poor consistency and objectionable flavour. The fermented soyamilk yoghurt had a higher acceptability rating than fresh soyamilk. The sensory evaluation results showed that the 75:25 and 50:50 ( cow to soyamilk) yoghurt were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from the control (100% cow yoghurt). The 25:75 and 0:100 (cow milk:soyamilk yoghurt) had low rating and categorised as poor. By increasing the sugar content and amount of emulsifier (gelatin), the acceptability of 25:75 and 0:100 soyamilk yoghurt was improved. Fermentation using yoghurt starter culture improved the flavour and taste

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Starter Cultures: Uses in the Food Industry.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Starter cultures are preparations of microorganisms serving as inoculants for the production of fermented foods. The production of cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, wine, sauerkraut, hams, and sausages occurs through the use of starter cultures that are consistent, predictable, and safe. The cultures provide the food products with a multitude of properties. Acidification of the food matrix is a primary property in a large number of food fermentations. Acidification activity often will be used to define packaging size and the unit of activity, whereas other characteristics differentiate a culture from the range of other available starter cultures. Starter cultures are commercially available in liquid, frozen, or lyophilized form from several companies serving regional or global markets.

Hansen, Egon Bech

2014-01-01

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SENSORY EVALUATION AND SURVIVAL OF PROBIOTICS IN MODIFIED BANANA FLOUR YOGHURT DURING STORAGE [Evaluasi Sensori dan Sintasan Probiotik dalam Yoghurt Tepung Pisang Modifikasi selama Penyimpanan  

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Modified uli banana flour (MUBF) rich in resistant starch as prebiotic source was formulated in yoghurt making to substitute skim milk at various concentrations i.e. 40, 50, 60, and 70%. Yoghurts were prepared using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as the starter cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the maximum MUBF concentration to produce yoghurt with good sensory quality and good number of surviving probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacil...

Widaningrum3); Muhamad Yusup Saputra2); Betty Sri Laksmi Suryaatmadja Jenie1)*

2013-01-01

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PEMBUATAN LARU YOUGHURT DENGAN METODE FOAM-MAT: DRYING KAJIAN PENAMBAHANN BUSA TELUR PUTIH TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA [Production of Dried Yoghurt Starter Using Foam-Mat Drying Method: Effect of Egg White Foam Addition on Physical and Chemical Characteristics  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt starter is usually prepared, preserved, and sold in liquid form which required special treatment. Drying is an alternative process to provide starter culture. Problem in using drying method is longer time so that the viability cell culture is low. In this experiment foam-mat drying method was used to produce dried starter culture. Addition of egg white to the starter media is expected to shorten the drying time, so and improve the viability of cell culture. This research used of randomised bock design and using addition of egg white foam as a treatment. The treatment consisted of 6 level with concentration of white egg of 0,510,15,20 and 25% and vacuum dried at 50?C. The result showed that the best treatment was yoghurt starter prepared with addition of 15 % egg white foam, based on the parameters as follow : Total Lactic Acid Bacteria : 1,5 105 cfu/g, Total Lactobacillus 1,5. 104 cfu/g, total yeast and mold : 1.6 104 cfu/g, drying time 3,16 hr, pH 4,5 total acidity 0,82%.

Elok Zubaedah1

2003-12-01

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Activation of dry starter cultures in milk.  

Science.gov (United States)

The revitalization of mixed strain dried starter cultures at 22 and 32 C in sterile skim milk was materially accelerated when the substrate was fortified with 0.2% pancreas-extract solids. At 22 C, all cultures grew up satisfactorily in 18 hr, and in unfortified milk none of the cultures reached comparable growth in this period. When the cultures were grown at 32 C, the dried cultures developed adequately in 7.5 hr, but required 9 to 10 hr in plain milk. Culture growth was enhanced in milk containing pancreas extract to the extent that the amount of dried culture required to produce adequate acidity in normal incubation times could be markedly reduced. At 32 C, certain cultures could be reduced to 12.5% of recommended amounts, and at 22 C certain ones could be reduced by 50%. Revitalization of the dried cultures in milk containing pancreas extract did not affect the growth of subcultures in plain milk. Also, when dried cultures initiated growth in fortified milk at 32 C their subsequent growth at 22 C in milk alone was not affected. The faster rate of culture growth in milk containing pancreas extract should permit, with more certainty, the establishment of active mother and bulk starters. Furthermore, economy of dried cultures, as well as of time, could be realized by the use of fortified milk. PMID:13989956

SPECK, M L; KOBURGER, J A

1962-11-01

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Angiotensin I-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of tryptic peptides of ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin and of milk yoghurts obtained by using different starters  

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The aim of this study was to investigate the angiotensin I-converting-enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of tryptic hydrolysates of ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin, and of yoghurts made by using different starters. Ovine $\\beta$-lactoglobulin (a mixture of variants A and B at a ratio of 50/50) was subjected to trypsin activity. The degree of hydrolysis of native whole $\\beta$-lactoglobulin reached 56, 72, 93 and 95% after 1, 2, 8 and 24 h, respectively. ACE-inhibitory activity of tryptic hydrolysat...

Chobert, Jean-marc; El-zahar, Khaled; Sitohy, Mahmoud; Dalgalarrondo, Miche?le; Me?tro, Franc?ois; Choiset, Yvan; Haertle?, Thomas

2005-01-01

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Physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt produced with transglutaminase  

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Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of transglutaminase - TG (0.02%, 0.06% and 0.12% on physico-chemical properties of probiotic yoghurt was investigated. Two series of yoghurt were manufactured on a laboratory scale from pasteurised skim milk (0.1 % w/w fat. Series I was produced with TGase activation during a period of 2 h at 40°C, while series II was produced without enzyme activation. Then, the adequate quantities of TGase and probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added. Chemical composition, physico-chemical properties (water holding capacity and whey separation and sensory characteristics of yoghurt samples were determined after production and during 5 days of storage. Addition of TGase to milk (direct or after activation for probiotic yoghurt manufacture improved its overall characteristics. Activation of TG in yoghurt production increases water holding capacity as well as decreases syneresis during the storage.

Milanovi? Spasenija D.

2007-01-01

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Antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products.  

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Commercial starter culture bacteria are widely used in the production of dairy products and could represent a potential source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. To learn more about the antimicrobial susceptibility of starter culture bacteria used in Norwegian dairy products, a total of 189 isolates of lactic acid bacteria were examined for susceptibility to ampicillin, penicillin G, cephalothin, vancomycin, bacitracin, gentamicin, streptomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulphadiazine using Etest for MIC determination. Most of the isolates (140) originated from 39 dairy products (yoghurt, sour cream, fermented milk and cheese), while 49 were isolated directly from nine commercial cultures. The bacteria belonged to the genera Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Streptococcus. Only one of the 189 isolates was classified as resistant to an antimicrobial agent included in the study. This isolate, a lactobacillus, was classified as high level resistant to streptomycin. The remaining isolates were not classified as resistant to the antimicrobial agents included other than to those they are known to have a natural reduced susceptibility to. Thus, starter culture bacteria in Norwegian dairy products do not seem to represent a source for spread of genes encoding resistance to antimicrobial agents. PMID:11482563

Katla, A K; Kruse, H; Johnsen, G; Herikstad, H

2001-07-20

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Effect of using different probiotic cultures on properties of Torba (strained yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The viability of Lactobacillus casei LAFTI® L26, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LAFTI® L10, their proteolytic activities and effects on chemical, textural and sensory properties of Torba yoghurts were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4 °C. These probiotic cultures were separately added after the fermentation of milk with yoghurt culture but prior to packaging of the product. Probiotic bacteria reached the recommended level of 6 log cfu/g in Torba yoghurt except B. animalis subsp. lactis B94. The addition of probiotic bacteria resulted in an appreciable proteolytic activity but also textural defects due to the lower total solid content in the final product.

Harun Kesenka?

2010-03-01

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Production and quality of yoghurt in dairy industry Zenica  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, when consumers are more aware of influence of feed on the health, yoghurt gains higher importance. Therefore, its consumption raises everyday. It is perfect fermented milk and source of high valuable nutrients. Yoghurt is one of the most prominent products in assortment of Dairy Industry Zenica. Manufacture of yoghurt was monitored during 10-month period i.e. from June 2002 to March 2003. Productions from 233 producing days were included in determination. Special attention was paid to quality of raw material for yoghurt manufacture. The quality of raw milk for yoghurt production was high. Average relative density was 1,030. Acidity varied from 6.11 to 6.64oSH, with mean value of 6.28oSH. Evaporating of milk and addition of skim milk dry powder were used for dry solids adjustment required for good quality yoghurtmanufacture. Milk for yoghurt manufacture, had relative density from 1.035 to 1.036 with average value of 1.035. Acidity ranged from 7.07 to 7.59oSH. Average acidity was 7.30oSH. Fat content was in range from 1.94 to 2.00% and 1.98% in average. Yoghurt starter culture showed high acidic activity, as indicated in its acidity value before inoculation of yoghurt milk. Mean value of acidity of starter culture was 40.36oSH with variations from 38.05 to 42.64oSH. The acidity of final product varied from 37.36 to 38.81oSH or 38.26oSH in average. The acidity of yoghurt in Dairy Industry Zenica was adjusted to be somewhat lower than usual in order to keep high quality of products during distribution and consuming chain.

Sonja Bijeljac

2004-01-01

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Salame tipo italiano elaborado com culturas starters nativas / Fermented italian sausage elaborated with native starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pesquisa teve como objetivo acrescentar culturas starters nativas em salame tipo Italiano e avaliar o desempenho frente a culturas comerciais quanto às características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais. As culturas utilizadas foram Staphylococcus xylosus, isolado de salames coloniais, [...] e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, isolado de um produto lácteo e fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno. Elaboraram-se os seguintes tratamentos: T1 - adição de starters comerciais (Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mistura de Staphylococcus xylosus isolado mais Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis comercial; T3 - mistura de Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolado mais Staphylococcus xylosus comercial; e T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados. Os tratamentos apresentaram uma queda de pH significativa e também uma redução na Aw, garantindo uma segurança microbiológica aos produtos. Em relação à oxidação lipídica, os tratamentos que continham Staphylococcus xylosus isolados de salames artesanais apresentaram valores menores que os outros tratamentos. Os salames elaborados com Staphylococcus xylosus e Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, ambos isolados, apresentaram melhores resultados sensoriais quando comparados com salames elaborados com culturas starters comerciais. Portanto, a adição de culturas starters nativas pode ser utilizada na elaboração de salames, proporcionando produtos seguros e com flavor diferenciado. Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to add native starter cultures in fermented Italian sausages and evaluate the performance compared to commercial cultures in terms of microbiological and physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics. The cultures used were Staphylococcus xylosus, isolated [...] from colonial sausages, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis isolated from a dairy product and fermented in pork plasma medium. The following treatments were performed: T1 - addition of commercial starters (Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis); T2 - mixture of isolated Staphylococcus xylosus plus commercial Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis; T3 - mixture of isolated Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis plus commercial Staphylococcus xylosus; and T4 - Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis both isolated. The treatments showed a significant decrease of pH and reduction in the Aw ensuring microbiological safety to the products. With regard to lipid oxidation, the treatments that contained isolated strains of Staphylococcus xylosus presented significantly lower values than the other treatments. The sausages elaborated with Staphylococcus xylosus and Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis, both strains isolated, presented better sensorial results than the sausages elaborated with commercial starter cultures. Therefore, the addition of native starter cultures can be used in the elaboration of fermented Italian sausages providing safe products with differentiated flavor.

Andréia, Cirolini; Leadir Lucy Martins, Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento, Terra; Liana Inês Guidolin, Milani; Diala, Urnau; Bibiana Alves dos, Santos; Giovanna Dotta, Cervo; Ana Paula de Souza, Rezer.

2010-05-01

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Use of Protein Hydrolysates in Industrial Starter Culture Fermentations  

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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used as starter cultures for fermenting foods long before the importance of microorganisms were recognized. The most important group of LAB are the lactococci, lactobacilli, streptococci, and pediococci. Additionally, bifidobacteria have been included as a probiotic, providing added value to the product. Since the genera involved are so diverse, the nutritional requirements (energy, carbon and nitrogen sources) differ significantly between and within species. Designing an optimum fermentation medium for production of active and vigorous LAB starter cultures and probiotics requires selecting the right raw ingredients, especially protein hydrolysates that can provide adequate nutrients for growth and viability. This chapter attempts to describe the application of various commercial protein hydrolysates used for production of dairy and meat starter cultures, with special emphasis on meeting the nitrogen requirements of industrially important LAB species.

Ummadi, Madhavi (Soni); Curic-Bawden, Mirjana

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Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The sensory quality of chocolate is widely determined by the qualitative and quantitative composition of volatile compounds resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation, and Maillard reactions taking place during drying, roasting and conching. The influence of applying mixed starter cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri inoculated chocolate was characterized by a significantly higher concentration of phenylacetaldehyde and the K. marxianus inoculated chocolate by significantly higher amounts of benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, benzyl acetate and phenethyl acetate compared to a spontaneously fermented control. Sensory profiling described the heap and tray fermented chocolates as sweet with cocoa and caramel flavours, whilst the inoculated chocolates were characterized as fruity, acid and bitter with berry, yoghurt and balsamic flavours. The choice of fermentation technique had the greatest overall impact on the volatile aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna

2014-01-01

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YOGHURT WITH ENCAPSULATED PROBIOTICS  

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Full Text Available A study was carried out to microencapsulate four different probiotic cultures viz., Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidiobacterium lactis and preparation of yoghurt with these microencapsulated cultures. Microencapsualtion was done in two different methods (extrusion and emulsion by using two different wall materials viz., alginate+starch, alginate+gelatin+starch. Probiotic count of encapsulated treated yoghurt significantly higher with control yoghurt (P<0.05 in every week interval of storage period. In control yoghurt at 21 days of storage, lactobacillus survived four log units and bifidobacterium survived six log units. Extrusion method of encapsulation using alginate (2.0 % w/v +gelatin (2.0 % w/v +starch (0.5 w/v as wall materials provides maximum viability (9 log units for probiotics in yoghurt throughout the storage period of 21 days.

V.Jayalalitha

2011-02-01

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Fundamental Elements to Produce Sesame Yoghurt from Sesame Milk  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: In previous work sesame milk was developed. The developed milk had slightly acceptable flavor and limited shelf life. Fermentation of sesame milk is one way to overcome these problems. Approach: Sesame yoghurt experiments were carried out using pasteurized sesame milk (75°C for 5 min with 14% initial sesame seed concentration and 2.7% glucose with different dairy products: lactose, Cheese Dried Whey (CDW, Non Fat Dried Milk (NFDM and skim milk. The formulas were fermented using commercial yoghurt starter culture for different times. Results: The texture of all the resulted yoghurt lacked the typical set yoghurt body and was similar to that of drinking yoghurt. The best formula was sesame milk with 2% CDW followed by sesame milk with 2% NFDM and then by sesame milk extended with skim milk in a ratio of 1:1. The optimum fermentation times were 6, 8 and 8 h respectively. Conclusion/Recommendations: The addition of dairy products was essential to promote acid and flavor development.

Ibrahim Afaneh

2011-01-01

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Viscosity changes of probiotic yoghurt with transglutaminase during storage  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the quantity of transglutaminase as well as conditions of its application (direct, or after activation by milk heating for 2 h at 40°C and for 1 min at 80°C, on yoghurt viscosity manufactured from two kinds of low fat milk (0.1 % w/w fat and 0.5% w/w fat during 10 days of storage. The fermentation in both series started after the adequate amounts of probiotic starter culture ABT-4 (Chr. Hansen A/S Denmark were added to the milk at 43°C. After milk fermentation at pH 4.5, probiotic yoghurt samples were cooled to 8°C, gently homogenized and packed in plastic containers and stored for 10 days, at +4oC. Viscosity of all samples was measured at 5°C on a Haake Rheostress 600 viscosimeter. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that yoghurt samples produced with low level of transglutaminase activated prior to fermentation have significantly better rheological properties than the samples produced without activation and yoghurt control. Generally, the application of low level transglutaminase in low - fat yoghurt production improves overall rheological properties of the final product.

Ili?i? Mirela D.

2008-01-01

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Hybrid Modeling and Optimization of Yogurt Starter Culture Continuous Fermentation  

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Full Text Available The present paper presents a hybrid model of yogurt starter mixed culture fermentation. The main nonlinearities within a classical structure of continuous process model are replaced by neural networks. The new hybrid model accounts for the dependence of the two microorganisms' kinetics from the on-line measured characteristics of the culture medium - pH. Then the model was used further for calculation of the optimal time profile of pH. The obtained results are with agreement with the experimental once.

Silviya Popova

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
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Production and Quality Evaluation of Soy-Corn Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available In the recent years, research efforts in the developing countries have been geared towards the improvement of protein quality foods using blends of legume and cereal which is considered a nutritionally balanced product. Therefore, this present study is aimed at finding local substitute for milk based product with high protein content of a well balancing amino acid composition and high digestibility; determining the proximate composition, microbial analysis as well as sensory evaluation of soy-corn yoghurt with a view of knowing the consumer acceptability of the product. Yoghurt samples were produced from blends of soymilk and corn milk (yellow maize corn using Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus as starter cultures. Ratio of soy milk to corn milk were 80%:20%; 70%:30% and 100% soymilk as control. The yoghurt samples produced were coded A, B and C representing 100% soy yoghurt, 80%:20% soy corn yoghurt and 70%:30% soy corn yoghurt respectively. Yoghurt samples were subjected to chemical, microbiological and organoleptic assessment. The results of chemical analysis revealed protein contents of 4.30, 4.00 and 3.70% respectively for the samples. Fat contents varied between 2.10 and 2.60%, while ash contents of 0.50, 0.60 and 0.62% were obtained for the samples respectively. Total solids of between 10.98 and 8.80% were obtained with titratable acidity of 0.03, 0.05 and 0.06%, respectively. The carbohydrate contents of the samples ranged from 1.40 to 4.50% while all the samples showed fairly acidic levels. Water contents of between 89.00 and 91.20% were obtained. The microbiological examination revealed a tolerable level for all the samples.

Olakunle Moses Makanjuola

2012-06-01

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Functional properties of selected starter cultures for sour maize bread.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the functional properties of maize sour-dough microflora selected and tested for their use as starter cultures for sour maize bread. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts isolated from spontaneously fermented maize dough were selected based on dominance during fermentation and presence at the end of fermentation. Functional properties examined included acidification, leavening and production of some antimicrobial compounds in the fermenting matrix. The organisms previously identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Lb. fermentum, Lb. acidophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc dextranicum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used singly and as mixed cultures in the fermentation (fermentation time: 12h at 28+/-2 degrees C) of maize meal (particle size >0.2mm). The pH fell from an initial value of 5.62-3.05 in maize meals fermented with Lb. plantarum; 4.37 in L. dextranicum+S. cerevisiae compared with the value for the control (no starter) of 4.54. Significant differences (P fermenting meals, the highest correlation being between production of diacetyl and acid (0.694), a positive correlation indicating that production of both antimicrobial compounds increase together with time. Antimicrobial activities of the fermented maize dough were confirmed by their abilities to inhibit the growth of Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus flavus from an initial inoculum concentration of 7 log cfu ml(-1)) for test bacteria and zone of inhibition of up to 1.33 cm for aflatoxigenic A. flavus. The findings of this study form a database for further studies on the development of starter cultures for sour maize bread production as an alternative bread specialty. PMID:18456117

Edema, Mojisola O; Sanni, Abiodun I

2008-06-01

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The application of autochthonous potential of probiotic lactobacillus plantarum 564 in fish oil fortified yoghurt production  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the survival of autochthonous, potentially probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum 564, and the influence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid omega-3 (omega-3 PUFA fish oil fortification on the sensory quality of yoghurt. Three variants of yoghurt were produced using starter cultures of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus (Chr. Hansen, Denmark, and the potentially probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 564 (Culture Collection of the Department for Industrial Microbiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Belgrade as follows: (1 without omega-3 PUFA; (2 with 100 mg/l omega-3 PUFA; and (3 with 200mg/l omega-3 PUFA. The survival of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, the changes of starter bacteria counts, changes of pH values, as well as sensory evaluation, were examined during 3 weeks of yoghurt storage. Cells of Lb. plantarum 564 were maintained at >108 cfug?1. Starter bacteria counts were >107 cfug?1 for streptococci and >106 cfug?1 for lactobacilli. The changes of pH were within normal pH of fermented milks. Sensory evaluation showed that all variants of yoghurt produced with Lb. plantarum 564 and 2 concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids had a high sensory quality (above 90% of maximal quality, and which did not change significantly throughout the examined storage period. Although the sensory quality of the control sample was evaluated as better, the experimental samples fortified with fish oil were also characterized with very acceptable sensory properties. Results of high viability of potential probiotic Lb. plantarum 564, as well as very acceptable yoghurt sensory properties, indicate that this strain can be successfully used in the production of yoghurt fortified with PUFA omega-3 fish oil as a new functional dairy product. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 046010 i br. 046009

Radulovi? Zorica

2014-01-01

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Multiphasic Approach To Study the Bacterial Ecology of Fermented Sausages Inoculated with a Commercial Starter Culture  

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In this paper, the ability of a commercial starter culture to perform a sausage fermentation is evaluated. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of several strains of the same species contained in the starter culture with different behavior during the fermentation, and the contribution of Lactobacillus curvatus, which was only marginally isolated during the transformation.

Cocolin, Luca; Urso, Rosalinda; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cantoni, Carlo; Comi, Giuseppe

2006-01-01

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Production of Nigerian Nono Using Lactic Starter Cultures  

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Full Text Available The effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB on nutritional quality, acceptability and shelf life of nono was investigated. The lactic starter cultures were selected based on their ability to produce diacetyl. Lactobacillus caseiN18 produced the highest quantity (1.65 g/ml of diacetyl while Lactobacillus brevisN15 produced the lowest amount (0.9 g/ml. During 24 h fermentation a general decrease in pH was observed with a corresponding increase in Titratable Acidity (TA. The pH ranged between 5.51 and 6.29; while the TA ranged between 19 and 21%. The mixed starter culture comprises of L. caseiN18 and L. plantarumN07 produced the highest quantity of diacetyl (2.40 g/ml while the lowest quantity of diacetyl (2.00 g/ml was recorded for the sample produced with spontaneous fermentation. Nono fermented with mixed culture of L. caseiN18 and L. plantarumN07 had the highest protein content (69.98% while nono produced with spontaneous fermentation (control had the lowest (59.20%. Nono fermented with L. caseiN18 and L. plantarumN07 was rated best with overall acceptability of 7 while the control had overall acceptability of 4. The Nono sample stored in refrigerator had a shelf-life of 6 days while the sample stored at room temperature (28oC2oC had a shelf life of 3 days.

R.E. Avanrenren

2011-01-01

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Fermented Dairy Products: Starter Cultures and Potential Nutritional Benefits  

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Full Text Available Fermented dairy products have long been an important component of nutritional diet. Historically, fermentation proc-ess involved unpredictable and slow souring of milk caused by the organisms inherently present in milk. However, modern microbiological processes have resulted in the production of different fermented milk products of higher nutri-tional value under controlled conditions. These products represent an important component of functional foods, and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms are incorporated to make them more valuable. This article provides an overview of the different starter cultures and health benefits of fer-mented dairy products, which can be derived by the consumers through their regular intake.

Parmjit S. Panesar

2011-01-01

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Acceptability of yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

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Full Text Available From goat’s milk with 2% of inoculum of yoghurt culture DVS-YC 180(Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus, and mixed ABT 4 culture (Lactobacillus acidophilus,Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium spp firm fermentedbeverages were produced. The influence of whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition, at the concentration of 2 %, on fermentation and samples acceptability was investigated. Whey protein concentrate and milk powder addition improved the consistency and sensory characteristic of the products. Probiotics yoghurt had slightly higher sensory properties. After hedonic scaleevaluation the control yoghurt samples and control probiotic yoghurt samples were not acceptable. Analysis of variance showed significant differences between investigated yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt, and Duncan test showed that yoghurt and probiotic yoghurt samples with additives were significantly different from others, i.e., they proved to be better then control samples.

Rajka Božani?

2001-10-01

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Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed. PMID:19835765

Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

2009-12-01

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Fermentation profile and optimization of green olive fermentationusing Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10 as a starter culture  

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The bacteriocin producer Lactobacillus plantarum LPCO10, a strain originally isolated from an olive fermentation, was used as a starter culture for traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation. By means of a 23 (7 4) fractional factorial design, the salt concentration in brines was found to be the most important factor for producing the highest acidity and the highest initial population of the starter culture. To a lesser extent, other factors such as a high inoculum size, u...

Leal-sa?nchez, M. Vega; Ruiz-barba, Jose? Luis; Sa?nchez Go?mez, Antonio Higinio; Rejano Navarro, Luis; Jime?nez Di?az, Rufino; Garrido Ferna?ndez, A.

2003-01-01

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Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase. Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

A. de Moreno de LeBlanc

2005-04-01

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Reduction of b-Glucuronidase and nitroreductase activity by yoghurt in a murine colon cancer model  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: English Abstract in english Yoghurt feeding inhibits induced colon cancer in mice. Several studies showed the immunomodulatory effect of yoghurt which can explain this inhibition. It is possible that yoghurt bacteria can also affect gut flora enzymes related to colon carcinogenesis as reported for other probiotics in different [...] animal tumours. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of yoghurt starter bacteria and their cell-free fermentation products on the reduction of procarcinogen enzyme activities (beta-glucuronidase and nitroreductase). Mice injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and fed with yoghurt were used for this study. Mice given milk or yoghurt supernatant (cell free extract) were used to evaluate if the yoghurt antitumour effect is due to the starter bacteria or other components released during fermentation, that could inhibit these enzymes. We determined that yoghurt by itself maintained enzymes activities similar or lower than nontreatment control group, and the enzyme activity was also lower than milk or yoghurt supernatant groups. DMH increased the activity of the enzymes. Mice injected with DMH and fed cyclically with yoghurt presented lower enzymes activities than the tumour control group. Feeding yoghurt decreased procarcinogenic enzyme levels in the large intestine contents of mice bearing colon tumour. The results of this study provide another mechanism by which yoghurt starter bacteria interact with the large intestine of the mice and prevent colon cancer.

A., de Moreno de LeBlanc; G., Perdigón.

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Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory quality testing showed that Lafun obtained from S. cerevisiae-fermented cassava gave the most preferred stiff porridge. Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22 showed pectinase production in a model system. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that S. cerevisiae 2Y48P22 is the most efficient organism for cassava softening during the fermentation. Therefore, it could be combined with LAB and used as starter for Lafun processing. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Starter cultures are made available for controlled fermentation of Lafun.

Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

2010-01-01

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The effect of starter culture and annatto on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate.  

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The flavor of whey protein can carry over into ingredient applications and negatively influence consumer acceptance. Understanding sources of flavors in whey protein is crucial to minimize flavor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of annatto color and starter culture on the flavor and functionality of whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey with and without annatto (15 mL of annatto/454 kg of milk, annatto with 3% wt/vol norbixin content) was manufactured using a mesophilic lactic starter culture or by addition of lactic acid and rennet (rennet set). Pasteurized fat-separated whey was then ultrafiltered and spray dried into WPC. The experiment was replicated 4 times. Flavor of liquid wheys and WPC were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile analyses. In addition to flavor evaluations on WPC, color analysis (Hunter Lab and norbixin extraction) and functionality tests (solubility and heat stability) also were performed. Both main effects (annatto, starter) and interactions were investigated. No differences in sensory properties or functionality were observed among WPC. Lipid oxidation compounds were higher in WPC manufactured from whey with starter culture compared with WPC from rennet-set whey. The WPC with annatto had higher concentrations of p-xylene, diacetyl, pentanal, and decanal compared with WPC without annatto. Interactions were observed between starter and annatto for hexanal, suggesting that annatto may have an antioxidant effect when present in whey made with starter culture. Results suggest that annatto has a no effect on whey protein flavor, but that the starter culture has a large influence on the oxidative stability of whey. PMID:21338784

Campbell, R E; Miracle, R E; Drake, M A

2011-03-01

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Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.  

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Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages. PMID:24031331

Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

2009-01-01

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From gene to function: metabolic traits of starter cultures for improved quality of cereal foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food fermentations with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are employed to produce safe and shelf stable food products with characteristic flavour and texture. Advances in genomics and physiology of lactic acid bacteria enabled to link individual genetic and metabolic traits of starter cultures to specific food quality attributes. The empirical selection of starter cultures is increasingly supported by the targeted selection of functional starter cultures to achieve an improved quality of fermented foods. This review highlights recent developments related to metabolic traits of LAB that are relevant for the quality of foods; emphasis is placed on starter cultures for use in bread production. Although the food use of antibacterial metabolites of LAB is well established, antifungal compounds were only recently shown to extend the shelf life of foods. Redox reactions catalysed by LAB alter the technological functionality of proteins and influence the (off)-flavour development through lipid oxidation pathways. LAB produce polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from sucrose through the glycansucrase activities. The exploitation of glycansucrase biodiversity enables the generation of a large variety of glucans or fructans in food fermentation. Poly- and oligosaccharides influence food texture, increase the dietary fibre content of foods and can be applied to protect bacterial during culture preparation and storage. The transformation of amino acids or peptides to aroma compounds contributes substantially to food flavour of food and particularly the conversion of glutamate by LAB enables the targeted optimisation of food flavour. PMID:19515445

Gänzle, Michael G

2009-08-31

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Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. PMID:25084650

Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2014-12-01

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Starter culture production in fluidized bed reactor with a flocculent strain ofL. plantarum  

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A lactic starter culture of a flocculentLactobacillus plantarum was produced in a fluidized bed reactor with higher cell volumetric productivities than in a continuous stirred tank reactor. The fluidized bed reactor was operated at optimised parameters obtained in batch reactor performed with and without pH control.

Barreto, M. T. O.; Melo, E. P.; Carrondo, M. J. T.

1989-01-01

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Effects of selected factors on rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the influence of inulin (1 %, combination of inulin (1 % and acacia honey (4 %, heat treatment of milk, and storage time on the rheological and textural properties of probiotic yoghurt. Rheological properties were assessed trough viscosity, syneresis and texture (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity. Yoghurt was prepared from milk (1,5 % fat with added inulin (1% before heat treatment at 85 °C for 20 min or 95 °C for 10 min. After cooling to 55 °C honey (4 % was added. Samples were inoculated using probiotic starter culture (70 % w/w Streptococcus thermophilus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus bulgaricus, 10 % w/w Lactobacillus acidophilus, 10 % w/w Bifidobacterium ssp.. Yoghurt samples were held on +5 °C during 21 days. Measurements of pH value, lactic acid, viscosity, syneresis, and textural properties were done after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage. The results of this study show that honey addition significantly decreased fermentation time compared to fermentation time of control samples or samples containing inulin. Furthermore, addition of honey and inulin to milk caused significant lower syneresis (p<0,05 during storage time, while there was no significant influence on viscosity and texture of final product. The applied heat treatment of milk had no significant influence on rheological properties of probiotic yoghurt.

Jovana Glušac

2011-03-01

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Flow cytometric viability assessment of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying.  

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For starter culture production, fluidized bed drying is an efficient and cost-effective alternative to the most frequently used freeze drying method. However, fluidized bed drying also poses damaging or lethal stress to bacteria. Therefore, investigation of impact of process variables and conditions on viability of starter cultures produced by fluidized bed drying is of major interest. Viability of bacteria is most frequently assessed by plate counting. While reproductive growth of cells can be characterized by the number of colony-forming units, it cannot provide the number of viable-but-nonculturable cells. However, in starter cultures, these cells still contribute to the fermentation during food production. In this study, flow cytometry was applied to assess viability of Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures by membrane integrity analysis using SYBR®Green I and propidium iodide staining. The enumeration method established allowed for rapid, precise and sensitive determination of viable cell concentration, and was used to investigate effects of fluidized bed drying and storage on viability of L. plantarum. Drying caused substantial membrane damage on cells, most likely due to dehydration and oxidative stress. Nevertheless, high bacterial survival rates were obtained, and granulates contained in the average 2.7?×?10(9) viable cells/g. Furthermore, increased temperatures reduced viability of bacteria during storage. Differences in results of flow cytometry and plate counting suggested an occurrence of viable-but-nonculturable cells during storage. Overall, flow cytometric viability assessment is highly feasible for rapid routine in-process control in production of L. plantarum starter cultures, produced by fluidized bed drying. PMID:24584512

Bensch, Gerald; Rüger, Marc; Wassermann, Magdalena; Weinholz, Susann; Reichl, Udo; Cordes, Christiana

2014-06-01

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Biochemical Properties of Some Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains from Traditional Fermented Milk Relevant to Their Technological Performance as Starter Culture  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented milk and to study some of their important technological properties. Five isolates of thermophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditionally raw cow’s fermented milk were identified using phenotypic criteria and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of whole cell proteins. Four isolates named 2, 8, 13 and 20 FM were identified as Streptococcus thermophilus while isolate 285 N was identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. All these strains exhibited good acidification activity although two strains of Sc. thermophilus (2FM, 20FM and Lb. bulgaricus (285N presented the best acidification rates. In addition to their fast acid production, strains 20FM and 285N produced exopolysaccharides. Based on these characteristics, strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N were selected and used as pure or mixed cultures in the manufacture of fermented milk. In mixed cultures, the Sc. thermophilus/Lb. bulgaricus association was positive for all combination tested. The combination of strain 285N with strain 2FM or 20FM had a significant effect on acid production by Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus strain (285N. These bacterial associations also affected the rheological properties of fermented milk samples. Strains 2FM, 20FM and 285N presented interesting biotechnological profiles and may influence the quality of fermented milk if they are used in association as starters in yoghurt manufacture.

Zambou Ngoufack Francois

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari.  

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Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, 2 Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected on the basis of their biochemical properties with a view to selecting appropriate starter cultures during cassava fermentation for gari production. In this study, the potential of these pre-selected strains as suitable freeze-dried cultures was eval...

Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Dortu, Carine; Egounlety, Moutairu; Pinto, Cristina; Vinodh, A. Edward; Huch, Melanie; Franz, Charles M. A. P.; Holzapfel, Willhelm; Mbugua, Samuel; Mengu, Moses; Thonart, Philippe

2009-01-01

42

Effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese during ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of rate of addition of starter culture on textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese was investigated during ripening period up to two months. The textural characteristics of buffalo milk Feta type cheese in terms of hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were analyzed by using textural profile analyzer. The maximum hardness was found with cheese made using 1% culture, while the minimum was found with 2% culture. The cohesiveness and springiness decreased as the level of addition of starter culture increased. The chewiness of cheese also decreased, as the rate of addition of starter culture increased for cheese making. In addition to this, yield, moisture, fat, FDM, protein, salt and S/M of fresh buffalo milk Feta type cheese increased with the increase in rate of addition of starter culture; however, TS of experimental cheeses decreased. PMID:24741179

Kumar, Sanjeev; Kanawjia, S K; Kumar, Suryamani; Khatkar, Sunil

2014-04-01

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Classification of Swiss cheese starter and adjunct cultures using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The acceptability of Swiss cheese largely depends on the flavor profile, and strain variations of cheese cultures will affect the final quality. Conventional biochemical methods to identify the cultures at the strain level are time-consuming and expensive, and require skilled labor. Our objective was to develop rapid classification methods of starter cultures at the strain level by using a combination of hydrophobic grid membrane filters and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Forty-four pulsed-field gel electrophoresis-verified strains of starter and nonstarter cultures including Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. were analyzed. The strains were grown on their respective agar media, transferred to broth media, and incubated. Then, cultures were centrifuged and the pellets were resuspended in saline solution (10 ?L). Aliquots (2 ?L) of the suspended bacterial solution were placed onto a grid of the hydrophobic grid membrane filters, having 6 grids per each strain analyzed. The dried filters were read by FTIR microspectroscopy fitted with an attenuated total reflectance probe. Collected spectra were statistically analyzed by a soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) for pattern recognition. Classification models were developed for Streptococcus thermophilus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, and Lactobacillus spp. strains. The models showed major discrimination in the spectral region from 1,200 to 900 cm(-1) associated with signals from phosphate-containing compounds and various polysaccharides in the cell wall. The developed method allowed for rapid classification of several Swiss cheese starter and nonstarter cultures at the strain level. This information provides a detailed overview of microbiological status, which would enable corrective measures to be taken early in the cheese making process, limiting production of inferior quality cheese and minimizing defects. This method could be an effective tool to identify and monitor activity of cheese and other dairy starter cultures. PMID:21854910

Prabhakar, V; Kocaoglu-Vurma, N; Harper, J; Rodriguez-Saona, L

2011-09-01

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Alternative drying processes for the industrial preservation of lactic acid starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation of lactic acid starter cultures by alternative drying processes has attracted increasing attention due to the high costs and energy consumption of freezing and freeze drying. This review thus aims to provide a survey regarding the state of knowledge of starter culture production at high levels of viability. The results from numerous studies on various drying processes and lactic acid bacteria are summarized. The alternative drying processes considered, such as spray drying, fluidized bed drying, and vacuum drying, are mainly of industrial interest. The features, advantages, and disadvantages of these drying processes are described. In conclusion, the important factors that need to be considered, standardized, or optimized to achieve high levels of viability include intrinsic tolerance of cultures, growth media and conditions, stress induction, cell harvesting conditions, protective agents, rehydration conditions, enumeration of cells, and storage conditions. PMID:17305363

Santivarangkna, Chalat; Kulozik, Ulrich; Foerst, Petra

2007-01-01

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Additives in yoghurt production  

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In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory at...

Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija; Jasmina Havranek

2008-01-01

46

Evaluation of substrates and storage conditions for preparing and maintaining starter cultures for tempeh fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat-pasteurized cassava root, cowpeas, partially defatted peanuts, rice and soybeans were evaluated for their suitability to support growth and sporulation of the tempeh mold, Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus, and the oncom mold, Neurospora intermedia, at 25, 30 and 37 degrees C. The molds grew best and sporulated most luxuriantly on cassava and rice incubated at 37 degrees C. Viability of molds remained high for up to 30 weeks when dried (a(w) 0.48), powdered substrates on which the molds had been cultured, were stored at 5, 25 and 37 degrees C. Survival was best when powders were stored at 5 degrees C, although storage at 25 degrees C did not cause a marked decline in CFU/g. R. microsporus var. oligosporus starter cultures produced on rice and then stored for 20 weeks at these temperatures compared most favorably with commercial starter cultures for preparing high-quality soybean tempeh. The simple technology required to prepare these starter cultures enhances the potential for their application in developing countries where the introduction of nontraditional fermented legume foods to low-protein diets could help to ameliorate malnutrition. PMID:1622761

Shambuyi, M; Beuchat, L R; Hung, Y C; Nakayama, T

1992-01-01

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Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7% to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used as control. To the other two treatments 5 and 7% of skim milk powder was added to the camels milk respectively, then the milk in each treatment was heated in a water bath at 85°C for 30 min. Milk samples were cooled to 43°C and 2% of commercial yoghurt starter culture was added and packed into plastic cups (200 g capacity in triplicates. The plastic containers were incubated at 39°C until coagulation occurred (16 h thereafter samples from different treatments were stored at 4°C for 0, 5and 10 days. Yoghurt Samples were taken for chemical, microbiological and sensory analysis.The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest viscosity value (p?0.01 during storage period. The control yoghurt had the highest pH value (p?0.01 during storage period in comparison with other treatments. In this study no significant differences in chemical composition of the yoghurt from different treatments during storage were observed. The yoghurt sample treated with 7% skim milk powder was significantly higher (p?0.05 in total bacterial count (7.70×106 cfu/mL than the control yoghurt (5.29×106 cfu/mL. No variations were observed in lactic acid bacteria count. Coliforms and E.coli bacteria were not detected in tested samples. The results indicated that yoghurt treated with 7% skim milk powder had the highest (p?0.01 flavour. Also there was significant difference (p?0.05 in overall acceptability in tested treatments. It is concluded that camel milk yoghurt showed high coagulation time and the addition of skim milk powder to camel milk improved some physical properties of the yoghurt.

Mortada Mohammed Salih

2013-06-01

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Role in Cheese Flavour Formation of Heterofermentative Lactic Acid Bacteria from Mesophilic Starter Cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Undefined mesophilic cheese starters are complex ecosystems that contain both homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, with the Lactococcus genera representing the former and Lceuonostoc and sometimes Lactobacillus the latter. These starters originate from old butter starters that were selected on their ability to produce aroma compounds in butter. Although the heterofermentative species are present in the starters and in the cheeses made with these starters, they have not been studied to the same extent as the Lactococcus population. Heterofermentative strains isolated from DL-starters including strains from our culture collection were used throughout the project. Initially selected strains were screened for enzyme activities involved in cheese flavour formation after growth in a cheese based medium (CBM) and in a nutrient rich growth medium (MRS). The Leuconostoc strains had low aminopeptidase activity compared to Lactobacillus danicus and especially Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris had a low and narrow activity. Aminotransferase activity was high on aromatic amino acids for Lb. danicus, and the Leuconostoc species had an activity similar to Lb. danicus only after growth in CBM. A cheese trial was performed with selected strains to investigate how the heterofermentative strains influenced the ripening in semi-hard cheese. The cheeses were made using a Lactococcus starter including citrate positive Lactoccus and with the addition of one strain of heterofermentative bacteria at the time. Differences were seen in the establishment of the heterofermentative bacteria in the cheese matrix, Le. pseudomesenteroides and Lb. danicus grew to a higher number and survived longer than Le. mesenteroides subsp. cremoris. More secondary alcohols and less acetoin were found in cheeses where the heterofermentative bacteria grew and were established well. The biodiversity of heterofermentative bacteria in DL-starters was examined using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and the strains were characterizedwith 16s rRNA sequencing and carbohydrate fermentation. The sugar fermentation results indicated an ongoing adaption of Le. mesenteroides to a dairy environment. The adaption from a plant environment to a dairy environment was also indicated in the draft genome sequences of strains Le. pseudomesenteroides 1159, PS12 and Le. mesenteroides subsp. cmreoris T26. The dairy strains had, in comparison with plant isolates, the ability to ferment citrate and lacked several genes involved in the fermentation of complex carbohydrates. The presented research in this thesis has gained insight in to the role of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria in cheese flavour formation. The traditional DL-starters contained numerous of strains of heterofermentative Le. mesenteroides, whereas Le. pseudomesenteroides and  only were found in some starters. The potential of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria to effect the flavour formation in cheese seems to be dependent on how well they grow and establish themselves in the cheese matrix. Lb. danicus had metabolic activities that lead to gas formation in the cheese matrix after nine weeks of ripening, indicating that it behaved more like non-starter Lactobacillus in cheese. The genetic information obtained gave insight in the metabolism of Leuconostoc and gave rise to numerous of new topics for further research in this area.

Pedersen, Thomas Bæk

2014-01-01

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Protection mechanisms of sugars during different stages of preparation process of dried lactic acid starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugars are recognized protectants used in the preparation of dried starter cultures for fermented food industries, particularly as additives for the drying media. They increase viability of the starter cultures during drying and storage. This review intends to summarize and discuss their roles in each step of the preparation process. The main topics cover the role of sugars in the induction of compatible solutes and alteration of fermentation metabolites during growing of cells, the reduction of cryo- and thermal injuries and membrane damage during drying, as well as the formation of sugar glass matrices and the prevention of oxidation during storage. In some topics, proposed protective mechanisms together with corresponding inactivation mechanisms have been discussed. The protective hypotheses as such are preferential exclusion, water replacement, hydration force explanation, and vitrification of sugars. PMID:18355668

Santivarangkna, C; Higl, B; Foerst, P

2008-05-01

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The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (?g kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

M. Mohsenzadeh

2008-01-01

51

Inactivation mechanisms of lactic acid starter cultures preserved by drying processes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The preservation of lactic acid starter cultures by drying are of increased interest. A further improvement of cell viability is, however, still needed, and the insight into inactivation mechanisms of the cells is a prerequisite. In this present work, we review the inactivation mechanisms of lactic acid starter cultures during drying which are not yet completely understood. Inactivation is not only induced by dehydration inactivation but also by thermal- and cryo-injuries depending on the drying processes employed. The cell membrane has been reported as a major site of damage during drying or rehydration where transitions of membrane phases occur. Some drying processes, such as freeze drying or spray drying, involve subzero or very high temperatures. These physical conditions pose additional stresses to cells during the drying processes. Injuries of cells subjected to freezing temperatures may be due to the high electrolyte concentration (solution effect) or intracellular ice formation, depending on the cooling rate. High temperatures affect most essential cellular components. It is difficult to identify a critical component, although ribosomal functionality is speculated as the primary reason. The activation during storage is mainly due to membrane lipid oxidation, while the storage conditions such as temperature moisture content of the dried starter cultures are important factors. PMID:18266696

Santivarangkna, C; Kulozik, U; Foerst, P

2008-07-01

52

Effect of autochthonous starter cultures on the biogenic amine content of ewe's milk cheese throughout ripening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cheese is among the most commonly implicated foods associated with biogenic amines poisoning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the type of autochthonous starter culture and ripening time on the concentration of biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, ?-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine) in cheeses made from pasteurized ewe's milk. 4 cheese batches were made, in duplicate, and ripened for 7 months. The biogenic amines of 40 cheeses were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. The predominant biogenic amines determined at the end of the ripening time were phenylethylamine, spermine and tryptamine. Together, these accounted for 81% of the total of biogenic amines studied. The type of starter culture used to make the ewe's cheese had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the content of biogenic amines throughout ripening time. It was lower in the batches made with an autochthonous starter culture made up entirely of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris or of the same in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum. PMID:25084673

Renes, E; Diezhandino, I; Fernández, D; Ferrazza, R E; Tornadijo, M E; Fresno, J M

2014-12-01

53

Additives in yoghurt production  

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Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

Milna Tudor

2008-02-01

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Utilização de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos Use of different starter cultures in processing of goat meat fermented sausages  

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Full Text Available O trabalho verifica o efeito de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado elaborado com carne de caprinos, avaliando pH, atividade de água e produção de ácido lático além de determinar a aceitação sensorial e a segurança dos produtos finais obtidos. Foram testadas culturas comerciais contendo 1. Staphylococcus xylosus e Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. mistura 50:50 de duas cepas de Pediococcus sp. e 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus e Staphylococcus carnosus. Os embutidos fermentados contendo as diferentes culturas, apresentaram durante o processamento comportamentos distintos (p0,05 entre os atributos estudados. A segurança do processo avaliada por cálculo de graus hora indicou que todas as culturas forneceram produtos seguros, em relação ao microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Concluiu-se que todas as culturas podem ser utilizadas para o processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos.The effect of different starter cultures in the processing of goat meat fermented sausages was evaluated by using pH, water activity and lactic acid production besides sensory acceptance and safety of final products were determined. Commercial starter cultures containing 1. Staphylococcus xylosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. a mixture (50:50 of two strains of Pediococcus sp 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were tested. During processing, fermented sausages containing the different starter cultures showed distinct behaviour in relation to pH, water activity and lactic acid production, although sensory acceptance did not present significative differences. The safety of products evaluated by calculation of hours-degree in obtaining the products indicated that all tested cultures resulted in safe products in relation to Staphylococcus aureus growth. Results showed that all tested cultures can be used for processing of goat meat fermented sausages.

Renata Tieko Nassu

2002-12-01

55

Utilização de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos / Use of different starter cultures in processing of goat meat fermented sausages  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho verifica o efeito de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado elaborado com carne de caprinos, avaliando pH, atividade de água e produção de ácido lático além de determinar a aceitação sensorial e a segurança dos produtos finais obtidos. Foram testadas culturas [...] comerciais contendo 1. Staphylococcus xylosus e Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. mistura 50:50 de duas cepas de Pediococcus sp. e 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus e Staphylococcus carnosus. Os embutidos fermentados contendo as diferentes culturas, apresentaram durante o processamento comportamentos distintos (p0,05) entre os atributos estudados. A segurança do processo avaliada por cálculo de graus hora indicou que todas as culturas forneceram produtos seguros, em relação ao microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Concluiu-se que todas as culturas podem ser utilizadas para o processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos. Abstract in english The effect of different starter cultures in the processing of goat meat fermented sausages was evaluated by using pH, water activity and lactic acid production besides sensory acceptance and safety of final products were determined. Commercial starter cultures containing 1. Staphylococcus xylosus an [...] d Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. a mixture (50:50) of two strains of Pediococcus sp 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were tested. During processing, fermented sausages containing the different starter cultures showed distinct behaviour in relation to pH, water activity and lactic acid production, although sensory acceptance did not present significative differences. The safety of products evaluated by calculation of hours-degree in obtaining the products indicated that all tested cultures resulted in safe products in relation to Staphylococcus aureus growth. Results showed that all tested cultures can be used for processing of goat meat fermented sausages.

Renata Tieko, Nassu; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo, Gonçalves; Frederico José, Beserra.

1051-10-01

56

A novel Lactobacillus pentosus-paired starter culture for Spanish-style green olive fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new starter culture consisting of two Lactobacillus pentosus strains was developed and successfully used for Spanish-style green olive fermentations in an industrial study. The inoculum, consisting of L. pentosus LP RJL2 and LP RJL3 strains, was inoculated in 10,000 kg glass fiber containers at 10? CFU/ml and 10? CFU/ml, final concentration respectively, in five different olive processing plants in the south of Spain. As a control, uninoculated fermentors were also used. In all inoculated fermentors, the paired starter rapidly colonized the brines to dominate the natural microbiota and persisted throughout fermentation. A decline in pH to reach about 5.0 was achieved in the first 15-20 days, reaching about 4.0 at the end of the process. The lactic acid concentration in brines increased rapidly in the first 20 days of fermentation (0.3-0.4 g/100 ml) to give values higher than 0.8 g/100 ml at the end of the process. In contrast, increasing lactic acid concentration was slower in uninoculated than in the inoculated brines, and the final concentrations were lower. Although reaching similar values at the end of the process, the decline in pH in uninoculated fermentors was slower than in the inoculated ones. These results show the efficacy of the new starter culture to control the lactic acid fermentation of Spanish-style green olives. PMID:22265309

Ruiz-Barba, José Luis; Jiménez-Díaz, Rufino

2012-05-01

57

Exopolysaccharide-forming Weissella strains as starter cultures for sorghum and wheat sourdoughs.  

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The addition of sourdough fermented with lactic acid bacteria synthesizing organic acids and oligo- and exopolysaccharides (EPS) from sucrose enhances texture, nutritional value, shelf life, and machinability of wheat, rye, and gluten-free bread. This study compared acetate, mannitol, and oligosaccharide formation of EPS-producing strains of Weissella and Leuconostoc spp. to the traditional sourdough starter Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. In broth, Leuconostoc strains generally formed acetate and mannitol, whereas Weissella produced only small amounts of acetate and no mannitol in the presence of sucrose. In the presence of sucrose and maltose, Weissella and Leuconostoc strains synthesized glucooligosaccharides and EPS. Strains of Weissella were employed as starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdough and formed 0.8-8 g kg(-1) EPS and gluco-oligosaccharides but only low amounts of acetate and mannitol. In contrast, the formation of EPS from sucrose led to the production of high amounts of acetate and mannitol by L. sanfranciscensis LTH 2950 in wheat sourdough. This study indicates that Weissella strains are suitable starter cultures for wheat and sorghum sourdoughs and efficiently produce gluco-oligosaccharides and EPS. PMID:20405917

Galle, Sandra; Schwab, Clarissa; Arendt, Elke; Gänzle, Michael

2010-05-12

58

Development and sensory evaluation of soy milk based yoghurt  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Desenvolvimento e avaliação sensorial de iogurte de soja. Foram elaborados iogurtes através da fermentação de leite de soja, usando uma cultura mista de Lactobacillus bulgaricus e Streptococcus thermophilus. O leite de soja com 9(0) Brix foi homogeinizado sob pressão (17 MPa) e fermentado com e sem [...] adição de sacarose (2,0 e 2,5 g por 100 g) por 4, 5, 6 e 7 horas. Os iogurtes obtidos foram analisados em relação as características sensoriais, pH, acidez titulável, fitatos e oligossacarídeos. Foi obtido um iogurte com ótimas qualidades sensoriais, a partir do leite de soja homogeinizado, com adição de 2% de sacarose e fermentado por 6 h. Os microrganismos utilizados não produziram fitases e a-galactosidases e, consequentemente, os teores de a-galactosídeos e de fitatos não foram alterados pelo processamento Abstract in english Yoghurts were prepared by fermentation of soy milk using a mixed starter culture containing Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Soy milk at 9(0) Brix was homogenised under pressure (17 MPa) and fermented with and without addition of sucrose (2.0 and 2.5 g per 100 g) for 4, 5, 6 [...] and 7 hours. The yoghurts were evaluated in terms of sensory qualitty, pH, titrable acidity, phytic acid and oligosaccharides: A yoghurt with the best sensory quality was obtained using the homogenised soy milk with 2% sucrose addition and fermented for 6 h. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus did not produce phytases and a-galactosidases at the experimental conditions, consequently, phytic acid and galactosides were not affected by the process

C . S, Fávaro Trindade; S. C, Terzi; L.C, Trugo; R. C, Della Modesta; S, Couri.

2001-03-01

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Manufacturing of fermented goat milk with a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus in a controlled bioreactor  

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Aims: This work was undertaken to study the feasibility and the characteristics of a fermented product made of goat milk, using a mixed starter culture of Bifidobacterium animalis and Lactobacillus acidophilus under controlled conditions, and to determine their survival in the fermented milk during refrigerated storage. Methods and Results: Goat milk was inoculated with Lact. acidophilus and Bif. animalis mixed starter, fermented in a glass bioreactor with controlled temperatur...

Kongo, J. M.; Gomes, A. M.; Malcata, F. X.

2006-01-01

60

Thermally-dried free and immobilized kefir cells as starter culture in hard-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an attempt to seek for suitable dried cultures, thermally-dried kefir was employed as starter in hard-type cheese production and tested in cheeses ripened at 5, 18 and 22 degrees C. Both free and immobilised on casein kefir cells were used and compared to cheese made without starter culture. Cheese products made with free cells of kefir culture were characterized by longer preservation time, improved aroma, taste, texture characteristics and increased degree of openness. Volatile profiles obtained by GC/MS analysis revealed a 216% increase in total concentration of esters, organic acids, alcohols and carbonyl compounds between cheeses prepared with and without kefir culture. PMID:19329301

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Novel starter cultures to inhibit biogenic amines accumulation during fish sauce fermentation.  

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Bacteria with amine oxidase activity have become a particular interest to reduce biogenic amines concentration in food products such as meat and fish sausages. However, little information is available regarding the application of these bacteria in fish sauce. Hence, our study was aimed to investigate the effect of such starter cultures in reducing biogenic amines accumulation during fish sauce fermentation. Staphylococcus carnosus FS19 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FS05 isolated from fish sauce which possess amine oxidase activity were used as starter cultures in this study. Fermentation was held for 120 days at 35 °C. The pH value increased in all samples, while salt concentration remained constant throughout fermentation. Aerobic bacteria count was significantly lower (p fermentation due to the growth inhibition by high salt concentration. Proteolytic bacterial count decreased during fermentation with no significant difference (p > 0.05) among samples. These bacteria hydrolyzed protein in anchovy to produce free amino acid precursors for amines formation by decarboxylase bacteria. The presence of biogenic amines producing bacteria in this study was considered to be indigenous from raw material or contamination during fermentation, since our cultures were negative histamine producers. Amino acid histidine, arginine, lysine and tyrosine concentration decreased at different rates during fermentation as they were converted into their respective amines. In general, biogenic amines concentration namely histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine increased throughout fermentation. However, their concentrations were markedly higher (p fermentation. After 120 days of fermentation, the overall biogenic amines concentration was 15.9% and 12.5% less in samples inoculated with Staphylococcus carnosus FS19 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FS05, respectively, as compared to control samples. These findings emphasized that application of starter cultures with amines oxidase activity in fish sauce fermentation was found to be effective in reducing biogenic amines accumulation. PMID:21183239

Zaman, Muhammad Zukhrufuz; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Jinap, S; Bakar, Jamilah

2011-01-31

62

Whey valorisation: a complete and novel technology development for dairy industry starter culture production.  

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Whey is the major by-product of the dairy industry, produced in large quantities and usually disposed off causing major environmental pollution, due to its high organic load that makes treatment cost prohibitive. This paper comprises a contribution on the valorisation of this high polluting liquid waste of the dairy industry, based on research for the production of novel dairy starter cultures using whey as raw material. Starter cultures are used for cheese ripening in order to: (i) accelerate ripening, (ii) improve quality and (iii) increase shelf-life. The developed technology involves biomass production from whey followed by thermal drying of cultures. Specifically, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and kefir yeasts were thermally dried, and their efficiency in lactose and milk whey fermentations was studied. The most suitable culture regarding its technological properties was kefir, which was used for cheese ripening in freeze-dried and thermally dried form. Besides the reduction of production cost, which is an essential requirement for the food industry, the use of thermally dried kefir displayed several other advantages such as acceleration of ripening, increase of shelf-life, and improvement of hard-type cheese quality. PMID:19254836

Koutinas, Athanasios A; Papapostolou, Harris; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Bekatorou, Argyro; Bosnea, Loulouda A

2009-08-01

63

Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk  

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Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

Uduak G. AKPAN

2007-09-01

64

Coculture-inducible bacteriocin biosynthesis of different probiotic strains by dairy starter culture Lactococcus lactis  

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Full Text Available Bacteriocins produced by probiotic strains effectively contribute to colonization ability of probiotic strains and facilitate their establishment in the competitive gut environment and also protect the gut from gastrointestinal pathogens. Moreover, bacteriocins have received considerable attention due to their potential application as biopreservatives, especially in dairy industry. Hence, the objective of this research was to investigate antimicrobial activity of probiotic strains Lactobacillus helveticus M92, Lactobacillus plantarum L4 and Enterococcus faecium L3, with special focus on their bacteriocinogenic activity directed towards representatives of the same or related bacterial species, and towards distant microorganisms including potential food contaminants or causative agents of gut infections. In order to induce bacteriocin production, probiotic cells were cocultivated with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450, one of the most important starter cultures in cheese production. The presence of bacteriocin coding genes was investigated by PCR amplification with sequence-specific primers for helveticin and was confirmed for probiotic strain L. helveticus M92. All examined probiotic strains have shown bacteriocinogenic activity against Staphylococcus aureus 3048, Staphylococcus aureus K-144, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacillus cereus TM2, which is an important functional treat of probiotic strains significant in competitive exclusion mechanism which provides selective advantage of probiotic strains against undesirable microorganisms in gastrointestinal tract of the host. According to obtained results, living cells of starter culture Lc. lactis subsp. lactis LMG 9450 induced bacteriocin production by examined probiotic strains but starter culture itself was not sensitive to bacteriocin activity.

Blaženka Kos

2011-12-01

65

Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic Acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of mn(2+).  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

2014-11-01

66

Beyond celery and starter culture: advances in natural/organic curing processes in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past 10years there has been ongoing development of curing processes with natural ingredients designed to meet consumer demand and regulatory requirements for natural and organic processed meats. Initially, these processes utilized celery concentrates with a high nitrate content combined with a nitrate-reducing starter culture. Subsequent advances included celery concentrates with the nitrate converted to nitrite by suppliers. Further, as questions developed concerning reduced concentration of preservatives and the microbiological safety of these processed meats, additional advances have resulted in a wide variety of ingredients and processes designed to provide supplementary antimicrobial effects for improved product safety. PMID:22445489

Sebranek, J G; Jackson-Davis, A L; Myers, K L; Lavieri, N A

2012-11-01

67

Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods  

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Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR–DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDN...

Zheng, X.; Zheng, Y.; Han, B.; Zwietering, M. H.; Samson, R. A.; Boekhout, T.; Nout, M. J. R.

2012-01-01

68

Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization. PMID:23546829

Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

2013-09-01

69

Caciotta della Garfagnana cheese: selection and evaluation of autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and select, with respect to acidification and proteolytic activities, the autochthonous mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB present in milk and Caciotta della Garfagnana, a cheese produced either with raw or thermised cow’s milk in small dairies and family plants of Garfagnana (Tuscany, to obtain LAB strains with attributes suitable to be employed as starter cultures in this type of cheese, particularly when thermised milk is used to control spoilage microflora. Samples of raw milk, curd and cheese were collected from three representative farmers of the production area and used to isolate autochthonous LAB. Phenotypic and genotypic (species-specific PCR assay identification of isolated LAB was done. Twenty-eight strains of LAB isolated from milk, curd and cheese were screened for acidifying and proteolytic activities. LAB strains with the better attributes were used as mesophilic starter cultures in technological trials: experimental cheeses manufactured with the addition of autochthonous LAB and control cheeses were compared for LAB and pH evolution. Experimental cheeses presented a significant increase in the mesophilic lactic acid microflora up to 14 days of ripening and significantly lower pH values up to seven days of ripening. The use of wild selected mesophilic lactic acid bacteria, together with thermisation of milk, for the Caciotta della Garfagnana looks very promising and could help to both standardise the production and improve quality and traditional characteristics of this type of cheese.

Domenico Cerri

2011-04-01

70

Avaliação sensorial de pães de fermentação natural a partir de culturas starters inovadoras / Sensory evaluation of natural fermentation breads with innovative starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação sourdough para a produção de pães é fortemente motivada por seus efeitos benéficos quanto ao sabor, textura, vida de prateleira e pelas propriedades nutricionais dos produtos obtidos. Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a aplicação dos micro-organismos Kluyveromyces marxianus, Dekkera bruxellen [...] sis e Lactobacillus plantarum como culturas starters alternativas na produção de pães. A partir de sete ensaios resultantes de um delineamento de mistura simplex-centroide, foram realizadas nos pães análises sensorial e instrumental. Observou-se que pães produzidos com L. plantarum apresentaram menor volume específico, enquanto que a mistura entre K. marxianus e L. plantarum exerceu influência positiva, possibilitando obter produtos de maior volume específico. A análise sensorial demonstrou a boa aceitabilidade para os pães produzidos com a mistura entre D. bruxellensis e K. marxianus e para a mistura entre os três micro-organismos. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram a possibilidade do uso de culturas starters definidas para a fermentação sourdough, que é tradicionalmente obtida sem controle de processo. Abstract in english The sourdough fermentation in bread making is strongly motivated due to its beneficial aspects on flavor, texture, shelf life, and the nutritional properties of the obtained products. In this research, the yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Dekkera bruxellensis, and the bacterium Lactobacillus plant [...] arum were used as alternative starter cultures in bread making. Experimental designs generated from simplex-centroid mixture were used in the sensorial analyses of breads. Results have shown that bread obtained with pure cultures of L. plantarum presented the smallest specific volume, while the mixture of K. marxianus and L. plantarum positively influenced the formation of good specific volume of products. Sensorial analysis showed good acceptability for breads obtained with D. bruxellensis and K. marxianus mixture, as well as for the mixture of the three microorganisms. The results obtained in this research suggest the possibility of using defined starter cultures for sourdough fermentation, which is traditionally carried out without any process controls.

Fernanda, Martinbianco; André Rosa, Martins; Rosane, Rech; Simone Hickmann, Flôres; Marco Antônio Záchia, Ayub.

1701-17-01

71

Avaliação sensorial de pães de fermentação natural a partir de culturas starters inovadoras / Sensory evaluation of natural fermentation breads with innovative starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação sourdough para a produção de pães é fortemente motivada por seus efeitos benéficos quanto ao sabor, textura, vida de prateleira e pelas propriedades nutricionais dos produtos obtidos. Nesta pesquisa, estudou-se a aplicação dos micro-organismos Kluyveromyces marxianus, Dekkera bruxellen [...] sis e Lactobacillus plantarum como culturas starters alternativas na produção de pães. A partir de sete ensaios resultantes de um delineamento de mistura simplex-centroide, foram realizadas nos pães análises sensorial e instrumental. Observou-se que pães produzidos com L. plantarum apresentaram menor volume específico, enquanto que a mistura entre K. marxianus e L. plantarum exerceu influência positiva, possibilitando obter produtos de maior volume específico. A análise sensorial demonstrou a boa aceitabilidade para os pães produzidos com a mistura entre D. bruxellensis e K. marxianus e para a mistura entre os três micro-organismos. Os resultados deste trabalho demonstram a possibilidade do uso de culturas starters definidas para a fermentação sourdough, que é tradicionalmente obtida sem controle de processo. Abstract in english The sourdough fermentation in bread making is strongly motivated due to its beneficial aspects on flavor, texture, shelf life, and the nutritional properties of the obtained products. In this research, the yeasts Kluyveromyces marxianus and Dekkera bruxellensis, and the bacterium Lactobacillus plant [...] arum were used as alternative starter cultures in bread making. Experimental designs generated from simplex-centroid mixture were used in the sensorial analyses of breads. Results have shown that bread obtained with pure cultures of L. plantarum presented the smallest specific volume, while the mixture of K. marxianus and L. plantarum positively influenced the formation of good specific volume of products. Sensorial analysis showed good acceptability for breads obtained with D. bruxellensis and K. marxianus mixture, as well as for the mixture of the three microorganisms. The results obtained in this research suggest the possibility of using defined starter cultures for sourdough fermentation, which is traditionally carried out without any process controls.

Fernanda, Martinbianco; André Rosa, Martins; Rosane, Rech; Simone Hickmann, Flôres; Marco Antônio Záchia, Ayub.

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Use of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation.  

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The potential of Tetragenococcus halophilus as a starter culture for flavor improvement in fish sauce fermentation was elucidated. Four strains of T. halophilus isolated from fish sauce mashes were inoculated to anchovy mixed with 25% NaCl with an approximate cell count of 10(6) CFU/mL. The ?-amino content of 6-month-old fish sauce samples inoculated with T. halophilus was 780-784 mM. The addition of T. halophilus MRC10-1-3 and T. halophilus MCD10-5-10 resulted in a reduction of histamine (P fermentation improves amino acid profiles and volatile compounds as well as reduces biogenic amine content of a fish sauce product. PMID:21710980

Udomsil, Natteewan; Rodtong, Sureelak; Choi, Yeung Joon; Hua, Yanglin; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

2011-08-10

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Starter cultures used in probiotic dairy product preparation and popular probiotic dairy drinks  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Dairy products that contain probiotic bacteria are those that are produced with various fermentation methods, especially lactic acid fermentation, by using starter cultures and those that have various textures and aromas. Fermented dairy products are popular due to their differences in taste and the [...] ir favourable physiological effects. Today, fermented dairy beverages in general are produced locally by using traditional methods. Recently, due to the increased demand for natural nutrients and probiotic products, fermented dairy beverages have reached a different position and are considered to have an important impact on human health and nutrition. In this article, probiotic bacteria and functional dairy products that are produced by using probiotic bacteria are discussed.

Oktay, Yerlikaya.

2014-06-01

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Acceleration of Thai fish sauce fermentation using proteinases and bacterial starter cultures.  

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A means to accelerate fish sauce fermentation without adversely affecting fish sauce quality was investigated. Starter cultures prepared from Virgibacillus sp. SK33, Virgibacillus sp. SK37, and Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 were added separately to anchovy that was hydrolyzed by 0.25% Alcalase at 60 degrees C for 2 h followed by 0.5% Flavourzyme at 50 degrees C for 4 h. The mixtures were then adjusted to contain 25% solar salt and incubated at 35 degrees C for 4 mo. alpha-Amino contents of all inoculated samples were higher than the control (without the addition of starter culture) during the course of fermentation. After 4-mo fermentation, the samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 contained the highest alpha-amino content of 733.37 +/- 13.89 mM while that of the control was 682.67 +/- 3.33 mM. Amino acid profiles of inoculated samples showed similar patterns to that of commercial product fermented for 12 mo, with glutamic, aspartic, and lysine being predominant amino acids. Virgibacillus sp. SK33 appeared to decrease histamine content of fish sauce by 50% when compared to the control. Volatile compounds analyzed by GC-MS of all inoculated samples fermented for 4 mo exhibited a similar pattern to those of the 12-mo-old commercial product. Samples inoculated with Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 produced higher levels of volatile fatty acids and showed similar sensory characteristics to the commercial fish sauce fermented for 12 mo. Staphylococcus sp. SK1-1-5 is a potential strain that can be applied to produce fish sauce with overall sensory characteristics of traditional fish sauce in shorter time. PMID:18034732

Yongsawatdigul, J; Rodtong, S; Raksakulthai, N

2007-11-01

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Starter culture selection for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor based on microbial metabolic activity in mixed-culture fermentation.  

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Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie; Xu, Yan

2014-07-01

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Microbial Diversity of a Camembert-Type Cheese Using Freeze-Dried Tibetan Kefir Coculture as Starter Culture by Culture-Dependent and Culture-Independent Methods  

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The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

2014-01-01

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Microbial diversity of a camembert-type cheese using freeze-dried tibetan kefir coculture as starter culture by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

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The biochemical changes occurring during cheese ripening are directly and indirectly dependent on the microbial associations of starter cultures. Freeze-dried Tibetan kefir coculture was used as a starter culture in the Camembert-type cheese production for the first time. Therefore, it's necessary to elucidate the stability, organization and identification of the dominant microbiota presented in the cheese. Bacteria and yeasts were subjected to culture-dependent on selective media and culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and sequencing of dominant bands to assess the microbial structure and dynamics through ripening. In further studies, kefir grains were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. A total of 147 bacteria and 129 yeasts were obtained from the cheese during ripening. Lactobacillus paracasei represents the most commonly identified lactic acid bacteria isolates, with 59 of a total of 147 isolates, followed by Lactococcus lactis (29 isolates). Meanwhile, Kazachstania servazzii (51 isolates) represented the mainly identified yeast isolate, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (40 isolates). However, some lactic acid bacteria detected by sequence analysis of DGGE bands were not recovered by plating. The yeast S. cerevisiae and K. servazzii are described for the first time with kefir starter culture. SEM showed that the microbiota were dominated by a variety of lactobacilli (long and curved) cells growing in close association with a few yeasts in the inner portion of the grain and the short lactobacilli were observed along with yeast cells on the exterior portion. Results indicated that conventional culture method and PCR-DGGE should be combined to describe in maximal detail the microbiological composition in the cheese during ripening. The data could help in the selection of appropriate commercial starters for Camembert-type cheese. PMID:25360757

Mei, Jun; Guo, Qizhen; Wu, Yan; Li, Yunfei

2014-01-01

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BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE  

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Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

2004-04-01

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On-farm implementation of a starter culture for improved cocoa bean fermentation and its influence on the flavour of chocolates produced thereof.  

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Cocoa bean fermentations controlled by means of starter cultures were introduced on several farms in two different cocoa-producing regions (West Africa and Southeast Asia). Two starter culture mixtures were tested, namely one composed of Saccharomyces cerevisiae H5S5K23, Lactobacillus fermentum 222, and Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B (three heaps and one box), and another composed of L. fermentum 222 and A. pasteurianus 386B (seven heaps and one box). In all starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation processes, the inoculated starter culture species were able to outgrow the natural contamination of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and they prevailed during cocoa bean fermentation. The application of both added starter cultures resulted in fermented dry cocoa beans that gave concomitant milk and dark chocolates with a reliable flavour, independent of cocoa-producing region or fermentation method. The addition of the lactic acid bacterium (LAB)/acetic acid bacterium (AAB) starter culture to the fermenting cocoa pulp-bean mass accelerated the cocoa bean fermentation process regarding citric acid conversion and lactic acid production through carbohydrate fermentation. For the production of a standard bulk chocolate, the addition of a yeast/LAB/AAB starter culture was necessary. This enabled an enhanced and consistent ethanol production by yeasts for a successful starter culture-added cocoa bean fermentation process. This study showed possibilities for the use of starter cultures in cocoa bean fermentation processing to achieve a reliably improved fermentation of cocoa pulp-bean mass that can consistently produce high-quality fermented dry cocoa beans and flavourful chocolates produced thereof. PMID:22365351

Lefeber, Timothy; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Gobert, William; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2012-06-01

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Studies on Organic Acids and Minerals Content of Sourdough Naans Made from Different Extraction Rate Wheat Flours and Starter Cultures  

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Sourdough naans were prepared using different extraction rate wheat flours and sourdough starter cultures. Sourdough naans were analyzed to find out the effect of flour extraction rates on the production of organic acids and minerals content. It was concluded that organic acids (lactic, acetic and citric acid) increased with an increase in extraction rate and freeze dried cultures containing hetero-fermentative strains of LAB showed better performance than homo-fermentative in the production ...

Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din; Salim- ur-Rehman; Faqir Muhammad Anjum; Haq Nawaz

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Bacterial species associated with traditional starter cultures used for fermented bamboo shoot production in Manipur state of India.  

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Soidon is a non-salted acidic fermented food prepared from the succulent bamboo shoot tip of Schizostachyum capitatum Munro by using a traditional liquid starter called "soidon mahi" in Manipur state of India. In this study, 163 bacterial isolates associated with this starter samples were identified and their population distribution was investigated by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), 16S rDNA sequencing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This acidic starter (pH 4.5+/-0.15) was dominated by a characteristic association of Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) together. The population distribution of dominant species were Bacillus subtilis 29.3%, Bacillus cereus 35.7%, Bacillus pumilus 2.6%, Lactobacillus brevis 9.6%, Lactobacillus plantarum 5.1%, Carnobacterium sp. 11.9%, Enterococcus faecium 1.2% and Pseudomonas fluorescens 4.6%. Alarming population load (10(6)-10(7)cfu/ml) of B. cereus in 87% of starter samples studied should raise concern regarding biosafety of soidon consumption. PCR amplification of 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and ITS-RFLP profiles revealed a high diversity with eight subgroups in B. subtilis, five subgroups in B. cereus and three subgroups in L. brevis isolates. The most abundant B. subtilis subgroup IB.1 distributed in most of the samples showed very less clonal variability during RAPD analysis. The molecular methods used in this study identified the dominant strains of Bacillus and LAB distributed in most of the starter samples. These dominant strains of B. subtilis, L. brevis and L. plantarum would allow for developing a defined starter culture for the production of quality soidon. PMID:20696489

Jeyaram, K; Romi, W; Singh, Th Anand; Devi, A Ranjita; Devi, S Soni

2010-09-30

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An economic evaluation of freeze-dried kefir starter culture production using whey.  

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An economic study is presented in which industrial-scale production of freeze-dried kefir starter culture is discussed based on results on a laboratory scale. Industrial scale-up was based on a 3-step process using 3 bioreactors of 100, 3,000, and 30,000 L for 300 kg of freeze-dried culture/d of plant capacity. The major cost component of the total investment was the freeze-drying machinery, which consisted of 57% of the total investment. Production cost was reduced from 15.4 euros/kg ($18.5/kg) to 2.9 euros/kg ($3.5/kg) when the production capacity was increased from 30 to 900 kg/d. An economic analysis revealed a 3.5-fold increase in production cost compared with the corresponding production cost of the wet product, with an added value of up to 10.8 x 10(9) euros ($13.0 x 10(9)) within the European Union. PMID:17430915

Kourkoutas, Y; Sipsas, V; Papavasiliou, G; Koutinas, A A

2007-05-01

83

Selection of Yeasts as Starter Cultures for Table Olives: a Step-by-Step Procedure  

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After this step, starter should be used for a pilot fermentation on a lab scale, highlighting its performances, limits and benefits, as well as all the issues related to its production, storage and stability throughout the time. Finally, starter optimization conducted on a lab scale should be verified on real conditions.

AntonioBevilacqua

2012-05-01

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Antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of autochthonous starter cultures as safety parameters for fresh cheese production  

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Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibility and antimicrobial activity, as food safety parameters important for application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB, that previously satisfied technological criteria for functional starter cultures in fresh cheese production were examined. Soluble whole cell protein patterns of autochthonous LAB strains from fresh cheese, obtained by SDS-PAGE, revealed the presence of two predominant strains, which were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum A8 and Enterococcus faecium A7. These strains were not resistant and shown susceptibility to antibiotics: ampicillin, bacitracin, penicillin G, azithromycin, chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clindamycin, spiramycin, tetracycline, streptomycin, neomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, rifampicin and novobiocin. Lb. fermentum A8 strain displayed phenotypic resistance to vancomycin, but this resistance is intrinsic, not transferable and it is acceptable from the safety aspect. The capacity of Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 to inhibit growth of test-microorganisms Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 11911, Escherichia coli 3014, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium FP1 and Staphylococcus aureus 3048, was also analysed. According to obtained results, Lb. fermentum A8 and Ec. faecium A7 are safe from the aspect of spreading antibiotic resistance and could be useful as bioprotective cultures that inhibit common bacterial food contaminants, including L. monocytogenes.

Dora Bu?an

2013-11-01

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Scale-up of thermally dried kefir production as starter culture for hard-type cheese making: an economic evaluation.  

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This paper concerns the effect of thermal-drying methodology on the investment cost for dried kefir cells production in order to be used as starter culture in cheese manufacturing. Kefir cells were produced at pilot plant scale using a 250-L bioreactor and whey as the main substrate. Kefir cells were subsequently dried in a thermal dryer at 38 degrees C and used as a starter culture in industrial-scale production of hard-type cheeses. The use of thermally dried kefir as starter culture accelerated ripening of cheeses by increasing both lipolysis and fermentation rate as indicated by the ethanol, lactic acid, and glycerol formation. Additionally, it reduced coliforms and enterobacteria as ripening proceeded. This constituted the basis of developing an economic study in which industrial-scale production of thermally dried kefir starter culture is discussed. The industrial design involved a three-step process using three bioreactors of 100, 3,000, and 30,000 L for a plant capacity of 300 kg of thermally dried kefir culture per day. The cost of investment was estimated at 238,000 euro, which is the 46% of the corresponding cost using freeze-drying methodology. Production cost was estimated at 4.9 euro/kg of kefir biomass for a 300-kg/day plant capacity, which is the same as with the corresponding cost of freeze-dried cells. However, the estimated added value is up to 10.8 x 10(9) euro within the European Union. PMID:19449152

Koutinas, Athanasios A; Bekatorou, Argyro; Katechaki, Eleftheria; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Papapostolou, Harris; Panas, Panayiotis; Sideris, Kostas; Kallis, Mihalis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Koliopoulos, Dionisis; Sotiropoulos, Panayiotis; Panteli, Ageliki; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Kanellaki, Maria; Soupioni, Magdalini

2010-03-01

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Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

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Full Text Available O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltório, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2 no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL, umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP, aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7esporos mL-1 mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05 ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo.The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA, non-protein nitrogen (NPN, taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

Luís César CASTRO

2000-04-01

87

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames / Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltór [...] io, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo. Abstract in english The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as [...] well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

Luís César, CASTRO; Rosa Helena, LUCHESE; José Francisco P., MARTINS.

88

Efeito do uso da cepa starter de Penicillium nalgiovense na qualidade de salames / Effect of Penicillium nalgiovense starter culture on salami quality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O desenvolvimento de fungos filamentosos na superfície dos salames durante a maturação é considerado um fator de qualidade que deve complementar mudanças bioquímicas envolvidas na maturação do produto. Muitos destes fungos podem, no entanto, ocasionar alterações de cor e sabor e o ataque ao envoltór [...] io, como também representar um problema de saúde pública pelas toxinas que podem produzir. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a eficiência da cultura starter Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2) no controle de contaminantes naturais em câmaras de maturação de salame, a operacionalização deste controle, e o efeito geral sobre parâmetros organolépticos. Foram avaliados salames produzidos em escala industrial, os quais foram maturados por 30 dias à temperatura de 18°C e Umidade Relativa de Equilíbrio ente 80 e 60%. Os parâmetros de maturação analisados foram ácidos graxos livres (AGL), umidade, nitrogênio não protéico (NNP), aparência, sabor e aroma. As amostras inoculadas com a cultura selecionada (3 x 10(7)esporos mL-1) mostraram, ao término do período de maturação, um aumento médio de 2,93% em AGL em relação aquelas não inoculadas. Esta diferença revelou-se significativa ao nível de 5%. A perda de umidade transcorreu de forma lenta e progressiva, não se observando diferença significativa entre as amostras inoculadas e aquelas não inoculadas (P>0,05) ao final do período de maturação. Também não foi observada diferença significativa nos níveis de pH, NNP, atributos sensoriais e de aceitabilidade. Nas análises microbiológicas não foi detectada a presença de fungos de contaminação natural nas amostras inoculadas com a cultura starter PN-2, evidenciando-se a completa predominância deste fungo. Abstract in english The growth of filamentous fungi on the surface of salami during ripening is an important factor for the quality of the product quality because it helps the biochemical changes involved in the process. Nevertheless, some of these fungi can cause problems related to discolouration and off-flavour, as [...] well as damage on the casings. In addition, some fungi are associated to health hazards due to toxin production. This work aimed to study the ability of the starter culture Penicillium nalgiovense (PN-2)R to control natural contaminants during ripening under factory conditions, the operation of the process and the general effect on organoleptical parameters as compared to the product obtained by the traditional process. The salami were produced in industrial scale, ripened for 30 days at 18°C and 80-60% ERH. Moisture, pH, free fatty acids (FFA), non-protein nitrogen (NPN), taste, texture and aroma were the ripening parameters studied. It was observed that at the end of ripening, samples from inoculated batches had an increase of 2,93% in FFA mean value as compared to the uninoculated control. This difference was significant at 5% level. The moisture loss occurred slowly and progressively, and no significant differences were observed among inoculated and non-inoculated batches at the end of the ripening period. Statistical difference was not observed among the batches related to pH, NPN and on the organoleptical attributes and acceptability. Microbiological analysis did not detect the presence of filamentous fungi other than the starter, and an almost complete cover by PN-2 culture was observed on the surface of the salami.

Luís César, CASTRO; Rosa Helena, LUCHESE; José Francisco P., MARTINS.

2000-04-01

89

Investigating the effect of incubation time and starter culture addition level on quality attributes of indirectly cured, emulsified cooked sausages.  

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A process of "natural curing" utilizes vegetable juice/powder and a nitrate reducing starter culture to generate cured meat characteristics. The objective was to determine the effect varying levels of a mixed-strain bacterial starter culture (SC) and incubation time (INC) had on the quality characteristics of indirectly cured sausages. Four treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.01% SC, 0 min INC; TRT 2: 0.01% SC, 90 min INC; TRT 3: 0.02% SC, 0 min INC; TRT 4: 0.02% SC, 90 min INC) and a control (C) were investigated. TRTs 2 and 4, and C revealed higher (Pcured pigment concentrations than TRTs 1 and 3 at days 0 and 14 while TRTs 2, 3, 4, and C were also redder (P<0.05) than TRT 1 at days 28, 56, and 84. The results indicated the use of an incubation step was more critical than increasing the level of SC. PMID:21349652

Terns, Matthew J; Milkowski, Andrew L; Claus, James R; Sindelar, Jeffrey J

2011-07-01

90

Use of Staphylococcus xylosus as a starter culture in dried sausages: effect on the biogenic amine content.  

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The main objective of this work was to investigate if the use of Staphylococcus xylosus S81 as a starter culture in sausage production can influence the amount of histamine during ripening, and the concentration of the other most important biogenic amines, by influencing the activity of the microbial amino oxidases as well as the aminoacid decarboxylases. The results confirm that the biogenic amines presence in foods is the consequence of a complex equilibrium between the composition of the medium and the enzymatic activities of the microbial population. In addition, the results suggest that the presence and relative activity of amino oxidases should be considered as an important characteristic in the selection of starter cultures used in the production of fermented foods. PMID:22060850

Gardini, Fausto; Martuscelli, Maria; Crudele, Maria Antonietta; Paparella, Antonello; Suzzi, Giovanna

2002-07-01

91

The effects of sodium lactate and starter cultures on pH, lactic acid bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. levels in pure chicken dry fermented sausage.  

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Two starter cultures (A and B) and seven sodium lactate concentrations were evaluated for chicken raw dry-fermented sausage processing. Starter culture B contained more lactic acid bacteria and less staphylococci than starter A. Their effects on acidification and inhibition of pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.) were monitored. Starter culture B grew faster and was less inhibited by sodium lactate, thus inducting a faster and more important pH drop into the sausages. With lower pH, sausages processed with B starter were less contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. The type of starter was found to influence the end-product pH, lactic acid bacteria content and extent of Listeria monocytogenes contamination. A 30-member panel did not note differences between sausages processed with the different starter cultures when lactate was added. Adding sodium lactate to the sausage mix reduced the pH drop in the dry sausage product. This acidification inhibiting effect of sodium lactate was greater for A. Sodium lactate significantly inhibited lactic acid bacteria development but did not reduce Listeria monocytogenes contamination frequency of the batches, unlike in many literature data. Sodium lactate may however control the acidification of the sausage processed with starter B, in order to obtain moderately acidified fermented sausages. A simple kinetic model was applied to our data. The sodium lactate content and especially the type of starter culture often had a significant effect on the four parameters of this empirical model (lag time, acidification time, initial and final pH). PMID:22063699

Deumier, François; Collignan, Antoine

2003-11-01

92

Application' and validation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria starter cultures for controlled leek fermentations and their influence on the antioxidant properties of leek.  

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Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum) is one of Belgium's most important outdoor vegetables, mainly cultivated for its white shaft. Fermentation of leek offers opportunities in view of biomass valorization and product diversification. This study deals with the implementation and validation of starter cultures to perform controlled leek fermentations and to ensure a high quality of the end-products. Therefore, a thorough study of the fermentation microbiology and the influence of three starter culture strains (Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788, Lactobacillus sakei IMDO 1358, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides IMDO 1347) on the metabolite kinetics of leek fermentation and antioxidant properties of leek was performed. Overall, the application of lactic acid bacteria starter cultures resulted in a fast prevalence of the species involved, coupled to an accelerated acidification. Of the three starter cultures tested, the mixed starter culture of L. plantarum IMDO 788 and L. mesenteroides IMDO 1347 was most promising, as its application resulted in fermented leek of good microbiological quality and in a more extensive carbohydrate consumption, whereby diverse end-metabolites were produced. However, high residual fructose concentrations allowed yeast outgrowth, resulting in increased ethanol and glycerol concentrations, and indicated the lack of a prevailing strictly heterofermentative LAB species. The antioxidant capacity of fermented leek samples, as measured with the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, increased when starter cultures were used, whereas with regard to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, only leek fermented with L. sakei IMDO 1358 scored higher than spontaneously fermented leek. The total phenolic content was not influenced by the use of starter cultures, while the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides content decreased strongly. A preliminary sensory analysis revealed that the spontaneously fermented leek and the one obtained with the mixed starter culture were preferred by consumers, emphasizing again the importance of microbial successions in vegetable fermentations. PMID:23728429

Wouters, D; Bernaert, N; Anno, N; Van Droogenbroeck, B; De Loose, M; Van Bockstaele, E; De Vuyst, L

2013-07-15

93

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

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Full Text Available The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination, upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman Moritz

2012-09-01

94

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity pr [...] ofile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman, Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores, Rall; Margarida Júri, Saeki; Ary, Fernandes Júnior.

95

Contribution of starter cultures to the proteolytic process of a fermented non-dried whole muscle ham product.  

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Porcine longissimus dorsi muscles were cured by brine injection. Curing brine containing 15% (w/v) NaCl, 1.33% (w/v) glucose, 750 ppm sodium nitrite, and appropriate levels of either Lactobacillus sakei LAD, L. sakei LAD plus Kocuria varians FT4 (formally Micrococcus varians), L. sakei LAD plus papain and GDL (glucono-delta-lactone) plus K. varians FT4, was injected to the muscle at a pumping rate 15% w/v. The effect of these treatments on the proteolysis in the ham system was compared to a control ham, produced without starter culture and containing GDL acidulant to control pH and antibiotics to reduce the contribution of background microflora. Hydrolysis of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein fractions was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and reverse phase-HPLC. Hams with different treatments were also investigated for differences in amino acid profile, protein and non-protein nitrogen level, colour, pH, water activity and moisture and microbiological evolution. There was no significant difference in the gross compositional analysis of any of the treatments compared to the control. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the protein content, non-protein nitrogen level, SDS-PAGE and free amino acid analysis between the control ham and ham inoculated with proteolytic starter culture. However, it was observed that hams containing starter cultures exhibited decreases in certain peptide fractions and corresponding increases in some free amino acids compared to the uninoculated control. It can be concluded that, while the principle mechanisms resulting in the proteolysis of this non-dried ham product involve the activity of endogeneous cathepsins, the addition of proteolytic starter cultures influence the amino acid profile thereby potentially enhancing the sensorial attributes of the ham. PMID:15135960

Scannell, Amalia G M; Kenneally, Paul M; Arendt, Elke K

2004-06-01

96

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity pr [...] ofile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus.

Cristiane Mengue Feniman, Moritz; Vera Lúcia Mores, Rall; Margarida Júri, Saeki; Ary, Fernandes Júnior.

1147-11-01

97

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of cheese whey-based beverages using kefir grains as starter culture  

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The aim of the present work was to evaluate the use of the kefir grains as a starter culture for tradicional milk kefir beverage and for cheese whey-based beverages production. Fermentation was performed by inoculating kefir grains in milk (ML), cheese whey (CW) and deproteinised cheese whey (DCW). Erlenmeyers containing kefir grains and different substrates were statically incubated for 72 h at 25 °C. Lactose, ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, ...

Magalha?es, Karina Teixeira; Dias, Disney R.; Pereira, Gilberto V. Melo; Oliveira, J. M.; Domingues, Luci?lia; Teixeira, J. A.; Silva, Joa?o Batista Almeida E.; Schwan, Rosane F.

2011-01-01

98

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures. PMID:24290655

Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

2014-04-01

99

Characterization of certain bacterial strains for potential use as starter or probiotic cultures in dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work was aimed at characterizing 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to obtain improved potential starter or probiotic cultures that could be used for making dairy products from ewe's milk and cow's milk. Eight strains with antimicrobial properties, isolated from ewe's milk and from cheese made from ewe's and/or cow's milk, were studied. They were identified as Enterococcus faecalis (five strains), Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (one strain of each species). Additionally, four strains were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection: Lactobacillus casei 393 (isolated from cheese), L. lactis subsp. lactis 11454 (origin nonspecified and a producer of nisin), and two strains isolated from human feces (L. paracasei subsp. paracasei 27092 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 53103, antibacterial agent producer). All E. faecalis strains showed at least one virulence factor (either hemolysin or gelatinase), which emphasizes the importance of these studies in this species. Both L. lactis strains and most Lactobacillus spp. were good acidifiers in ewe's milk and cow's milk at 30°C. High ?-galactosidase activity, as well as aminopeptidase activities that favor the development of desirable flavors in cheese, were detected in all Lactobacillus spp. strains. Furthermore, L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 showed ?-fucosidase activity (thought to help colonization of the intestine) and lack of ?-glucosidase activity (a trait considered positive for diabetic and obese humans). This last enzymatic activity was also lacking in L. lactis ATCC 11454. L. mesenteroides was the only strain D(2)-lactic acid producer. The selection of any particular strain for probiotic or dairy cultures should be performed according to the technological and/or functional abilities needed. PMID:21819671

Monteagudo-Mera, A; Caro, I; Rodríguez-Aparicio, L B; Rúa, J; Ferrero, M A; García-Armesto, M R

2011-08-01

100

Cecal carriage of Clostridium perfringens in broiler chickens given Mucosal Starter Culture.  

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Day-of-hatch broiler chicks housed in isolation units were each given, by oral gavage, 0.1 ml of Mucosal Starter Culture (MSC) or saline control. Each of the treated and control chicks was subsequently given a composite culture of three strains of bacitracin-resistant Clostridium perfringens (Cp) previously isolated from chickens with symptoms of necrotic enteritis. Some chicks were maintained on a corn-based diet provided ad libitum. Others were given the feed supplemented with 50% rye (a predisposing factor for necrotic enteritis). At 7, 14, and 21 days after receiving Cp, chicks were euthanatized, and cecal contents were diluted and plated on selective agar containing bacitracin. For chicks on corn feed, Cp numbers were similar in control birds and birds given MSC in three of four trials. In two of the trials that demonstrated no effect of MSC on Cp numbers, enterotoxin presence was determined. The number of birds with detectable Cp enterotoxin in their small intestine and the mean toxin levels were lower in the MSC-treated birds. In a fourth trial with birds on corn-based feed, mean Cp numbers and the number of Cp-positive birds were lower in the MSC-treated birds. For the two trials involving chickens on rye-supplemented feed, Cp numbers and the percentage of Cp-positive birds were significantly reduced in MSC-treated birds compared with control birds. Enterotoxin in birds receiving the 50% rye diet was at low levels or not detected in control and MSC-treated birds. Results suggest that MSC may reduce intestinal proliferation of Cp, a causative agent of necrotic enteritis in poultry and of foodborne disease in humans. PMID:10494417

Craven, S E; Stern, N J; Cox, N A; Bailey, J S; Berrang, M

1999-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Studies on Organic Acids and Minerals Content of Sourdough Naans Made from Different Extraction Rate Wheat Flours and Starter Cultures  

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Full Text Available Sourdough naans were prepared using different extraction rate wheat flours and sourdough starter cultures. Sourdough naans were analyzed to find out the effect of flour extraction rates on the production of organic acids and minerals content. It was concluded that organic acids (lactic, acetic and citric acid increased with an increase in extraction rate and freeze dried cultures containing hetero-fermentative strains of LAB showed better performance than homo-fermentative in the production of organic acids. Similarly, minerals content were also increased with an increase in flour extraction and 100% extraction rate sourdough naan showed the highest minerals content.

Ghulam Mueen-ud-Din

2009-01-01

102

Production of hard-type cheese using free or immobilized freeze-dried kefir cells as a starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides a contribution to hard-type cheese starter culture production through the use of a freeze-dried culture in the ripening of hard-type cheeses. The effect of initial cell concentration, ripening temperature, and cell immobilization of kefir on the degree of openness, mold spoilage, microbial associations, physicochemical characteristics, and aroma-related compounds was studied. Use of kefir starter cultures resulted in cheese with an increased shelf life and resistance to spoilage as compared to control cheeses without kefir inoculants. Furthermore, the freeze-dried kefir culture improved aroma, taste, and texture characteristics while increasing the degree of openness in comparison to traditional hard-type cheese products. The kefir culture resulted in an increase in counts of total aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, lactococci, and lactobacilli until the 15th day of ripening. From then on, only lactobacilli counts increased, reaching levels up to 9.17 log CFU/g in cheeses ripened at 5 degrees C using freeze-dried kefir cells immobilized on casein. SPME-GC/MS analysis revealed major differences in volatile composition, especially with regard to alcohols (up to 75%), carbonyl compounds (up to 75%), and esters (up to 64%) between cheeses made with kefir cells and cheeses made without kefir inoculants. PMID:18540611

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Panas, Panayiotis; Rapti, Katerina; Kandilogiannakis, Leonidas; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2008-07-01

103

Complex microbiota of a Chinese "Fen" liquor fermentation starter (Fen-Daqu), revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.  

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Daqu is a traditional fermentation starter that is used for Chinese liquor production. Although partly mechanized, its manufacturing process has remained traditional. We investigated the microbial diversity of Fen-Daqu, a starter for light-flavour liquor, using combined culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches (PCR-DGGE). A total of 190 microbial strains, comprising 109 bacteria and 81 yeasts and moulds, were isolated and identified on the basis of the sequences of their 16S rDNA (bacteria) and 26S rDNA and ITS regions (fungi). DGGE of DNA extracted from Daqu was used to complement the culture-dependent method in order to include non-culturable microbes. Both approaches revealed that Bacillus licheniformis was an abundant bacterial species, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Pichia kudriavzevii were the most common yeasts encountered in Fen-Daqu. Six genera of moulds (Absidia, Aspergillus, Mucor, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor and Penicillium) were found. The potential function of these microorganisms in starters for alcoholic fermentation is discussed. In general the culture-based findings overlapped with those obtained by DGGE by a large extent. However, Weissella cibaria, Weissella confusa, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus lactis, and Bacillus megaterium were only revealed by DGGE. PMID:22608236

Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Zheng; Han, Bei-Zhong; Zwietering, Marcel H; Samson, Robert A; Boekhout, Teun; Robert Nout, M J

2012-09-01

104

Free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter cultures for probiotic Feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of free and immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on whey protein as starter culture in probiotic Feta-type cheese production was evaluated. The probiotic cultures resulted in significantly higher acidity; lower pH; reduced counts of coliforms, enterobacteria, and staphylococci; and improved quality characteristics compared with cheese with no culture. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis showed that both free and immobilized L. casei ATCC 393 were detected in the novel products at levels required for conferring a probiotic effect at the end of the ripening. The effect of starter culture on production of volatile compounds was investigated by the solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis technique. The immobilized cells resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds and the overall high quality of the novel products was ascertained by the preliminary sensory test. Finally, the high added value produced by exploitation of whey, which is an extremely polluting industrial waste, was highlighted and assessed. PMID:24931523

Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Sidira, Marianthi; Koutinas, Athanasios A; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

2014-08-01

105

Enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid in a fermented red seaweed beverage by starter culture Lactobacillus plantarum DW12  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Lactobacillus plantarum DW12, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producing strain, was used as a starter culture to produce a functional fermented red seaweed beverage (FSB). Optimal conditions for producing FSB were established using Central Composite Design by varying the amounts of monosodium gluta [...] mate (MSG), sucrose and the initial pH in MRS medium. After a verification test, 1% MSG, 6% sucrose and an initial pH of 6 were selected. Four treatments were tested: traditional formula (A), red seaweed-cane sugar-potable water = 3:1:10, w/w/v, initial pH 6; the traditional formula with a 5% starter culture consisting of 4.1 x 10(9) CFU of DW 12/ml (B); formula A modified by changing the amounts of cane sugar and MSG to 6% and 1%, respectively (C); formula C with a 5% starter culture added (D). Comparison among the 4 treatments showed that the treatment D produced the highest amount of GABA (4000 mg/L) during days 45-60 while the GABA content of A, B and C treatments was 340, 730 and 1690 mg/L, respectively. However, the results of the sensory test for the treatments C and D showed that the presence of MSG produced an unsatisfactory salty taste. All finished products from the 4 treatments met Thai standard guidelines for chemical and microbiological qualities after 120 days. The results indicated that enrichment of the GABA content in FSB is possible by adding MSG and the GABA producing strain DW12; however, the appropriate amount of MSG addition should be further studied.

Anussara, Ratanaburee; Duangporn, Kantachote; Wilawan, Charernjiratrakul; Pimpimol, Penjamras; Chaiyavat, Chaiyasut.

2011-05-15

106

A modified agar medium for the screening of proteolytic activity of starter cultures for meat fermentation purposes.  

Science.gov (United States)

An agar medium, used in the screening of proteolytic activity of dairy-related bacteria, was adapted for assessing the proteolytic capacity of bacteria which were of possible use in meat fermentations. Freeze dried myofibrils, extracted from pork muscle, were incorporated in the medium. The agar plates were inoculated with 20 microl of overnight cultures of different starter strains, and incubated at 30 degrees C for 48 h. After incubation, proteolytic bacteria produced clear zones. Coomassie brilliant blue stain was employed to facilitate the detection of these zones. Proteolytic activity was confirmed in an enzymatic test. PMID:9217115

Fransen, N G; O'Connell, M B; Arendt, E K

1997-05-20

107

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

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The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more prono...

Flávia Daiana Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo Pimentel; Sandra Garcia; Sandra Helena Prudencio

2012-01-01

108

Microflora and acidification properties of yogurt and yogurt-related products fermented with commercially available starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yogurts and yogurt-related milk products were produced using 44 commercially available starter cultures from 8 suppliers. The yogurt starters consisted of the classical yogurt microflora and the yogurt-related cultures containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and/or Bifidobacterium spp. instead of or in addition to the yogurt bacteria. The counts of lactobacilli in the fresh yogurts varied between 5.5 x 10(7) and 6.5 x 10(8) CFU/ml, and the counts of streptococci varied from 3.5 x 10(7) to 1.2 x 10(9) CFU/ml. About 80% of the yogurts had higher counts of cocci than rods. During storage of the products for 2 weeks at 6 degrees C the stability of the microflora differed markedly among the cultures. In the fresh yogurt-related products the L. acidophilus counts ranged from 4.0 x 10(5) to 2.6 x 10(8) CFU/ml; bifidobacteria were found at levels between 4.0 x 10(6) and 2.6 x 10(8) CFU/ml. In most products reduced viable counts of these bacteria were observed after 2 weeks. Titratable acidity increased on average by 22.3% in the yogurts, and by 14.9% in the yogurt-related products during storage. In most products a higher amount of L(+)- than D(-)-lactic acid was found. PMID:8494687

Kneifel, W; Jaros, D; Erhard, F

1993-05-01

109

Comparative metabolic profiling to investigate the contribution of O. oeni MLF starter cultures to red wine composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this research work we investigated changes in volatile aroma composition associated with four commercial Oenococcus oeni malolactic fermentation (MLF) starter cultures in South African Shiraz and Pinotage red wines. A control wine in which MLF was suppressed was included. The MLF progress was monitored by use of infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatographic analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to evaluate the volatile aroma composition and organic acid profiles, respectively. Significant strain-specific variations were observed in the degradation of citric acid and production of lactic acid during MLF. Subsequently, compounds directly and indirectly resulting from citric acid metabolism, namely diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and ethyl lactate, were also affected depending on the bacterial strain used for MLF. Bacterial metabolic activity increased concentrations of the higher alcohols, fatty acids, and total esters, with a larger increase in ethyl esters than in acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl propionate concentrations were increased by MLF. In contrast, levels of hexyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl acetate were reduced or remained unchanged, depending on the strain and cultivar evaluated. Formation of ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-methylbutryate, and ethyl isovalerate was related to specific bacterial strains used, indicating possible differences in esterase activity. A strain-specific tendency to reduce total aldehyde concentrations was found at the completion of MLF, although further investigation is needed in this regard. This study provided insight into metabolism in O. oeni starter cultures during MLF in red wine. PMID:22120647

Malherbe, Sulette; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; du Toit, Maret

2012-03-01

110

Quality indices of the set-yoghurt prepared from bovine milk treated with horseradish peroxidase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, EC 1.11.1.7) was applied to treat whole bovine milk in the presence or absence of ferulic acid (FA). The treated milk exhibited different rheological properties from the control milk, and was used to prepare set-yoghurt with commercial direct vat set starter. Some chemical, textural and rheological properties of the yoghurt prepared were measured and compared. Compared to that prepared with the control milk, the yoghurt prepared with the HRP- or HRP and FA-treated bovine milk exhibited an increased hardness and adhesiveness, lower syneresis extent, higher apparent viscosity, and higher storage modulus and viscous modulus. Observation of the microstructure of the yoghurt samples under scanning electron microscopy illustrated that HRP treatment of bovine milk led to the prepared yoghurt a more compact and uniform structure. The results in the present work stated that treatment of bovine milk with HRP in the presence of ferulic acid could be applied to improve the quality of set-yoghurt. PMID:25114343

Wen, Yan; Kong, Bao-Hua; Zhao, Xin-Huai

2014-08-01

111

Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®, Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431® and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12® in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen commercial starters. Under the controlled fermentative conditions described below, a good starter combination, for the high rate of cells multiplication and for the good viability during storage, was identified in the mixture of L. casei 431®, BB-12® and Flora Danica, in ratio of 1:1:1 (9 log CFU/mL for each starter culture.

DANIELA PARASCHIV

2011-12-01

112

Antimicrobial Effects of Bacteriocin Like Substance Produced by L. acidophilus from Traditional Yoghurt on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus  

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Full Text Available Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB commonly used in food as starter cultures are known to produce antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins and have great potential as food bio-preservatives. Six L. acidophilus isolated from traditional yoghurt, were screened for the production of antimicrobial substances. Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from bio-yoghurt showed the broadest spectrum of antimicrobial activity was selected for further characterization. The growth of isolates was investigated in MRS medium containing 1-2% glucose at pH 6.5-7. Purification of the active compound was achieved after gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. As revealed by SDS-PAGE, active fractions were relatively homogeneous, showing a protein with molecular mass of 30 kDa. It was stable to heat (100°C for 15 min. The bacteriocin-like substance was active against the gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus and against Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Klepsiella pneumona. The antimicrobial activity against P. aeroginosa was stronger than S. aureus. These antibacterial activities of bacteriocins-like substance were determined under absence of organic acids and hydrogen peroxide in medium.

A.M. Mobarez

2008-01-01

113

Fastener Starter  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fastener Starter is a creative solution to prevent the loss of small fasteners during their installation. This is the only currently available tool that can firmly grip and hold a single screw, bolt, nut, washer, spacer, or any combination of these parts. Other commercially available fastener starters are unable to accommodate a variety of parts simultaneously. The Fastener Starter is a more capable and easier tool to use than prior tools. Its compact size allows it to be used effectively in cramped, difficult-to-see locations. Its design also allows it to be used with or without handles and extenders in other difficult-to-reach locations. It provides better protection against cross threading and loss of fasteners and associated parts. The Fastener Starter is non-magnetic and does not off-gas, thus meeting flight hardware requirements. The Fastener Starter incorporates a combination of features of several commercially available tools, providing an improved means of installing small fasteners. The Fastener Starter includes a custom molded insert that can be removed easily and replaced with a conventional tool bit (e.g., a screwdriver or hex-driver bit). When used with the insert, the Fastener Starter prevents cross threading and damage to internal threaded holes. This is achieved by allowing the fastener to slip within the tool insert when used without a conventional tool bit. Alternatively, without the insert and with a tool bit, the Fastener Starter can torque a fastener. The Fastener Starter has a square recess hole that accepts a conventional square drive handle or extension to accommodate a variety of applications by providing flexibility in handle style and length.

Chandler, Faith; Garton, Harry; Valentino, Bill; Amett, Mike

2005-01-01

114

Determinação da compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de culturas bacteriocinogênicas e fermento láctico / Determination of the growth compatibility between bacteriocinogenic and starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Além da utilização como bioconservantes de alimentos, algumas culturas bacteriocinogênicas estão sendo empregadas para acelerar a maturação de queijos. Porém a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento destas culturas com o fermento láctico é essencial para a obtenção de produtos característicos. O objetiv [...] o deste estudo foi avaliar a compatibilidade de desenvolvimento de Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01 e Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 com duas marcas comerciais de fermentos lácticos. Inicialmente, foi determinada a sensibilidade in vitro dos fermentos às culturas bacteriocinogênicas, somente Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 foi capaz de promover a inibição de ambos os fermentos. Durante desenvolvimento associativo em leite a 35 ºC, as culturas bacteriocinogênicas não afetaram significativamente a produção de ácido láctico pelos fermentos. Estes, por sua vez proporcionaram aumento significativo da atividade de pediocina AcH e enterocina FAIR-E 198 e supressão da atividade da nisina. Dentre todas as culturas lácticas, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 apresentou a maior atividade de aminopeptidases (0,226 a 0,390). Portanto, baseado nos resultados em questão, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 e E. faecium FAIR-E 198 apresentam características de compatibilidade de desenvolvimento com o fermento mesofílico tipo O para serem empregadas como adjuntas no processamento de queijos. Abstract in english In addition to being used as food bioconservants, some bacteriocinogenic cultures have been employed to accelerate cheese ripening. However, the compatibility between their growth and starter cultures is essential to obtain the characteristic products. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the g [...] rowth compatibility between Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, Lactobacillus plantarum ALC 01, and Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 and two commercial starter cultures. Initially, the sensibility in vitro of the starter to bacteriocinogenic cultures by an agar well diffusion assay was determined. Only Lc. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454 was able to cause the inhibition of both starters. During the associative growth in milk at 35ºC, the bacteriocinogenic cultures did not affect the lactic acid production due to the starter cultures. Futhermore, the starter cultures provided a significant increase in the activity of pediocina AcH and enterocin FAIR-E 198. They also suppressed the nisin activity. Among all lactic cultures, Lb. plantarum ALC 01 showed the highest aminopeptidase activity (0,226 to 0,390). Therefore, according to these results Lb. plantarum ALC 01 and E. faecium FAIR-E 198 showed growth compatibility characteristics with the starter cultures and thus can be used as adjunct cultures in cheese making.

Maristela da Silva do, Nascimento; Izildinha, Moreno; Arnaldo Yoshiteru, Kuaye.

2009-03-01

115

Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging during the resting stage on sensory traits of dry-cured ham.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of the inoculation of a mixed starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on odour, appearance, texture and flavour of dry-cured ham were studied. After salting, half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. Nine hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum-packaged during resting. External odour during the process, as well as appearance of the cut surface, texture and flavour on semimembranosus and biceps femoris of the final product were assessed. Vacuum packaging during resting caused an increase in white film and feedstuff flavour, as well as a decrease in aged flavour, hardness, fibrousness and overall liking. The use of the starter culture brought about an increase in feedstuff flavour, a decrease in sweetness, aged flavour, nutty flavour and overall liking and, only in vacuum-packaged hams, the development of a floral flavour, but had no significant effect on texture descriptors. The starter culture studied is considered inappropriate for the production of traditional Spanish dry-cured ham regardless of the type of resting used. PMID:22063839

Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

2008-12-01

116

Exo-Polysaccharide Production of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB and its Effects on Physical Properties of Some Traditional and Industrial Yoghurt Samples of Isfahan  

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Full Text Available Exo-polysaccharide (EPS production by some lactic acid bacteria (starter during fermentation could affect the physical properties of yoghurt. In this study, at first EPS content and its effects on physical properties of three traditional (S1, S2 and G and one industrial (I yoghurt samples were studied. The results showed that there was significant differences in fat content, solid non-fat content, pH, EPS content, viscosity, elasticity and sensitivity to syneresis among samples. Statistical analysis based on a completely randomized design revealed that a significant correlation exists between EPS content and viscosity as well as resistance to syneresis of the samples. Fat content and solid non-fat content of the samples showed no correlation with physical properties of the samples. In the second phase of the study, to remove effects of raw milk composition and to be able to attribute the results to the EPS producing activity of the starter, skim milk was used to produce yoghurt samples using yoghurt samples tested in the first stage only as sources of starter. In these yoghurt samples, there were significant differences between amount of EPS and physical properties of yoghurts. There was also a significant correlation between EPS content and physical properties of each sample.

M SH.Zeinodin

2009-07-01

117

Effects on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and meat starter cultures of bovine lactoferrin in broth and microencapsulated lactoferrin in dry sausage batters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of lactoferrin (LF) alone or with various chelating agents on the growth of 5 strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and 7 meat starter cultures were evaluated. E.coli O157:H7 and starter cultures were grown at 13 or 26 degrees C in Lauria (LB) or All Purpose Tween (APT) broths, respectively, with both broths being supplemented with 2.9% NaCl. LF alone prevented the growth of E. coli O157:H7 strains 0627 and 0628 but other strains grew. The antimicrobial effectiveness of LF was enhanced by EDTA but LF alone did not affect the growth of meat starter cultures in broth. However, when LF plus EDTA and sodium bicarbonate (SB) were used the growth of all meat starter cultures except Lactobacillus curvatus was reduced. During dry sausage manufacture with L. curvatus and Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures the effects of LF, unencapsulated or microencapsulated in paste-like and dried powder forms, in sausage batters with or without EDTA and SB, on the viability of E. coli O157:H7 were examined. The reduction of E. coli O157:H7 during sausage manufacture was significantly enhanced (p<0.05) by all LF treatments. The largest reduction (4.2 log units) was obtained with unencapsulated LF. However, some of the apparent reduction in E.coli O157:H7 numbers with all treatments was due to cell injury rather than lethality, since significantly greater numbers were recovered on APT agar overlaid with the selective medium cefixime-tellurite Sorbitol McConkey agar (ct-SMAC) than on ct-SMAC alone. The narrow spectrum of LF activity and induction of injury rather than inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 limit the effectiveness of this agent against the pathogen in fermented meats. PMID:16996159

Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Holley, Richard A

2007-01-01

118

Whey - raw material for the production of baker starter-cultures  

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Full Text Available The possibility of production Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which are suitable for breadmaking on whey was researched and compared to the results achieved in modified MRS medium. The growth and fermentation activities of Leuconostoc meseteroides L-3, Lactobacillus brevis L-62 and Lactobacillus plantarum L-73 were examined by monitoring lactic and acetic acid production in fermentation broth and in sourdough. Presented results show that deproteinized whey is suitable for LAB production. The best biomass yield (1,7 g/L and lactic acid production (9,15 mg/mL was achieved with L. plantarum L-73. Better flavour, elasticity and shelf life of bread made with whey-based starters compared to the classical yeast-monoculture based bread were determined by sensory analysis (DLG method.

Jasna Mrv?i?

2008-05-01

119

Effect of Single Bacterial Starter Culture on Odour Reduction During Controlled Fermentation of Cassava Tubers for Foofoo Production  

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Full Text Available Effects of single bacterial starter culture on odour reduction during controlled fermentation of cassava tubers for foofoo production were investigated. Pure cultures were used to ferment cassava tubers in water for 96 h. The cultures used include Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiela sp., Lactobacillus plantarum and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. L. plantarum exhibited the highest acid producing ability, decreasing the pH of the Cassava tubers from 6.2 to 3.68 with a corresponding increase in total titratable acidity (TTA from 0.082% to 0.290% during the 96 h fermentation period. The effected changes in pH and TTA by other organisms ranged respectively from 4.88 and 0.135% for Klebsiella sp., 4.68 and 0.136% for L. mesenteroides to 4.90 and 0.139% for B. subtilis with in the period. All the cultures were found to contribute in varying degree to odour reduction in fermented cassava; B. subtilis effected the highest odour reduction followed by L. plantarum.

Henshaw, E. E.

2010-01-01

120

The Effect of Starter Cultures on the Portuguese Traditional Sausage “Paio do Alentejo” in Terms of Its Sensory and Textural Characteristics and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Profile  

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Full Text Available “Paio do Alentejo” is a Portuguese dry-cured sausage, made with meat from the Alentejano pig breed. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the benefits of the use of starter cultures on the quality of the sausage, mainly with regard to its sensory properties, rheological characteristics and PAH profile. Three batches of the product were examined: S1-inoculated with a commercial starter comprising Lactobacillus spp., Micrococcaceae and yeasts; S2-inoculated with a starter comprising Lactobacillus sakei and Staphylococcus xylosus; C-the control batch, was not inoculated. A sensory panel of 12 experts analysed samples in accordance with a descriptive analysis using a structured scale. A Texture Profile Analysis and 16 EPA priority PAHs for dry fermented sausages were performed. Both inoculated batches were well received by the judges, no significant differences being noted between them. The use of S2 led to a slight improvement in terms of cohesiveness. However, the use of starter cultures was not found to influence PAH content.

Elias M.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria / Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Tem-se dado muita atenção à utilização de Bifidobacterium sp. em iogurtes devido às suas excelentes propriedades terapêuticas e nutricionais. Entretanto, é recomendado que, baseado em testes in vitro e em humanos, cada produto comercial indique qual a quantidade mínima diária recomendada de ingestão [...] para que se obtenha os benefícios desejados à saúde. Além da inerente dificuldade do crescimento de Bifidobacterium sp em leite, há uma necessidade de padronização de um método de contagem confiável de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das bactérias do iogurte. Este trabalho avaliou o uso dos meios M-MRS, MRS-NNLP e RCPB pH5, visando a contagem do número de células de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 na presença de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus após a fermentação do iogurte. O meio M-MRS não foi seletivo, apresentando crescimento de L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O meio MRS-NNLP apresentou boa seletividade para B. animalis Bb12, apesar de uma leve redução no número de células ter sido verificada quando comparado ao meio padrão MRS em cultura pura. O meio MRS-NNLP foi considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de B. animalis Bb12 porque a diferença encontrada entre as contagens em cultura pura foi bastante pequena. O meio RCPB pH5 apresentou crescimento diferencial de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 em relação às bactérias do iogurte e uma recuperação de células igual ao meio padrão MRS, sendo considerado o melhor meio de cultura deste estudo para a contagem de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das culturas do iogurte. Abstract in english Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer [...] health benefit(s) based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the use of the media M-MRS, MRS-NNLP and RCPB pH5 aimed at counting the number of Bifidobacterium animalis subesp. lactis in the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus after yoghurt fermentation. The M-MRS medium was not selective, allowing for the growth of L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. MRS-NNLP medium presented a good selectivity for B. animalis Bb12 with a slight reduction in the cell count of this microrganism when compared it to the standard MRS medium in pure culture. MRS-NNLP medium was considered a good option to enumerate B. animalis Bb12 although the reduction found in pure culture due to the low difference between the counts. The medium RCPB pH5 presented differentiated growth of B. animalis Bb12 in relation to the yoghurt bacteria and a cell recovery equal to that of the standard MRS, being considered the best option to enumerate Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria.

Juliana, Moriya; Luciano, Fachin; Ana Lourdes Neves, Gândara; Walkiria Hanada, Viotto.

2006-12-01

122

Evaluation of culture media for counts of Bifidobacterium animalis in the presence of yoghurt bacteria Avaliação de meios de cultura para contagem de Bifidobacterium animalis na presença de bactéria no iogurte  

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Full Text Available Much attention has been paid to the use of Bifidobacterium sp. in yoghurts due to their excellent therapeutic and nutritional properties. However, in order to present health properties, it is recommended that each commercial product should indicate the minimum daily amount required for it to confer health benefit(s based on in vitro and human studies. Besides the inherent low growth of Bifidobacterium sp in milk, there is a need for a reliable method for counting Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the use of the media M-MRS, MRS-NNLP and RCPB pH5 aimed at counting the number of Bifidobacterium animalis subesp. lactis in the presence of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus after yoghurt fermentation. The M-MRS medium was not selective, allowing for the growth of L. delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus. MRS-NNLP medium presented a good selectivity for B. animalis Bb12 with a slight reduction in the cell count of this microrganism when compared it to the standard MRS medium in pure culture. MRS-NNLP medium was considered a good option to enumerate B. animalis Bb12 although the reduction found in pure culture due to the low difference between the counts. The medium RCPB pH5 presented differentiated growth of B. animalis Bb12 in relation to the yoghurt bacteria and a cell recovery equal to that of the standard MRS, being considered the best option to enumerate Bifidobacterium sp in the presence of yoghurt bacteria.Tem-se dado muita atenção à utilização de Bifidobacterium sp. em iogurtes devido às suas excelentes propriedades terapêuticas e nutricionais. Entretanto, é recomendado que, baseado em testes in vitro e em humanos, cada produto comercial indique qual a quantidade mínima diária recomendada de ingestão para que se obtenha os benefícios desejados à saúde. Além da inerente dificuldade do crescimento de Bifidobacterium sp em leite, há uma necessidade de padronização de um método de contagem confiável de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das bactérias do iogurte. Este trabalho avaliou o uso dos meios M-MRS, MRS-NNLP e RCPB pH5, visando a contagem do número de células de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 na presença de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus após a fermentação do iogurte. O meio M-MRS não foi seletivo, apresentando crescimento de L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. O meio MRS-NNLP apresentou boa seletividade para B. animalis Bb12, apesar de uma leve redução no número de células ter sido verificada quando comparado ao meio padrão MRS em cultura pura. O meio MRS-NNLP foi considerado uma boa opção para a contagem de B. animalis Bb12 porque a diferença encontrada entre as contagens em cultura pura foi bastante pequena. O meio RCPB pH5 apresentou crescimento diferencial de Bifidobacterium animalis Bb12 em relação às bactérias do iogurte e uma recuperação de células igual ao meio padrão MRS, sendo considerado o melhor meio de cultura deste estudo para a contagem de Bifidobacterium sp na presença das culturas do iogurte.

Juliana Moriya

2006-12-01

123

Use of starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the preparation of togwa, a Tanzanian fermented food.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starter cultures of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus cellobiosus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaceus) and yeasts (Candida pelliculosa, Candida tropicalis, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyes cerevisiae) isolated from native togwa were tested singly or in combination for their ability to ferment maize-sorghum gruel to produce togwa. All species of bacteria showed an ability to ferment the gruel as judged by lowering the pH from 5.87 to 3.24-3.49 and increasing the titratable acidity from 0.08% to 0.30-0.44% (w/w, lactic acid) in 24 h. Yeasts used singly showed little activity within 12 h, but lowered the pH to 3.57-4.81 and increased the acidity to 0.11-0.21% in 24 h. Yeasts in co-culture with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) had a modest effect on the final acidity (Porientalis. The content of fermentable sugars was reduced during fermentation. Most volatile flavour compounds were produced in samples from fermentation by P. pentosaceus and I. orientalis in co-culture with either L. plantarum or L. brevis. PMID:12745235

Mugula, J K; Narvhus, J A; Sørhaug, T

2003-06-25

124

In vitro determination of volatile compound development during starter culture-controlled fermentation of Cucurbitaceae cotyledons.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3, Pediococcus acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and Torulaspora delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 inoculation on the volatile compound profile of fermentation of Cucumeropsis mannii cotyledons were investigated. Different microbial associations were used as starters. All associations displayed the ability to ferment the cotyledons as judged by lowering the pH from 6.4 to 4.4-5 within 24h and increasing organic acids such as lactate and acetate. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts increased during fermentation. In the fermentation performed without inoculation (control), the LAB and yeast populations were lower than those in inoculated assays at the beginning, but they reached similar populations after 48h. The Enterobacteriaceae population decreased during the fermentation, and they were not detected at 48h in the L. plantarum UFLA CH3 and P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1 (LP+PA) and L. plantarum UFLA CH3, P. acidilactici UFLA BFFCX 27.1, and T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 (LP+PA+TD) samples. The assays inoculated with the yeast T. delbrueckii UFLA FFT2.4 exhibited the majority of volatile compounds (13 compounds) characterized by pleasant notes. The LP+PA+TD association seemed to be appropriate to ferment C. mannii cotyledons. It was able to control the Enterobacteriaceae population, and achieved high concentrations of esters and low concentrations of aldehydes and ketones. PMID:25306300

Kamda, Aristide Guillaume Silapeux; Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Fokou, Elie; Duarte, Whasley Ferreira; Mercy, Achu; Germain, Kansci; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

2015-01-01

125

Combined effect of starter culture and temperature on phenolic compounds during fermentation of Taggiasca black olives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of two operative parameters on the fermentation process of table olives from Taggiasca cultivar were investigated. Laboratory scale fermentations were performed using Lactobacillus plantarum as the only starter and in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae at three different temperatures (23, 30 and 37°C). Control tests used for each trial were fermented only by indigenous microflora. pH and phenolic compounds were monitored in the brine and olive flesh during the fermentation. Higher temperatures (37°C) enhanced notably the release of phenolic compounds in the brine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of brines evidenced the complete hydrolysis of oleuropein after 100 days of fermentation at 37°C for all treatments. The antioxidant power of the extracts was linearly correlated to their polyphenol contents. The results confirmed the efficiency of treatments compared with the control tests for debittering process of table black olives. Phenolic compounds in the brines can be then extracted and used in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:23411341

Pistarino, Erika; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro A; Paini, Marco; Cosulich, Maria E; Perego, Patrizia

2013-06-01

126

Enhancement of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051 mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed. PMID:24135673

Ratanaburee, Anussara; Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

2013-10-15

127

Determining the impact of varying levels of cherry powder and starter culture on quality and sensory attributes of indirectly cured, emulsified cooked sausages.  

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Indirect curing is a process that utilizes ingredients high in naturally occurring nitrate and a nitrate reducing bacterial starter culture (SC) to provide quality and sensory attributes similar to nitrite-added cured meats. The objective of this study was to determine the effects varying concentrations of starter culture and the addition of cherry powder (CP) had on improving quality and sensory attributes of indirectly cured sausages. Four treatments (TRTs) (TRT 1: low SC+no CP; TRT 2: low SC+CP; TRT 3: high SC+no CP; and TRT 4: high SC+CP) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 ppm) control were investigated. Residual nitrite levels throughout storage declined most rapidly in TRTs 2 and 4 (Pcured pigment concentrations. Consumer sensory panel scores revealed all treatment combinations were comparable (P>0.05) to the C for all sensory attributes. PMID:21303726

Terns, Matthew J; Milkowski, Andrew L; Rankin, Scott A; Sindelar, Jeffrey J

2011-06-01

128

Effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during resting stage) on the appearance and some microbiological and physicochemical parameters of dry-cured ham.  

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The effect of the inoculation of a starter culture and vacuum packaging (during the resting stage) on dry-cured ham appearance, microbiological and physicochemical parameters was studied. Half of the 36 processed hams were inoculated, after salting, with a commercial starter culture containing lactic-acid bacteria, Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci and yeasts. 18 hams per group (inoculated and non-inoculated) remained vacuum packaged during resting. Microbiological analyses were carried out on the lean surface during processing, on subcutaneous fat tissue at the drying stage and on lean tissue in the finished product. Appearance was evaluated during processing. Physicochemical analyses (NaCl, H(2)O, proteolysis index, a(w)) were done on Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris in the final product. Inoculation caused a reduction of mould growth and oil drip. Vacuum packaging induced increased proteolysis and increases in all microbial counts and a reduction of oil drip, mould growth and weight loss during processing. PMID:22062595

Sánchez-Molinero, F; Arnau, J

2008-05-01

129

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

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The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a...

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

130

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL, A ND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF SOY BASED GOUDA CHEESE ANALOG MA DE FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF FA T, SODIUM CITRATE AND VARIOUS CHEESE STARTER CULTURES  

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Full Text Available Gouda cheese analog (GCA was made using soy protein isolate (SPI, skim milk powder (SMP, fat (palm fat and butter fat, and water (W at optimal ratio of SPI : SMP : F : W = 14 : 6 : 20 : 60. The effects of butter fat, sodium citrate, and cheese starter culture on the sensory properties of ripened product were assessed by preference test, hedonic test, and the texture profile analysis (TPA of GCA. Thefree fatty acids, water-soluble nitrogen, and reduction in pH value of progel were also measured. The use of 100% butter fat (BF produced strong Gouda flavor. It could be due to the fatty acids content in BF; in contrast, product with 100% palm fat (PF produced tasteless GCA. It might be due to fatty acids content in PF, middle, and long chain fatty acids. Single cheese starter culture could not develop Gouda flavor during ripening. The use of mixed fat (50% BF and 50% PF and mixed cheese starter culture together with Brevibacterium linens developed a suitable characteristic flavor of Gouda product during ripening. The addition of 0.5% sodium citrate could improve the flavor; nevertheless, it reduced the stability of texture.

Abu Amar

2012-11-01

131

Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.  

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The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives. PMID:24290645

Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

2014-04-01

132

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced. Methods and Results: The strains were identified by gyrB gene sequencing and phenotypic tests as B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum. Their antimicrobial activity was determined by the agar spot and well assay, being inhibitory to a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus was produced in H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. PCR results revealed that the isolates have potential for the lipopeptides iturin, fengycin, surfactin, the polyketides difficidin, macrolactin, bacillaene and the dipeptide bacilysin production. Ultra-highperformance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis of antimicrobial substance produced in BHI broth allowed identification of iturin, fengycin and surfactin. Conclusions: The Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum exhibited broadspectrum antifungal and antibacterial properties. They produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for safeguarding Bikalga.

Nielsen, Kristian Fog

2013-01-01

133

Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.  

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Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (?ref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L. monocytogenes growth were within the acceptable simulation zone, which demonstrated good performance of the empirical inter-bacterial interaction model. The new set of models can be used to predict simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese during chilled storage at constant and dynamic temperatures. The applied methodology is likely to be applicable for safety prediction of other types of fermented and unripened dairy products where inhibition by lactic acid bacteria is important for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:25086348

Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

2014-10-01

134

Utilization of Lactobacillus fermentum andSaccharomyces cerevisiae as starter cultures in the production of ‘dolo'  

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Objective:  The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of dolo (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Methodology and results: Two strains each of Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani et al., 2007; Glover et al., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing dolo both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. Dolo produced from starter combinations of one strain of L. fermentum and both S. cerevisiae strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential of representative strains ofpredominant lactic acid bacteria and yeast as starter cultures in the production of (a type of sorghum beer) of comparable consistency and organoleptic quality to the commercial product in Burkina Faso. Two strains each of and from previous studies (Sawadogo- Lingani 2007; Glover ., 2005) were used as starter cultures in producing both under laboratory conditions, and in the field (pilot plant). pH, lactic acid bacteria and yeast growth were determined at the beginning and end of fermentation. Products were subjected to sensory evaluation for taste, aroma and mouth feel and results analyzed using the Students (t) test. produced from starter combinations of one strain of and both strains had taste and aroma that did not differ significantly from the commercial product, while single isolate combinations gave better mouth feel. Conclusions and applications of findings: Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid Single-strain and double-strain combinations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast starter cultures could be used successfully to produce dolo of different quality indices. Combinations of either LAB strain with one yeast strain (AC17) produced dolo that was more comparable to the commercial product than combinations with the other yeast strain (TK25). LAB strain ZN4.1 in combination with yeast strain AC17 gave better dolo in all attributes evaluated. On the whole, dolo produced with double-strain combinations of LAB and yeast under laboratory conditions possessed consistent organoleptic quality and stability comparable to the commercial product. Varied combinations of these starters should be investigated in order to determine a suitable combination for producing dolo possessing all the desired organoleptic qualities and consistency.

Glover, R.L.K.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.

2009-01-01

135

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos / Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como áci [...] do lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos. Abstract in english Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to i [...] nhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

136

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

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Full Text Available Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como ácido lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61% e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15 UFC/mL foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14 UFC/mL, mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos.Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to inhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61% and higher cellular viability (3x10(15 CFU/mL were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14CFU/mL, even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99% of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler BALDUINO

1999-12-01

137

Cultura lática mista com potencial de aplicação como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos / Mixed lactic culture with potential application as starter culture in meat products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias viáveis adicionadas em produtos cárneos com a finalidade de melhorar a qualidade sanitária, as características sensoriais e reduzir nitritos, são denominadas de cultura iniciadora. Pode ser constituída de cultura pura ou mista com habilidade em produzir substâncias antimicrobianas como áci [...] do lático e bacteriocinas, capazes de inibir microrganismos indesejáveis ao produto alimentício. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se algumas associações entre bactérias láticas, Lactobacillus, Pediococcus e Enterococcus, visando obter culturas láticas com habilidade bioquímica para fermentação homolática; alta viabilidade celular; tolerância ao sais NaCl e NaNO2; capacidade de reduzir nitritos e inibir patógenos como S. aureus; Salmonella spp. e E. coli enteropatogênica. Os cultivos foram desenvolvidos em MRS, incubados a 37ºC por 48 horas. O ácido lático foi determinado por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência. Nitrito residual foi determinado por espectrofotometria. A fermentação homolática com melhor produção de ácido lático (4,61%) e alta viabilidade celular (3 x 10(15) UFC/mL) foi obtida pela cultura constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium . A cultura mista selecionada apresentou alta viabilidade celular (1x10(14) UFC/mL), mesmo em altas concentrações de NaCl e NaNO2. O caldo fermentado apresentou 99% de redução do nitrito inicial. A cultura lática mista selecionada inibiu S. aureus, Salmonella spp. e E. coli em ágar BHI. Em lingüiça frescal, observou-se a diminuição da contagem de S. aureus e coliformes totais em relação ao controle. Salmonella spp. não foi detectada nas amostras testadas. Os resultados mostram a possibilidade de aplicação da cultura mista selecionada como cultura iniciadora em produtos cárneos. Abstract in english Viable bacteria added in meat products with the objective to improve the quality and the sensorial characteristics and to reduce nitrites are called starter culture. They can be formed by pure or mixed culture that are able to produce antimicrobial substances as lactic acid and bacteriocins and to i [...] nhibit undesirable microorganisms in the food product. In this work there were evaluated various associations of lactic bacteria among Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, in order to obtain lactic cultures with the biochemical ability for homolactic fermentation; high cellular viability; tolerance to the NaCl and NaNO2 salts; able to reduce nitrites and to inhibit pathogens such as S. aureus, Salmonella and E. coli. The cultures were developed in MRS medium, incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours. Lactic acid was determined by HPLC. Residual nitrite was measured by spectrophotometry. The homolactic fermentation with better lactic acid production (4.61%) and higher cellular viability (3x10(15) CFU/mL) were obtained by the culture constituted by L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. The selected starter showed high cellular viability (1x10(14)CFU/mL), even in high concentrations of NaCl and NaNO2. The fermented broth showed reduction (99%) of initial nitrite. The selected mixed lactic acid culture inhibited S. aureus, Salmonella spp. and E. coli in BHI-agar. In fresh sausage it was observed reductions on counts of S. aureus and total coliforms were observed in fresh sausage, in relation to the controls. Salmonella spp. was not detected in the assayed samples. The results show the possibility of application of the selected mixed culture as starter culture in meat products.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

1999-12-01

138

Bifidobacteria as Potential Functional Starter Cultures: A Case Study by MSc Students in Food Science and Technology (University of Foggia, Southern Italy  

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Full Text Available This research paper was the results of activity of MSc students of Food Science and Technology, attending the class “Biotechnology of Functional Starter”. Five strains of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis; B. longum subsp. infantis; B. breve; B. animalis subsp. animalis; B. bifidum were evaluated in order to assess their suitability as functional starter cultures, by studying the following technological and probiotic traits: growth at different temperatures, NaCl amounts and pH values; acidifying ability; metabolism (arginin deamination, esculin hydrolysis, acetoin production; survival at low pH and in presence of bile salts; hydrophobic properties; antibiotic resistance. After laboratory assays and strain selection through a multivariate analyses, it was highlighted that B. longum subsp. infantis and B. animalis subsp. lactis represent a good compromise as potential functional starter cultures, as B. animalis subp. lactis showed a high growth index at pH 5 and good values at 25?C and 30?C, as well as the minimal viability loss at pH 2.5. B. longum subsp. infantis DSMZ 20088 was the best microorganism for its growth index in presence of 6.5% of salt added and at 25?C and 30?C.

Angela Pacifico

2012-01-01

139

Selection of Starter Culture for Yogurt Preparation and its Antibacterial Activity  

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Full Text Available Studies on the symbiotic relationship of six combinations of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus for the preparation of yogurt in relation to its anti-microbial activity were carried out. The ratio 2:1 of L. bulgaricus: S. thermophillus in the inoculum was found best for the preparation of prime quality yogurt with maximum antibacterial activity. The ratio of the two cultures in the final product was 1:1. The yogurt samples were evaluated for curdling time, acidity, diacetyl acetoin contents and antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the best product was comparable in 200 mcg/ml with 100 mcg/ml of Kanamycin and Ampiclox

Mujeeb ur Rahman

1999-01-01

140

Influencing cocoa flavour using Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus in a defined mixed starter culture for cocoa fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential impact of aromatic and pectinolytic yeasts on cocoa flavour was investigated using two defined mixed starter cultures encompassing strains of Pichia kluyveri and Kluyveromyces marxianus for inoculating cocoa beans in small scale tray fermentations. Samples for microbial and metabolite analysis were collected at 12-24 hour intervals during 120 h of fermentation. Yeast isolates were grouped by (GTG)5-based rep-PCR fingerprinting and identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene and the actin gene. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) was conducted on isolates belonging to the species P. kluyveri and K. marxianus to verify strain level identity with the inoculated strains. Furthermore, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to follow yeast and bacterial dynamics over time including the presence of the bacterial inoculum consisting of Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. Yeast cell counts peaked after 12 h of fermentation with the predominant species being identified as Hanseniaspora opuntiae and Hanseniaspora thailandica. P. kluyveri and K. marxianus were found to compose 9.3% and 13.5% of the yeast population, respectively, after 12 h of fermentation whilst PFGE showed that ~88% of all P. kluyveri isolates and 100% of all K. marxianus isolates were identical to the inoculated strains. Despite never being the dominant yeast species at any stage of fermentation, the un-conched chocolates produced from the two inoculated fermentations were judged by sensory analysis to differ in flavour profile compared to the spontaneously fermented control. This could indicate that yeasts have a greater impact on the sensory qualities of cocoa than previously assumed. PMID:23866910

Crafack, Michael; Mikkelsen, Morten B; Saerens, Sofie; Knudsen, Morten; Blennow, Andreas; Lowor, Samuel; Takrama, Jemmy; Swiegers, Jan H; Petersen, Gert B; Heimdal, Hanne; Nielsen, Dennis S

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
141

Evaluation of the thermally dried immobilized cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on apple pieces as a potent starter culture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of thermal drying of immobilized Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on apple pieces on the use of the derived biocatalyst in whey fermentation. The thermally dried immobilized biocatalyst was compared to wet and freeze-dried immobilized cells, in respect to maintenance of cell viability and fermentation efficiency. The thermal drying process appeared to be more efficient on survival rate as an 84% of the cells used for immobilization survived the process, while the freeze-drying process led to a 78% rate. The thermally dried immobilized biocatalyst was used in 12 repeated batch fermentations of synthetic lactose medium and whey at 37, 45, and 50 degrees C in order to evaluate its metabolic activity. The high number of repeated batch fermentations showed a tendency for high operational stability. Fermentations continued for up to 2 months without any significant loss of metabolic activity. SPME GC/MS analysis of aroma-related compounds revealed the distinctive character of fermented whey produced by the thermally dried immobilized bacterium cells. The effect of storage at 4-6 degrees C for up to 165 days of the biocatalyst, held directly after drying and after repeated batch fermentations, on fermentation activity was also studied. After storage, reactivation in whey was immediate, and the immobilized biocatalyst was able to produce up to 51.7 g/L lactic acid at 37 degrees C. The potential of thermally dried immobilized L. delbrueckii as a starter culture for food production was subsequently evaluated. PMID:17985843

Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Panas, Panayiotis; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2007-11-28

142

A 23S rDNA-targeted polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Staphylococcus aureus in meat starter cultures and dairy products.  

Science.gov (United States)

A polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Staphylococcus aureus was developed. The system consisted of the following components: (i) selective enrichment, (ii) DNA isolation, (iii) amplification of DNA with primers targeted against the 23S rRNA gene, and (iv) evaluation of the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by Southern hybridization and nested polymerase chain reaction. The method achieved a high degree of sensitivity and unambiguity as required for the detection of contaminants in food starter preparations. The method permitted detection of Staphylococcus aureus in preparations of meat starter cultures containing Staphylococcus carnosus either alone or in combination with lactobacilli, pediococci, and/or Kocuria varians. Detection limits were sufficiently low to show within 12 h the presence of 10(0) CFU of S. aureus in starter preparations containing 10(10) CFU of S. carnosus. The system was also applied to dried skim milk and cream. For detection without selective enrichment, a protocol was developed and permitted detection of 120 CFU of S. aureus in 1 ml of cream within 6 h. With nested polymerase chain reaction, the detection limit was decreased by one order of magnitude. PMID:10528718

Straub, J A; Hertel, C; Hammes, W P

1999-10-01

143

Applaying of high pressure to yoghurt preservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of the high pressure treatment in the range of 200 - 1000 MPa/15 min., at the room temperature, on survivability of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus was investigated. Sensorial characteristics of yoghurt was conducted by a panel of experts. Influence of yoghurt acidity on the effect of pressurization was also determined. In the experiment, we also attempted to extend shelf-life of yoghurt, subjecting it to the pressure of 550 MPa/15 min. Pressure treated yoghurt was stored for 4-weeks at room and refrigerated temperature; every seven days microbial number, acidity and sensory attributes of the beverage was determined. Addition of fruit jam on the effect of pressurization was also checked. Survivability of microorganisms depends on the value of pressure used in the experiment. The research displayed that yoghurt acidity did not influence the effect of pressurization. During 4-weeks of storage, yoghurt processed at 550 MPa maintained its beneficial characteristics longer compared to the non-pressurized one. Addition of fruit jam beneficially affected consistency of the pressure treated yoghurt. The conducted studies showed that there was possibility of preserving yoghurt by the method of high pressures. Thus, to preserve yoghurt, the complete inactivation of microflora is not necessary. PMID:24757790

Jankowska, A; Reps, A; Proszek, A; Krasowska, M

2003-01-01

144

Optimation Formula of Goat Milk Yoghurt and White Oyster Mushroom Powder with Mixture Design Methods  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt is a product of fermented milk using lactic acid bacteria as a starter. As a probiotics, Lactobacillus achidophillus was applied in the making of symbiotic yoghurt with white oyster mushroom powder as a prebiotic source. The objective of this research was to optimize goat milk yoghurt formula by mixture design with three component (white oyster mushroom, skim milk and skim goat milk and four responses (pH, viscosity, total titrated acid and lactid acid bacteria. The result indicated that the optimum formula was a mixture of 0.5% white oyster mushroom, 3% skim milk and 96% goat skim milk. The optimum formula low pH, high viscosity and high total lactic acid bacteria. Lastly, the optimum formula was further modified by adding spices syrup as a topping (made from ginger extract, mixture extract of cloves-cardamom-anise and mixture extract of cloves-cardamom-anise in a different volume of addition (2, 4 and 6 mL with serving size of 100 mL goat milk yoghurt. These hedonic test result showed that the highest score of the taste properties were 4.37 for 4 mL addition of ginger syrup; 4.13 for 6 mL addition of mixture of cloves-cardamom-anise syrup and 4.23 for 6 mL addition of mixture of cloves-cardamom-cinnamon syrup. Based on these results, the consumer’ preference was still at the level of netral rather like.

Yulianti Fitri Kurnia

2014-01-01

145

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, I: Technological Applicability, Shelf-Life and Sensorial Quality  

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Full Text Available This first part of a two-part study focuses on the technical feasibility of applying radio frequency (RF heating at different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C to a stirred yoghurt gel after culturing. For comparison, a convectional (CV heating process was also applied. The aim was to increase the yoghurt shelf-life, by preventing post-acidification and the growth of yeasts and molds. At the same time, the viability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was investigated in view of existing legal regulations for yoghurts. Additionally, the yoghurt color, aroma and taste profiles were evaluated. It was found that the application of RF heating was effective for the rapid attainment of homogenous temperatures of 58 and 65 °C, respectively. For RF heating at 72 °C, it was not possible to establish a stable heating regime, since in some cases, there was significant overheating followed by strong contraction of the yoghurt curd and whey separation. Hence, it was decided not to continue with the RF heating series at 72 °C. In the case of CV heating, heat transfer limitations were observed, and prolonged heating was required. Nevertheless, we showed that yeasts and molds survived neither the RF nor CV heat treatment. LAB were found not to survive the CV treatment, but these beneficial microorganisms were still present in reduced numbers after RF heating to 58 and 65 °C. This important observation is most likely related to the mildness of RF treatment. While post-acidification was not observed on yoghurt storage, slight color changes occurred after heat treatment. The flavor and taste profiles were shown to be similar to the reference product. Furthermore, a trained sensory panel was not able to distinguish between, for example, the reference yoghurt and the RF 65 °C sample by triangular testing (? = 5%, showing the potential of novel strategies for further improvements of heat-treated yoghurt.

Caroline Siefarth

2014-05-01

146

Use of a Genetically Enhanced, Pediocin-Producing Starter Culture, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, To Control Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar Cheese  

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Cheddar cheese was prepared with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MM217, a starter culture which contains pMC117 coding for pediocin PA-1. About 75 liters of pasteurized milk (containing ca. 3.6% fat) was inoculated with strain MM217 (ca. 106 CFU per ml) and a mixture of three Listeria monocytogenes strains (ca. 103 CFU per ml). The viability of the pathogen and the activity of pediocin in the cheese were monitored at appropriate intervals throughout the manufacturing process and during ripen...

Buyong, Nurliza; Kok, Jan; Luchansky, John B.

1998-01-01

147

Addition of formic acid or starter cultures to liquid feed. Effect on pH, microflora composition, organic acid concentration and ammonia concentration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some of the charateristics of good quality fermented liquid feed (FLF) are low pH, high numbers of lactic acid bacteria, and low numbers of enterobacteria. In order to test strategies to avoid a proliferation of enterobacteria during the initial phase of FLF elaboration, two in vitro studies were carried out. Addition of various doses of formic acid or two different starter cultures were tested. Adding 0.1% formic acid or L. plantarum VTT E-78076 to the liquid feed seemed to be addecuate ways of inhibiting the growth of enterobacteria, without depleting the growth of lactic acid bacteria. PMID:15954629

Canibe, N; Miquel, N; Miettinen, H; Jensen, B B

2001-01-01

148

Identification of peptides in traditional and probiotic sheep milk yoghurt with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two sets of traditional Greek sheep milk yoghurt were produced: the first one (YC) using normal yoghurt culture (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus !10.13 and Streptococcus thermophilus !10.7) and the second (PR) with the same normal culture mixed with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei DC412. YC and PR had similar physicochemical properties and proteolysis patterns throughout storage. Both products showed similar peptide profiles by RP-HPLC but quantitative differences were ob...

Papadimitriou, Christos G.; Vafopoulou-mastrojiannaki, Anna; Silva, Sofia Vieira; Gomes, Ana-maria; Malcata, Francisco Xavier; Alichanidis, Efstathios

2007-01-01

149

CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO / STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO / FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o [...] desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho. Abstract in spanish RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesana [...] l, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The [...] quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

DIOFANOR, ACEVEDO; LUIS E, GUZMAN; AIDA, RODRIGUEZ.

150

Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum involved in the processing of dolo and pito, West African sorghum beers, for the selection of starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

AIM: Technological properties of Lactobacillus fermentum isolates involved in spontaneous fermentation of dolo and pito wort were examined to select starter cultures. METHODS AND RESULTS: 264 isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity, acidifying activity, exopolysaccharides (EPSs) and amylase production. An antimicrobial activity was detected for 33.3%, 31.8%, 22.7% and 15.9% of the isolates towards Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A producer, Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A and B producer, Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, respectively. A similarity was found between the isolates which were clustered in four groups according to their rates of acidification of sorghum malt broth. The faster acidifying group of isolates (43.48%) had a rate of acidification evaluated as Delta pH of 1.14 +/- 0.15 pH unit after 6 h of fermentation, followed by a second group of isolates (38.08%) with a similar rate of acidification after 9 h of fermentation. From the isolates endowed with an antimicrobial activity, 5.76% belonged to the faster acidifying group and 40.38% belonged to the second group. 88.7% of the isolates had the ability for producing EPSs but not amylase. CONCLUSION: Lactobacillus fermentum ferments dolo and pito wort by lowering the pH and providing organic acids, EPSs and antimicrobial compounds. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Strains with a rapid rate of acidification, an antimicrobial activity and producing EPSs are suggested to have potential for starter cultures.

Sawadogo-Lingani, H.; Diawara, B.

2008-01-01

151

CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO / STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO / FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o [...] desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho. Abstract in spanish RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesana [...] l, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The [...] quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

DIOFANOR, ACEVEDO; LUIS E, GUZMAN; AIDA, RODRIGUEZ.

2012-06-01

152

CULTIVO INICIADOR PARA LA PRODUCCIÓN DEL SUERO COSTEÑO FERMENTO INICIADOR PARA A PRODUÇÃO DO SORO COSTENHO STARTER CULTURE FOR PRODUCTION OF SUERO COSTEÑO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMEN El suero costeño elaborado utilizando como cultivos iniciadores las combinaciones 30:70 y 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis, presentaron la menor sinéresis y la mayor viabilidad, además no existen diferencias significativas en el análisis sensorial con el producto artesanal, por lo cual pueden ser utilizadas como cultivos iniciadores para elaborar Suero Costeño a nivel industrial.RESUMO O soro costenho elaborado usando como fermentos combinações 30:70 e 40:60 de Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, teve a menor sinérese e mais viávilidade, existem também diferenças significativas na análise sensorial com o produto artesanal, assim pode ser usado como fermentos para o desenvolvimento de toda a indústria de soro Costenho.ABSTRACT The suero costeño made of ratio combinations 30:70 and 40:60 with Lactobacillus paracasei: Lactococcus lactis could be used as starter culture because the syneresis is low, and viability is improve and there´s no significantly differences in sensorial analysis using the artisanal whey. The quality, safety and acceptability of traditional suero costeño may be significantly improved through the use of starter cultures.

DIOFANOR ACEVEDO

2012-06-01

153

Toxicological assessment of Penicillium nalgiovense strains for use as starter cultures in the manufacture of dry fermented sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of fungal starter strains in the casing of dry fermented sausages allows standardization of the manufacturing process and ensures consumer safety. Penicillium nalgiovense is normally used for this purpose. Even though this species is reported as safe with respect to the production of the most common mycotoxins, its safety may be strain specific. The aim of the present work was to assess the toxicogenic potential of nine P. nalgiovense strains isolated from dry fermented sausages that were previously suitable as starters. The strains were tested for toxicity on brine shrimp larvae and the human cell line MCF7, for mutagenicity in the Ames test, and for antibacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. According to our results, several P. nalgiovense strains were positive in more than one bioassay. Therefore, it is important to use different toxicological assays when characterizing strains intended for food use. Strains S1-2 and S14-4, which belong to biotypes 6 and 5, respectively, were nontoxigenic under the conditions tested. Overall, strain S1-2 of P. nalgiovense proved to be best suited as a starter in dry fermented sausage manufacture because in addition of being nontoxicogenic it produces white conidia, which is a desirable feature. PMID:19722398

Ludemann, Vanesa; Pose, Graciela; Moavro, Alfonsina; Maliaviabarrena, Maria G; Fandiño, Rosario; Ripoll, Giselle; Basílico, Juan C; Pardo, Alejandro G

2009-08-01

154

Viscosity of stirred yoghurt during storage  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the changes in viscosity of stirred yoghurt from producer A (n = 20 and producer B (n = 20 throughout 21 days of storage. The content of fat, dry matter, non-fat dry matter, lactic acid, pH and viscosity of stirred yoghurt were determined on the 0, 7th, 14th and the 21st day of storage of the product at the temperature of 4 °C. Considerable change in viscosity of stirred yoghurt (p < 0,05 throughout the maintenance period was determined on the 0 and the 21st day for both yoghurts. The viscosity of the stirred yoghurt from producer A was increased from 0,324Pa s on the 0 day to 1,912 Pa s on the 21st day. At the same time the viscosity of the stirred yoghurt from producer B was increased from 0,208 Pa s on the 0 day to 0,883 Pa s on the 21st day. In comparison with producer A, a considerably higher quantity of non-fat dry matter and higher quantities of lactic acid (p<0,05 in the stirred yoghurt from producer B resulted in a more stable gel structure throughout the whole research period.

Šimun Zamberlin

2007-10-01

155

The Production of Yoghurt with Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from Infants in Jordan  

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Full Text Available Cultures of presumptive lactobacilli and bifidobacteria were isolated from eight infants living in Amman, Jordan. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, three promising isolates were identified as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus gasseri and Bifidobacterium infantis. These strains were employed to make yoghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time, a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus providing the rapid acidification. Yoghurts containing counts of > 1.0 x 108 cfu ml-1 of the individual probiotics and high counts of the traditional species from yoghurt were produced, and storage trials at 4oC showed that the viability of the probiotic cultures was retained over 15 days.

M.S.Y. Haddadin

2004-01-01

156

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir / Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo [...] de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial via [...] bility during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

Flávia Daiana, Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo, Pimentel; Sandra, Garcia; Sandra Helena, Prudencio.

157

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial viability during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas.

Flávia Daiana Montanuci

2012-12-01

158

Effect of starter culture and inulin addition on microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of whole or skim milk Kefir / Efeito do tipo de cultura starter e da adição de inulina na viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de Kefir de leite integral ou desnatado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da adição de inulina e do tipo de iniciador (grãos de Kefir ou cultura starter comercial) da fermentação sobre a viabilidade microbiana, textura e características químicas de bebidas Kefir, formuladas com leite integral ou desnatado, foi avaliado durante o armazenamento refrigerado. O tipo [...] de iniciador não teve influência sobre a viabilidade microbiana ao longo da estocagem das bebidas, mas as alterações químicas e de textura (redução do pH, teores de lactose e inulina e aumento da acidez, firmeza e sinérese) foram mais acentuadas nas formulações fermentadas com grãos do que com cultura starter. A adição de inulina não influenciou a acidez ou a viabilidade de bactérias ácido-láticas, mas, em geral, seu efeito sobre a sobrevivência das bactérias ácido-acéticas, Lactococcus e leveduras, firmeza e sinérese foi dependente do tipo de leite e da cultura de fermentação utilizados. De modo geral, a contagem de leveduras, bactérias ácido-acéticas e Leuconostoc aumentou ou permaneceu inalterada, enquanto que a população total de bactérias ácido-lácticas e de Lactococcus reduziu de 1 a 2 log ou se manteve durante o armazenamento das bebidas. Abstract in english The effect of inulin addition and starters (Kefir grains or commercial starter culture) on the microbial viability, texture, and chemical characteristics of Kefir beverages prepared with whole or skim milk was evaluated during refrigerated storage. The type of starter did not influence microbial via [...] bility during the storage of the beverages, but the chemical and textural changes (decreases in pH, lactose concentration, and inulin and increased acidity, firmness, and syneresis) were more pronounced in the formulations fermented with grains than those fermented with the starter culture. The addition of inulin did not influence acidity or viability of lactic acid bacteria, but in general, its effect on the survival of acetic acid bacteria, Lactococcus and yeasts, firmness, and syneresis depended on the type of milk and starter culture used. Generally, the yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and Leuconostoc counts increased or remained unchanged, while the total population of lactic acid bacteria and Lactococcus were either reduced by 1 to 2 logs or remained unchanged during storage.

Flávia Daiana, Montanuci; Tatiana Colombo, Pimentel; Sandra, Garcia; Sandra Helena, Prudencio.

2012-12-01

159

The relationships between consumer liking, sensory and chemical attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines elaborated with different Oenococcus oeni starter cultures  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BackgroundMalolactic fermentation (MLF) mediated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been shown to modulate chemical and sensory attributes of wine. This study investigated the relation between consumer liking, chemical and sensory attributes of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Pinotage wines that were made over two vintages by four different lactic acid Oenococcus oeni starter cultures as well as a control treatment where MLF was prevented. ResultsDescriptive analysis showed that the sensory attributes buttery, caramel, vegetative flavour, fruity and nutty aroma differed significantly between the wines. These effects on the wines were not the same for the two vintages tested. Preference mapping results showed that the sensory attributes influenced the average consumer liking. The main chemical and sensory correlations found for MLF-treated wines were related to 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) with the buttery character and various esters with fruity aromas. ConclusionAlthough the direct effect of the bacterial starter cultures on wine sensory attributes is difficult to establish, and subject to variation over vintage, the present work suggests that the contribution of LAB starter cultures to wine sensory attributes can influence consumer liking. Selection of an MLF starter culture can thus potentially be used to develop specific wine styles. (c) 2013 Society of Chemical Industry

Malherbe, Sulette; Menichelli, Elena

2013-01-01

160

Yoghurt, butter and cheese - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules  

... Yoghurt, butter and cheese - Environmental Product Declarations - Product Category Rules Yoghurt, butter and cheese - Environmental Product Declarations - Product ...Search Comment this PCR Post Using EPDs PCR Search Yoghurt, butter and cheese Search Pcr Yoghurt, butter and cheese PCR information This document ... Detailed information Name: Yoghurt, butter and cheese CPC Code(s): 2223 Yoghurt and other fermented or acidified milk and cream 2225 ... Cheese, fresh or processed 2224 Butter and other fats and oils derived from milk Approval date: 2013-09-17 Registration No: 2013:18 ...

 
 
 
 
161

Proteolytic activity of lactic acid bacteria strains and fungal biota for potential use as starter cultures in dry-cured ham.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the processing of dry-cured meat products, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins undergo proteolysis, which has a marked effect on product flavor. Microbial proteolytic activity is due to the action of mostly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to a lesser extent micrococci. The proteolytic capacity of molds in various meat products is of interest to meat processors in the Mediterranean area. Eleven LAB and mold strains from different commercial origins were tested for proteolytic activity against pork myosin, with a view to possible use of these strains as starter cultures for Iberian dry-cured ham. Proteolytic activity was tested by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The LAB strains with the highest proteolytic activity were Lactobacillus plantarum (L115), Pediococcus pentosaceus (Saga P TM), and Lactobacillus acidophilus (FARGO 606 TM). The best fungal candidate was Penicillium nalgiovense LEM 50I followed by Penicillium digitatum, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Penicillium chrysogenum. PMID:21549056

Toledano, A; Jordano, R; López, C; Medina, L M

2011-05-01

162

Biofunctionality of Probiotic Soy Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soybean provides health benefits such as reducing cardiovascular disease, reducing menopausal symptoms, weight loss, arthritis, diabetes, osteoporosis and brain function. It contains phytochemicals such as isoflavones, saponins, phytosterols that promote health benefits. Soy food products are perceived as healthy food and are considered an important part of the diet. More than 50% consumers in the USA agreed that soy foods are healthy foods. Soymilk is considered as a suitable economical substitute for cow’s milk and an ideal nutritional supplement for lactose-intolerant population and also considered cholesterol free product for cardiovascular disorders. Fermented soy milk is a good source of bioactive peptides such as anti-ACE, antioxidative, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory. Many fermented soy milk based products such as soy cheese, soymilk-kefir, soy yoghurt etc. are produced.

Shilpa Vij

2011-07-01

163

Effect of Temperature on Biochemical Changes Induced by Bacillus subtilis (SDA3 During Starter Culture Fermentation of Soybean into Condiment (Soy-Daddawa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In an attempt to upgrade the traditional fermentation technology of soybean into daddawa, the effect of fermentation temperature on the biochemical and organoleptic properties of soy-daddawa produced by starter culture was studied. Bacillus subtilis SDA3 previously selected as a good starter for soy-daddawa production was used to ferment sterile dehulled cooked soybeans at 25, 30, 35 and 40°C for 72 h. The viable cell counts of B.subtilis SDA3 increased throughout the 72 h fermentation process at 25 to 35°C while the counts decreased after the 24th h at 40°C fermentation. pH value increased throughout the fermentation with a rather low increase in the fermentation at 25°C. Relative proteolytic activity increased with fermentation, attained a peak at 48 h and then dropped in fermentations at 30-40°C. Proteolytic activity which was not detected by the 12th h increased thereafter till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Free amino acid content increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 30-40°C while an initial drop was observed in the first 12 h with subsequent increase till the end of the fermentation at 25°C. Alpha amylase activity increased, attained a peak at the 48 h and then dropped in 30 and 35°C fermentations. Alpha amylase activity increased throughout the 72 h fermentation at 25°C while at 40°C, the activity attained a peak at the 24th h and then dropped. Fermentation at 35°C gave the highest levels of proteolytic and alpha amylase activities, pH and free amino acids in soybean inoculated with B. subtilis SDA3. Organoleptically, soybean fermented by B. subtilis SDA3 at 35°C produced the best quality soy-daddawa as judged by a panel of regular soy-daddawa consumers. Fermentation at 35°C was therefore chosen as the optimised temperature for the production of soy-daddawa by B. subtilis SDA3 starter culture.

B.O. Omafuvbe

2008-01-01

164

Kinetic Analysis of Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria in Cocoa Pulp Simulation Media toward Development of a Starter Culture for Cocoa Bean Fermentation ?  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-01-01

165

Kinetic analysis of strains of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in cocoa pulp simulation media toward development of a starter culture for cocoa bean fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The composition of cocoa pulp simulation media (PSM) was optimized with species-specific strains of lactic acid bacteria (PSM-LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (PSM-AAB). Also, laboratory fermentations were carried out in PSM to investigate growth and metabolite production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and of Acetobacter pasteurianus isolated from Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations, in view of the development of a defined starter culture. In a first step, a selection of strains was made out of a pool of strains of these LAB and AAB species, obtained from previous studies, based on their fermentation kinetics in PSM. Also, various concentrations of citric acid in the presence of glucose and/or fructose (PSM-LAB) and of lactic acid in the presence of ethanol (PSM-AAB) were tested. These data could explain the competitiveness of particular cocoa-specific strains, namely, L. plantarum 80 (homolactic and acid tolerant), L. fermentum 222 (heterolactic, citric acid fermenting, mannitol producing, and less acid tolerant), and A. pasteurianus 386B (ethanol and lactic acid oxidizing, acetic acid overoxidizing, acid tolerant, and moderately heat tolerant), during the natural cocoa bean fermentation process. For instance, it turned out that the capacity to use citric acid, which was exhibited by L. fermentum 222, is of the utmost importance. Also, the formation of mannitol was dependent not only on the LAB strain but also on environmental conditions. A mixture of L. plantarum 80, L. fermentum 222, and A. pasteurianus 386B can now be considered a mixed-strain starter culture for better controlled and more reliable cocoa bean fermentation processes. PMID:20889778

Lefeber, Timothy; Janssens, Maarten; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

2010-12-01

166

Inventory of non starter lactic acid bacteria from ripened Parmigiano Reggiano cheese as assessed by a culture dependent multiphasic approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to investigate microbial species diversity and strain complexity of the cultivable non starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) occurring in 31 ripened Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheeses. Dereplication of 127 lactobacilli isolates by (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting yielded a total of 51 genotypes. Phylogenetic relatedness of all the genotypes with known Lactobacillus species was determined by a novel combined amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (16S-ARDRA), species-specific PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The species Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracasei comprise the largest portions of the cultivable NSLAB community in PR cheese, with an inter-individual diversity ranging from one to four dominant genotypes per sample. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus harbinensis and Lactobacillus fermentum species were also detected at low frequency. The data showed differences in cultivable NSLAB population, with an overall decrease in diversity and complexity from early to advanced stages of ripening. Finally the de-replicated collection of genotypes resulting from this work is the bases for further functional screening. PMID:22626626

Solieri, Lisa; Bianchi, Aldo; Giudici, Paolo

2012-06-01

167

Applications of Inulin and Mucilage as Stabilizers in Yoghurt Production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aimed to test some of natural products as stabilizers for yoghurt containing inulin and mucilage for enhancement its properties as a functional foods. Yoghurt containing natural stabilizers was manufactured and mucilage was added to yoghurt with ratio of 0.2% but inulin was added to yoghurt with ratio of 4 and 6%. Chemical compositions such as pH value, titratable acidity, wheying off, ash, protein, lactose, total carbohydrate, total solid, acetaldehyde and diacetyl of the tested yoghurt with and without stabilizers were carried out using the official methods. The data concluded that the pH values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and decreased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. On the other hand, Titratable acidity values of tested yoghurt showed significant changes and increased with the increasing of the storage period in the all of yoghurt treatments. The Wheying off of the set yoghurt was significantly lower in the yoghurt containing inulin at 4, 6% and mucilage at 0.2% compared with control yoghurt. The reduction percentages in the wheying-off were 30, 58 and 50%, respectively compared to control. None of the stabilizers used in (p = 0.05 affect on the ash content of yoghurt However, a decrease in lactose content was observed with the increase in the storage period. There was a substantial decrease in lactose content from 2 to 0.78% on the 10th day of storage. The protein content of yoghurt treated with inulin 6%, mucilage 0.2% and control were significantly different (p = 0.05 and gave value of 4.56, 4.37 and 4.19%, respectively. Based on the findings of this study, mucilage and inulin are potential stabilizers to be used in yoghurt processing.

A.H. Zaghloul

2011-01-01

168

Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt as well as the antioxidative effect of citric acid ester, vitamin K and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were investigated by measuring peroxide value and volatile secondary oxidation products and by sensory analysis. No oxidation was observed in yoghurt stored at 2 [degree sign]C for up to 19 days, with or without addition of citric acid ester. Fish oil enriched yoghurt was also very stable even when compared to yoghurt with added rapeseed oil or a mixture of rapeseed oil and fish oil stored for up to 29 days. The addition of 50 [mu]m iron to yoghurt did not promote oxidation. The results obtained may indicate an antioxidative effect of EDTA and pro-oxidative effect of vitamin K. All yoghurts had similar viscosity and droplet size. In summary, fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt is very stable towards oxidation.

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

169

Investigation of the volatile composition of pinotage wines fermented with different malolactic starter cultures using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Headspace solid phase microextraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC × GC-TOF-MS) was used for the detailed investigation of the impact of malolactic fermentation (MLF) using three commercial Oenococcus oeni strains on the volatile composition of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinotage wines. GC × GC allowed the identification of 115 volatile compounds, including both major constituents and trace-level compounds, in a single analysis. A number of compounds differing in mean concentration levels between the control wines and those fermented with different starter cultures were shown for the first time to be influenced by MLF and/or the bacterial strain. Principal component analysis (PCA) provided excellent separation between the wines fermented with different MLF starter cultures and the control wine. Significantly different levels for some volatile compounds in wines fermented with one of the LAB starter cultures could be indicative of metabolic differences of this strain. PMID:22023396

Vestner, Jochen; Malherbe, Sulette; Du Toit, Maret; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; Mostafa, Ahmed; Górecki, Tadeusz; Tredoux, Andreas G J; de Villiers, André

2011-12-28

170

Performance and nutrient digestibility in weanling pigs as influenced by yeast culture additions to starter diets containing dried whey or one of two fiber sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three experiments were conducted using crossbred weanling pigs (7.2 to 8.6 kg; 25 to 29 d of age) to determine the effect on performance and nutrient digestibility of .75% yeast culture (YC) additions to starter diets containing whey or one of two fiber sources. An 18% CP corn-soybean meal basal diet was used in all experiments. In Exp. 1 (n = 192), the addition of YC did not affect ADG, ADFI, or gain: feed ratios (G:F) of pigs fed diets without or with 15% dried whey in two 5-wk trials. In Exp. 2 (n = 174), ADG and ADFI were not affected by YC addition to diets containing no added fiber, 8% soybean hulls (SH), or 8% peanut hulls (PH) in two 5-wk trials. The addition of SH or PH did not affect ADG or ADFI; however, a YC x SH interaction (P < .05) and a YC x PH interaction (P < .10) for G:F indicated that the addition of SH or PH to the diet in the absence of YC reduced G:F, but in the presence of YC, G:F were maintained. In a 3-wk grower phase of one trial in Exp. 2 (n = 54), SH and PH additions decreased ADG (P < .005), whereas YC additions improved ADG (P < .01), particularly for pigs fed diets that also contained SH (P < .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7665367

Kornegay, E T; Rhein-Welker, D; Lindemann, M D; Wood, C M

1995-05-01

171

Effect of Different Additives from Local Source on the Quality of Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is the most popular fermented milk product in the most parts of world. It involves use of specific symbiotic culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Yoghurt consists of valuable nutrients as in milk but it seems to have more than milk. In the present study different food additives from local source are used as additives and the effect is estimated for possible influence on the quality of yoghurt. Yoghurt was prepared by using different stabilizers like carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC, guar gum, gelatin, cornstarch and their combinations like CMC-gelatin, gelatin-cornstarch and CMC-cornstarch at different levels i.e. 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5% at 0, 7, 14 and 21 day of storage interval. Guar gum at 0.1% gives best result for low acidity and low pH where as total solid free fatty acid, acetaldehyde contents comes best with the cornstarch. Food additives have influence on pH, acidity, total solid and acetaldehyde contents. During the storage of 21 days with increasing amounts of food additives, there was an increase in acidity, free fatty acids, total solid and acetaldehyde contents but decrease in pH.

Syed Tariq Mehmood

2008-01-01

172

Effect of Radio Frequency Heating on Yoghurt, II: Microstructure and Texture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Radio frequency (RF heating was applied to stirred yoghurt after culturing in order to enhance the shelf-life and thereby meet industrial demands in countries where the distribution cold chain cannot be implicitly guaranteed. In parallel, a convectional (CV heating process was also tested. In order to meet consumers’ expectations with regard to texture and sensory properties, the yoghurts were heated to different temperatures (58, 65 and 72 °C. This second part of our feasibility study focused on the changes in microstructure and texture caused by post-fermentative heat treatment. It was shown that there were always microstructural changes with additional heat treatment. Compared to the dense and compact casein network in the stirred reference yoghurt, network contractions and further protein aggregation were observed after heat treatment, while at the same time larger pore geometries were detected. The changes in microstructure as well as other physical and sensorial texture properties (syneresis, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, apparent viscosity, G’, G’’, homogeneity were in good agreement with the temperature and time of the heat treatment (thermal stress. The RF heated products were found to be very similar to the stirred reference yoghurt, showing potential for further industrial development such as novel heating strategies to obtain products with prolonged shelf-life.

Caroline Siefarth

2014-06-01

173

Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A) while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk), C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk) and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk) .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for T...

Belewu, Moshood Adewale; Abdulsalam, Khadijat O.; Belewu, Kafayat; Belewu, Nosimot

2013-01-01

174

Influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis lafti® b94, inulin and transglutaminase on the properties of set- style yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase on quality and sensory properties of set-style yoghurt. Fresh, homogenized milk with 3,3% of milk fat was used for yoghurt production, with addition of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase activated during 1h 30 min at 55 °C. Enzyme inactivation was carried out by pasteurization of milk during 15 minutes at 85 °C. Control samples were prepared without addition of probiotic culture, inulin and transglutaminase. Physico-chemical parameters and sensory properties of produced set-style yoghurt have been determined. For reliable identification of probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, isolated from the produced yoghurt, SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium were carried out. It has been shown that produced set-style yoghurt with probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94, inulin and transglutaminase had higher firmness, less syneresis and better sensory properties than control yoghurt samples. After 28 days of storage the viable count of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis LAFTI® B94 was higher in samples containing inulin as prebiotic. Fermentation of yoghurt samples containing inulin and transglutaminase lasted shorter than fermentation of samples without inulin and transglutaminase. The presence of high number of probiotic culture (more than 106 cells/mL in produced set yoghurts was confirmed by SDS-PAGE of whole cell proteins and PCR with species specific primers for Bifidobacterium

Maja Benkovi?

2008-05-01

175

The pentose moiety of adenosine and inosine is an important energy source for the fermented-meat starter culture Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494.  

Science.gov (United States)

The genome sequence of Lactobacillus sakei 23K has revealed that the species L. sakei harbors several genes involved in the catabolism of energy sources other than glucose in meat, such as glycerol, arginine, and nucleosides. In this study, a screening of 15 L. sakei strains revealed that arginine, inosine, and adenosine could be used as energy sources by all strains. However, no glycerol catabolism occurred in any of the L. sakei strains tested. A detailed kinetic analysis of inosine and adenosine catabolism in the presence of arginine by L. sakei CTC 494, a fermented-meat starter culture, was performed. It showed that nucleoside catabolism occurred as a mixed-acid fermentation in a pH range (pH 5.0 to 6.5) relevant for sausage fermentation. This resulted in the production of a mixture of acetic acid, formic acid, and ethanol from ribose, while the nucleobase (hypoxanthine and adenine in the case of fermentations with inosine and adenosine, respectively) was excreted into the medium stoichiometrically. This indicates that adenosine deaminase activity did not take place. The ratios of the different fermentation end products did not vary with environmental pH, except for the fermentation with inosine at pH 5.0, where lactic acid was produced too. In all cases, no other carbon-containing metabolites were found; carbon dioxide was derived only from arginine catabolism. Arginine was cometabolized in all cases and resulted in the production of both citrulline and ornithine. Based on these results, a pathway for inosine and adenosine catabolism in L. sakei CTC 494 was presented, whereby both nucleosides are directly converted into their nucleobase and ribose, the latter entering the heterolactate pathway. The present study revealed that the pentose moiety (ribose) of the nucleosides inosine and adenosine is an effective fermentable substrate for L. sakei. Thus, the ability to use these energy sources offers a competitive advantage for this species in a meat environment. PMID:21803903

Rimaux, T; Vrancken, G; Vuylsteke, B; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

2011-09-01

176

Designing Inquiry Starters  

Science.gov (United States)

The term "Inquiry Starter" comes from the Institute for Inquiry's model for teaching and learning science through inquiry. It refers to the first phase of an inquiry activity where learners engage in actions that stimulate their curiosity and generate questions for further investigation. In the Professional Development Program, staff and participants have designed a wide variety of inquiry activities with a number of variations on the inquiry starter. This has provided a laboratory for examining inquiry starter design. In this paper, I describe and examine in detail the elements of this design and how the design of those elements is related to achieving learning objectives. There are a number of important common objectives in all inquiry starters. For example, all starters must define a domain for investigation and engage the learner's curiosity in that domain. There are also critical differences in learning objectives depending on the content area being studied, the learners' background knowledge and skills, and many other factors. In this paper I examine designs for both of these types of objectives.

Kluger-Bell, B.

2010-12-01

177

Instant Apache Maven starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book follows a starter approach for using Maven to create and build a new Java application or Web project from scratch.Instant Apache Maven Starter is great for Java developers new to Apache Maven, but also for experts looking for immediate information. Moreover, only 20% of the necessary information about Maven is used in 80% of the activities. This book aims to focus on the most important information, those pragmatic parts you actually use

Turatti, Maurizio

2013-01-01

178

Instant Prezi starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A starter guide to learning how to create presentations with Prezi.Instant Prezi Starter takes you through the first steps of learning how to use this amazing web-based tool! If you are tired of your same old presentation tools and are looking to wow your audience, then this book is for you! If you surf the Internet, you're all set. If you have created a website, wiki, or blog, then you're in even better shape! Enjoy!

Ladores, Minerva M

2013-01-01

179

The fate of indigenous microbiota, starter cultures, Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus in Danish raw milk and cheeses determined by pyrosequencing and quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this work was to study the bacterial communities in raw milk and in Danish raw milk cheeses using pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons of the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rDNA and cDNA. Furthermore, the effects of acidification and ripening starter cultures, cooking temperatures and rate of acidification on survival of added Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua and Staphylococcus aureus in cheeses at different stages of ripening were studied by pyrosequencing and quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR. A high diversity of bacterial species was detected in raw milk. Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were the main bacteria detected in raw milk and cheeses. Bacteria belonging to the genera Brevibacterium, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Weissella, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus were also detected in both 16S rDNA and cDNA obtained from raw milk and cheeses. E. coli, which was added to milk used for production of some cheeses, was detected in both DNA and RNA extracted from cheeses at different stages of ripening showing the highest percentage of the total sequence reads at 7 days of ripening and decreased again in the later ripening stages. Growth of E. coli in cheeses appeared to be affected by the cooking temperature and the rate of acidification but not by the ripening starter cultures applied or the indigenous microbiota of raw milk. Growth of L. innocua and S. aureus added to milks was inhibited in all cheeses at different stages of ripening. The use of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and qRT-PCR allows a deeper understanding of the behavior of indigenous microbiota, starter cultures and pathogenic bacteria in raw milk and cheeses. PMID:22154239

Masoud, Wafa; Vogensen, Finn K; Lillevang, Søren; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Jakobsen, Mogens

2012-02-01

180

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

Ângela Maria Fiorentini

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products / Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5) apresentara [...] m crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados. Abstract in english Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Re [...] gion of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ernani S., Sant' Anna.

182

Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures / Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilida [...] de das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas. Abstract in english In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at differe [...] nt pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.

Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ernani Sebastião, Sant' Anna.

2009-06-01

183

DEVELOPMENT OF SET AND DRINKING SESAME YOGHURT FROM DECORTICATED SESAME SEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sesame yoghurt developed from sesame seed fortified with different fortifiers resulted in yoghurt that lacks the typical yogurt texture. This study aimed to develop set and drinking yoghurt from sesame milk. Gums were used to develop sesame set yoghurt and sesame yoghurt drink. The best set yoghurt was produced from the sesame milk fortified with 2% Cheese Dried Whey (CDW plus 0.6% pectin and 0.2% CMC. The best yoghurt drink was produced from sesame milk fortified with dried whey plus 0.2% guar gum and pasteurized at 75°C for 5 min.

Ibrahim Abdullah Afaneh

2013-01-01

184

Instant OSGi starter  

CERN Document Server

Using a practical approach with explanation where needed, the book will take an in depth look at what OSGi is and what it offers to Java programmers and development standards. ""OSGi Starter"" is intended for the senior Java programmer whom will be joining OSGi based projects, or for Architects looking to broaden their exposure to OSGi as a beneficial framework and runtime software system.

Goodyear, Jamie

2013-01-01

185

Effect of yoghurt or yoghurt serum on microbial quality of cig kofte.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cig kofte, raw meatball is a traditionally produced meat product in Turkey and some other Middle East countries. It is prepared from mixtures of finely minced raw beef, bulgur, onions, various spices and tap water. Cig kofte is an uncooked product and popularly consumed with lettuce and lemon juice. In this study, yoghurt or yoghurt serum (YS) were added to the mixtures of cig kofte instead of tap water to reduce microbial risks of the raw meatball. Additionally, the effects of yoghurt and YS on some physicochemical characteristics of cig kofte were investigated. Cig kofte is generally consumed within a few hours after the preparation because of its raw nature. Also, it is generally sold under unhygienic conditions in restaurants and restaurant-like places. For this purpose, reducing of the microbial load of cig kofte is important. In the results, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected in any samples. While lactic acid bacteria count increased by addition of yoghurt and YS, the number of other microorganisms except for total aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) were decreased. The aw values and% moisture contents of the samples were varied between 0.88-0.94 and 46.25-49.72, respectively. The pH values of the samples were slightly changed during the storage of 24 h while no changes detected in the control samples during the storage. In conclusion, it can be suggested that using the yoghurt or YS instead of tap water in the preparation of cig kofte might ensure the microbial safety, increase the nutritional value and its flavour or aroma. PMID:24966438

Dogan, Mahmut; Cankurt, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Yetim, Hasan; Sagdic, Osman

2014-07-01

186

Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas / Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o temp [...] o de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v) e lactose 0,5% (m/v) e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15)UFC/mL. Abstract in english Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to red [...] uce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15)CFU/mL.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

187

Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o tempo de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v e lactose 0,5% (m/v e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15UFC/mL.Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to reduce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15CFU/mL.

Rosicler BALDUINO

1999-12-01

188

Influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida por cultura mista de bactérias láticas / Influence of the carbon source and temperature on the lactic acid fermentation developed by starter cultures  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Bactérias ácido láticas vêm sendo aplicadas em produtos cárneos como culturas iniciadoras. A finalidade das culturas iniciadoras em produtos cárneos é reduzir o pH no início da fermentação O que contribui na inibição de microrganismos indesejáveis, melhorar as propriedades sensoriais, reduzir o temp [...] o de maturação e reduzir nitratos e nitritos. A composição do meio, assim como as condições de cultivo, são importantes para o bom desenvolvimento da cultura iniciadora, sendo necessário conhecer a influência da fonte de carbono e da temperatura no processo fermentativo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da temperatura e de diferentes concentrações de glicose e lactose sobre a fermentação lática desenvolvida em caldo MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) pela cultura mista constituída de L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici e E. faecium. O caldo MRS foi suplementado com glicose e lactose, e as temperaturas de fermentação foram de 28ºC, 37ºC e 46ºC. Os ensaios foram delineados por desenho fatorial incompleto de 3³. Através da Superfície de Resposta, o modelo matemático mostrou que o caldo MRS suplementado de glicose 4,5% (m/v) e lactose 0,5% (m/v) e temperatura de incubação de 46ºC foram as condições mais adequadas para obtenção de ácido lático. A fermentação lática desenvolvida pela cultura mista, durante 48 horas nestas condições, forneceu em média 4,78% de ácido lático sendo a viabilidade celular de 1x10(15)UFC/mL. Abstract in english Lactic acid bacteria has been used in meat products as starter culture. The purpose of the starter culture in meat products is to reduce the pH in the begining of fermentation in order to inhibit undesirable microorganisms, to improve sensorial properties, to reduce the time of maturation and to red [...] uce nitrates and nitrites. The composition of the medium as well as the culture conditions are essential for good growth of the starter culture, being of fundamental importance to know the influence of the carbon source and the temperature in the fermentative process. This work evaluated the influence of temperature and different concentrations of glicose and lactose on the lactic fermentation in MRS (Man-Rogosa-Sharpe) broth by a starter culture mixture containing L. curvatus, L. plantarum, P. acidilactici and E. faecium. This mixture shows potential application as starter culture in meat products. The MRS medium was supplemented with glicose and lactose and the various treatments submitted to temperatures of 28ºC, 37ºC and 46ºC, according to Surface Response Methodology through an incomplete fatorial of 3³ experimental design. The evaluated response was the lactic acid produced, determined by HPLC. Mathematical models have showed that 4.5% glicose, 0.5% lactose and 46ºC were the best conditions for lactic acid production. The lactic acid fermentation, carried out by the mixed culture in 48 hours under these conditions, produced, in average, 4.78% of lactic acid and cellular viability of 1x10(15)CFU/mL.

Rosicler, BALDUINO; Antonio Sérgio de, OLIVEIRA; Maria Celia de Oliveira, HAULY.

1999-12-01

189

Preparation and Properties of Probiotic Chocolates Using Yoghurt Powder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Milk chocolates were prepared by replacing skim milk powder in the formulation with yoghurt powder at 50% and 100% levels. The effect of incorporating yoghurt powder on quality of chocolates was studied. No significant changes were observed in fatty acid profile and hardness of the chocolates. Sour taste of chocolate with yoghurt powder due to its acidity was neutralized by adding calculated amount of sodium bicarbonate. Sensory analysis showed that probiotic chocolates were highly acceptable and similar to control chocolate. Microbiological studies of chocolates showed the presence of Lactobacillus species to the extent of 3.37 log·cfu/g, which were not present in the control sample prepared only with skim milk powder. Rheological studies showed that milk chocolate prepared using yoghurt powder at 50% showed no significant changes in yield value compared to that of control, but at 100% addition a considerable decrease in yield value was observed. Microstructural properties of chocolate with 50% addition of yoghurt powder showed smaller particles adhering to the cocoa and sugar crystals but at 100% addition of yoghurt powder, the cocoa particles were completely covered by smaller yoghurt powder matrix.

Pradeep Singh Negi

2013-03-01

190

USE OF METEROXYLON SAGU AS A STABILIZING AGENT IN YOGHURT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Yoghurt is popular fermented milk product with higher nutritional value and significant health beneficial effects. The formulation of yoghurt with optimum texture, appearance, consistency and stability to synersis, and shelf life is major challenge to dairy industries. Usually, syneresis is reduced by either increasing the total solids of yoghurt or by using stabilizers. The main objective of the present study was to use Metroxylon sagu as stabilizing agent in yoghurt and to evaluate its influence on the composition, shelf life, texture and sensory characteristics of yoghurt.  Enrichment of yoghurt with Meteroxylon sagu (Sagudana at different levels was studied for physicochemical (pH, acidity, fat, synersis, viscosity, protein, water holding capacity, sensory evaluation (flavour, body and texture, acidity, appearance and container closure and microbiological analysis (TVC and Colliform. Yoghurt prepared by incorporation of Meteroxylon sagu (@ of 0.1%, 0.25% and 0.5% was compared for these characteristics to the yoghurt containing stabilizer gelatin (0.5% w/w.  These attributes were significantly affected by the use of stabilizer and its rate of incorporation. Use of Meteroxylon sagu produced better results in terms of lowering syneresis Y0 (0.43mL, Y1(0.83 mL and improving appearance, body and texture. The decrease in water holding capacity for controlled and treated samples was 2.84%, 18.47%, 10.64% and 18.24% for Y0, Y1, Y2 and Y3 respectively. Addition of Meteroxylon sagu upto 0.5% did not influence taste and overall acceptability. Meteroxylon sagu @ 0.25% gave best results for overall sensory acceptability and yoghurt shelf life was increased upto 30 days.

Muhammad Hasan

2014-02-01

191

Instant Gimp starter  

CERN Document Server

A Starter guide which helps you practically start with GIMP through plenty of examples and screenshots. This is an excellent handbook for anyone who would like to start drawing using their computers. The approach used within this book is objective so that readers from any age will be able to learn the process. The setup is so basic that you will need only a computer and a very minimal amount of computer literacy to start using this book.

Amreen, Fazreil

2013-01-01

192

7 CFR 58.516 - Starter vats.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Starter vats. 58.516 Section 58.516 Agriculture ...Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.516 Starter vats. Bulk starter vats shall meet the requirements of § 58.415....

2010-01-01

193

Rice- Coconut Yoghurt: Preparation, Nutritional and Sensory Qualities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The efficacy of using rice milk and coconut milk in the preparation of yoghurt was evaluated in a completely randomized design model. Commercial yoghurt was the control Treatment (A while other Treatments were B (25% rice milk plus 75% coconut milk, C (50% rice milk plus 50% coconut milk and D (75% rice milk plus 25% coconut milk .The various yoghurt samples were analyzed for their proximate composition and sensory value. Higher crude protein content and solids not fat were recorded for Treatment C. The overall acceptability was greatest for Treatment C, greater for Treatment B, great for Treatment D and least for Treatment A (control. This type of yoghurt is recommended for weight watcher and lactose intolerance persons.

Belewu, Moshood Adewale

2013-12-01

194

Simulation of stirred yoghurt processing in plate heat exchangers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work, simulations of stirred yoghurt processing in a plate heat exchanger were performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations and the results compared with experimental data, showing a very good agreement. A Herschel–Bulkley model for the viscosity and an Arrhenius-type term for the temperature dependence were used to model the thermo-rheological behaviour of yoghurt. The heat exchanger used in this study operates in a parallel arrangement, thus simplif...

Fernandes, Carla S.; Dias, Ricardo P.; No?brega, Joa?o M.; Afonso, Isabel A.; Melo, Luis F.; Maia, Joa?o M.

2005-01-01

195

Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some ...

Michal Magala; Zlatica Kohajdová; Jolana Karovi?ová

2013-01-01

196

Changes in the concentration of yeast-derived volatile compounds of red wine during malolactic fermentation with four commercial starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of malolactic fermentation (MLF) on the concentration of volatile compounds released by yeasts during the production of red wine were investigated by inoculation with four commercial starters of Oenococcus oeni. Volatile compounds in wine at the end of MLF were extracted, analyzed by GC-MS and GC, and compared with those extracted form a noninoculated reference sample. Several esters known to play a role in the aroma profile of red wine, such as C4-C8 ethyl fatty acid esters and 3-methylbutyl acetate, were found to increase with MLF, and their final concentration was dependent on the bacterial starter employed for the induction of MLF. The overall increase of ethyl fatty acid esters was generally larger than the one observed for acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, 3-hydroxybutanoate, 2-phenylethanol, methionol, and gamma-butyrolactone were also increased by bacterial metabolism. The impact of MLF on other volatiles or red wine, including several higher alcohols, fatty acids, and nitrogen compounds, was generally negligible. PMID:16366706

Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

2005-12-28

197

Banana Frozen Yoghurt from Camel Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is conducted in the dairy laboratory of the faculty of Agricultural Technology and Fish Sciences, Al-Neelain University. The objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of manufacture frozen yoghurt from camel milk with banana flavor and investigate the suitable levels of banana which were 10, 12 and 14%. pH value, fat%, total solids, solids not fat, specific gravity, overrun, sensory properties and acceptability were studied. The result of chemical analysis showed no significant differences between the three levels of banana on pH value, fat %, total solids, solids not fat at p>0.05, while the differences were significant in specific gravity and overrun. The panel test showed that there was no significant differences between three levels of banana on sensory evaluations at p>0.05. 14% obtained the best score.

Mohamed O. Eisa

2010-01-01

198

Resveratrol entrapped niosomes as yoghurt additive.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanodesign of niosomes containing resveratrol (RSV) was carried out using food-grade surfactants with dodecanol to stabilise the membrane. Niosomes were prepared using a modified thin film hydration method. A factorial design analysis was carried out to reduce the number of experiments. The response factors were: mean size, polydispersity index (PDI) and entrapment efficiency (EE). Agitation speed and surfactant to dodecanol weight ratio were selected as key parameters for niosomes preparation. Parameter contribution was determined using a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA). Niosomes formulated with Span 60 or Maisine 35-1 as surfactants, and dodecanol as stabiliser, were able to incorporate RSV. These niosomes exhibited a small mean size, narrow size distribution, high RSV entrapment efficiency and good stability. RSV addition did not involve changes in the textural properties of regular yoghurt demonstrating that RSV entrapped niosomes are suitable additives in these dairy products. PMID:25306346

Pando, D; Beltrán, M; Gerone, I; Matos, M; Pazos, C

2015-03-01

199

Instant Metasploit starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Metasploit Starter is a fast-paced introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start as a smart ethical hacker, and defend your world from attacks instantly.This book is designed for security enthusiasts who are more interested in getting hands-on experience rather than reading just theory. It is also for anyone who is aware of the Metasploit framework and wishes to understand it better and start using it inst

Ranganath, Karthik

2013-01-01

200

Munin plugin starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This hands-on Starter guide will get you up and running with Munin and Munin plugins, giving you the power to monitor, fix, and optimize your networks.This book is great for system administrators who want to improve the monitoring level of their systems. It's assumed that you have some experience with Linux-based systems and know your way around them.

Brinke, Bart ten

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production of the very important flavor compounds 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, and 2-methylpropanal with various growth conditions. We found that the aldehydes were present in the culture broth only as transient metabolites. They were produced in the exponential growth phase, reached a maximum concentration when the culture became anaerobic, and then they rapidly disappeared from the culture medium. This general pattern was observed for three different strains of S. xylosus and S. carnosus. Small amounts of inoculum or increased exposure to oxygen were found to favor production of the aldehydes as a result of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor affect on aldehyde production.

de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian

2004-01-01

202

Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

Ma?gorzata Jasi?ska

2010-06-01

203

The effect of high pressures on the yoghurt from milk with the stabilizer  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of high pressures on the microbiological and physio-chemical properties of yoghurt was investigated. The best results were obtained when the yoghurt was manufactured from milk with the addition of MYO 752 stabilizer (starch, gelatin, pectin) selected from 10 stabilizers. Yoghurt manufactured with the addition of 0, 6% MYO 752 stabilizer was processed at the pressure of 400-600 MPa/15 min. in the range of 50 MPa. Pressurization caused a total reduction of number of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. Bulgaricus and reduced the number of Streptococcus thermophilus by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Pressurized and non-pressurized yoghurts characterized of a homogenous consistency and typical plain yoghurt taste. The decrease of the number of living bacteria was observed in yoghurts during the storage. The acidity of pressurized yoghurts remained on the some level at the temperature of 4°C and 20°C. The more intensive antibacterial activity of microflora was observed in yoghurts storaged at 20°C in comparison with yoghurts storaged at 4°C. Disadvantageous changes of the pressurized yoghurts consistency were not found. The taste and aroma of yoghurts remained without any changes.

Reps, A.; Jankowska, A.; Wi?niewska, K.

2008-07-01

204

Increased CLA content in organic milk fermented by bifidobacteria or yoghurt cultures
---
Teneur en acide linoléique conjugué accrue dans des laits biologiques fermentés par des bifidobactéries et des levains à yaourt
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the kinetics of acidification, fatty acid (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, C18:2 c9, t11) content in fermented milks prepared from organic and conventional milk. Fermented milks were manufactured with five mixed cultures: four different strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BL04, B94, BB12 and HN019) and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus LB340, in co-culture with Streptococcus thermophilus TA040. The composition of milk was evaluat...

Florence, Ana Carolina Rodrigues; Da Silva, Roberta Claro; Do Espi?rito Santo, Ana Paula; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; Tamime, Adnan Y.; Oliveira, Marice? Nogueira

2009-01-01

205

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata) / USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria [...] de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade. Abstract in english In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufa [...] cturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira, CARIONI; Anna Cláudia Simas, PORTO; José Carlos Fiad, PADILHA; Ernani Sebastião, SANT' ANNA.

206

USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata) / USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, tanto a criação quanto a comercialização da carne de pato (Cairina moschata) ainda é incipiente, mas devido a sua rusticidade, fácil manejo, e carne apreciada no mercado, entende-se que a obtenção de produtos à base de carne de pato apresenta-se como uma alternativa rentável na indústria [...] de alimentos. O uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de produtos fermentados é uma prática comum na indústria de produtos cárneos estando diretamente relacionada às características de flavor, textura, cor e vida-de-prateleira do produto final. Avaliou-se o uso de culturas iniciadoras na elaboração de embutido fermentado à base de carne de pato obtida da desossa manual da coxa e sobrecoxa. Uma mistura de culturas iniciadoras de Lactobacillus plantarum BN e Kokuria varians CCT 4492 foi usada para inocular a massa cárnea. Os embutidos foram defumados em câmara para defumação a 23±1°C por aproximadamente 19 horas e curados por 25 dias. A contagem inicial de células viáveis na massa do embutido foi de 6,08Log10UFC/g e de 6,04Log10UFC/g para bactérias ácido-lácticas e Micrococcacea, respectivamente. Após o segundo dia do processo, bactérias ácido-lácticas apresentaram um crescimento de 0,79 ciclos logarítmicos e no décimo primeiro dia um aumento de 2,58 ciclos logarítmicos. O valor médio de acidez, em ácido láctico, no produto final foi de 0,39% e o valor de pH de 5,11. As análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões da legislação brasileira. O produto elaborado apresentou perfil sensorial dentro dos padrões aceitáveis de qualidade. Abstract in english In Brazil, duck raising (Cairina moschata) and duck meat commercialization are still incipient activities, but due to this animal's rusticity, easiness of management and the marketability of its meat, they may be seen as profitable alternatives in the food industry. The use of starters in the manufa [...] cturing of fermented products is a common practice in the meat industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

Felipe Oliveira, CARIONI; Anna Cláudia Simas, PORTO; José Carlos Fiad, PADILHA; Ernani Sebastião, SANT' ANNA.

2001-12-01

207

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 2 – Characterisationof peptide fractions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to elucidate previous findings showing that peptide fractions isolated from yoghurt had antioxidant effects. Therefore, peptides and free amino acids released during fermentation of milk were characterised. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultra filtration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30, 10 and 3 kDa. The peptides in these fractions were identified by LC–MS/MS. The identified peptides comprised a few Nterminal fragments of as1-, as2-, and j-casein, and several fragments from b-casein. Almost all the peptides identified contained at least one proline residue. Some of the identified peptides included the hydrophobic amino acid residues Val or Leu at the N-terminus and Pro, His or Tyr in the amino acid sequence, which is characteristic of antioxidant peptides. In addition, the yoghurt contained a considerable amount of free amino acids such as His, Tyr, Thr and Lys, which have been reported to have antioxidant properties. Thus, our findings confirm that the antioxidant effects of the peptide fractions from yoghurt are due to the presence of certain peptides and free amino acids with recognised antioxidant activity in these fractions.

Farvin, Sabeena; Baron, Caroline

2010-01-01

208

Effect of Yoghurt and Protexin Boost on Broiler Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of yoghurt and protexin boost on broiler growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, livability and profitability production was studied from 1 to 35 days of age. A total of 120 day-old Arbor Acres commercial broiler chicks were distributed randomly into five dietary treatments. Each treatment had 3 replications each of 8 birds. The experimental treatments T1 considered as control and T2, T3, T4 received 3.0g, 4.0g, 5.0g sour yoghurt, respectively per liter of drinking water and T5 received 1.0g protexin boost per 10 liter of drinking water throughout the experimental period. Improvement was observed in body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of broiler of T5 group at 35 days of age compared to other groups. Satisfactory improvement was observed in birds of T4 treatment group. Diet of different treatments had no significant (p>0.05 effect on livability of broiler. It was concluded that yoghurt and protexin boost could show beneficial effect on broiler performance at the level tested and the inclusion of yoghurt at a level of 5 g per liter of drinking water could be economized broiler production.

A. Aftahi

2006-01-01

209

Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The oxidative stabilities of fish oil-enriched milk and fish oil-enriched drinking yoghurt were compared by following the development of lipid oxidation in plain milk, plain yoghurt and yoghurt to which ingredients present in drinking yoghurt were added one by one. All samples were enriched with 1 wt-% fish oil. After 3 weeks of storage, development of peroxide values, volatile secondary oxidation products and fishy offflavors were much more pronounced in the milk compared to any of the yoghurt samples, irrespective of any added ingredients used to prepare flavored drinking yoghurt. Thus, pectin, citric acid or gluconodelta- lactone did not affect the oxidative stability of fish oil-enriched yoghurt emulsions. Furthermore, the fruit preparation and added sugar did not lead to increased antioxidative activity. It is concluded that yoghurt as the dairy component in the fish oil-enriched emulsion was responsible for the remarkably high oxidative stability and was able to protect the n-3 PUFA against oxidative deterioration. It should be considered that this strong antioxidative effect of yoghurt might mask potential antioxidative effects of the other ingredients in the drinking yoghurt.

Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2009-01-01

210

Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Soy-yoghurt with Different Colours and Fruit Flavours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of different flavouring/colouring agents and fruits on the quality and acceptability of stirred soy-yoghurt were studied. Soy-yoghurts flavoured with strawberry, vanilla, orange, orange fruit, pineapple fruit and pawpaw fruit were compared for protein, pH, percentage lactic acid, soluble solids, percentage syneresis, total solids and microbial count with plain soy-yoghurt. Sensory evaluation was conducted in order to determine the acceptability of the samples. The pH and percent lactic acid ranged from 4.4-4.7 and 0.9-1.08%, respectively on the first day of storage while the values were 4.1-4.3 and 1.44-1.71%, respectively on the eighth day of storage at 6°C. Soluble solids of yoghurt samples ranged from 18.4-27.9% on the first day and were between 18.4-25.4% on the eight day of storage. The average percent syneresis of flavoured and fruit soy-yoghurts were 42.03 and 46.3%, respectively. The values increased with increasing storage days. The average protein content of fruit Soy-yoghurts was 5.01% while the average for flavoured soy-yoghurts was 3.93%. The total solids of plain yoghurt was 14.5%, flavoured soy-yoghurt was 13.5% and fruit soy-yoghurts was 12.5%. Microbiological examination revealed that the samples were within the acceptable minimum standards. The sensory evaluation showed that there was no significant difference in taste among all the samples. However, there were significant difference in the colour, aroma, consistency and overall acceptability of soy-yoghurts samples. The sensory evaluation revealed that there was preference for strawberry, vanilla, plain, orange flavoured, pineapple fruit flavoured yoghurts relative to pawpaw and orange fruit flavoured-yoghurts.

O.F. Osundahunsi

2007-01-01

211

Instant Spring for Android starter  

CERN Document Server

Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

Dahanne, Anthony

2013-01-01

212

Instant PrimeFaces starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

Hlavats, Ian

2013-01-01

213

Instant CloudFlare starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Written as a practical guide, CloudFlare Starter will show you all you need to know in order to effectively improve your online presence in a multitude of different ways. ""Instant CloudFlare Starter"" is a practical yet accessible guide for website owners looking to optimize their site for optimum security and maximum performance.

Dickey, Jeff

2013-01-01

214

A STARTER-GENERATOR FOR HELICOPTERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comparative electromagnetic calculations of a commercial starter-generator and a nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator are made. The nonsalient-pole-stator starter-generator magnetic fields are shown in start-up and generator rated conditions. The electromagnetic calculation technique is verified and confirmed with experimentally investigated nonsalient-pole-stator machines of other types.

V.D. Lushchyk

2013-10-01

215

Formulating Fruit Yoghurt by Concentrated Milk and Evaluating its Quality During Storage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the effect of “Osmodehydrofrozen” fruit addition on sensory, physical, chemical and microbiological properties of concentrated yoghurt and its quality during storage was evaluated. This research was done in two stages. At the first stage, fruit percentage, type and addition time (before and after fermentation was determined. The results indicated yoghurts containing 10% apple or 13% strawberry, which was added before fermentation had a better quality. Because of high osmotic activity of apple, the synersis was lower in apple yoghurt in comparison with strawberry yoghurt. According to osmotic activity of both fruits, the synersis value was much lower than that of fruit yoghurts, which contained untreated fruits. Taste value was higher in strawberry yoghurt and texture and mouth feel values were higher at low percentages of fruit. The results of the second stage (quality evaluation during storage indicated that storage had a significant effect on pH, acidity, synersis, taste and texture (P

N Vahedi

2009-07-01

216

Nutritional and sensory quality of stirred soursop (Annona muricata L.) yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soursops (Annona muricata L.) are highly aromatic fruits with white juicy flesh and are native to tropical North and South America. The ripe fruits are highly perishable, as they become soft and easily bruised. The objectives of the study were to incorporate soursop nectar at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% in stirred yoghurts and to analyse the products for chemical and sensory quality. A focus group evaluated the initial yoghurts for process modifications. Yoghurts were evaluated on sensory attributes of appearance and colour, body and texture, flavour and aroma, and overall quality. Yoghurts with 10% and 15% soursop nectar had the highest (P<0.05) overall quality scores (12.60/20 and 12.75/20, respectively) but differed (P<0.05) in flavour and aroma from plain yoghurt and 5% soursop yoghurt. Most panelists would consider purchase of 10% and 15% soursop yoghurts over 0% and 5% soursop yoghurts. These yoghurts provided high percentage daily values of zinc, phosphorus and calcium and a good level of protein. PMID:15545049

Lutchmedial, Maria; Ramlal, Reshma; Badrie, Neela; Chang-Yen, Ivan

2004-08-01

217

Evaluation of Freeze-Dried Kefir Coculture as Starter in Feta-Type Cheese Production  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4°C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates comp...

Kourkoutas, Y.; Kandylis, P.; Panas, P.; Dooley, J. S. G.; Nigam, P.; Koutinas, A. A.

2006-01-01

218

Study of physiological properties of some probiotics in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria by Flora Danica Ch. Hansen commercial starter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to establish the growth ability and stability of probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus (commercial code La-5®), Lactobacillus casei ssp. paracasei (commercial code L. casei 431®) and Bifidobacterium bifidus (commercial code BB-12®) in multiple cultures with mesophilic lactic bacteria, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides spp. cremoris, as Flora Danica Chr. Hansen...

DANIELA PARASCHIV; AIDA VASILE; MADALINA CONSTANTIN; ALEXANDRU CIOBANU; GABRIELA BAHRIM

2011-01-01

219

Preparation of lactic acid bacteria fermented wheat-yoghurt mixtures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Tarhana, a wheat-yoghurt fermented mixture, is considered as a good source of saccharides, proteins, some vitamins and minerals. Moreover, their preparation is inexpensive and lactic acid fermentation offers benefi ts like product preservation, enhancement of nutritive value and sensory properties improvement. The aim of this work was to evaluate changes of some chemical parameters during fermentation of tarhana, when the level of salt and amount of yoghurt used were varied. Some functional and sensory characteristics of the fi nal product were also determined. Material and methods. Chemical analysis included determination of pH, titrable acidity, content of reducing saccharides, lactic, acetic and citric acid. Measured functional properties of tarhana powder were foaming capacity, foam stability, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity and emulsifying activity. Tarhana soups samples were evaluated for their sensory characteristics (colour, odor, taste, consistency and overall acceptability. Results. Fermentation of tarhana by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts led to decrease in pH, content of reducing saccharides and citric acid, while titrable acidity and concentration of lactic and acetic acid increased. Determination of functional properties of tarhana powder showed, that salt absence and increased amount of yoghurt in tarhana recipe reduced foaming capacity and oil absorption capacity, whereas foam stability and water absorption capacity were improved. Sensory evaluation of tarhana soups showed that variations in tarhana recipe adversly affected sensory parameters of fi nal products. Conclusion. Variations in tarhana recipe (salt absence, increased proportion of yoghurt led to changes in some chemical parameters (pH, titrable acidity, reducing saccharides, content of lactic, acetic and citric acid. Functional properties were also affected with changed tarhana recipe. Sensory characteristics determination showed, that standard tarhana fermented for 144 h had the highest overall acceptability.

Michal Magala

2013-09-01

220

Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III or Cd (II whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II and Zn (II were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products.

Siddiki Mohammad Shohel

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
221

Screening of Stabilizers for Peanut Milk Based Set Yoghurt by Assessment of Whey Separation, Gel Firmness and Sensory Quality of the Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seven stabilizers were assessed for their suitability and compatibility to peanut milk based set yoghurt. For the sake of screening, the concentration of the stabilizers added was fixed at 0.2% (w/v. Peanut milk based yoghurt was prepared from a mixture of 60% peanut milk and 40% cow milk. Whey separation, gel firmness and sensory quality of the yoghurt were the quality attributes used for screening the stabilizers. Yoghurt containing ?-carrageenan and gelatin had a firm gel with little or no whey at the top, respectively. Yoghurt containing the other five stabilizers (High methoxy pectin, Propylene glycole alginate, Carboxy methyl cellulose, Xanthan gum and Guar gum all formed weak gels with little or excessive whey at the top. The yoghurt containing gelatin had higher sensory scores for all the three sensory attributes (Appearance, texture and overall acceptability as compared to the other stabilizers assessed in this study. Therefore, gelatin was found to be the most appropriate stabilizer compatible to a peanut milk based yoghurt system.

Guo-Nong Zhang

2008-01-01

222

EFFECT OF YOGHURT PILLARED WITH PROPOLIS ON HYPERGLYCEMIC RATS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of yoghurt with plants rich in antioxidants such as propolis which is an adhesive resinous material collected by honey bees is recently recommended. This study aimed at investigating the protective effect against the hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The study showed that yoghurt with propolis had a hypoglycemic effect together with reduction of the serum levels of cholesterol, low density and very low density lipoproteins with elevation of high density lipoproteins. The atherosclerosis indices were affected with reduction of low density lipoproteins-cholesterol/high density lipoproteins-cholesterol and elevation of the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol/total cholesterol. This was attributed to the reduction of glucose absorption and inhibition of ?-glucosidase together with the antioxidant activity with regain of the pancreatic ?-cell function. The hypolipidemic effect and consequently protective effect against atherosclerosis was attributed to the binding, breakdown and reduction of absorption of cholesterol together with the antioxidant activity of both yoghurt and propolis. Down regulation of the expression of the angiogenic gene factors which have a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis may play a role. Thus, this dietary supplementation may be manufactured and used for its value in reducing hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in cases of diabetes mellitus.

Hassan M. Bukhari 1, Abdelghany H. Abdelghany2,3, Ibrahim Saad Nada3,4 and Eslam A. Header1

2012-10-01

223

Population heterogeneity and dynamics in starter culture and lag phase adaptation of the spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii to weak acid preservatives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The food spoilage yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii shows great resistance to weak-acid preservatives, including sorbic acid (2, 4-hexadienoic acid). That extreme resistance was shown to be due to population heterogeneity, with a small sub-population of cells resistant to a variety of weak acids, probably caused by a lower internal pH reducing the uptake of all weak acids. In the present paper, it was found that resistant cells were extremely rare in exponential cultures, but increased by up to 8000-fold in stationary phase. Inoculation of media containing sorbic acid with a population of Z. bailii cells gave rise to what appeared to be a prolonged lag phase, suggesting adaptation to the conditions before the cells entered the period of exponential growth. However, the apparent lag phase caused by sorbic acid was largely due to the time required for the resistant sub-population to grow to detectable levels. The slow growth rate of the sub-population was identical to that of the final total population. The non-resistant bulk population remained viable for 3 days but had lost viability by 6 days and, during that time, there was no indication of any development of resistance in the bulk population. The sub-population growing in sorbic acid showed very high population diversity in colony size and internal pH. After removal of sorbic acid, the population rapidly reverted back to the normal, largely non-resistant, population distribution. The data presented suggest that a reevaluation of the lag phase in microbial batch culture is required, at least for the resistance of Z. bailii to sorbic acid. Furthermore, the significance of phenotypic diversity and heterogeneity in microbial populations is discussed more broadly with potential relevance to bacterial "persisters", natural selection and evolution. PMID:24813627

Stratford, Malcolm; Steels, Hazel; Nebe-von-Caron, Gerhard; Avery, Simon V; Novodvorska, Michaela; Archer, David B

2014-07-01

224

Instant MinGW starter  

CERN Document Server

This is a Starter guide designed to enable the reader to start using MinGW to develop Microsoft Windows applications as quickly, and as efficiently, as possible. This book is for C and C++ developers who are looking for new and effective instruments to use in application development for Microsoft Windows. No experience of MinGW is needed: this book will guide you through the essentials to get you using the software like a pro in a matter of hours.

Shpigor, Ilya

2013-01-01

225

Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos / Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a [...] freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle). A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR), °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O comportamento dos ácidos málico, acético, láctico, pirúvico e tartárico foi demonstrado. Abstract in english Malolactic fermentation is responsible for the reduction of the total acidity, which usually is too high in young red wines. This fermentation provides a higher biological stability and higher complexity of aroma and flavor. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul, malolactic fermentation becomes a necess [...] ity because frequently grapes have high acidity and the induction by bacterial inoculation has not been a common practice. This work had as a main aim to evaluate the lactic culture behavior in the induction of malolactic fermentation in relation to the wild bacteria. A must of Cabernet Sauvignon Vitis vinífera was fermented and inoculated with the commercial culture of Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos in several residual sugar levels: 34.1 - 13.8 - 1.7 and 1.5g/l. The inoculations, in duplicate, were compared with spontaneous malolactic fermentation (control). Degradation of malic acid was monitored through paper chromatography. Organic acids were determinated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Reducing sugars (RS), °Brix, pH, total acidity and alcohol were also analysed. The inoculated wine in the 34.1g/l RS stage fermented in 14 days, while the control took 28.5 days in average. In the 13.8 and 1.7g/l RS stages, Viniflora Oenos completed the malic acid degradation around 13 and 11 days, while the controls took 20.5 and 16.5 days, respectively. In the 1.5g/l RS stage, the inoculated wines and the controls did not demonstrate significative difference and fermented between 8 and 10 days. Viniflora Oenos completed the malolactic fermentation in less time. This demonstrates that the inoculation can be made before the end of alcoholic fermentation with good results. In the majority of the treatments there was not significative difference in the acetic acid production between the culture and the control. The behavior of the malic, acetic, lactic, piruvic and tartaric acids were

Larissa Dias de, Avila; Carlos Eugenio, Daudt.

1997-06-01

226

Probiotics Bacteria from Egyptian Infants cause Cholesterol Removal in Media and Survive in Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the most significant groups of probiotic organisms are the lactic acid bacteria, commonly used in fermented dairy products. In this study, cultures were isolated from two infants. After screening for the classic properties of probiotic organisms, four promising isolates were identified as two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus (P106, P110, strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (P164 and Lactobacillus. pentosus (P191which were tested for capability to remove cholesterol and to deconjugate sodium taurocholate from the culture medium. Results showed that a considerable variation existed among cultures in their growth viability in the presence of bile salt, deconjugation of sodium tauro-cholate and assimilation of cholesterol from the medium. All tested strains removed less cholesterol from the broth (ranged from 4.02-24.32% compared to those grown in broth supplemented with 0.2% bile salts (from 29.02 to 45.3. Lactobacillus acidophilus P106 appeared to be more active in bile salt hydrolase compared to the other strains, and therefore, is regarded as a suitable candidate probiotic and adjunct culture.These strains were employed to make yo-ghurt and, in order to achieve a short production time; a two-stage fermentation procedure was used with Streptococ-cus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus providing the rapid acidification. Storage trials at 4o C showed that the viability of the probiotic cultures was retained over 15 days.

Hoda Mahrous

2011-04-01

227

Incorporation of strawberries preparation in yoghurt: Impact on phytochemicals and milk proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

An immediate decrease in the total antioxidant activity (23%) and total phenolic content (14%) was observed after addition of strawberry preparations to yoghurt. The total anthocyanin content did not change immediately, but decreased 24% throughout the yoghurt shelf-life. The individual compounds, (+)-catechin (60%), (-)-epicatechin (60%), kaempferol (33%) and quercetin-3-rutinoside (29%) decreased after 24h in the yoghurt made with the strawberry preparation. During the remaining period of storage these compounds increased by 47%, 6%, 4% and 18%, respectively. Pelargonidin-3-glucoside decreased 49% after 28d. Immediately after the addition of the strawberry preparation to yoghurt, ?-lactoglobulin decreased to values lower than the limit of detection and ?-lactalbumin by approximately 34%, and was reduced further slowly throughout yoghurt self-life. An immediate interaction between the carrageenan present in the strawberry preparation and ?-LG was observed. The variations of both polyphenols and protein in the presence of carrageenan and the potential interactions were discussed. PMID:25308682

Oliveira, Ana; Alexandre, Elisabete M C; Coelho, Marta; Lopes, Cláudia; Almeida, Domingos P F; Pintado, Manuela

2015-03-15

228

Instant Adobe Edge Inspect starter  

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Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This easy-to-understand Starter guide will get you up to speed with Adobe Edge Inspect quickly and with little effort.This book is for frontend web developers and designers who are developing and testing web applications targeted for mobile browsers. It's assumed that you have a basic understanding of creating web applications using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, as well as being familiar with running web pages from local HTTP servers. Readers are a

Khan, Joseph

2013-01-01

229

Instant forgedUI starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.The book is a Starter guide to learning ForgedUI. This book will start by unfolding the installation and creating a simple application using Titanium and ForgedUI, followed by taking you through the features to model an engaging UI and generate multi-platform code with Titanium, while covering the best design practice for Apple and Android application development. Last but not least, you will also come across the available resources where you can

Luiz, Joseandro

2013-01-01

230

SPSS for Starters, Part 2  

CERN Document Server

The first part of this title contained all statistical tests that are relevant for starters on SPSS, and included standard parametric and non-parametric tests for continuous and binary variables, regression methods, trend tests, and reliability and validity assessments of diagnostic tests. The current part 2 of this title reviews multistep methods, multivariate models, assessments of missing data, performance of diagnostic tests, meta-regression, Poisson regression, confounding and interaction, and survival analyses using log tests and segmented time-dependent Cox regression. Methods for asses

Cleophas, Ton J

2012-01-01

231

Life Experience Starter Units, Set #2.  

Science.gov (United States)

The guide discusses preliminary steps and preparation of lesson plans for writing life experience units, and presents starter units which suggest directions for teachers to follow in unit completion. The starter units are on learning to be healthy and pets at the primary instructional level, recreation and the state of Iowa at the intermediate…

Iowa Univ., Iowa City. Special Education Curriculum Development Center.

232

Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt  

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Full Text Available For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of 0 to 50% renneted skim milk (RSM as a fat mimetic upon the physico-chemical, physical, rheological and sensory characteristics of nonfat yoghurt in comparison to control samples (full fat and skim yoghurt. By increasing RSM content, the chemical characteristics (titratable acidity, pH as well as the content of fat and total protein of yoghurts did not alter except decrease of total solid in sample with 50% RSM. The yoghurts with more content of RSM exhibited higher b*and a* values, while the highest L* value, viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC, firmness and lowest syneresis were found in sample containing 30% RSM. It seems that new interaction in gel network of yoghurts containing RSM, exhibited greater ability to bind water than control skim yoghurt. In addition, probably new bridges between milk proteins (interacting partially hydrolyzed casein with casein can increase the number of bounds between protein particles leading to lower syneresis. However, excessive RSM content (higher than 30% did not increase the L* value, viscosity and WHC of samples probably because of too much aggregation of casein. Sensory results revealed that sample containing 30% RSM was exactly alike to full fat yoghurt in terms of overall sensory attributes. New formulation of palatable skim yoghurt was developed using 3% RSM successfully.

Marjan Nouri

2011-08-01

233

Development of buckwheat and teff sourdoughs with the use of commercial starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the suitability of commercial starters for the production of gluten free sourdoughs. For this purpose, four different laboratory scale sourdoughs were developed from the flours buckwheat or teff. Two different starters (SA, SB) were used to start the fermentations, which were carried out under two technological conditions. Sourdoughs were propagated by back-slopping until the stability was reached. The composition of the stable sourdoughs was investigated by culture dependent techniques and the development of the dominant biota was monitored by PCR-DGGE. Unique and complex LAB and yeasts communities were detected in each sourdough, comprising strains which originated from the flours. The competitiveness of the starter LAB varied according to the substrate and the fermentation conditions applied. Among the LAB present in both SA and SB, L. helveticus and L. paracasei strains did not persist in buckwheat or teff sourdoughs. Lc. argentinum was competitive only in buckwheat sourdoughs, whereas L. reuteri persisted only in teff sourdough. L. fermentum and L. helveticus present in both starters dominated only the sourdoughs fermented at the higher temperature. Remarkably, the starter yeasts were outcompeted by spontaneous yeast strains, i.e. Kazachstania barnetti and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in teff sourdoughs, whereas no yeasts were isolated from buckwheat sourdoughs. The isolation of autochthonous LAB and yeasts from the stable teff and buckwheat sourdoughs indicates that both flours represent an important reservoir for the isolation of novel and competitive starters for the production of gluten free sourdough bread. PMID:20643489

Moroni, Alice V; Arendt, Elke K; Morrissey, John P; Dal Bello, Fabio

2010-08-15

234

Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p cow's milk (0.60 mg/100 g) than in goat and buffalo's milk (6.55 and 7.32 mg/100 g, respectively). No significant differences in taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few. PMID:22779912

Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

2013-02-01

235

The Use of Skim Milk and Essential Fatty Acids as an Alternative Method on Improving Yoghurt Nutrition Quality  

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Full Text Available The objective of the research was to investigate the effects of addition of different levels lemuru seafish oil on skim milk-based yoghurt in order to produce good quality and marketable yoghurt. The experiment consisted of lemuru seafish oil fractination based on its freesing point and the addition of extracted lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt at 0.50%; 1%; 1.50%; 2%. Yoghurt with 0% lemuru seafish oil was included as a control. A Completely Randomised Design was employed and each treatment has 5 replicates. Results showed that: (a the addition of lemuru seafish oil up to 2% affected lactic acid contents of yoghurt but still within the normal range, (b consumers preferred the smell and taste of yoghurt with 2% lemuru seafish oil; but they preferred the texture of yoghurt with 0.50% lemuru seafish oil, (c the addition of lemuru seafish oil to skim milk-based yoghurt increased the nutritional quality of the products, especially the amount of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. In order to get an ideal ratio between omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids (4:1, it was recommended to further investigate the use of lemuru seafish oil on milk products and the addition of omega 3 fatty acids from different sources as well as the shelf life of yoghurt with added lemuru seafish oil. (Animal Production 8(1: 16-21 (2006 Key Words : Yoghurt, lemuru seafish oil, essential fatty acids

Triana Yuni Astuti

2006-01-01

236

KEEPING QUALITY OF YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH WHEY PROTEIN CONCENTRATE AND SKIM MILK POWDER BY USING GAMMA RADIATION  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four batches of yoghurt were prepared to study the effect of gamma radiation doses on the quality of yoghurt. All samples were prepared by the addition of 1.5% whey proteins concentrate and 1.5% skim milk powder (from buffalo's milk). The four yoghurt batches were treated with gamma radiation at doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. All treated yoghurt was kept in a refrigerator at 70C and samples were examined every three days for chemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation. Control yoghurt that was not exposed to gamma radiation exhibited the highest total bacterial counts and lactic acid bacterial counts after 6 day from storage while the irradiated samples counts were decreased and this decrease was proportional to the dose of gamma radiation used. Applying gamma radiation improved the keeping quality of yoghurt, which provide that control yoghurt was still accepted till the 12th day while the samples irradiated with 1, 2 and 3 kGy were still accepted till the 15, 24 and 30 days, respectively. Coliform bacteria were not detected in all yoghurt treatment and there were non-significant differences among yoghurt treatments considering the chemical composition. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be recommended for both increasing the shelf-life of yoghurt and enhance its overall quality.

237

Podcasting the Ultimate Starter Kit  

CERN Document Server

Podcasting doesn't require an iPod; anyone with a computer, an MP3 player, or in some cases even a phone or a pair of shades can play podcasts. It requires very little technological know-how to set up, listen to, or even make your own programmes. Podcasting: The ultimate starter kit takes a light-hearted, friendly and refreshingly jargon-free look at eveything you need to know to get started, and with its free start-up CD it couldn't be easier. With the help of Podcasting, you can find out how to set up your software and record podcasts, where to go to find programmes on anything from religion

Shipside, Steve

2012-01-01

238

The Use of Tiger-Nut (Cyperus esculentus, Cow Milk and Their Composite as Substrates for Yoghurt Production  

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Full Text Available Yoghurt was produced from skimmed cow milk and tiger nut milk. The pH of the yoghurt was found to increase with increasing tiger nut milk in the composite. From the comparison made of the sensory attributes of the three samples of yoghurt composite, the yoghurt produced from the combination of cow milk and tiger nut milk had the highest mean score in all the parameters even though the difference between the means of cow milk-tiger nut composite and that of pure cow milk was insignificant. Thus the result of the sensory evaluation revealed that yoghurt from pure cow milk and the composite (tiger nuts milk and cow milk were rated alike in almost all the quality attributes indicating the feasibility of adding tiger nut to cow milk in the production of cheaper and nutritious yoghurt.

Rita E. Sanful

2009-01-01

239

7 CFR 58.415 - Starter vats.  

Science.gov (United States)

...vats. Bulk starter vats shall be of stainless steel or equally corrosion resistant metal and should be constructed according...3-A Sanitary Standards. The vats shall be in good repair, equipped with tight fitting lids and have...

2010-01-01

240

Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt  

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Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

Katarina Lisak

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
241

Viability and cholesterol uptake by Streptococcus thermophilus cultures in artificial git fluids  

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Full Text Available Background. Streptococcus thermophilus is traditionally used in association with Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus as a starter culture for the production of yoghurt. Some researchers have indicated that S. thermophilus may provide additional health benefits, for example it may reduce cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to in vitro evaluate the cholesterol uptake and the viability of S. thermophilus isolates in artificial GIT environments. Material and methods. Twelve isolates of S. thermophilus were cultured in artificial gastric fluid (with pepsin added and in artificial duodenal fluid (with the enzyme complex added, and in M17 broth containing cholesterol at an initial concentration of 600 µg/mL, as well as in M17 broth without cholesterol. Immediately after the adding of bacteria inoculums and at the end of experiment, the concentration of cholesterol and the number of bacteria were measured. Results. S. thermophilus did not remove statistically significant amounts of cholesterol from artificial gastric fluid. The isolates showed the ability to uptake cholesterol from M17 broth and artificial duodenal fluid, and the degree of cholesterol uptake depended on the isolate. All isolates of S. thermophilus remove much more cholesterol from M17 broth than from artificial duodenal fluid. All S. thermophilus isolates had worse survival in artificial gastric or duodenal fluids than in M17 broth. Conclusions. The ability of S. thermophilus cells to survive in artificial gastric fluid and artificial duodenal fluid varied according to the isolates.

Ma?gorzata Ziarno

2010-03-01

242

Free and attached cells of Bacillus subtilis as starters for production of a soup flavouring (“ogiri egusi”  

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Full Text Available Aims: This Bacillus subtilis has been identified to be the main fermenting bacterium during indigenous production of “ogiri egusi”; a traditional soup flavouring rich in protein. Evaluation of the use of starter and broth cultures of this bacterium in the production of ‘ogiri egusi’ was therefore undertaken with the view to improve the fermentation process and quality of product. Methodology and Results: Cowpea granules in association with Bacillus subtilis cells were developed as starter cultures for the fermentation. Results obtained showed that the starter cultures resulted in an increase in the aminonitrogen from 1.67±0.02 to 19.96±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 48 h while the broth cultures increased the aminonitrogen from 1.63±0.03 to 16.54±0.05 mg N/100 g dry matter in 72 h. There was also a corresponding increase in the protease activity of the fermentation conducted with the starter cultures from 2.69±0.03 to 54.98±0.04 mg N/min in 48 h. The broth cultures produced an increase from 2.65±0.02 to 47.61±0.06 mg N/min in 72 h. Changes in these parameters for the natural process were gradual and reached their peaks at 120 h with values of 9.89±0.13 mg N/100g dry matter and 31.92±0.03 mg N/min respectively. Peroxide values for the fermentation processes increased throughout the period; however the starter cultures produced the lowest value (10.20±0.10 meq/kg showing that rancidity may not occur in the product fermented by the starter culture. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The starter cultures significantly reduced fermentation time from 96 – 120 h in the natural process to 48 h. Thus use of starter cultures optimized the process of fermentation and will eliminate chances of contamination of product with pathogens and spoilage organisms. This ultimately will improve product quality.

Peter-Ikechukwu, A. I.

2013-01-01

243

Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer. PMID:25353311

Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

2014-11-01

244

Evaluation of various physico-chemical properties of Hibiscus sabdariffa and L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present investigation was carried out to examine the effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract on the physico-chemical properties, sensory attributes, texture and microbial analysis of L. casei incorporated in probiotic yoghurt after manufacture and during storage. Incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx extract into the probiotic yoghurt resulted into decrease in coagulation time by 25 min. The pH ranged from 4.39 to 4.59, TA 0.81 to 1.14%, moisture 3.05 to 3.37 g%, syneresis 18.85 to 24.90 mL/50 g of sample, % inhibition 12.32 to 59.43, TS 21.27 to 24.90 g% and beta-galactosidase activity 1.041 to 3.277. The protein content ranged between 4.11 and 4.14 g% while the fat content ranged between 3.43 and 3.49 g%. No major changes in sensory evaluation were observed on the day of manufacture and during storage for 7 days. Sabdariffa added yoghurt showed a higher score in almost all sensory attributes. Microbial analysis showed a total plate count ranging from 1.8 x 10(4) to 1.85 x 10(7) cfu mL(-1). Yeast and mold counts were negligible in the Sabdariffa yoghurts. Thus the study concludes that incorporation of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract in yoghurt improved the total antioxidant property, organoleptic qualities and decreased the exudation of whey proteins (Syneresis). Thus, Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces has beneficial influence on the quality of L. casei incorporated probiotic yoghurt. PMID:19266923

Rasdhari, M; Parekh, T; Dave, N; Patel, V; Subhash, R

2008-09-01

245

Instant Microsoft Forefront UAG mobile configuration starter  

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A no-nonsense Starter guide, designed to give you maximum guidance with minimum fuss. This book is written for system administrators, I.T. professionals, unified communication technicians, and decision makers, in general. No knowledge of UAG is required to understand the book and start setting up UAG immediately.

Volpe, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

246

[Iron concentration and acceptation of yoghurt prepared in casting iron pots (iron migration and acceptation of yogurt)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Food fortification is an interesting strategy to treat and prevent iron anemia. This study aims to quantify the iron in yoghurt, with gelatin and sugar and without, prepared in iron and glass containers. Sensorial test was use to evaluate the acceptance and preference of the both products. The yoghurt was prepared in containers of iron and glass with UHT milk, powder milk and natural industrialized yoghurt. After fermentation, half of the product received addition of sugar and strawberry flavor gelatin. The collected samples get the total iron quantified by ICP OES. Sensorial analysis involving 105 consumers was use to determine the acceptance and preference of the products. 0,018 and 0,882mg of iron per 100g added in the natural yoghurt prepared in the glass and in the iron pots, respectively. The yoghurt with gelatin presented 0,037 and 1,302mg of iron per 100g when prepared in the glass and in the iron pots, respectively. The preference was low for the yoghurt prepared in the iron pot (29,5%), but when added strawberry gelatin it was about 51,5%. The yoghurt prepared in iron pots, is easily home made and adds important amount of iron. Add gelatin and sugar can favored its consumption. PMID:16640200

Quintaes, Késia Diego; Almeyda Haj-Isa, Niurka M; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio

2005-12-01

247

Characteristics of physico-chemical properties, volatile compounds and free fatty acid profiles of commercial set-type Turkish yoghurts  

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Full Text Available Ten most popular brands of commercial Turkish set-type yoghurts were collected from local retail outlets in Hatay, Turkey for two separate periods, and analyzed for basic nutrients, physico-chemical properties, volatile aroma compounds and free fatty acid profiles to compare their differences among the yoghurt products. The results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05, 0.01, or 0.001 and variations in physico-chemical indices, volatile aroma compounds and volatile free fatty acid profiles among the yoghurt brands, which ultimately influence the flavor quality of the product. Acetaldehyde was predominant volatile compound in yoghurts, which followed by acetone, acetoin, diacetyl and ethanol. The level of diacetly was inversely related to titratable acidity, acetaldehyde and ethanoic acid. From ketones with high carbones 2-undecanone and 2-pentadecanone were higher than 2-butanone, 2-nanonane and 2-tridecanone. These ketones are related to fat content of yoghurt. Among short chain free fatty acids, ethanoic (acetic acid was the most abundant in yoghurts, followed by hexanoic, octanoic and butanoic acids. These differences in detected chemical compositions of volatile compounds and free fatty acids would be applicable to predict flavor, nutritional value, quality control or shelf-life of the commmercial set-type Turkish yoghurts.

Young W. Park

2011-04-01

248

Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in feta-type cheese production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of freeze-dried kefir coculture as a starter in the production of feta-type cheese was investigated. Maturation of the produced cheese at 4 degrees C was monitored for up to 70 days, and the effects of the starter culture, the salting method, and the ripening process on quality characteristics were studied. The use of kefir coculture as a starter led to increased lactic acid concentrations and decreased pH values in the final product associated with significantly higher conversion rates compared to salted rennet cheese. Determination of bacterial diversity at the end of the ripening process in salted kefir and rennet cheeses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technology, based on both DNA and RNA analyses, suggested a potential species-specific inhibition of members of the genera Staphylococcus and Psychrobacter by kefir coculture. The main active microbial associations in salted kefir cheese appeared to be members of the genera Pseudomonas and Lactococcus, while in salted rennet cheese, Oxalobacteraceae, Janthinobacterium, Psychrobacter, and Pseudomonas species were noted. The effect of the starter culture on the production of aroma-related compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied by the solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. Kefir coculture also appeared to extend the shelf life of unsalted cheese. Spoilage of kefir cheese was observed on the 9th and 20th days of preservation at 10 and 5 degrees C, respectively, while spoilage in the corresponding rennet cheese was detected on the 7th and 16th days. Microbial counts during preservation of both types of unsalted cheese increased steadily and reached similar levels, with the exception of staphylococci, which were significantly lower in unsalted kefir cheese. All types of cheese produced with kefir as a starter were approved and accepted by the panel during the preliminary sensory evaluation compared to commercial feta-type cheese. PMID:16957238

Kourkoutas, Y; Kandylis, P; Panas, P; Dooley, J S G; Nigam, P; Koutinas, A A

2006-09-01

249

Ketahanan dan viabilitas probiotik bakteri asam laktat selama proses pembuatan kultur kering dengan metode freeze dan spray drying [Survival and Viability of Lactid Acid Bacteria Probiotic during production of Dried Culture Using Freeze and Spray Drying Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Selection on 36 lactid aid bacteria isolate from various source (dadih, sausage, infant faces, gato, chinese leaf pickle, growol and yoghurt has been carried out based on their potency to reduce choresterol. Based on their ability to assimilate choresterol, conjugate bile solt, restency on bile salt and low pH, three isolates i.e. Lactobacillus sp. Dad 13, L. asidophillus D2 and L. plantarum Mut 7 have been chosen for further study. Viability of selected cultures during biomass production using coconut water with addition of 0.5% yeast extract, and during production of dried starter culture using freeze and spray dried were investigated. The results show that the growth patern of the three isolates selected were almost similar i.e. reaching maximum amount after 16 hours fermentation at 37°C. biomass production using coconut water produced 109 cfu/ml after 16-18 hours incubation at 37°C. decrease on viability after drying using freeze drier ranged between 0.5-2 log cycles, while that of storage of freeze dried culture during 4 weeks at -20°C caused descreasing in viability of 26-56%.

Erni Harmayani 1

2001-08-01

250

Some Properties of Yoghurts Produced from Goat Milk and Cow-Goat Milk Mixtures by Different Fortification Methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study; set type yoghurt was produced from goat milk (A and 70% goat - 30% cow (B, 50% goat - 50% cow milk (c mixtures and stored 14 days at ?4?C. Two concentration methods of ultrafiltration (UF and skim milk powder addition (MP were applied to milk mixtures, therefore six different yoghurt samples were obtained. Some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of yoghurt samples were analysed at 1st, 7th and 14th day of storage. Effects of milk type, concentration method and storage period on physico-chemical and microbiological properties of samples were investigated statistically.

Gokhan Kavas

2003-01-01

251

Effect of LGG yoghurt on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to establish effect of 14 day consumption of commercially available yoghurt containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC53103 - LGG (Bioaktiv LGG, Dukat, Croatia) on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp. salivary counts in children. Twenty five patients, 6-10 yr old participated in the study. At the inclusion in the study caries risk for every patient was evaluated. The saliva samples were tested with chair side kits for saliva buffer capacity (CRT buffer, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein), S. Mutans and Lactobacillus counts (CRT bacteria test, Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). Seven, 14 and 30d after yoghurt consumption saliva samples were tested again with CRT buffer and CRT bacteria tests. Obtained data were analyzed using chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results showed significant increase in saliva buffer capacity 30d after yoghurt consumption. S. Mutans salivary counts were significantly decreased after 30d. Significant differences in Lactobacillus counts were not observed. It could be concluded that daily consumption of yoghurt containing LGG have an inhibitory effect on oral pathogenic bacteria and may be beneficial in caries prevention. PMID:22816209

Glavina, Domagoj; Gorseta, Kristina; Skrinjari?, Ilija; Vrani?, Dubravka Negoveti?; Mehuli?, Ketij; Kozul, Karlo

2012-03-01

252

Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 550C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 150C and 3.5 fold at 20C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 103-104 cells per gram were not s>-104 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

253

Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter  

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Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incubation temperatures (high, medium and low) and flavour (sauce, strong, light and miscellaneous). Most Daquare prepared by solid-state fermentation from wheat, barley and/or peas with ingredient for...

Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M. J. R.; Han, B.

2011-01-01

254

Entwicklung eines Nachweisverfahrens für gentechnische Veraenderungen im Genom von Mikroorganismen aus Starter- und Schutzkulturen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work a system for the detection of genetically modified microorganisms is presented, that may be applied for an all-purpose, resp. non-specific identification of starter and protective cultures, which are modified by means of genetic engineering.The detection system is based on an equalization of the genome of the strain, that might be genetically modified with the genome of a near relative reference-strain, which is not genetically modified. For that purpose Representational Differen...

Ka?se, Mario

2000-01-01

255

The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml) was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of batches C, A and B. (control : not added the kefir starter, added the kefir starter 1 and 7 ml. respectively). The odour, flavor and overall acceptab...

Marisa Jatupornpipat; Payom Keatikumjorn

2007-01-01

256

Lipid oxidation in milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing enriched with neat fish oil or pre-emulsified fish oil  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: This study compared the oxidative stabilities of fish-oil-enriched milk, yoghurt, and salad dressing and investigated the effects on oxidation of adding either neat fish oil or a fish-oil-in-water emulsion to these products. Milk emulsions had higher levels of a fishy off-flavor and oxidized faster, as determined by the peroxide value and volatile oxidation products, than fish-oil-enriched yoghurt and dressing, despite the fact that dressings had a higher fish oil content and were stored at room temperature. Additionally, fish-oil-enriched yoghurt generally had higher oxidative stability than fish-oil-enriched dressings, irrespective of the mode of fish oil addition. Yoghurt thus seemed to be a good delivery system of lipids containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different effects of adding fish oil either as neat fish oil or as a fish-oil-in-water emulsion were observed for milk, yoghurt, and dressing. Yoghurt and dressing enriched with neat fish oil were more stable than those enriched with afish-oil-in-water emulsion, whereas milk enriched with neat fish oil was less stable than milk enriched with the fish-oil-in-water emulsion. Overall, it seemed that application of neat fish oil was a good option for preserving the final quality in yoghurt and dressings, but a pre-emulsion may still be considered for the fish oil enrichment of certain food products, for example, milk. Keywords: Fish oil; lipid oxidation; oil-in-water emulsion; n-3 PUFA; milk; yoghurt; salad dressing.

Bruni Let, Mette; Jacobsen, Charlotte

2007-01-01

257

30 CFR 75.819 - Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. 75.819...Longwalls § 75.819 Motor-starter enclosures; barriers and interlocks. Compartment...interlock switches for motor-starter enclosures must be maintained in accordance...

2010-07-01

258

Identification and characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from fermentation starters for Hong Qu glutinous rice wine brewing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hong Qu glutinous rice wine is one of the most popular traditional rice wines in China. Traditionally, this wine is brewed from glutinous rice with the addition of wine fermentation starters (Hong Qu (also called red yeast rice) and White Qu). The objective of this study was to investigate the variability of filamentous fungi associated with traditional fermentation starters through a traditional culture-dependent method and a molecular identification approach. In this study, forty-three filamentous fungi were separated by traditional culture-dependent means (macro- and microscopic characteristics) from 10 fermentation starters and classified into 16 different species based on morphological examination and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences analysis. It was observed that the genus Aspergillus had the highest number (14 isolates) of isolates followed by Rhizopus (11 isolates), Monascus (5 isolates) and Penicillium (4 isolates). The species R. oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus and M. purpureus were frequently found in wine starter samples, among which R. oryzae was the most frequent species. The enzyme-producing properties (glucoamylase, ?-amylase and protease) of all fungal isolates from different starters were also evaluated. A. flavus, R. oryzae and M. purpureus were found to be better glucoamylase producers. A. flavus, R. oryzae and A.oryzae exhibited higher activity of ?-amylase. A. flavus and A. oryzae had higher protease activity. However, some fungal isolates of the same species exhibited a significant variability in the production levels for all determined enzyme activity. This study is the first to identify filamentous fungi associated with the starter of Hong Qu glutinous rice wine using both traditional and molecular methods. The results enrich our knowledge of liquor-related micro-organisms, and can be used to promote the development of the traditional fermentation technology. PMID:22449748

Lv, Xu-Cong; Huang, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Rao, Ping-Fan; Ni, Li

2012-01-01

259

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases) to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. Th [...] e experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%) all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2) was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days) is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days), the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes, Xavier; José Henrique, Stringhini; Alexandre Barbosa de, Brito; Maria Auxiliadora, Andrade; Marcos Barcellos, Café; Nadja Susana Mogyca, Leandro.

1745-17-01

260

Feather and blood meal in pre-starter and starter diets for broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out (pre-starter and starter phases to evaluate the effect of feather and blood meal on performance, organ development and digestibility and retention of nutrients in broilers. In the first experiment, it was used 280 birds and in experiment 2, it was used 240 birds. The experimental diets were formulated with four levels of feather and blood meal (0%, 2%, 4% and 6% all of them isonutritive and isoenergetic. A metabolic assay was developed on the 4th and 7th days of age in experiment 1 and on the 14th and 17th days of age in experiment 2. In these periods, one bird per experimental unit was sacrificed for determination of morphometry of the digestive organs. In experiment 1, in which it was evaluated the pre-starter phase, there was a negative linear effect of the levels of feather and blood meal on weight gain and intake in 1-21 day of age period. By using feather and blood meal in the diet, it was observed a linear effect on digestibility coefficient of dry matter, nitrogen and ether extract; there was a quadratic effect on retention of dry matter and nitrogen and linear effect on the retention of ether extract. However, performance of birds in the starter phase (experiment 2 was not affected by levels of feather and blood meal used in the diet. Coefficient of digestibility of dry matter and ether extract and retention of ether extract were affected. In both phases, mortality and morphometric data of digestive organs were not influenced by the levels of meal in the diet. Formulation of diets with up to 6% feather and blood meal for chickens in the pre-starter phase (from 1 to 7 days is not a good alternative because it worsens performance of birds. However, from the initial phase (from 8 to 21 days, the use of feather and blood meal in the diet is viable. Feather and blood meal can be used at levels 3.0 or 4.0% for broilers in the pre-starter and starter phase.

Suzany Aparecida Gomes Xavier

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Sensorless soft starters for loaded induction motors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper is devoted to the research and design of sensorless thyristor soft starters for loaded induction motors (IM) with short circuited squirrel case rotors. It is shown that the applied direct converter topology depends on the output power and consists of a small number of thyristors with special algorithm of switching to realize voltage - frequency control of IM drive systems at low speeds of starting. Sensorless control is realized from the both sides when neither direct converter nor drive system consists of any additional transducers for soft starting operation. (orig.) 4 refs.

Chrisanov, V.I.; Konovalov, Y.N. [Power Plearonics Department, State University of Telecommunication, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-12-31

262

The influence of selected prebiotics on the growth of lactic acid bacteria for bio-yoghurt production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available   Background. Prebiotics are a category of nutritional com­pounds grouped together, not necessarily by structural similarities, but by ability to promote the growth of spe­cific beneficial (probiotic gut bacteria. Fructooligosaccharides (FOS and inulin are among the most famous prebiotic compounds. In order to improve viability of probiotic bacteria during storage, fermented food should be supplemented with prebiotics. Material and methods. Yoghurts were produced from skimmed milk powder and prebiotics (FOS, inulin or resistant starch, which were added at concentrations of 1%, 2% and 3%. Yoghurts were stored in +4°C for three weeks. Every week each kind of fermented drink was examined in order to check the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Apparent viscosity and texture of bio-yoghurt were determinated during refrigerated storage. Results. The FOS and inulin addition to yoghurt caused an increase in the numbers of all bacteria in comparison to control yoghurt obtained without addition of prebiotics. The viable counts of Str. thermophilus, Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. when 1% of FOS was added to yoghurt were about 9 log cfu/g, 7.8 log cfu/g and 7.7 log cfu/g, respectively. In the presence of 1% of inulin, streptococci and bifidobacteria reached the growth at the level 8.8 log cfu/g and 7.5 respectively. Hardness and adhesiveness of yoghurt obtained with addition resistant starch increased systematically during 21 days of refrigerated storage. Conclusions. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria in obtained bio-yoghurts were sufficient in 97% of samples (106-109 cfu/g according to FAO/WHO protocols. Generally, viability of bacteria was sufficient for 14 days and then their numbers decreased but usually not below 106 cfu/g. Prebiotics as FOS and inulin added to bio-yoghurt exhibited stimulatory effect on growth Lb. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. Addition of prebiotics caused an increase in apparent viscosity and hardness (in case of FOS and decrease in syneresis of obtained bio-yoghurts.  

Waldemar Gustaw

2011-12-01

263

Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt  

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Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentra...

Katarina Lisak; Irena Jeli?i?; Ljubica Tratnik; Rajka Božani?

2011-01-01

264

Isolation and Identification of Wild Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Yoghurt Preparation from Indigenous Dahi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in fermented dairy products. Their role in the production of value added products of milk like yoghurt, cheese and butter etc has got great significance. In this study thirty-five samples of dahi were collected randomly from the local markets of Rawalpindi. A total of 69 isolates were identified phenotypically and divide into three genera Lactococcus (36 isolates), Lactobacillus (15 isolates) and Streptococcus (18 isolates). ...

Talat Mehmood; Tariq Masud; Syed Ali Abbass; Shabana Maqsud

2009-01-01

265

Application of Renneted Skim Milk as a Fat Mimetics in Nonfat Yoghurt  

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For a long time, fermented dairy products have been consumed for human’s nutrition and health. Recently, consumption of whole dairy products, such as full fat yoghurt, has declined due to the awareness of probable harmful effects of fat on consumers’ health, resulting change of market interest in favor of low or non fat dairy products. It is a challenge for food scientists to produce a suitable fat substitute providing the functionality of the missing fat. The present investigation was ca...

Marjan Nouri; Hamid Ezzatpanah; Soleiman Abbasi

2011-01-01

266

Electronic starter device for fluorescent lamps. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to silicon supplier failures to produce the 03/04 triac silicon as specified in the original proposal, the direction of the starter program was migrated to use available off the shelf power semiconductors. This had unexpected positive side effects including a reduction in component price, improved quality, and the refocus of engineering efforts to concentrate on the Super ASIC core technology. The starter program has begun shipments employing this new architecture, and is being well received both in the US and abroad. In its present form, the starter meets original cost projections within 20%. Work is continuing on the 0.8 micron ASIC, which will allow for the starter to sell below $1.00 in volume. Even at the slightly higher price, interest is strong in replacing the low performance glow starter for small fluorescent applications with a high performance alternative.

NONE

1998-06-01

267

Fatty Acid Content of Bovine Milkfat From Raw Milk to Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: The present study aimed to study the evolution of fatty acid content, focusing on rumenic acid content, from raw milk to yoghurt processed from this milk. Approach: Milk samples were collected in a dairy plant in the northwest of Parana State weekly in January 2011 (Brazilian summer. It processed one truck load of 26,000 L of refrigerated type-C (whole standardized milk with a minimum of 3% fat milk per day, mostly from the city of Lobato, Parana, produced mainly by Gir (Bos indicus cattle raised on stargrass (Cynodon nlenfuensis var. nlenfuensis pasture. Results: Saturated Fatty Acid (SFA were the most abundant, particularly palmitic (16:0, stearic (18:0 and myristic (14:0. Among the Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (MUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA and trans fatty acid, oleic acid (18:1n-9, linoleic acid (18:2n-6, elaidic acid (t9-18:1 and c9, t11-18:2 (rumenic acid predominated. It was detected significant differences (p-1 of lipids, decreasing to 6.22±0.20 after pasteurization and to 5.41±0.18 mg g-1 in yoghurt. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is demonstrated that pasteurization and yoghurt making affect the CLA contents.

O. O. Santos Junior

2012-01-01

268

Lysine nutritional requirements of broilers reared in clean and dirty environments during the pre-starter and starter phases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 3,760 Ross male broiler chicks were used in two trials, one in the pre-starter (1-11 days phase and the other in the starter (12-22 days phase. Birds were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a factorial arrangement of 5 digestible lysine levels × 2 environments (clean and dirty environment, with eight replicates per treatment. The following dietary digestible lysine levels used were: 1.06, 1.12, 1.18, 1.24 and 1.30% in the pre-starter phase, and 1.00, 1.06, 1.12, 1.18 and 1.24% in the starter phase. Minimal relation of digestible lysine:digestible methionine + cystine, threonine, tryptophan and arginine (72, 67, 19 and 108%, respectively were maintained, as well as 2.088 and 2.002% of glycine+serine in the pre-starter and starter diets, respectively. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. In all phases, dietary digestible lysine levels significantly influenced broiler performance, and broilers reared in the clean environment presented better performance than those reared in the dirty environment. The recommended digestible lysine levels during the pre-starter and starter phases are 1.30 and 1.24% when broilers are reared in the clean enviroment and 1.26 and 1.165% in the dirty enviroment, respectively.

Rodrigo Santana Toledo

2011-10-01

269

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and catalase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12. The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12. Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas.

Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

2007-09-01

270

Phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR of promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented sausages / Caracterização fenotípica e por PCR espécie-específica de cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas promissoras como cultivos iniciadores de Lactobacillus plantarum isoladas de embutidos cárneos fermentados naturalmente produzidos na região noroeste do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Das 127 bactérias ácido láctica homofermentativas, Gram-positivo [...] e catalase-negativo isoladas, dez foram aleatoriamente selecionadas e a caracterização fenotípica e a PCR espécie-específica foram realizadas. DNA genômico das cepas isoladas e das cepas de referência L. plantarum ATCC 8014 e L. pentosus ATCC 8041 foram amplificadas utilizando-se dois pares de iniciadores espécie-específicos para L. plantarum (16/Lpl e LbP11/LbP12). Os resultados da caracterização fenotípica e da PCR espécie-específica permitiram a identificação como Lactobacillus plantarum de cinco cepas das dez selecionadas. Abstract in english The purpose of the present work was to characterize promising starter culture strains of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from naturally fermented artisanal sausage manufactured in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. From 127 isolates of homofermentative, Gram-positive and ca [...] talase-negative lactic acid bacteria, ten isolates were randomly selected and the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR were performed. Genomic DNA from each isolated strain and from the reference strains L. plantarum ATCC 8014 and L. pentosus ATCC 8041 were amplified using two pairs of L. plantarum species-specific primers (16/Lpl and LbP11/LbP12). The results of the phenotypic characterization and species-specific PCR indicated that five out of ten isolates were Lactobacillus plantarum.

Maristela Cortez, Sawitzki; Ângela Maria, Fiorentini; Fábio Cristiano Angonesi, Brod; Caroline, Tagliari; Teresinha Marisa, Bertol; Ana Carolina Maisonnave, Arisi; Ernani Sebastião, Sant' Anna.

2007-09-01

271

Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary. PMID:18281427

Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

2008-04-01

272

Effects of Processing on Antibiotic Residues (Streptomycin, Penicillin-G and Tetracycline in Soft Cheese and Yoghurt Processing Lines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty-eight samples (40 cheese and 18 yoghurt samples were collected from five soft cheese and two conventional yoghurt processors. The samples were collected along the processing lines of these dairy products and analyzed for antibiotic residues (streptomycin, penicillin-G and tetracycline. The mean residual levels for cheese was; streptomycin (0.00400.0018, penicillin-G (0.00620.0026 and tetracycline (0.00230.0008, while levels in yoghurt was; streptomycin (0.00140.0010, penicillin-G (0.00170.0017 and tetracycline (0.00110.0071. Penicillin-G exceeded Maximum Residue Limit (MRL in raw milk and cheese for 4 out of the 5 processors. In yoghurt processing only powdered milk for processor F exceeded MRLs for penicillin-G. Significant differences (p<0.05 was obtained along the processing lines for all processors. Generally antibiotic residue levels reduced along the processing line of soft cheese and yoghurt. The presence of penicillin-G above MRLS in some of the samples poses a threat to the consumers.

Victoria O. Adetunji

2011-01-01

273

Microbiological and fermentative properties of baker's yeast starter used in breadmaking.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed the levels of microbial contaminants in liquid, compressed and dry commercial baker's yeasts used as starters in breadmaking. Eumycetes, Enterobacteriaceae, total and fecal coliforms, Bacillus spp., and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), in particular enterococci, were quantified. Results obtained in this study highlighted that baker's yeast could represent a potential vehicle of spoilage and undesirable microorganisms into the baking environment, even if these do not influence the leavening activity in the dough, as ascertained by rheofermentometer analysis. Different microbial groups, such as spore-forming bacteria and moulds, were found in baker's yeast starters. Moreover, different species of LAB, which are considered the main contaminants in large-scale yeast fermentations, were isolated and identified by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The most recurrent species were Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus durans, isolated from both compressed and dry starters, whereas strains belonging to Leuconostoc and Pediococcus genera were found only in dry ones. Nested-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Nested-PCR) and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) were also used to highlight the biodiversity of the different commercial yeast strains, and to ascertain the culture purity. PMID:23957411

Reale, A; Di Renzo, T; Succi, M; Tremonte, P; Coppola, R; Sorrentino, E

2013-08-01

274

Antioxidant activity of yoghurt peptides: Part 1-in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate important factors contributing to the high oxidative stability of fish-oil-enriched yoghurt, with particular emphasis on the possible antioxidative effects of peptides released during yoghurt fermentation. Yoghurt samples were stripped from sugars and lactic acid and subsequently fractionated by ultrafiltration using membranes with cut off sizes of 30 kDa, 10 kDa and 3 kDa. The fractions were tested for antioxidant activity by investigating the inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity, iron-chelating activity, and reducing power. The lower molecular weight fractions were found to be more effective antioxidants than higher molecular weight fractions. The lower molecular fractions were further tested as antioxidants in fish-oil-enriched milk. On the basis of peroxide value, volatiles, tocopherol and sensory characteristics, the lower molecular weight fractions 3–10 kDa and

Farvin, Sabeena

2010-01-01

275

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dehydroacetic acid (DHA and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(ptolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl-6-(p-tolyl-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0.5 ?g/L. Yoghurts were stored at 4 °C and 7 °C, respectively, for up to 28 days. Analysis of AFM1 in yoghurt was carried out using two dimensional thin-layer chromatography (TLC - visual estimation. The limit of detection was 0.15 ng/L. The recoveries of AFM1 from the samples spiked at levels of 10, 50, 100, and 500 ng/L were between 80.6 and 107.8 %, respectively. Concentrations of DHA and DHT of 0.01 and 0.03 ?mol/L had non or little effect on AFM1 content in experimentally contaminated yoghurt, whereas concentrations higher than 0.05 ?mol/L, partially inhibited AFM1 content. The percentage loss of the initial AFM1 amount in yoghurt was estimated by about 15 and 25 %, and 22 to 45 % by the end of storage, respectively. In experiments with 0.01 and 0.05 ?mol/L of BrDHT or higher, the concentration of AFM1 was reduced after 28 days by 20 to 95 % or completely, respectively, depending on the time and temperature of deposit. Detection of toxicity of investigated analogues was evaluated by using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina larvae as a screening system for the determination of their sensitivity to some chemicals

Frane Delaš

2012-09-01

276

The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

Marisa Jatupornpipat

2007-07-01

277

Soft starter as a start option; Softstarter als Startmoeglichkeit  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The starting and the running-up of machines require a high amount of energy. However, this energy component can be reduced with special starters - an important aspect in the field of machine drives. The soft starter is a smart and cost-effective alternative to conventional starting process. From the perspective of the new switch off regulation and a cross-linked flexible load management, considerable costs of energy can be reduced.

Mueller, Michael [Rockwell Automation, Karlsruhe (Germany). Bereiche Antriebs-, Sicherheitstechnik und Schaltgerate

2013-07-01

278

Removal of aflatoxin M1 from artificially contaminated yoghurt by using of new synthesized dehydroacetic acid analogues  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dehydroacetic acid (DHA) and its new synthesized analogues, 4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(ptolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (DHT) and 5-Bromo-4-hydroxy-3-(p-toluoyl)-6-(p-tolyl)-2H-pyrane-2-one (BrDHT) were tested for removal of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from artificially contaminated yoghurt with known concentrations of this toxin to determine the possible use of these chemicals as a means of controlling AFM1 accumulation. Yoghurt from cow’s milk was artificially contaminated with AFM1 at levels of 0.01 to 0...

Frane Delaš; Lejla Durakovi?; Alma Tudi?; Katarina Hui?-Babi?; Sulejman Redžepovi?

2012-01-01

279

Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administered as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most clinical studies of probiotics use freeze-dried, powdered bacteria or bacteria packed in capsules. However, probiotics are commercially available in various food matrices, which may affect their persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of the study was to compare oral and faecal recovery during and after administration of a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and LC705, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. This randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial (n=36) included a 4-week run-in, 2-week intervention, and 3-week follow-up period. Participants consumed 10(10)cfu/day of probiotic combination and provided saliva and faecal samples before, during, and after the intervention. Strain-specific real-time PCR was used to quantify the strains. L. rhamnosus GG was the only probiotic strain regularly recovered in saliva samples. During the intervention period it was recovered in the saliva of 88% of the volunteers at least once. No difference was found between the yoghurt and cheese groups. At the end of the intervention, L. rhamnosus GG and LC705 counts were high in faecal samples of all product groups (8.08 and 8.67log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). There was no matrix effect on strain quantity in faeces or the recovery time after ceasing the intervention. For P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS and B. animalis subsp. lactis Bb12, a matrix effect was found at the end of the intervention (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) and in the recovery time during follow-up (P<0.05 for both). Yoghurt yielded the highest faecal quantity of JS and Bb12 strains (8.01 and 9.89log(10) genome copies/g, respectively). The results showed that the administration matrix did not influence the faecal quantity of lactobacilli, but affected faecal counts of propionibacteria and bifidobacteria that were lower when consumed in cheese. Thus, the consumption of probiotics in yoghurt matrix is highly suitable for studying potential health benefits and capsules provide a comparable means of administration when the viability of the strain in the capsule product is confirmed. PMID:21074284

Saxelin, Maija; Lassig, Anna; Karjalainen, Heli; Tynkkynen, Soile; Surakka, Anu; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Järvenpää, Salme; Korpela, Riitta; Mutanen, Marja; Hatakka, Katja

2010-12-15

280

Aislamiento e identificación de cepas del género Bifidobacterium presentes en productos lácteos fermentados tipo yogur / Isolation and identification of strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus found in fermented yoghurt type milk products  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La identificación de microorganismos probióticos del género Bifidobacterium es de gran importancia por su uso como suplemento que favorece la salud del consumidor. En Venezuela son pocos los estudios sobre caracterización microbiológica de estas bacterias y no existen métodos oficiales para su estud [...] io en alimentos. Esta investigación reporta la estandarización de técnicas microbiológicas y moleculares para el aislamiento e identificación de bifidobacterias aisladas de dos productos tipo yogur, I con probiótico y II sin probiótico. Se analizaron 10 muestras de cada yogur, una por semana, aislando 3 colonias por muestra. Los resultados mostraron que de los 60 aislados analizados, 27 colonias del Yogur I y 11 del Yogur II concordaron con las características de bifidobacterias. Se comparó el crecimiento bacteriano en dos medios de cultivo (MRS-m, RCA), sembrando por profundidad en placas y en tubos Miller-Pricket, obteniéndose mejores resultados con el medio MRS-m y las siembras por profundidad en tubos. De las extracciones de ADN se obtuvieron los patrones de ERIC-PCR y REP-PCR, determinándose que 34 aislados eran clones indistinguibles, mostrando el patrón de B. lactis utilizado como control positivo. Esta metodología puede ser utilizada por la industria y los entes encargados del control de la calidad de los productos probióticos Abstract in english The identification of probiotic microorganisms belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus is very important due to their use as supplements favorable for consumer’s health. In Venezuela there have been few studies of the microbiological characterization of these bacteria and there are no official method [...] s for their study in food. This investigation reports the standardization of microbiological and molecular techniques for the isolation and identification of bifidobacteria isolated from two yoghurt type products: I with probiotic and II without probiotic. Ten samples from each yoghurt type product were analyzed, one per week, and 3 colonies were isolated per sample. Results showed that of the 60 isolates analyzed, 27 colonies of Yoghurt I and 11 of Yoghurt II coincided with the characteristics of bifidobacteria. Bacterial growth was compared in two culture media (MRS-m, RCA), inoculating in-depth in plates and Miller-Pricket tubes; the best results were obtained with MRS-m medium and in-depth inoculations in tubes. By DNA extraction we obtained ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR patterns, determining that 34 isolates were indistinguishable clones, showing the same pattern of the B. lactis used as positive control. This methodology can be used by the industry and the institutions in charge of quality control of probiotic products

Indira, Pérez; Aura, Falco; María Soledad, Tapia; Guillermina, Alonso.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
281

Isolation and Identification of Wild Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Yoghurt Preparation from Indigenous Dahi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria are commonly found in fermented dairy products. Their role in the production of value added products of milk like yoghurt, cheese and butter etc has got great significance. In this study thirty-five samples of dahi were collected randomly from the local markets of Rawalpindi. A total of 69 isolates were identified phenotypically and divide into three genera Lactococcus (36 isolates, Lactobacillus (15 isolates and Streptococcus (18 isolates. Out of 69 isolates 26% were of S. thermophilus followed by 22% L. bulgaricus, 16% L. acidophilus, 9% L. lactis and 9% L. casei, respectively. After identification, potential of strains for lactic acid production after 6 hrs, 12 hrs and 24 hrs were also determined. In addition to acid production diacetyl production was also observed at 37oC for 8 hrs with two hours intervals. There were generally increasing trend for diacetyl production. The study showed that there was a variety of lactic acid bacteria in our environment which has potential to produce quality yoghurt.

Talat Mehmood

2009-01-01

282

High Torque Low Current Starter System for Synchronous Motor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High Torque Low Current (HTLC Starter is the new innovative motor soft starter system. This is a motor starting method for high inertia loads using a low voltage drive with input and output transformers to control motor torque and limit current when starting a medium/high voltage motor. The HTLC is a solution to motor starting problems where Direct on Line (DOL or “Across the Line” starting is not feasible due to high in-rush current causing problems on the distribution system or where a reduced voltage starter cannot provide enough torque to achieve breakaway and accelerate the motor to full speed. The main features of HTLC starter system are reduction of starting inrush current from 600% to 10% and over 60% breakaway torque available during starting, significantly less costly than a fully rated VFD and multiple motors can be started from a single HTLC. This innovative motor soft starter system used in BPCL-Kochi Refinery for starting of 6MW Synchronous motor.

Dr.K.Ayyar

2014-01-01

283

Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el costo por litro de yoghurt.The purpose was to increase non fatty solids in the yoghurt, using non traditional raw materials, with nourishing and economic advantages as the dried cheese whey and semidefatted soybean flour, in mixtures of 1 and 2% independent levels. The level of replacement with 2% of dried cheese whey, showed favorable organoleptic and physical and chemical conditions that merit as a dried skim milk possible substitute, reducing 6% cost per litre of yoghurt.

Peña Aurora

1988-06-01

284

Lomaiviticin biosynthesis employs a new strategy for starter unit generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lomaiviticin biosynthesis is thought to utilize a propionyl starter unit for a type II polyketide synthase (PKS). Discovery of the lomaiviticin (lom) biosynthetic gene cluster suggested an unusual method for starter unit generation involving a bifunctional acyltransferase/decarboxylase (AT/DC) thus far observed only in type I PKS pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of AT/DC Lom62 confirmed its ability to generate a propionyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP), revealing a new role for this enzymatic activity within natural product biosynthesis. PMID:24383813

Waldman, Abraham J; Balskus, Emily P

2014-01-17

285

Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) activities were estimated before and afte...

Al-wabel, N. A.; Mousa, H. M.; Omer, O. H.; Abdel-salam, A. M.

2008-01-01

286

Performance Analysis of Apollo Navigational Starter Routine  

Science.gov (United States)

The focus of this project is to recreate and analyze the effectiveness of the original Apollo Starter Routine (ASR) which was used to generate the state vector of the Apollo spacecraft based on a series of radiometric observations. The original Apollo navigation software is unavailable in a modern programming language and the original coding has not been preserved. This necessitates its recreation using the original software documentation. Space Shuttle navigation software does not typically use the ASR or an algorithm like it since the Shuttle s state vector is easily deduced from GPS information or other sources. However, this tactic will be ineffective when trying to determine the state vector of a craft approaching, departing or in orbit around the Moon since the GPS network faces the surface of the Earth, not outer space. The recreation of the ASR from the original documentation is therefore vital as a simulation baseline for the navigation software under development for the Constellation program. The algorithms that make up the ASR will be extracted from the original documentation and adapted for and then implemented in a modern programming language; the majority of it will be coded in Matlab. The ASR s effectiveness will then be tested using simulated tracking data. The ability of the ASR to handle realistically noisy data and the accuracy with which it generates state vectors were analyzed. The ASR proved to be robust enough to process data with range and angle noise as large as 10,000 meters and 10(exp -6) radians together and 300,000 meters and 5x10(exp -4) radians separately at Lunar distances. The ASR was able to handle marginally more noise at distances closer to the Earth where the angle noise was less significant. The ASR is capable of effectively processing 40-80 data points gathered at a rate of one per 20 seconds at close Earth orbit and up to 28-40 data points gathered at a rate of one per minute at distant Earth orbit and Lunar orbit.

Ivanov, Stoyan I.; Holt, Greg

2010-01-01

287

Effect of yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® on faecal excretion of secretory immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin 2 in healthy adult volunteers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19 years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184 and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections.

Kabeerdoss Jayakanthan

2011-12-01

288

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Foram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro, com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente, e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente, em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC, cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia.Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were used and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm, varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos Mathias

2013-03-01

289

Avaliação do comportamento reológico de diferentes iogurtes comerciais / Rheological evaluation of different commercial yoghurts  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A consistência e a viscosidade do iogurte são uns dos principais fatores envolvidos na qualidade e aceitação do produto. Dessa forma, este trabalho apresenta um estudo de comparação reológica entre iogurtes comerciais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em cujas formulações constam diferentes espessantes. Fo [...] ram utilizadas três grandes marcas do mercado e, entre os espessantes utilizados, estão: goma guar, goma xantana, goma carragena, goma alfarroba e carboximetilcelulose. Previamente às análises reológicas, as amostras de iogurtes foram submetidas à determinação do pH, da acidez (expressa em ácido láctico) e da umidade. As curvas de fluxo e de viscosidade foram obtidas em reômetro rotacional Thermo Haake Mars com geometria placa/placa (35 mm de diâmetro), com variação de taxa de cisalhamento entre 0,02 e 100 s-1 (curva ascendente), e 100 e 0,02 s-1 (curva descendente), em um tempo total de 20 minutos. Foi determinada a histerese como a área entre as curvas e ajustados os modelos de Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley e Ostwald de Waele. Foram realizados também testes de tixotropia, pela medição da viscosidade em função do tempo a uma taxa constante de 100 s-1, por 10 minutos. Estes foram ajustados pelo modelo de Weltman. Além disso, foram verificadas alterações no comportamento reológico em função da variação de temperatura (4 a 24 ºC), cujos resultados foram avaliados pela Equação de Arrhenius. Todas as amostras de iogurte analisadas apresentaram comportamento pseudoplástico e tixotrópico. Todos os modelos foram bem ajustados para as curvas de fluxo, exceto o modelo de Weltman, que não representou bem os testes de tixotropia. Abstract in english Yoghurt consistency and viscosity are two of the major factors involved in product quality and acceptance. Thus this paper presents a comparative study of the rheology of commercial yoghurts in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose formulations included different thickeners. Three major market brands were u [...] sed and the thickeners included guar gum, xanthan gum, carrageenan gum, locust bean gum and carboxymethylcellulose. Before the rheological tests, samples of the yoghurts were submitted to the determination of pH, acidity (expressed as lactic acid) and moisture content. The flow and viscosity curves were obtained using a rotational Thermo Haake Mars rheometer with plate/plate geometry (diameter 35 mm), varying the shear rate from 0.02 to 100 s-1 (rising curve) and from 100 to 0.02 s-1 (falling curve) in a total time of 20 minutes. Hysteresis was determined as the area between the curves and fitted to the models of Bingham, Casson, Herschel-Bulkley and the Power Law. Thixotropy tests were also carried out by measuring the viscosity versus time at a constant rate of 100 s-1 for 10 minutes. These were fitted to the Weltman model. Moreover, the changes in the rheological behaviour as a function of temperature (4-24 ºC) were observed, and the results evaluated using the Arrhenius equation. All the yoghurt samples showed pseudoplastic and thixotropic behaviour and all the models fitted the flow curves well, with the exception of the Weltman model, which did not represent the thixotropy tests well.

Thiago Rocha dos Santos, Mathias; Kelita Carlos Silva, Andrade; Cíntia Letícia da Silva, Rosa; Bárbara Amorim, Silva.

2013-03-01

290

Biogenic amines and ethyl carbamate in primitivo wine: survey of their concentrations in commercial products and relationship with the use of malolactic starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was conducted to determine the biogenic amine (BA) and ethyl carbamate (EC) concentrations in commercial Primitivo wine samples and the influence of the use of malolactic starter culture on concentrations of these potentially hazardous compounds in this wine. One hundred sixty bottles of wine from eight producers in the Apulia region of southern Italy were purchased at retail and analyzed. The most common BAs were histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, tyramine, cadaverine, putrescine, spermine, and spermidine. Putrescine (derived from ornithine) was the most abundant BA in all commercial Primitivo wines (5.41 to 9.51 mg/liter), 2-phenylethylamine was detected in only two commercial wines (at less than 2.12 mg/liter), and histamine was found at concentrations of 1.49 to 16.34 mg/liter. The concentration of EC in commercial Primitivo wine was 6.81 to 15.62 ppb, which is not considered dangerous for human health. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) affected the concentrations of BAs and EC differently. For EC, no significant differences were detected between samples of wine produced by spontaneous fermentation and wine that was inoculated malolactic starter. Mean EC concentrations were 12 and 14 ppb in two batches tested (always 18 ppb or less), regardless of whether the malolactic starter was added. Although present at trace levels in wine before the MLF, histamine accumulated during the MLF process, regardless of whether the malolactic starter was added. However, the increase in histamine was higher in wines without the malolactic starter. The concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine increased after MLF, especially in the wine that spontaneously fermented. The use of a selected malolactic starter resulted in reductions in BA concentrations in wine produced by this guided MLF compared with wine produced by spontaneous MLF. PMID:22410237

Patrignani, F; Ndagijimana, M; Belletti, N; Gardini, F; Vernocchi, P; Lanciotti, R

2012-03-01

291

21 CFR 184.1848 - Starter distillate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...184.1848 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY...is a steam distillate of the culture of any or all of the...

2010-04-01

292

A new approach for selection of Oenococcus oeni strains in order to produce malolactic starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni, mainly responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF), is used in new winery process as starter culture for direct inoculation. The difficulty to master MLF according to the wine led us to search a new approach to select effective O. oeni strains. Biochemical and molecular tests were performed in order to characterize three strains of O. oeni selected for malolactic starter elaboration. Malolactic and ATPase activities that appeared as a great interest in MLF were measured and the expression of a small heat shock protein Lo18 was evaluated by immunoblotting and real-time PCR. These results were correlated with the performances of strains in two red wines. Physiological and molecular characteristics of the three strains showed significant differences for the global malolactic activity on intact cell at pH 3.0 and at the level of induction of the small heat shock protein Lo18. These two parameters appeared of interest to evaluate in the ability of O. oeni strains to survive into wine after direct inoculation and to perform MLF. Indeed, a tested strain that presented the highest malolactic activity on intact cells at pH 3.0 and a high level of Lo18 induction showed a high growth rate and a high specific kinetic of malate consumption. The techniques used in this work carry out more quickly and more reliable than usual for the selection of effective strains intended for direct inoculation in wines. PMID:16081179

Coucheney, Françoise; Desroche, Nicolas; Bou, Magali; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Dulau, Laurent; Guzzo, Jean

2005-12-15

293

Building the Library Starter Kit: Developing New Technologies for Instruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the development of a World Wide Web bibliographic instruction resource at the University of California at Santa Cruz called the "Library Starter Kit" Describes the initial project, its growth and expanded development, the guidelines used in its creation, discussions of usage, and future additions. (AEF)

Murphy, Deborah A.

1998-01-01

294

Fingerprint based bio-starter and bio-access  

CERN Document Server

In the paper will be presented a safety and security system based on fingerprint technology. The results suggest a new scenario where the new cars can use a fingerprint sensor integrated in car handle to allow access and in the dashboard as starter button.

Iovane, G; Iovane, C; Rotulo, F

2003-01-01

295

Oxalate Content of Stir Fried Silver Beet Leaves (Beta Vulgaris Var. Cicla with and without Additions of Yoghurt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Total and soluble oxalic acids were extracted and analysed by HPLC chromatography following Asian cooking methods, which involved soaking, boiling and stir frying of silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla leaves. Autumn-grown silver beet leaves contained 1658 ± 114 mg/100 g dry matter (DM of total oxalates, 954 ± 49 mg/100 g DM of soluble oxalates and 704 ± 98 mg/ 100 g DM insoluble oxalates. Soaking and boiling before stir frying reduced the soluble oxalate contents to a mean of 455 mg/100 g DM. Addition of standard or low fat yoghurt following the pre-treatments of soaking, boiling, stir frying and soaking, boiling and stir frying further reduced the soluble oxalate content to a mean of 190.8 ± 49.8 and 227.5. ± 47.0, respectively, for the standard and low fat yoghurt mixes.

Evelyn Teo

2012-01-01

296

Exogenous and endogenous nitrogen flow rates and level of protein hydrolysis in the human jejunum after [15N]milk and [15N]yoghurt ingestion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk and yoghurt proteins were 15N-labelled in order to measure the flow rate of exogenous N during digestion in the human intestine. After fasting overnight, sixteen healthy volunteers, each with a naso-jejunal tube, ingested either [15N]milk (n 7) or [15N]yoghurt (n 9). Jejunal samples were collected every 20 min for 4 h. A significant stimulation of endogenous N secretion was observed during the 20-60 min period after yoghurt ingestion and the 20-40 min period after milk ingestion. The endogenous N flows over a 4 h period did not differ between the groups (44.3(SEM 6.5) mmol for milk and 63.5(SEM 5.9) mmol for yoghurt). The flow rates of exogenous N indicated a delayed gastric emptying of the yoghurt N compared with N from milk. The jejunal non-protein N (NPN) flow rate increased significantly after milk and yoghurt ingestion due to an increase in the exogenous NPN flow rate. The NPN fraction of exogenous N ranged between 40 and 80%. The net gastro-jejunal absorption of exogenous N did not differ significantly between milk (56.7(SEM 8.5)%) and yoghurt (50.9(SEM 7)%). The high level of exogenous N hydrolysis is in accordance with the good digestibility of milk products. Fermentation modifies only the gastric emptying rate of N and does not affect the level of diet hydrolysis, the endogenous N stimulation or the digestibility rate. PMID:7547842

Gaudichon, C; Mahé, S; Roos, N; Benamouzig, R; Luengo, C; Huneau, J F; Sick, H; Bouley, C; Rautureau, J; Tome, D

1995-08-01

297

Partial identification of water-soluble peptides released at early stages of proteolysis in sterilized ovine cheese-like systems: influence of type of coagulant and starter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cheese-like systems were manufactured from sterilized ovine milk, using crude aqueous extracts of Cynara cardunculus or cardosin A isolated therefrom as clotting agent. The effect of adding a commercial starter culture was also assessed. The impact of the type of coagulant used during the initial 24 h of proteolysis was evaluated via separation of peptides in the water-soluble extracts by reverse-phase HPLC, followed by partial sequencing via Edman degradation. Cardosin A accounted for most events of primary proteolysis. The major cleavage sites were Phe105-Met106 in kappa-casein, and Leu127-Thr128, Ser142-Trp143, Leu165-Ser166, and Leu190-Tyr191 in beta-casein. The starter culture did not play an active role during the initial stages of ripening. PMID:15905424

Silva, S V; Malcata, F X

2005-06-01

298

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C. Marques

2009-09-01

299

Yoghurt and probiotic bacteria in dietary guidelines of the member states of the European Union.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beneficial microbes enter the food supply primarily through fermented foods (largely milks) and addition of probiotics. Fermented milks are a significant component of the diet of some geographical regions, including Europe. The fermentation process serves to preserve safety, nutritional quality and palatability of milk. In addition, the microbes associated with fermented milks and probiotics are associated with human health benefits. However, in the area of health claims only one claim for beneficial microbes has been approved in the European Union, that is for yoghurt to improve lactose tolerance. We searched for health messages that include probiotics or fermented milks in nutrition guidelines and recommendations in thirteen countries of the EU plus Switzerland. Such messages are allowed when they are made by non-commercial government bodies. Our analysis revealed that five EU member states have national nutrition guidelines or recommendations that include either probiotics or fermented milks with live bacteria. This supports that some EU member states recognise health benefits associated with consumption of live microbes, even if commercial marketing claims are not authorised. Harmonisation between recommendations and approved health-claims would benefit consumers and public health. PMID:24463208

Smug, L N; Salminen, S; Sanders, M E; Ebner, S

2014-03-01

300

Biological Evaluation of Aqueous Herbal Extracts and Stirred Yoghurt Filtrate Mixture Against Alloxan-Induced Oxidative Stress and Diabetes in Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological effects of aqueous herbal extracts mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Aqueous extracts of six medicinal plants: fenugreek, greater burdock, goat`s rue, colocynth, chicory and lupine were mixed with stirred yoghurt filtrate and used in the experiments. Blood glucose and alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST activities were estimated before and after alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rats. Obtained results showed that blood glucose levels in sera of treated rats fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture decreased with mean values of 135.0 ± 26.85 mg/100 mL serum compared with the treated rat fed on basal diet (positive control with mean value of 237.66 ± 14.43 mg/100 mL serum. Data showed that ALT and AST activities in sera of treated rat fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were nearest to the level of un-treated rats fed basal diet (negative control. The means values of ALT and AST level in treated group fed on aqueous extract of medicinal plants and stirred yoghurt filtrate mixture were 57.33 ± 20 and 189.33 ± 48.85 compared with the positive control 90 ± 31.76 and 260.00 ± 57.27 and negative control 44.66 ± 9.5 and 180.66 ± 23.58 U L-1, respectively. Data concluded that mixture of medicinal plant extracts and stirred yoghurt filtrate may play a role in protection against alloxan-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in rat.

N.A. Al-Wabel

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effects of Daily Consumption of Probiotic Yoghurt on Inflammatory Factors in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (107 CFU g-1 for each or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation. Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-a, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.441.56 to 7.441.03 g mL-1 (p = 0.041. There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.551.57 to 14.511.62 g mL-1, p = 0.202. The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-a (from 73.756.59 to 77.915.61 pg mL-1, p = 0.633. Serum TNF-a did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134. In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-a.

Abbas Rahim Foroushani

2011-01-01

302

Thermal drying of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and its efficient use as starter for whey fermentation and unsalted cheese making.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lactobacillus bulgaricus grown on whey was dried by a simple thermal drying method at the range 35-55 degrees C and its efficiency for lactic acid fermentation of whey was evaluated. Drying of cells in whey suspension in the examined temperature range did not affect significantly their viability (82-87% survival), indicating a protective effect of whey as both growth and drying medium. The kinetics of fermentation of whey and mixtures of whey/molasses using the dried culture were comparable to those of non-dried cells, and only low pH had a detrimental effect on the fermentation ability of the dried cells. Furthermore, dried L. bulgaricus, free or immobilized on casein coagulates, was used as starter for the production of unsalted hard-type cheese. The effects of the amount of starter culture and the immobilization technique, the evolution of microbial counts, and the sensory properties of the produced cheeses were evaluated during ripening at various temperatures. PMID:20127423

Katechaki, Eleftheria; Solomonidis, Theodoros; Bekatorou, Argyro; Koutinas, Athanasios A

2010-11-01

303

Different Levels of Digestible Methionine on Performance of Broiler Starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dietary protein and amino acid supply is the most expensive component of poultry diets. Therefore several efforts made by the industry to minimize the cost of the protein portion of the diet. Accordingly, there has been a recent move to use digestible amino acid values in the formulation of poultry diets. The efficiency of protein utilization depends to a large extent on the amino acid composition of the diet. The study was conducted to determine the digestible methionine requirement of broilers during the starter periods. One hundred and seventy five (175 chicks were allocated to 5 treatments with five replicates of seven chicks per replicate in a completely randomized design. Chicks were fed experimental diets from one day old to 21 days of age. Dietary treatments included 5 titrated levels each of digestible methionine (3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0 g/kg diet added to a basal diet. The allowance of digestible methionine, rather than digestible sulphur amino acids was used in formulating the diets. Supplemental synthetic DL-Methionine which were considered to be 100% digestible were added to diets to obtain the concentration of the digestible amino acid. Each week until the conclusion of the trial, birds were individually weighed, feed intake per pen was measured, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was computed. This study suggested that the digestible methionine requirement for broiler starter is 4.7 g/kg for optimal body weight gain and 4.6 g/kg for optimal feed conversion ratio. (Animal Production 12(1: 6-11 (2010Key Words: amino acid, broiler, digestible, methionine, starter

WL Bryden

2010-01-01

304

Instant Django 1.5 application development starter  

CERN Document Server

Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This book is written in a practical Starter style with lots of helpful screenshots and step-by-step tutorials which will guide you gently into the world of Django.This book is for Python developers who want to jump into the world of Django. If you want to create awesome Python web applications without sacrificing speed then this book is for you. This book will also appeal to people learning Python who wish to hit the ground running and develop P

Rocco, Mauro

2013-01-01

305

Starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available  In the article the questions of the starting the aircraft engines and gas-turbine drive by means of electric starter is considered. In the same way in the article are determined the main requirements to steady-state converter for feeding electric starter.

?.?. ??????

2004-04-01

306

Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Serial Wound Starter Motor with Learning Vector Quantization Network  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, a Graphical User Interface (GUI software for real time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of serial wound starter motors has been developed using Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ neural network. The starter motors are serial wound dc motors which enable the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE to run. When the starter motor fault occurs, the ICE cannot be run. Therefore, condition monitoring and pre-diagnosis of starter motor faults are important. The information of voltages and currents is acquired from the starter motor via data acquisition card and transferred to the program. With this program using LVQ network, six faults observed in the starter motors were successfully detected and diagnosed in real time. The GUI software makes it possible to condition monitoring and diagnose the faults in starter motors before they occur by keeping fault records of the past occurrences. This system can be used in service shops and in test departments of starter motor manufacturers. In addition, this system has potential to be used for real time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of vehicles with the help of industrial computers.

R. Bayir

2008-01-01

307

Selection of autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains as wine starters using a polyphasic approach and ochratoxin A removal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few years, the selection of autochthonous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as wine starters has been studied; however, researchers have not focused on the ability to remove ochratoxin A (OTA) as a possible trait to use in oenological characterization. In this article, a polyphasic approach, including yeast genotyping, evaluation of phenotypic traits, and fermentative performance in a model system (temperature, 25 and 30°C; sugar level, 200 and 250 g liter(-1)), was proposed as a suitable approach to select wine starters of S. cerevisiae from 30 autochthonous isolates from Uva di Troia cv., a red wine grape variety grown in the Apulian region (Southern Italy). The ability to remove OTA, a desirable trait to improve the safety of wine, was also assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The isolates, identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region and DNA sequencing, were differentiated at strain level through the amplification of the interdelta region; 11 biotypes (I to XI) were identified and further studied. Four biotypes (II, III, V, VIII) were able to reduce OTA, with the rate of toxin removal from the medium (0.6 to 42.8%, wt/vol) dependent upon the strain and the temperature, and biotypes II and VIII were promising in terms of ethanol, glycerol, and volatile acidity production, as well as for their enzymatic and stress resistance characteristics. For the first time, the ability of S. cerevisiae to remove OTA during alcoholic fermentation was used as an additional trait in the yeast-selection program; the results could have application for evaluating the potential of autochthonous S. cerevisiae strains as starter cultures for the production of typical wines with improved quality and safety. PMID:24988024

Petruzzi, Leonardo; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Garofalo, Carmela; Baiano, Antonietta; Sinigaglia, Milena

2014-07-01

308

Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter) with possible early weaning and ground starter (control), were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males). Animals [...] were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05), despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P

Amália Saturnino, Chaves; Suely de Fátima, Costa; Leandra Queiroz de, Melo; Marcos Neves, Pereira.

2014-09-01

309

Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter) with possible early weaning and ground starter (control), were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males). Animals [...] were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05), despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P

Amália Saturnino, Chaves; Suely de Fátima, Costa; Leandra Queiroz de, Melo; Marcos Neves, Pereira.

310

NIST energy related inventions - electronic starter device for fluorescent lamps. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to silicon supplier failures to produce the 03/04 triac silicon as specified in the original proposal, the direction of the starter program was migrated to use available off the shelf power semiconductors. This had unexpected positive side effects including a reduction in component price, improved quality, and the refocus of engineering efforts to concentrate on the Super ASIC core technology. The starter program has begun shipments employing this new architecture, and is being well received both in the US and abroad. In its present form, the starter meets the original cost projections within 20%. Work is continuing on the 0.8 micron ASIC, which will allow for the starter to sell below $1.00 in volume. Even at the slightly higher price, interest is strong in replacing the low performance glow starter for small fluorescent applications with a high performance alternative.

NONE

1998-06-01

311

Fluorescent method for monitoring cheese starter permeabilization and lysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fluorescence method to monitor lysis of cheese starter bacteria using dual staining with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit is described. This kit combines membrane-permeant green fluorescent nucleic acid dye SYTO 9 and membrane-impermeant red fluorescent nucleic acid dye propidium iodide (PI), staining damaged membrane cells fluorescent red and intact cells fluorescent green. For evaluation of the fluorescence method, cells of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 were incubated under different conditions and subsequently labeled with SYTO 9 and PI and analyzed by flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. Lysis was induced by treatment with cell wall-hydrolyzing enzyme mutanolysin. Cheese conditions were mimicked by incubating cells in a buffer with high protein, potassium, and magnesium, which stabilizes the cells. Under nonstabilizing conditions a high concentration of mutanolysin caused complete disruption of the cells. This resulted in a decrease in the total number of cells and release of cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase. In the stabilizing buffer, mutanolysin caused membrane damage as well but the cells disintegrated at a much lower rate. Stabilizing buffer supported permeabilized cells, as indicated by a high number of PI-labeled cells. In addition, permeable cells did not release intracellular aminopeptidase N, but increased enzyme activity was observed with the externally added and nonpermeable peptide substrate lysyl-p-nitroanilide. Finally, with these stains and confocal scanning laser microscopy the permeabilization of starter cells in cheese could be analyzed. PMID:11526032

Bunthof, C J; van Schalkwijk, S; Meijer, W; Abee, T; Hugenholtz, J

2001-09-01

312

Stability of free and immobilized Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis in acidified milk and of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt / Estabilidade de Lactobacillus acidophilus e Bifidobacterium lactis nas formas livre e imobilizada em leite acidificado e de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho avaliou a estabilidade de Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) e de Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) nas formas livre e imobilizada em alginato de cálcio, em leite e leite acidificado (pHs 5.0, 4.4 e 3.8), e a estabilidade de B. lactis imobilizado em iogurte (fermentado até pH 4.2), durante [...] 28 dias de estocagem refrigerada. Também foi estudada a eficiência de dois meios de cultura (ágar MRS modificado e Reinforced Clostridial Agar, acrescido de Prussian Blue) para enumerar B. lactis em iogurte. Ágar Lee foi usado para enumeração de Streptococcus thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus quando B. lactis era enumerado no meio MRS. Ambos os microrganismos, nas formas livre e imobilizada, apresentaram uma taxa de sobrevivência adequada nos leites acidificados, uma vez que houve redução de apenas um ciclo log, após 21 dias de estocagem refrigerada. O número de células viáveis de B. lactis imobilizado mostrou um declínio gradual durante o período de armazenamento do iogurte, passando de 10(8) ufc/ml até não ter mais contagem na diluição 10-1. Quando as culturas não estavam em equilíbrio, o meio MRS modificado foi mais eficiente para a contagem de B. lactis em iogurte. Em vista destes resultados pode-se concluir que ambos os microrganismos podem ser incorporados em leite e leite acidificados, haja visto que a redução na população foi pequena durante o período de armazenagem estudado. A presença da cultura tradicional de iogurte parece ter afetado negativamente a sobrevivência de B. lactis e a imobilização não proveu proteção às células, em nenhum dos tratamentos estudados. Abstract in english This study evaluated the stability of Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12) and of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La-05) both free and immobilized in calcium alginate, in milk and in acidified milk (pH 5.0, 4.4 and 3.8). The stability of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt (fermented to pH 4.2), during 28 days of [...] refrigerated storage was also evaluated. The efficiency of two culture media (modified MRS agar and Reinforced Clostridial Agar plus Prussian Blue) for counting of B. lactis in yoghurt was determined. Lee's agar was used to count Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus when B. lactis were counted in the MRS medium. B. lactis and L. acidophilus in both free and immobilized forms presented satisfactory rates of survival in milk and acidified milk because the average reduction of the population was only one log cycle after 21 days of storage. The number of viable cells of immobilized B. lactis in yoghurt presented a gradual decline throughout the storage period, passing from 10(8) cfu/ml to no count after 28 days of storage. When the cultures were not in equilibrium just the selective medium was efficient in counting B. lactis in yoghurt. The results showed that both microorganisms can be added to milk and acidified milk, because their population was only slightly affected during storage. The presence of traditional culture of yoghurt seems to be harmful for survival of immobilized B. lactis and the immobilization in calcium alginate failed as an effective barrier to protect the cells in all analysed treatments.

Carlos Raimundo Ferreira, Grosso; Carmen Sílvia, Fávaro-Trindade.

2004-06-01

313

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S) and non-starters players (NS). A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players particip [...] ated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13) and NS (n= 9). Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C., Marques; D.A., Marinho.

314

Physical parameters and performance values in starters and non-starters volleyball players: A brief research note  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and determines if differences exist in these characteristics between starters (S and non-starters players (NS. A group of 22 professional male team volleyball players participated in the study and the players were categorized as S (n= 13 and NS (n= 9. Anthropometric characteristics, countermovement jump, overhead medicine ball throwing and maximal dynamic strength were evaluated in all the subjects. Significant diferences in age, hight and weight were noticed between S and NS. There were no significant differences between the two groups in strength and power values, except for squat performance, where S were significant strong than NS. These findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific playing status. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take specicif lower body strength characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized training stauts specific training programmes.

M.C. Marques

2009-01-01

315

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige [...] was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H, Malik; L, Holm; E, Johansson.

2012-12-01

316

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H Malik

2012-12-01

317

Soil and starter fertilizer and its effect on yield and protein composition of malting barley  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Fertilizer application and growing locations are known to influence yield and protein concentration of malting barley. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of soil and starter fertilizer on yield and protein composition in mature and maltedbarley. The cultivar Prestige [...] was grown in two different soils (Lunnarp and LaxmansÅkarp) in combination with the use/non-use of starter fertilizer in climate chambers. Yield parameters, protein concentration and composition was measured. Effect of soil on plant emergence, yield and protein composition was significant while the effect of starter fertilizer was not. More nitrogen rich and low humus content soil (Lunnarp) resulted in higher grain yield and polymerization of proteins and lower protein concentration than the other soil. Combination of soil and starter fertilizer influenced protein composition in mature and malted barley. Breakdown of proteins were significantly higher at certain combination of soil and starter fertilizer than with other combinations. The Lunnarp soil combined with starter fertilizer was preferable to obtain high yield, low protein concentration and large grain size in mature grains. When breakdown of proteins at malting was taken into consideration as well, Lunnarp soil together with no starter fertilizer might be the best option.

A.H, Malik; L, Holm; E, Johansson.

318

Adaptability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava and use of competitive strains as starters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adaptability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts to sourdoughs prepared from cereals, pseudocereals and cassava was investigated using PCR-DGGE and bacteriological culture combined with rRNA gene sequence analysis. Sourdoughs were prepared either from flours of the cereals wheat, rye, oat, barley, rice, maize, and millet, or from the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa, and buckwheat, or from cassava, using a starter consisting of various species of LAB and yeasts. Doughs were propagated until a stable microbiota was established. The dominant LAB and yeast species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus spicheri, Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The proportion of the species within the microbiota varied. L. paralimentarius dominated in the pseudocereal sourdoughs, L. fermentum, L. plantarum and L. spicheri in the cassava sourdough, and L. fermentum, L. helveticus and L. pontis in the cereal sourdoughs. S. cerevisiae constituted the dominating yeast, except for quinoa sourdough, where I. orientalis also reached similar counts, and buckwheat and oat sourdoughs, where no yeasts could be detected. To assess the usefulness of competitive LAB and yeasts as starters, the fermentations were repeated using flours from rice, maize, millet and the pseudocereals, and by starting the dough fermentation with selected dominant strains. At the end of fermentation, most of starter strains belonged to the dominating microbiota. For the rice, millet and quinoa sourdoughs the species composition was similar to that of the prior fermentation, whereas in the other sourdoughs, the composition differed. PMID:19239979

Vogelmann, Stephanie A; Seitter, Michael; Singer, Ulrike; Brandt, Markus J; Hertel, Christian

2009-04-15

319

Influence of microflora on texture and contents of amino acids, organic acids, and volatiles in semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionibacteria  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The microflora of semi-hard cheese made with DL-starter and propionic acid bacteria (PAB) is quite complex, and we investigated the influence of its variation on texture and contents of organic acids, free amino acids, and volatile compounds. Variation in the microflora within the normal range for the cheese variety Grevé was obtained by using a PAB culture in combination with different DL-starters and making the cheeses at 2 dairy plants with different time and temperature profiles during ripening. Propionic acid bacteria dominated the microflora during ripening after a warm room period at levels of log 8 to log 9 cfu/g, which was about 1 log unit higher than the total number of starter bacteria and about 2 log units higher than the number of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Eye formation was observed during the warm room period and further ripening (at 8 to 10°C). The amounts of acetate, propionate, total content of free amino acids, 2-propanol, and ethyl propionate in the ripened cheeses were related to the number of PAB. A decrease in the relative content of Asp and Lys and increase of Phe over the ripening time were different from what is observed in semi-hard cheese without PAB. The occurrence of cracks was higher in cheeses with more hydrolyzed a(S1)- and ß-casein, higher content of free amino acids, lower strain at fracture (shorter texture), and a greater number of PAB

Rehn, Lina Ulrika Ingeborg; Vogensen, Finn Kvist

2011-01-01

320

Isolation of Penicillium nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production by disruption of the pcbAB gene and application as starters on cured meat products.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of some fungi on a variety of food products, like cheeses or cured meat products, is beneficial for the ripening of the product and for the development of specific flavour features. The utilization of these fungi as starters, which are inoculated normally as asexual spores on the food products at the beginning of the ripening process, is becoming a usual procedure in the food industry. The starter culture also prevents undesirable fungi or bacteria from growing on the product. Penicillium nalgiovense is the most frequently used starter for cured and fermented meat products, but the fact that this fungus can secrete penicillin to the meat product makes it important to get strains unable to synthesize this antibiotic. In this work we report that P. nalgiovense strains impaired in penicillin production can be obtained by disruption of the pcbAB gene (the first gene of the penicillin biosynthetic pathway). When applied as starter on cecina (a salted, smoke-cured beef meat product from the region of León, Spain), the pcbAB-disrupted strain showed no differences with respect to the parental penicillin-producing strain in its ability to colonize the meat pieces and to control their normal mycoflora. Both strains exerted a similar control on the presence of bacteria in cecina. A similar proportion of penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant bacteria were isolated from pieces inoculated with the penicillin-producing or the non-producing P. nalgiovense strains. The decrease of the bacterial population on the surface of cecina seems to be due to the higher competition for nutrients as a consequence of the inoculation and development of the P. nalgiovense mycelium and not due to the production of penicillin by this fungus. Penicillin production was less affected than growth in a solid medium with high NaCl concentrations; this suggests that the high salt concentration present in cecina is not a limiting factor for penicillin production by P. nalgiovense. PMID:12951798

Laich, Federico; Fierro, Francisco; Martin, Juan F

2003-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Soybean Oil and Beef Tallow in Starter Broiler Diets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO) and tallow (T) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to det [...] ermine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P

VB, Fascina; AS, Carrijo; KMR, Souza; AML, Garcia; C, Kiefer; JR, Sartori.

2009-12-01

322

Characterisation of microbial communities in Chinese liquor fermentation starters Daqu using nested PCR-DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, characterises of the microbial community structures of three typical Chinese liquor Daqu, as well as different kinds of light flavour Daqu were investigated using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results showed that microbial diversity was considerably different, and the microfloral compositions were highly variable among various Daqu. Lactic acid bacteria, which accounted for 30.95 % of all identified bacteria, were dominant in all Daqu samples, whereas Bacillus species were also predominant in the Luzhou (14.8 %) and Langjiu Daqu (18.2 %). Citrobacter and Burkholderia were first identified in light flavour Daqu. Aspergillus was the dominant moulds, and the non-Saccharomyces yeast species, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Wallemia sebi, Wallemia muriae, and Pichia subpelliculosa, were the dominant yeasts. Rasamsonia, Galactomyces, Geotrichum and Wallemia were first identified using nested PCR-DGGE. Cluster analysis indicated that the microbial community structures of different Daqu samples exhibited some differences. These may be ascribed to the different peak production temperatures, raw material constituents and microhabitats around the liquor enterprises. The current study provides insights into the microbial community structures of three typical Daqu samples, and may facilitate the development of starter cultures for manufacturing Chinese liquor. PMID:25193747

Zhang, Liqiang; Wu, Chongde; Ding, Xiaofei; Zheng, Jia; Zhou, Rongqing

2014-12-01

323

Exploring the Genome of Cheese Starter Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT 4433, a cheese fermentation starter strain. The genome provides further insight into the genomic plasticity, biocomplexity (including gene strain specifics), and evolution of these genera. PMID:25395632

Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Chimetto Tonon, Luciane A; de Mesquita, Milene Miranda A; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

2014-01-01

324

Efecto de la concentración de cultivos iniciadores y dextrosa sobre la calidad de la maduración y vida útil sensorial del pepperoni / Effect of the concentration of starter cultures and dextrose on the quality of the maturation and the sensory life of pepperoni / Efeito da concentração de cultivos iniciadores e dextrose sobre a qualidade da maturação e vida útil sensorial do pepperoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Introdução. A automatização dos processos na indústria cárnica, e a combinação entre cultivos de rápida fermentação e substratos fermentables que permitam elaborar produtos madurados secos de alta qualidade em curto tempo e com novas características sensoriais são os fatores a ter em conta para melh [...] orar, estandarizar e diminuir o tempo de elaboração tradicional deste tipo de alimentos, permitindo às empresas cárnicas diversificar seus produtos e proporcionar ao consumidor alimentos com novos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demonstrar as vantagens de controlar os parâmetros de temperatura e umidade, em câmara de estufaje e a incorporação de diferentes dosificações de cultivo iniciador e dextrose nas etapas de fermentação, maturação, e na conservação do pepperoni. Materiais e métodos. Para avaliar o efeito das concentrações de dextrose e cultivos iniciadores sobre a maturação do pepperoni, avaliaram-se 4 combinações entre as concentrações 0.03% e 0.05% do cultivo Bactoferm LHP, e 0.5% e 1% de dextrose. A fermentação e maturação se realizou em condições controladas de umidade e temperatura. O tempo de vida útil foi avaliado num período de 100 dias, analisando as características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais do alimento cada 30 dias, durante o armazenamento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. As principais diferenças encontradas, durante o armazenamento, nos pepperoni com percentagens maiores de 0,5 de dextrose, foi a aparição de defeitos no produto final como cores marrons, sabor ácido e gorduroso nos produtos finais. Pelo contrário, concentrações de 0,03% de cultivo starter e 0,5% de dextrose permitiram obter produtos com maior retenção de umidade, melhorando a aparência e textura do produto. O estudo de vida útil do pepperoni determinou que os tratamentos avaliados garantiram a inocuidad do produto por 94 dias a 26° C, como resultado do efeito sinérgico dos metabólitos das bactérias ácido-lácticas, que evitaram o desenvolvimento de microorganismos alterantes e patogênicos. Conclusão. A utilização de dextrose como substrato fermentable para os cultivos iniciadores foi essencial para controlar a velocidade de acidificación do pepperoni durante a fermentação, e evitar assim o rápido descenso do PH e a formação de defeitos sensoriais no produto final; desta maneira, consegue-se a estabilidade sensorial do produto em condições de armazenamento ao ambiente. Abstract in spanish Introducción. La automatización de los procesos en la industria cárnica, y la combinación entre cultivos de rápida fermentación y sustratos fermentables que permitan elaborar productos madurados secos de alta calidad en corto tiempo y con nuevas características sensoriales son los factores a tener e [...] n cuenta para mejorar, estandarizar y disminuir el tiempo de elaboración tradicional de este tipo de alimentos, permitiendo a las empresas cárnicas diversificar sus productos y proporcionar al consumidor alimentos con nuevos valores agregado. Objetivo. Demostrar las ventajas de controlar los parámetros de temperatura y humedad, en cámara de estufaje, y la incorporación de diferentes dosificaciones de cultivo iniciador y dextrosa en las etapas de fermentación, maduración, y en la conservación del pepperoni. Materiales y métodos. Para evaluar el efecto de las concentraciones de dextrosa y cultivos iniciadores sobre la maduración del pepperoni, se evaluaron 4 combinaciones entre las concentraciones 0.03% y 0.05% del cultivo Bactoferm LHP, y 0.5% y 1% de dextrosa. La fermentación y maduración se realizó en condiciones controladas de humedad y temperatura. El tiempo de vida útil fue evaluado en un período de 100 días, analizando las características fisicoquímicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales del alimento cada 30 días, durante el almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente. Resultados. Las principales diferencias encontradas, durante el almacenamiento, en los pepper

Julio, Montes Álvarez; Claudia, Restrepo Flórez; Jairo, Patiño Gómez; Jaime Andrés, Cano Salazar.

2013-01-01

325

Characteristics of some traditional Vietnamese starch-based rice wine fermentation starters (men)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the Mekong Delta region of South-Vietnam, wine from purple glutinous rice is particularly interesting because of its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. It is manufactured at home or by small cottage industries, using traditional solid-state starters (Men). With the objective of improving the knowledge about the functionality of traditional Men, this study deals with the properties and composition of 29 samples of Vietnamese commercial rice wine starters. We ...

Dung, N. T. P.; Rombouts, F. M.; Nout, M. J. R.

2007-01-01

326

Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the production of local cheeses or sourdough breads. The beginning of this new millennium has witnessed a deep change in consumer demand, in pursuit of quality, safety and pleasure. In this context, natural starters could, in the future, play an important role in the development of fermented products. However, food producers and researchers have first to cope with fundamental problems in the understanding of these complex ecosystems. The dynamic evolution of the microbial population inside the natural starter (its resilience, its genetic and physiological aptitudes and the consequences on the product are still partially unknown. This document reviews a broad range of articles concerning the use of natural starters with a specific focus on cheeses and breads, and discusses the major stakes for local food production and the consumption of typical products.

Demarigny Yann

2014-09-01

327

Cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus and A. brasiliensis: chemical characterization and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for the final healthy product--natural preservatives in yoghurt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agaricus bisporus (J. E. Lange) Emil J. Imbach and Agaricus brasiliensis Wasser, M. Didukh, Amazonas & Stamets are edible mushrooms. We chemically characterized these mushrooms for nutritional value, hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds. The antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic and ethanolic extracts were assessed. Hepatotoxicity was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of both species was tested for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth in yoghurt. Both species proved to be a good source of bioactive compounds. A. brasiliensis was richer in polyunsaturated fatty acids and revealed the highest concentration of phenolic acids, and tocopherols. A. bisporus showed the highest monounsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol contents. A. brasiliensis revealed the highest antioxidant potential, and its ethanolic extract displayed the highest antibacterial potential; the methanolic extract of A. bisporus revealed the highest antifungal activity. A. brasiliensis possessed better preserving properties in yoghurt. PMID:24881564

Stojkovi?, Dejan; Reis, Filipa S; Glamo?lija, Jasmina; ?iri?, Ana; Barros, Lillian; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Sokovi?, Marina

2014-07-25

328

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh) and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservat...

Zahra Esfandiari; Mohammad Badiey; Pooya Mahmoodian; Reza Sarhangpour; Elham Yazdani; Maryam Mirlohi

2013-01-01

329

Method for assessing lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic in high-density polyethylene packaging and study of the migration into yoghurt and simulant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper was to assess the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) in high-density polyethylene (HDPE) packaging intended for contact with yoghurt and the migration of these elements using the food itself and 3% acetic acid as a food simulant in accordance to ANVISA, the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. In order to perform this study, it was necessary to develop and validate a method by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) analysis. For method validation, the parameters linearity, limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs), accuracy and precision were determined. Fifteen commercial samples of yoghurt, marketed in Campinas - São Paulo (Brazil), were used for the analysis. The packaging and yoghurt were digested in high-pressure ashing equipment (HPA) and the migration of the elements into simulant were determined directly in the solution. The validated method proved adequate and the results obtained showed that all the packaging had levels of Hg and Cd below the LOQ, corresponding to 1.0 and 1.5 ?g l(-1), respectively. The highest levels of As and Pb were 0.87 and 462.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. The migration of these elements to the yoghurt after 45 days of contact at 4ºC was below the LOQ for all the samples assessed. The results of specific migration into 3% acetic acid simulant showed the concentrations of Cd, Hg and As below 5, 5 and 10 µg kg(-1), respectively, which are the maximum limits set by ANVISA. However, for three samples the packaging lid showed migration of Pb into simulant ranging from 30.6 to 40.2 ?g kg(-1), exceeding the limit set by ANVISA of 10 ?g kg(-1). PMID:24444394

Kiyataka, Paulo Henrique M; Dantas, Sílvia T; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

2014-01-01

330

Utilización del suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya, como fuentes de sólidos en la elaboración de yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Con el objetivo de incrementar los sólidos no grasos en el yoghurt, se utilizaron materias primas no tradicionales, con ventajas nutritivas y económicas, como el suero de queso en polvo y la harina de soya semidesengrasada, en niveles independientes o en mezclas entre el 1 y 2%. El nivel del 2% de suero de queso en polvo, presentó características físico-químicas y organolépticas favorables, que lo acreditan como posible sustitutivo de la leche en polvo descremada, reduciendo en 6% el c...

Peña Aurora; Edwin, Zarate G.; Escobar G. Jorge A.

1988-01-01

331

Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. PMID:25129500

Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

2014-10-01

332

Study of Duration of Feeding Starter and Finisher Diets on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Litter Composition of Female Broilers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the duration of time of feeding starter and finisher diets on live performance and carcass characteristics of female broilers. Starter diet was fed to 14 or 21 days of age. Finisher diet was fed beginning at 35 or 42 days up to 49 days of age. The results indicated that reduction of duration of feeding starter diet reduced weight gain (P

F. Khajali

2005-10-01

333

Thermal comfort zones for starter meat-type quails  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine thermal comfort ranges, as evaluated by air temperature and black-glove temperature and humidity index (BGTHI), for starter meat-type quails. Nine hundred quails were randomly distributed into five environmental chambers. Each chamber was programmed to pr [...] ovide different temperatures weekly. The following thermal environments were provided: SC - severe cold, MC - moderate cold, TC - recommended comfort environment, MH - moderate heat, and SH - severe heat. The best live performance was obtained when quails were submitted to temperatures of 36-39 ºC and BGTHI of 87.1 ± 0.4 and 91.4 ± 0.6 during the first week of rearing. Temperatures of 27-30 ºC and BGTHI of 75.8 ± 0.4 and 79.9 ± 0.6, during the second week, and temperature of 24 ºC and BGTHI of 70.8 ± 0.5 during the third week of rearing.

MS, Sousa; I de FF, Tinôco; AG, Amaral; KRA, Inoue; SL, Barreto; H, Savastano Jr; CF, Souza; MO, Paula.

2014-09-01

334

Thermal comfort zones for starter meat-type quails  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine thermal comfort ranges, as evaluated by air temperature and black-glove temperature and humidity index (BGTHI), for starter meat-type quails. Nine hundred quails were randomly distributed into five environmental chambers. Each chamber was programmed to pr [...] ovide different temperatures weekly. The following thermal environments were provided: SC - severe cold, MC - moderate cold, TC - recommended comfort environment, MH - moderate heat, and SH - severe heat. The best live performance was obtained when quails were submitted to temperatures of 36-39 ºC and BGTHI of 87.1 ± 0.4 and 91.4 ± 0.6 during the first week of rearing. Temperatures of 27-30 ºC and BGTHI of 75.8 ± 0.4 and 79.9 ± 0.6, during the second week, and temperature of 24 ºC and BGTHI of 70.8 ± 0.5 during the third week of rearing.

MS, Sousa; I de FF, Tinôco; AG, Amaral; KRA, Inoue; SL, Barreto; H, Savastano Jr; CF, Souza; MO, Paula.

335

Diagnostik af kræft hos børn starter i almen praksis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hvert år får mellem 150 og 170 børn i Danmark konstateret kræft. Almen praksis spiller en central rolle i vurderingen af syge børn – også af de få børn, der viser sig at have kræft. Denne artikel ser nærmere på, hvornår og hvordan en begrundet mistanke om kræftsygdom hos børn opstår, og hvordan forløbene er i Danmark. En af kernekompetencerne for den praktiserende læge er at kunne skelne de relativt få alvorligt syge fra de mange patienter med forbi¬gående symptomer. Mange symptomer på banal og alvorlig sygdom ligner nemlig hinanden. Udenlandske studier viser, at der tit går lang tid, fra barnet får de første symptomer, til behandlingen starter. Samtidig kan en hurtig diagnose være afgørende for udviklingen af sygdommen. Der er behov for mere viden om børn, der henvender sig i almen praksis med vage eller vedvarende symptomer. Måske kan lægesøgning ses som en markør for debut af symptomer og dermed anvendes som indikator for eventuel kræftsygdom? Viden om symptomer er relevant både for uddannelse af alment praktiserende læger og for udviklingen af kliniske retningslinjer, herunder kræftpakker for børn.

Ahrensberg, Jette MØller; Vedsted, Peter

2013-01-01

336

Impact of selected coagulants and starters on primary proteolysis and amino acid release related to bitterness and structure of reduced-fat Cheddar cheese  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Despite substantial research, it is still difficult to produce high quality reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. The objective of this study was to investigate how two coagulants, bovine chymosin (BC) and camel chymosin (CC) having different proteolytic activities and two starter cultures, an O-culture (O) and a thermophilic strain of Lactobacillus plus O-culture (OLb) having different abilities to release amino acids, contribute to the structure and flavour development in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Cheeses manufactured using the four combinations of coagulants and cultures were analysed during a 28-week ripening period for the composition of casein, peptides, free amino acids, rheological properties and for sensory properties at end of ripening. Cheeses with CC, showed less extensive primary proteolysis, lower levels of bitterness and higher stress at fracture, which correlates to a harder structure. Whereas cheeses with BC had a higher amount of peptides released by chymosin, e. g. the bitter peptide beta-casein (f193-209) or by starter proteases from the chymosin-produced peptide alpha(s1)-CN (f1-23). BC cheeses were also judged to be softer by the sensory panel. Cheeses containing the OLb-culture had a higher amount of free amino acids and lower strain at fracture, which correlates to a shorter structure, and the peptide profiles of cheeses produced with BC and CC were rather similar after 28 weeks in contradiction to cheeses with O-culture. Replacing the traditional coagulant BC with CC reduced bitterness but increased hardness of the reduced-fat Cheddar cheese. Replacing O- with OLb-culture also reduced bitterness but resulted in a shorter structure. The results highlight tools which could be employed to alter primary proteolysis and amino acid release, respectively, for the optimisation of flavour and structure of reduced-fat cheese.

Borsting, M. W.; Qvist, K. B.

2012-01-01

337

Microbial diversity of traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) as determined by PCR-mediated DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity of fungi and bacteria associated with traditional Vietnamese alcohol fermentation starters (banh men) was investigated by PCR-mediated DGGE. From 52 starter samples, 13 species of fungi (including yeasts) and 23 species of bacteria were identified. The fungal composition of the starters was consistent with little variation among samples. It consisted of amylase producers (Rhizopus oryzae, R. microsporus, Absidia corymbifera, Amylomyces sp., Saccharomycopsis fibuligera), ethanol producers (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Issatchenkia sp., Pichia anomala, Candida tropicalis, P. ranongensis, Clavispora lusitaniae), and (opportunistic) contaminants (Xeromyces bisporus, Botryobasidium subcoronatum). The bacterial microflora of starters was highly variable in species composition and dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The most frequent LAB were Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus plantarum, L. brevis, Weissella confusa, and W. paramesenteroides. Species of amylase-producing Bacillus (Bacillus subtilis, B. circulans, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. sporothermodurans), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter orientalis, A. pasteurianus), and plant pathogens/environment contaminants (Burkholderia ubonensis, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pelomonas puraquae) were also detected. Fungal DGGE was found to be useful for evaluating starter type and starter quality. Moreover, in view of the high biological diversity of these substrates, bacterial DGGE may be useful in determining the identity of a starter. The constant occurrence of opportunistic contaminants highlights the need for careful examination of the role of individual components in starters. PMID:18838186

Thanh, Vu Nguyen; Mai, Le Thuy; Tuan, Duong Anh

2008-12-10

338

Effect of Fortifying Camel’s Milk with Skim Milk Powder on the Physicochemical, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Set Yoghurt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out in the milk processing unit at college of animal production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology during January-May 2012. The effect of fortification with skim milk powder (0, 5 and 7%) to the camel’s milk on the quality of yoghurt during storage was investigated. Fresh camel’s milk was purchased from Alaas farm at Khartoum North. Nine litres of raw camel’s milk were divided into three portions. The first treatment was used...

Mortada Mohammed Salih; Omer Ibrahim Ahmed Hamid

2013-01-01

339

Isolation and identification of yeasts and filamentous fungi from yoghurts in Brazil Isolamento e identificação de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em iogurtes  

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Full Text Available Seventy-two cartons of yoghurt were sampled three times at monthly intervals from four different local manufacturers. Total counts were close to 6 x 10(7 cells g-1 of yoghurt. Yeast counts varied from 1 to 2,700 g-1. There was no evidence of systematic contamination at source but this longitudinal study revealed that ad hoc contamination and improper storage led to the higher yeast counts. Contamination was generally higher in the hotter months but was lower overall than reported from other countries. A total of 577 yeast isolates were identified belonging to ten species. The most abundant yeasts were, in order, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii and Candida maltosa. The psychrophilic yeast Mrakia frigida is reported for the first time in yoghurts. Low level contamination with Monilia and Penicillium species was found in a few samples. Growth tests suggested that ability to ferment sucrose, growth at 5° C and in the presence of 300 µg g-1 sorbate preservative, were the three most significant physiological properties to account for these yeasts in yoghurts. The data also suggest that warmer weather and inadequate refrigeration are the principal causes of higher levels of contamination, increased diversity and change in microbial flora.Setenta e duas embalagens de iogurtes de quatro indústrias diferentes foram analisadas durante três épocas diferentes com intervalo mensal. A população microbiana total encontrada foi em torno de 6 x 10(7 células g-1 de iogurte. A contagem de leveduras variou entre 1 a 2.700 células g-1. Não foi possível observar uma sistemática contaminação, mas este estudo longitudinal revelou que contaminação ad hoc e armazenamento impróprio pode levar a elevadas populações de leveduras. De modo geral foi detectada uma contaminação maior nos meses mais quentes do ano mas em valores inferiores aos encontrados em outros países. Um total de 577 isolados de leveduras foram identificados como pertencentes a 10 espécies. As leveduras mais abundantes foram, em ordem, Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mrakia frigida, Hansenula spp., Candida parapsilosis, Debaryomyces castellii e Candida maltosa. A levedura psicrófila, Mrakia frigida foi pela primeira vez mencionada como isolada a partir de iogurtes. Foi encontrada em algumas amostras uma pequena contaminação por espécies de Monilia e Penicillium. Os testes utilizados para crescimento sugeriram que habilidade para fermentar sacarose, crescimento a 5ºC e na presença de 300 µg g-1 de sorbato foram as três propriedades fisiológicas mais importantes para a presença destas leveduras em iogurtes. Os dados também sugerem que clima mais quente e refrigeração inadequada são as principais causas de alta nível de contaminação, aumento da diversidade e mudança na microbiota presente.

Silvia Regina Moreira

2001-06-01

340

Genomic insights into high exopolysaccharide-producing dairy starter bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275.  

Science.gov (United States)

Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275 (ST 1275), a typical dairy starter bacterium, yields the highest known amount (~1,000?mg/L) of exopolysaccharide (EPS) in milk among the species of S. thermophilus. The addition of this starter in milk fermentation exhibited texture modifying properties for fermented dairy foods such as yogurt and cheese in the presence of EPS as its important metabolite. In this genomic study, a novel eps gene cluster for EPS assembly of repeating unit has been reported. It contains two-pair epsC-epsD genes which are assigned to determine the chain length of EPS. This also suggests this organism produces two types of EPSs - capsular and ropy EPS, as observed in our previous studies. Additionally, ST 1275 appears to exhibit effective proteolysis system and sophisticated stress response systems to stressful conditions, and has the highest number of four separate CRISPR/Cas loci. These features may be conducive to milk adaptation of this starter and against undesirable bacteriophage infections which leads to failure of milk fermentation. Insights into the genome of ST 1275 suggest that this strain may be a model high EPS-producing dairy starter. PMID:24827399

Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching; Shah, Nagendra P

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Viability of Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus in Starter Milk  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the viability of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium infantis in starter milk, using time and temperature as variables, as well as to evaluate the viability of these micro-organisms over other bacteria normally found in milk, such as Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis.

Maldonado L.

2003-01-01

342

Time-dependent correlation of the microbial community and the metabolomics of traditional barley nuruk starter fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microbial community and the metabolites of barley nuruk were studied to determine the time-dependent correlation between the fermentation of microbes and metabolites. Samples were analyzed by a polyphasic approach based on culture-dependent, culture-independent (PCR-DGGE and qPCR analysis), and metabolite analysis using GC-MS. Barley nuruk consists of varying amounts of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. The PCR-DGGE results showed that only one phylotype, Aspergillus oryzae, was predominant throughout fermentation, reaching a maximum on day 9. The bacterial load was higher on day 6 of fermentation, and then gradually decreased because of increased fungal activity. The shift in fungal and bacterial diversity observed by DGGE was further confirmed by qPCR analysis. In addition, microbes closely related to Pantoea agglomerans and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera appeared to play key roles in the fermentation of barley nuruk. GC-MS analysis combined with multivariate analysis, including PCA, PLS-DA, and OPLS-DA, showed fermentation time-dependent metabolite patterns. A total of 21 metabolites, including organic acids, amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols, were identified. In particular, glycerol, malic acid, fructose, glucose, sucrose, and maltose were produced at the early fermentation stages (0-6 d), whereas glutamine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, mannitol, and xylitol were produced during the latter stages of fermentation (9-18 d). Mixed culture fermentation was found throughout the natural fermentation of barley nuruk starter. Most likely, A. oryzae had a major role in saccharification, along with other mixed cultures. PMID:23563559

Ponnusamy, Kannan; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan

2013-01-01

343

Fermentation and storage of probiotic yoghurt from goat’s milk  

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Cow’s and goat’s milk supplemented with inulin were fermented withABT4 culture. The population growth of Streptococcus thermophilus,Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium ssp. in plain and inulinsupplemented goat’s milk during fermentation was evaluated. The survival of strains during 28 d of storage was followed in comparison with that of cow’s milk. The time required to reach the desired pH of 4.6 during fermentation was 6 h for both types of milk. At that time the proportion...

Rajka Božani?; Irena Rogelj; Ljubica Tratnik

2002-01-01

344

Game Related Statistics Discriminating Between Starters and Nonstarters Players in Women'S National Basketball Association League (WNBA)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women’s basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters’ players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key points The players’ game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women’s basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player’s performance described in women’s basketball compared with men’s basketball. The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team’s performance in different game contexts. Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses. PMID:24149538

Gomez, Miguel-Angel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibanez, Sergio-Jose

2009-01-01

345

Effects of feeding levels of starter on weaning age, performance, nutrient digestibility and health parameters in holstein dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk) and post-weaning (8 wk) was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (pFeed conversion ratio (FCR) was the highest among all treatments in pre-weaning period (pconsumption (kg, DM) compared with other treatments whereas no significant difference was observed between calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter (p>0.05). Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05).Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05). Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM) intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05). PMID:25049856

Nejad, J Ghassemi; Hosseindoust, A; Shoae, A; Ghorbani, B; Lee, B H; Oskoueian, E; Hajilari, D; Amouzmehr, A; Lohakare, J D; Sung, K I

2013-06-01

346

Simultaneous Determination of Sodium Benzoate Potassium Sor­bate and Natamycin Content in Iranian Yoghurt Drink (Doogh and the Associated Risk of Their Intake through Doogh Consumption  

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Full Text Available Background: Regarding the public health concerns over the use of food preservatives in yoghurt drink “Doogh", the aim of this study was the determination of sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamycin in Doogh. Based on Iranian national standard, none of these preservatives are permitted to be used in Doogh.Methods: A total of 39 Doogh samples were analyzed through RP- HPLC in order to quantify sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and natamaycin simultaneously. Exposure to each preservative is estimated by mean and maximum concentrations as the residue levels. The per capita Doogh consumption was calculated by the published data from official reports for Doogh annual production in Iran.Results: All samples were shown to contain sodium benzoate while natamaycin was detected in 10.25% of the samples and potassium sorbate was not detected in any of them. Sodium benzoate concentration extremely varied among the investigated samples ranged from 0.94 to 9.77 mg/l. Due to the result of the exposure estimation, no serious public health concern would exist regarding the mentioned preservatives.Conclusions: The detection of sodium benzoate in all Doogh samples could indicate the natural production of benzoic acid in yoghurt. Sodium benzoate may be formed through the interaction of the added food grade salt to the Doogh formula which contains benzoic acid. The results of exposure estimation show the lack of health risk within the usage of preservatives in spite of the national regulatory agencies does not permit the preservative use.

Zahra Esfandiari

2013-08-01

347

Selection of yeast starter culture strains for the production of marula fruit wines and distillates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Juice of the Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra (marula) fruit was fermented by indigenous microflora and different commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains at different temperatures, namely, 15 and 30 degrees C. Volatile acids, esters, and higher alcohols were quantified in the wine and distillates, and the results were interpreted using a multivariate analysis of variance and an average linkage cluster analysis. Significant differences between 15 and 30 degrees C and also among yeasts with respect to volatile compounds were observed. Yeast strains VIN7 and FC consistently produced wines and final distillates significantly different from the other strains. A panel of tasters and marula and brandy producers was asked to select wines and distillates that had an acceptable and typical marula "nose". They were also asked to detect the differences among wines and distillates fermented with the same yeast strain at different temperatures. PMID:11879033

Fundira, M; Blom, M; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

2002-03-13

348

Molecular tools for identification of Penicillium starter cultures used in the food industry.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this work was to develop rapid and accurate molecular tools to discriminate species of white industrial Penicillia. We applied three different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based techniques. Sequences of the ITS region of the rRNA gene unit and of the 5' end of the beta tubulin gene yielded 1.2% and 5.8% nucleotide variability respectively, between Penicillium camembertii and Penicillium nalgiovense. Polymorphic restriction sites were found in both sequences. These may be used in diagnostic PCR-RFLP analysis to rapidly distinguish between the two Penicillium species. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were also useful to differentiate these two species, but no polymorphism was found at the subspecific level, which evidenced a high level of homogeneity of the isolates studied. By means of these three techniques, the real identity of industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense could be demonstrated. The comparison of these isolates with type strains of the two species suggested that the former corresponds to P. nalgiovense. The genetic relatedness between P. naglovense and Penicillium dipodomyis was also confirmed. PMID:10490221

Dupont, J; Magnin, S; Marti, A; Brousse, M

1999-08-15

349

Application of starter cultures to table olive fermentation: an overview on the experimental studies  

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Table olives are one of the oldest fermented foods and are considered as an important component of the Mediterranean diet, since their richness in monounsaturated fats (primarily oleic acid) and phenolic compounds may function as antioxidants in the human body; in the Western world they represent one of the most popular fermented vegetables but, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is still craft-based and empirical. In particular, such a type of fermentation results fr...

Corsetti, Aldo; Perpetuini, Giorgia; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

2012-01-01

350

THE INFLUENCE OF CULTIVATION CONDITIONS OF NATURAL STARTER CULTURE ON PRODUCED CARBON DIOXIDE CONTENT  

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The aim of this study was to examine the influence of bio processing parameters on the produced carbon dioxide content during the fermentation of kefir. The experiments were performed in the RC1 batch reactor, equipped with CO2 content measurement instruments. The reactor was connected to the personal computer and to the measurement instruments of CO2 content in liquid and gas phase. Each fermentation lasted 48 hours. The experiment had three phases. In the first and the second phase, ...

Borinc, Natalija

2013-01-01

351

Multivariate analysis of buckwheat sourdough fermentations for metabolic screening of starter cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the metabolic activity of 35 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which were able to grow in buckwheat sourdoughs and delivers a detailed explanation of LAB metabolism in that environment. To interpret the high-dimensional dataset, descriptive statistics and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used. Heterofermentative LAB showed a clear different metabolism than facultative (f.) heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB, which were more similar. Heterofermentative LAB were mainly characterized by high free SH groups and acetic acid production; they were also able to consume arabinose and glucose. Homofermenters were mainly characterized by lower free amino nitrogen content and they did not show a good capacity to consume arabinose and fructose. Except for the heterofermentative Weissella cibaria strain, only homofermentative strains showed high ornithine yields. Some f. heterofermentative strains differed from homofermentative due to the high lactic acid production as well as low glucose and arginine consumption. LAB containing more genes encoding peptidase activities and genes involved in aroma production showed a high consumption of free amino acids. Strain-dependent activities could be clearly distinguished from group dependent ones (homofermentative, f. heterofermentative and heterofermentative), e.g., some Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum strains showed the highest carbohydrate consumption. However, some microbial activities were more strain-dependent than group-dependent. Multivariate analysis of raw data delivered a detailed and clear explanation of LAB metabolism in buckwheat sourdough fermentations. PMID:24992519

Capuani, Alessandro; Stetina, Mandy; Gstattenbauer, Anja; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

2014-08-18

352