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1

Suitability of Using Duckweed as Feed and Treated Sewage as Water Source in Tilapia Aquaculture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Use of treated effluent and duckweed biomass from a pilot-scale UASB-duckweed ponds system treating domestic sewage was evaluated in rearing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutritional value of duckweed as sole feed was compared with wheat bran. Two sources of water were used for each feed trial, treated-sewage and freshwater. The experiment was conducted in parallel with a conventional settled sewage-fed fishpond. Results of growth performance demonstrated that, in case of freshwater ponds specific growth rate (SGR) of tilapia fed on fresh duckweed was significantly (p 0.05) was observed between the two feeding regimes in treated sewage fed ponds. The SGR of tilapia reared in the treated sewage-wheat bran-fed pond (TWP) was significant higher (p

2004-01-01

2

Nitrate Content on Summer Lettuce Production Using Fish Culture Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the nitrate concentration on lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Px06516006) grown in fish culture water. This study was carried out in Queretaro State, Mexico. Lettuce cultivars were grown in a floating system inside a plastic greenhouse. The cultivation of lettuce was divided into 10 beds; four beds were used as a control group, with a standard nutrient solution and the other six beds were used as treatment group, fish culture water with the addition of missing nutrients. A density of 30 plants m-2 was used. Two trial periods were tested in the summer of 2008, 29 days from April 11 to May 9 for the first experiment and 37 days from May 22 to June 27 for the second experiment. The system was assessed on basis of leaves nitrate content, total fresh weight and total dry weight. In both trials the final nitrate content of leaves was less than 2400 mg kg-1. No significant differences (p<0.05) were found for fresh and dry weights among treatments. Based on these results it is shown that fish culture water is suitable for low nitrate content lettuce production with no detriment to plant quality neither yields during summer.

E. Rico-Garcia; V.E. Casanova-Villareal; A. Mercado-Luna; G.M. Soto-Zarazua; R. G. Guevara-Gonzalez; G. Herrera-Ruiz; I. Torres-Pacheco; R.V. Velazquez-Ocampo

2009-01-01

3

Effects of Mulch and Irrigation Water Amounts on Lettuce`s Yield, Evapotranspiration, Transpiration and Soil Evaporation in Isparta Location, Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of mulch and the several irrigation water amounts on soil evaporation and on lettuce`s transpiration, evapotranspiration and yield were studied in a glasshouse pot experiment as Completely Randomised Experimental Design with three replications during 2001 (August 10 to October 2) at the ...

Kadayifci Abdullah; Tuylu Gokhan Ismail; Ucar Yusuf; Cakmak Belgin

4

Uptake and distribution of metals by water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND, AIM AND SCOPE: Water quality impairment by heavy metal contamination is on the rise worldwide. Phytoremediation technology has been increasingly applied to remediate wastewater and stormwater polluted by heavy metals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Laboratory analysis and field trials were conducted to evaluate the uptake of metals (Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by an aquatic plant, water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.), and metal distribution in the plant. RESULTS: The growth of water lettuce reduced Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations in water by >20%, K and Cu by >10%, and Ca, Mg, Zn, and Na to a lesser extent. A larger proportion of Ca, Cd, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn was adsorbed or deposited on the external root surfaces while more Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb were absorbed and accumulated within the roots. DISCUSSION: Water lettuce has a great ability in concentrating metals from its surrounding water with a concentration factor (CF) ?10(2). The bio-concentration factor (BCF), which excludes the part on the root surfaces, is a more appropriate index than the CF for the differentiation of hyperaccumulation, accumulation, or non-accumulation plants for metals. CONCLUSIONS: Water lettuce is a hyperaccumulator for Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and can be applied for the remediation of surface waters. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Further study on the bioavailability of metals in the water lettuce is needed for the beneficial use of metal-enriched plant biomass.

Lu Q; He ZL; Graetz DA; Stoffella PJ; Yang X

2011-07-01

5

Moderate Prevalence of Antimicrobial Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolates from Lettuce, Irrigation Water, and Soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fresh produce is known to carry nonpathogenic epiphytic microorganisms. During agricultural production and harvesting, leafy greens can become contaminated with antibiotic-resistant pathogens or commensals from animal and human sources. As lettuce does not undergo any inactivation or preservation treatment during processing, consumers may be exposed directly to all of the (resistant) bacteria present. In this study, we investigated whether lettuce or its production environment (irrigation water, soil) is able to act as a vector or reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli. Over a 1-year period, eight lettuce farms were visited multiple times and 738 samples, including lettuce seedlings (leaves and soil), soil, irrigation water, and lettuce leaves were collected. From these samples, 473 isolates of Escherichia coli were obtained and tested for resistance to 14 antimicrobials. Fifty-four isolates (11.4%) were resistant to one or more antimicrobials. The highest resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (7%), followed by cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, trimethoprim, and streptomycin, with resistance rates between 4.4 and 3.6%. No resistance to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, or kanamycin was observed. One isolate was resistant to cefotaxime. Among the multiresistant isolates (n = 37), ampicillin and cephalothin showed the highest resistance rates, at 76 and 52%, respectively. E. coli isolates from lettuce showed higher resistance rates than E. coli isolates obtained from soil or irrigation water samples. When the presence of resistance in E. coli isolates from lettuce production sites and their resistance patterns were compared with the profiles of animal-derived E. coli strains, they were found to be the most comparable with what is found in the cattle reservoir. This may suggest that cattle are a potential reservoir of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains in plant primary production. PMID:23974140

Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Callens, Benedicte; Dewulf, Jeroen; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2013-08-23

6

Effects of Mulch and Irrigation Water Amounts on Lettuce`s Yield, Evapotranspiration, Transpiration and Soil Evaporation in Isparta Location, Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of mulch and the several irrigation water amounts on soil evaporation and on lettuce`s transpiration, evapotranspiration and yield were studied in a glasshouse pot experiment as Completely Randomised Experimental Design with three replications during 2001 (August 10 to October 2) at the Experimental Glasshouse in the Campus of the University of Süleyman Demirel, Turkey. Water losses by evaporation and/or transpiration were measured daily by weighing the pots. Irrigation water was applied twice a week. The water quantities were regulated by weight. Increasing the amount of irrigation water applied significantly increased crop evapotranspiration (mean 45%) in the Open Soil Surface (OSS) treatments and transpiration (mean 26%) in the Covered Soil Surface (CSS) treatments. In CSS treatments, evapotranspiration was significantly reduced, while transpiration was significantly increased compared with OSS treatments. Covering the soil surface reduced the amount of irrigation water required by the lettuce crop by about 60% for all irrigation treatments compared with the amount of irrigation water added in the OSS treatments, because wet soil surface evaporation was eliminated. The contribution of soil evaporation to total evapotranspiration and evaporation-transpiration ratio varied from a minimum of 40 and 66% at highest water level to maximum of 49 and 94% at lowest water level, respectively. Lettuce yield was significantly higher in CSS treatments than in OSS treatments. Especially at low water levels, lettuce yield was higher in CSS than in OSS treatment. Water use efficiency in CSS and OSS treatments was maximum for the highest water level and irrigation water use efficiency was maximum for the lower water level in CSS treatments and for the intermediate water level in OSS treatments.

Kadayifci Abdullah; Tuylu Gokhan Ismail; Ucar Yusuf; Cakmak Belgin

2004-01-01

7

Predicting perchlorate uptake in greenhouse lettuce from perchlorate, nitrate, and chloride irrigation water concentrations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perchlorate (ClO) has been detected in edible leafy vegetables irrigated with Colorado River water. The primary concern has been the ClO concentration in lettuce ( L. var. L.). There has been a limited number of studies on ClO uptake, but the interactive effect of other anions on ClO uptake is not known in detail. We conducted a greenhouse ClO uptake experiment using two types of lettuce (iceberg and butterhead) to investigate the interaction of uptake of ClO, Cl, and NO on ClO uptake under controlled conditions. We examined three concentrations of ClO, 40, 220, and 400 nmol/L; Cl at 2.5, 13.75, and 25 mmol/L; and NO at 2, 11, and 20 mmol/L. Perchlorate was taken up the most in lettuce when ClO was the greatest and NO and Cl were lowest in concentration in the irrigation water. More ClO was detected in leafy material than in root tissue. In general, the outer leaves of iceberg and butterhead lettuce contained more ClO than did the inner leaves. The results indicate that selective ClO uptake occurs for green leaf lettuce. A predictive model was developed to describe the ClO concentration in lettuce as related to the Cl, NO, and ClO concentration in the irrigation water. Research results can be utilized to elucidate the effect of salts on the accumulation and uptake of ClO by edible leafy vegetables.

Ha W; Suarez DL; Lesch SM

2013-01-01

8

Water deficit improved the capacity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for inducing the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in lettuce leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce, a major food crop within the European Union and the most used for the so-called 'Fourth Range' of vegetables, can associate with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Mycorrhizal symbiosis can stimulate the synthesis of secondary metabolites, which may increase plant tolerance to stresses and enhance the accumulation of antioxidant compounds potentially beneficial to human health. Our objectives were to assess (1) if the application of a commercial formulation of AMF benefited growth of lettuce under different types and degrees of water deficits; (2) if water restrictions affected the nutritional quality of lettuce; and (3) if AMF improved the quality of lettuce when plants grew under reduced irrigation. Two cultivars of lettuce consumed as salads, Batavia Rubia Munguía and Maravilla de Verano, were used in the study. Four different water regimes were applied to both non-mycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants: optimal irrigation (field capacity [FC]), a water regime equivalent to 2/3 of FC, a water regime equivalent to 1/2 of FC and a cyclic drought (CD). Results showed that mycorrhizal symbiosis improved the accumulation of antioxidant compounds, mainly carotenoids and anthocyanins, and to a lesser extent chlorophylls and phenolics, in leaves of lettuce. These enhancements were higher under water deficit than under optimal irrigation. Moreover, shoot biomass in mycorrhizal lettuces subjected to 2/3 of FC were similar to those of non-mycorrhizal plants cultivated under well-watered conditions. In addition, lettuces subjected to 2/3 FC had similar leaf RWC than their respective well-watered controls, regardless of mycorrhizal inoculation. Therefore, results suggest that mycorrhizal symbiosis can improve quality of lettuce and may allow restrict irrigation without reducing production. PMID:21894519

Baslam, Marouane; Goicoechea, Nieves

2011-09-06

9

Duck-Weed as an ecotoxicological biotest  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1989 duck-weed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) has been used as an ecotoxicological biotest at the Radioecological Section of Institute of Botany. It was used to estimate precipitation toxicity of Mazheikiai and Akmene regions, waste waters of industrial galvanic departments, water reservoirs of the Ignalina and Leningrad NPP, also the Dniepr cascade. The data obtained showed Spirodela polyrrhiza to be a rather sensitive and specific biotest for the estimation of contamination with heavy metals. Spirodela polyrrhiza is advisable to estimate pollution of the air, waste-waters and solutions of heavy metals. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

1997-01-01

10

Literature review on duckweed toxicity testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Duckweed commonly refers to a group of floating, flowering plants of the family Lemnaceae. Duckweed plants are fast growing and widely distributed. They are easy to culture and to test. Some reports suggest that duckweed plants are tolerant to environmental toxicity. Other studies, however, indicate that duckweed plants are as sensitive to toxicity as other aquatic species. Duckweed plants are especially suitable for use in complex effluent bioassays, and for testing herbicide pollution in the aquatic environment, lake and river pollution, sediment toxicity, and the like. Duckweed and algae represent different levels of complexity in the plant kingdom. They complement each other as phytotoxicity test organisms, instead of mutually excluding each other. Many duckweed species have been studied, primarily of the Lemna and Spirodela genera. Lemna minor and L. gibba have been recommended as standard test species. Differences in duckweed test methodology occur with regard to test types, test vessels, control tests, nutrient media, end points, and applications. 76 references.

Wang, W. (Illinois State Water Survey, Peoria (USA))

1990-06-01

11

The use of Lemna Minor (duckweed) to control the water quality in relation to coal residues. Gebruik van eendekroos voor het bewaken van de waterkwaliteit in relatie met kolenreststoffen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lemna Minor can be applied as a phytomonitor in a standardized test for ecotoxicological investigations of leachate extracts of coal residues and (water)soils. A standardized test method has been developed for fortnight toxicity experiments. The toxicity and the uptake of individual elements were studied in accumulation experiments.Special attention is paid to the impact of the factors complexation, interaction and speciation on the biological availability of the elements. Coal residues and water soils are leached and the leachate extracts are tested for growth restraint by means of the test method. It appears that the use of duckweed as a phytomonitor is a technically simple and reliable method

Janssen-Mommen, J.P.M.; Jenner, H.A. (KEMA Milieu Services, Arnhem (Netherlands))

1993-01-01

12

Duckweed cultures in animal wastewaters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cultures of duckweed (Lemna gibba and L. minor) were made for 2 months in 2 ponds fed by a semicontinuous flow of partially treated animal wastewaters. The growth rate of the organic load were obtained from weekly data and the rate of removal of N and P was evaluated. At high loads (concentrations greater than 400 COD, 60 NH/sub 4/+, 10 mg/L PO/sub 4/ to the power of 3-) an average yield (dry weight) of approximately 7 g/square meters/day was established. The mean dry weight of biomass was 6%. The N and P content in duckweed was 1.1 and 4.7%, respective, and the daily absorption rates were 415 N and 97 mg/square meters/day P. The technique of skimming biomass at a rate proportional to the growth rate is useful to maintain duckweed cultures in continuous active growth conditions.

Corradi, M.; Copelli, M.; Ghetti, P.F.

1981-01-01

13

Duckweed rising at Chengdu: summary of the 1st International Conference on Duckweed Application and Research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Duckweeds, plants of the Lemnaceae family, have the distinction of being the smallest angiosperms in the world with the fastest doubling time. Together with its naturally ability to thrive on abundant anthropogenic wastewater, these plants hold tremendous potential to helping solve critical water, climate and fuel issues facing our planet this century. With the conviction that rapid deployment and optimization of the duckweed platform for biomass production will depend on close integration between basic and applied research of these aquatic plants, the first International Conference on Duckweed Research and Applications (ICDRA) was organized and took place in Chengdu, China, from October 7th to 10th of 2011. Co-organized with Rutgers University of New Jersey (USA), this Conference attracted participants from Germany, Denmark, Japan, Australia, in addition to those from the US and China. The following are concise summaries of the various oral presentations and final discussions over the 2.5 day conference that serve to highlight current research interests and applied research that are paving the way for the imminent deployment of this novel aquatic crop. We believe the sharing of this information with the broad Plant Biology community is an important step toward the renaissance of this excellent plant model that will have important impact on our quest for sustainable development of the world.

Zhao H; Appenroth K; Landesman L; Salmeán AA; Lam E

2012-04-01

14

Dried duckweed and commercial feed promote adequate growth performance of tilapia fingerlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study evaluated Nile tilapia when fed on dried duckweed in combination with commercial feed, aiming at reducing production costs. Three diets, which consisted of commercial feed (40% crude protein), dried duckweed or a combination of commercial feed and dried duckweed were fed to triplicate groups of 20 tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings. Fish weighing 3.2 ± 0.94g were stocked in nine 1-m3 net cages and fed twice a day for 50 days. The final average weights of fingerlings fed commercial feed (21.67g) and50% feed + 50% dried duckweed (19.53g) were not different (p<0.05). Likewise, the specific growth rate did not differ between fish receiving these dietary treatments. Weight gain decreased as water temperature decreased along the experimental period, increasing feed conversion mainly for fingerlings fed on dried duckweed only. Also, when fed alone dried duckweed promoted the lowest weight gain and specific growth rate. It was confirmed that dried duckweed can replace 50% (1:1 dry weight) tilapia fingerling 40% crude protein feed for a period of at least 50 days, without reducing growth.

Flávia de A. Tavares; João Bosco R. Rodrigues; Débora Machado Fracalossi; Juan Esquivel; Rodrigo Roubach

2008-01-01

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A Comparative Study of the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce And Parrot's Feather  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot?s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot?s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm) m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm) m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot?s feather. In terms of COD, NO3--N and PO43--P, the effluent leaving the hydroponics system was suitable for reuse in aquaculture. However, the effluent had slightly high levels of TS, NH3-N, NO2--N and pH after treatment.

A. M. Snow; Abdel E. Ghaly

2008-01-01

16

Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent foodborne outbreaks have linked infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 to the consumption of contaminated lettuce. Contamination via food handler error and on-the-farm contamination are thought to be responsible for several outbreaks. Though recent studies have examined the application of EHEC to store-bought lettuce, little is known about the attachment of EHEC to growing plants. We investigated the association of lettuce seedlings with EHEC O157:H7 strains implicated in lettuce or fruit outbreaks using hydroponic and soil model systems. EHEC strains that express the green fluorescent protein were observed by stereomicroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine adherence patterns on growing lettuce seedlings. Bacteria adhered preferentially to plant roots in both model systems and to seed coats in the hydroponic system. Two of five nonpathogenic E. coli strains showed decreased adherence to seedling roots in the hydroponic system. EHEC was associated with plants in as few as 3 days in soil, and contamination levels were dose-dependent. EHEC levels associated with young plants inoculated with a low dose suggested that the bacteria had multiplied. These data suggest that preharvest crop contamination via contaminated irrigation water can occur through plant roots. PMID:11808792

Wachtel, Marian R; Whitehand, Linda C; Mandrell, Robert E

2002-01-01

17

Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with preharvest leaf lettuce upon exposure to contaminated irrigation water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent foodborne outbreaks have linked infection by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 to the consumption of contaminated lettuce. Contamination via food handler error and on-the-farm contamination are thought to be responsible for several outbreaks. Though recent studies have examined the application of EHEC to store-bought lettuce, little is known about the attachment of EHEC to growing plants. We investigated the association of lettuce seedlings with EHEC O157:H7 strains implicated in lettuce or fruit outbreaks using hydroponic and soil model systems. EHEC strains that express the green fluorescent protein were observed by stereomicroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine adherence patterns on growing lettuce seedlings. Bacteria adhered preferentially to plant roots in both model systems and to seed coats in the hydroponic system. Two of five nonpathogenic E. coli strains showed decreased adherence to seedling roots in the hydroponic system. EHEC was associated with plants in as few as 3 days in soil, and contamination levels were dose-dependent. EHEC levels associated with young plants inoculated with a low dose suggested that the bacteria had multiplied. These data suggest that preharvest crop contamination via contaminated irrigation water can occur through plant roots.

Wachtel MR; Whitehand LC; Mandrell RE

2002-01-01

18

Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgruen were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO43- concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO43- at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with flowing waters, remobilisation through decay, possible methylisation and volatilisation by L. gibba need to be considered.

2005-01-05

19

Use of freshwater algae and duckweeds for phytotoxicity testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of contaminated water of different origins and chemicals [Cr(III), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), pyrene] were tested using four test species: the alga Selenastrum capricornutum (new name Raphidocelis subcapitata), the duckweed Lemna minor, and the crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia magna. On the basis of the results obtained, the sensitivity of plant species and problems concerning the interpretation of the phytotoxicity data are discussed. The data indicated that the sensitivities of crustaceans and plant species both to individual contaminants and to mixtures are unpredictable and that there is no reason to consider plant species less sensitive than animal species. Lemna minor is more sensitive than Selenastrum capricornutum. With colored samples, duckweed is preferable for toxicity testing. To raise the predictive utility of the phytotoxicity data, it is recommended that natural water be used in the test procedure. PMID:15269918

Blinova, Irina

2004-08-01

20

Use of freshwater algae and duckweeds for phytotoxicity testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The toxicity of contaminated water of different origins and chemicals [Cr(III), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), pyrene] were tested using four test species: the alga Selenastrum capricornutum (new name Raphidocelis subcapitata), the duckweed Lemna minor, and the crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia magna. On the basis of the results obtained, the sensitivity of plant species and problems concerning the interpretation of the phytotoxicity data are discussed. The data indicated that the sensitivities of crustaceans and plant species both to individual contaminants and to mixtures are unpredictable and that there is no reason to consider plant species less sensitive than animal species. Lemna minor is more sensitive than Selenastrum capricornutum. With colored samples, duckweed is preferable for toxicity testing. To raise the predictive utility of the phytotoxicity data, it is recommended that natural water be used in the test procedure.

Blinova I

2004-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Light induces phosphorylation of glucan water dikinase, which precedes starch degradation in turions of the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Degradation of storage starch in turions, survival organs of Spirodela polyrhiza, is induced by light. Starch granules isolated from irradiated (24 h red light) or dark-stored turions were used as an in vitro test system to study initial events of starch degradation. The starch-associated pool of glucan water dikinase (GWD) was investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by western blotting using antibodies raised against GWD. Application of this technique allowed us to detect spots of GWD, which are light induced and absent on immunoblots prepared from dark-adapted plants. These spots, showing increased signal intensity following incubation of the starch granules with ATP, became labeled by randomized [betagamma-33P]ATP but not by [gamma-33P]ATP and were removed by acid phosphatase treatment. This strongly suggests that they represent a phosphorylated form(s) of GWD. The same light signal that induces starch degradation was thus demonstrated for the first time to induce autophosphorylation of starch-associated GWD. The in vitro assay system has been used to study further effects of the light signal that induces autophosphorylation of GWD and starch degradation. In comparison with starch granules from dark-adapted plants, those from irradiated plants showed increase in (1) binding capacity of GWD by ATP treatment decreased after phosphatase treatment; (2) incorporation of the beta-phosphate group of ATP into starch granules; and (3) rate of degradation of isolated granules by starch-associated proteins, further enhanced by phosphorylation of starch. The presented results provide evidence that autophosphorylation of GWD precedes the initiation of starch degradation under physiological conditions.

Reimann R; Hippler M; Machelett B; Appenroth KJ

2004-05-01

22

Light induces phosphorylation of glucan water dikinase, which precedes starch degradation in turions of the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza.  

Science.gov (United States)

Degradation of storage starch in turions, survival organs of Spirodela polyrhiza, is induced by light. Starch granules isolated from irradiated (24 h red light) or dark-stored turions were used as an in vitro test system to study initial events of starch degradation. The starch-associated pool of glucan water dikinase (GWD) was investigated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by western blotting using antibodies raised against GWD. Application of this technique allowed us to detect spots of GWD, which are light induced and absent on immunoblots prepared from dark-adapted plants. These spots, showing increased signal intensity following incubation of the starch granules with ATP, became labeled by randomized [betagamma-33P]ATP but not by [gamma-33P]ATP and were removed by acid phosphatase treatment. This strongly suggests that they represent a phosphorylated form(s) of GWD. The same light signal that induces starch degradation was thus demonstrated for the first time to induce autophosphorylation of starch-associated GWD. The in vitro assay system has been used to study further effects of the light signal that induces autophosphorylation of GWD and starch degradation. In comparison with starch granules from dark-adapted plants, those from irradiated plants showed increase in (1) binding capacity of GWD by ATP treatment decreased after phosphatase treatment; (2) incorporation of the beta-phosphate group of ATP into starch granules; and (3) rate of degradation of isolated granules by starch-associated proteins, further enhanced by phosphorylation of starch. The presented results provide evidence that autophosphorylation of GWD precedes the initiation of starch degradation under physiological conditions. PMID:15122031

Reimann, Rezarta; Hippler, Michael; Machelett, Bernd; Appenroth, Klaus-J

2004-04-30

23

Uptake and transformation of pesticide metabolites by duckweed (Lemna gibba).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Uptake and transformation of 14C-labeled metabolites from several pesticides, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (1), 3,5-dichloroaniline (2), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3), (R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (4), and (1RS)-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (5), were examined by using duckweed (Lemna gibba) in Hoagland's medium. More uptake into duckweed from the exposure water at pH 7.0 was observed for non-ionized 1 and 2 than for 3-5 in an ionized form, and their hydrophobicity accounted for these differences. While carboxylic acids 4 and 5 were scarcely transformed in duckweed, 1-3 mainly underwent phase II conjugation with glucose for 1 and 2, malic acid for 3, glutamic acid for 2, and malonylglucose for 3, the chemical identities of which were confirmed by various spectrometric analyses (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR) and/or HPLC cochromatography with reference synthetic standards.

Fujisawa T; Kurosawa M; Katagi T

2006-08-01

24

Uptake and transformation of pesticide metabolites by duckweed (Lemna gibba).  

Science.gov (United States)

Uptake and transformation of 14C-labeled metabolites from several pesticides, 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (1), 3,5-dichloroaniline (2), 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3), (R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-methylbutanoic acid (4), and (1RS)-trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (5), were examined by using duckweed (Lemna gibba) in Hoagland's medium. More uptake into duckweed from the exposure water at pH 7.0 was observed for non-ionized 1 and 2 than for 3-5 in an ionized form, and their hydrophobicity accounted for these differences. While carboxylic acids 4 and 5 were scarcely transformed in duckweed, 1-3 mainly underwent phase II conjugation with glucose for 1 and 2, malic acid for 3, glutamic acid for 2, and malonylglucose for 3, the chemical identities of which were confirmed by various spectrometric analyses (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS, and NMR) and/or HPLC cochromatography with reference synthetic standards. PMID:16910721

Fujisawa, Takuo; Kurosawa, Motohiro; Katagi, Toshiyuki

2006-08-23

25

Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using microwave oven digestion. The results indicated that nitrate level produced in the conventional system was lower than in the hydroponic system.

Humberto Brevilato Novaes; Delmo Santiago Vaitsman; Paulo Bechara Dutra; Daniel Vidal Pérez

2009-01-01

26

Lettuce breeding method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for pollinating lettuce and producing hybrid lettuce seed are described. The methods include the steps of providing lettuce plants and releasing Megachile rotundata bees or attracting pollinators. Hybrid lettuce seeds and plants produced using methods of this invention and male sterile lettuce lines used in this invention are also described.

GIBSON GEORGE D; OLIVAS NATHAN K; SALM PETER

27

LETTUCE BREEDING METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for pollinating lettuce and producing hybrid lettuce seed are described. The methods include the steps of providing lettuce plants and releasing Megachile rotundata bees or attracting pollinators. Hybrid lettuce seeds and plants produced using methods of this invention and male sterile lettuce lines used in this invention are also described.

GIBSON GEORGE D; OLIVAS NATHAN; SALM PETER

28

LETTUCE BREEDING METHOD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for pollinating lettuce and producing hybrid lettuce seed are described. The methods include the steps of providing lettuce plants and releasing Megachile rotundata bees or attracting pollinators. Hybrid lettuce seeds and plants produced using methods of this invention and male sterile lettuce lines used in this invention are also described.

GIBSON GEORGE D; OLIVAS NATHAN; SALM PETER

29

LETTUCE BREEDING METHOD  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for pollinating lettuce and producing hybrid lettuce seed are des cribed. The methods include the steps of providing lettuce plants and releas ing Megachile rotundata bees or attracting pollinators. Hybrid lettuce seeds and plants produced using methods of this invention and male sterile lettuc e lines used in this invention are also described.

SALM PETER; OLIVAS NATHAN; GIBSON GEORGE D

30

BIOSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER USING DUCKWEED  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water pollution has been recognized as a problem for decades. The use of heavy metals in industries and their regular mining increases their concentration in water bodies. Unlike organic compounds, metals cannot degrade, and therefore effective cleanup requires their immobilization to reduce or remove toxicity. A few conventional methods employed to remove heavy metals from wastewater are expensive, require skilled labors and maintenance. Therefore, the use of aquatic plants has come up since the last few decades. Duckweed is onesuch plant employed as a biosorbent and has been considered a better alternative than any other aquatic plant because of high tolerance to cold than water hyacinth, more easilyharvested than algae, capable of rapid growth (0.1 to 0.5 g g-1 day-1) and small size of plant. This study aims to determine the suitability of this plant for biosorbing toxic heavy metalscommonly found in industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and seepage water.

Ankita Suhag; Richa Gupta; Archana Tiwari

2011-01-01

31

Physicochemical quality and chemical safety of chlorine as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant for fresh-cut lettuce washing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlorine was assessed as a reconditioning agent and wash water disinfectant in the fresh-cut produce industry. Artificial fresh-cut lettuce wash water, made from butterhead lettuce, was used for the experiments. In the reconditioning experiments, chlorine was added to artificial wash water inoculated with Escherichia coli O157 (6 log CFU/ml). Regression models were constructed based on the inactivation data and validated in actual wash water from leafy vegetable processing companies. The model that incorporated chlorine dose and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the wash water accurately predicted inactivation. Listeria monocytogenes was more resistant to chlorine reconditioning in artificial wash water than Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. During the washing process with inoculated lettuce (4 log CFU/g), in the absence of chlorine, there was a rapid microbial buildup in the water that accumulated to 5.4 ± 0.4 log CFU/100 ml after 1 h. When maintaining a residual concentration of 1 mg/liter free chlorine, wash water contamination was maintained below 2.7, 2.5, and 2.5 log CFU/100 ml for tap water and artificial process water with COD values of 500 and 1,000 mg O2/liter, respectively. A model was developed to predict water contamination during the dynamic washing process. Only minor amounts of total trihalomethanes were formed in the water during reconditioning. Total trihalomethanes accumulated to larger amounts in the water during the wash water disinfection experiments and reached 124.5 ± 13.4 ?g/liter after 1 h of execution of the washing process in water with a COD of 1,000 mg O2/liter. However, no total trihalomethanes were found on the fresh-cut lettuce after rinsing.

Van Haute S; Sampers I; Holvoet K; Uyttendaele M

2013-05-01

32

Ramularia pistiae sp. nov.--a new leaf spot fungus on water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) from Nicaragua.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new species of Ramularia, associated with leaf spots on the pantropical aquatic weed Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) inhabiting roadside ponds in Nicaragua, is described. The fungus is compared with Ramularia aromatica, the sole other species in this genus known to attack a member of the Araceae. P. stratiotes is one of the world's worst aquatic weeds and has been the target of several biological control programs. The new fungus is named Ramularia pistiae and represents the second fungal pathogen to be reported on this host in the Neotropics, which is considered to be the center of origin of this weed. A thorough search in different parts of Brazil for fungi to be used as biological control agents only yielded a single fungus I which is already known to occur in the Old World. This record indicates that in the future, surveys for natural enemies of P. stratiotes should include Central America.

Fernandes RC; Barreto RW

2005-04-01

33

INTERMARKET CLASS HYBRID LETTUCE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methods for producing intermarket class hybrid lettuce seed are described. The methods include the steps of providing lettuce plants and releasing Megachile rotundata bees or attracting pollinators. Intermarket class hybrid lettuce seeds and plants produced using the disclosed methods, and male sterile lettuce lines used in the methods, are also described.

GIBSON GEORGE D; OLIVAS NATHAN K; SALM PETER

34

Nutrient removal and greenhouse gas emissions in duckweed treatment ponds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stormwater treatment ponds provide a variety of functions including sediment retention, organic and nutrient removal, and habitat restoration. The treatment ponds are, however, also a source of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were to assess greenhouse gas (CH(4), CO(2) and N(2)O) emissions in duckweed treatment ponds (DWPs) treating simulated stormwater and to determine the role of ammonia-oxidizing organisms in nutrient removal and methanogens in greenhouse gas emissions. Two replicated DWPs operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days were able to remove 84% (± 4% [standard deviation]) chemical oxygen demand (COD), 79% (± 3%) NH(4)(+)-N, 86% (± 2%) NO(3)(-)-N and 56% (± 7%) orthophosphate. CH(4) emission rates in the DWPs ranged from 502 to 1900 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1) while those of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) ranged from 0.63 to 4 mg N(2)O m(-2) d(-1). The CO(2) emission rates ranged from 1700 to 3300 mg CO(2) m(-2) day(-1). Duckweed coverage on water surface along with the continued deposit of duckweed debris in the DWPs and low-nutrient influent water created a low dissolved oxygen environment for the growth of unique ammonia-oxidizing organisms and methanogens. Archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance in the DWPs ranged from (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10(7) to (1.7 ± 0.2) × 10(8) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10(3) to (1.5 ± 0.4) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil, respectively. The 16S rRNA acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens ranged from (5.2 ± 0.2) × 10(5) to (9.0 ± 0.3) × 10(6) copies/g dry soil and from (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10(2) to (5.5 ± 0.4) × 10(3) copies/g dry soil, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) appeared to be the dominant nitrifiers and acetoclastic Methanosaeta was the major methanogenic genus. The results suggest that methane is the predominant (>90%) greenhouse gas in the DWPs, where the relatively low stormwater nutrient inputs facilitate the growth of K-strategists such as AOA and Methanosaeta that may be responsible for ammonia removal and greenhouse gas emissions, respectively.

Sims A; Gajaraj S; Hu Z

2013-03-01

35

Survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat iceberg lettuce washed in warm chlorinated water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cut iceberg lettuce inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes before and after washing for 3 min in cold (4 degrees C) and warm (47 degrees C) water containing 100 mg/liter total chlorine was stored at I and 10 degrees C in oxygen-permeable film packages (6,000 to 8,000 cc/m2/24 h). Cold chlorinated water was detrimental to the survival of E. coli O157: H7 and L. monocytogenes at both storage temperatures. In contrast, washing in warm chlorinated water favored the growth of both pathogens in lettuce stored at 10 degrees C. There was no evidence of a relationship between the magnitude of spoilage microflora and the fate of either bacterium.

Delaquis S; Stewart S; Cazaux S; Toivonen P

2002-03-01

36

Comparative transcriptome analysis to investigate the high starch accumulation of duckweed (Landoltia punctata) under nutrient starvation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Duckweed can thrive on anthropogenic wastewater and produce tremendous biomass production. Due to its relatively high starch and low lignin percentage, duckweed is a good candidate for bioethanol fermentation. Previous studies have observed that water devoid of nutrients is good for starch accumulation, but its molecular mechanism remains unrevealed. RESULTS: This study globally analyzed the response to nutrient starvation in order to investigate the starch accumulation in duckweed (Landoltia punctata). L. punctata was transferred from nutrient-rich solution to distilled water and sampled at different time points. Physiological measurements demonstrated that the activity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, the key enzyme of starch synthesis, as well as the starch percentage in duckweed, increased continuously under nutrient starvation. Samples collected at 0 h, 2 h and 24 h time points respectively were used for comparative gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq. A comprehensive transcriptome, comprising of 74,797 contigs, was constructed by a de novo assembly of the RNA-Seq reads. Gene expression profiling results showed that the expression of some transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in starch biosynthesis was up-regulated, while the expression of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in starch consumption were down-regulated, the expression of some photosynthesis-related transcripts were down-regulated during the first 24 h, and the expression of some transporter transcripts were up-regulated within the first 2 h. Very interestingly, most transcripts encoding key enzymes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis were highly expressed regardless of starvation, while transcripts encoding laccase, the last rate-limiting enzyme of lignifications, exhibited very low expression abundance in all three samples. CONCLUSION: Our study provides a comprehensive expression profiling of L. punctata under nutrient starvation, which indicates that nutrient starvation down-regulated the global metabolic status, redirects metabolic flux of fixed CO2 into starch synthesis branch resulting in starch accumulation in L. punctata.

Tao X; Fang Y; Xiao Y; Jin YL; Ma XR; Zhao Y; He KZ; Zhao H; Wang HY

2013-01-01

37

Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas Growth, water consumption and mineral composition of lettuce in hydroponic system with saline water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes), com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspirada. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu, de forma linear, o crescimento e o consumo hídrico da alface. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea, mas não se observaram sintomas de deficiência nutricional. O rendimento (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea) foi reduzido entre 6 e 6,5% por dS m-1, no primeiro e segundo cultivo, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo NFT podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças, para produtores que têm disponibilidade restrita de água doce, porém, com redução de produtividade.The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, water consumption and extraction of nutrients of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a NFT (nutrient film technique) in hydroponic system using saline water. Two experiments were conducted in a protected environment. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with five replications and five levels of salinity in the irrigation water using NaCl. Increasing water salinity reduced the growth and water consumption of lettuce linearly. The salinity reduced the macronutrient concentration, but symptoms of nutritional deficiency were not observed. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter) was reduced by 6% and 6.5% per dS m¹, in the first and second crops, respectively. The results obtained in the NFT system indicate the possibility of using saline water as an alternative for the production of vegetables by farmers who have freshwater restriction, although with a reduction in the yield.

Dalva Paulus; Eloi Paulus; Gilmar Antônio Nava; Cláudia Andrade Moura

2012-01-01

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Duckweed Lemna minor (Liliopsida, Lemnaceae) as a natural biofilter in brackish and fresh closed recirculating systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to assess the potential use of common duckweed Lemna minor asnatural biofilter in brackish closed recirculating systems of 4 g/L salinity and to evaluate the effect ofsalinities in the ranges of 1-7 g L-1 on the duckweed’s ammonium NH4 +1uptake. Furthermore thepossibility of nitrification as a second mechanism of nitrogen removal in closed recirculating systems wasinvestigated. Three closed recirculating systems each having 20 mixed Oreochromis niloticus were used.Duckweed L. minor and fresh water were added in system 1, fresh water only in system 2, and duckweedwith brackish water in system 3. Ammonium NH4 +1and nitrate NO3-1 were tested periodically in eachsystem during a 1.5 month period. Another three experiments were run in parallel using aquariumsincubated with 60.00 g fresh weight L. minor at salinities in the ranges of 1-7 g L-1 for two weeks.Aquariums were exposed directly to sunlight in experiment 1 and 3, and were placed in the dark inexperiment 2. The nitrogen source in experiment 1 and 2 was 100 mg L-1 of NH4Cl, and 280 mg L-1 ofNH4Cl in experiment 3. NH4 +1and NO3-1 levels were monitored as above. L. minor managed to reduce theaverage NH4 +1levels to 0.5 mg L-1, 0.43 mg L-1below the standard recommended levels in both brackishand fresh water systems, respectively. Ammonium NH4 +1 uptake was coupled with nitrate NO3-1 uptakeunder favorable conditions of sunlight. Salinity in the ranges from 1-7 g L-1 enhanced ammonium NH4 +1uptake (r = 0.8819, p = 0.023) without affecting nitrate NO3-1 uptake or any observed mortality of theduckweed. Nitrification was a second mechanism of nitrogen removal in a closed recirculating system,but it was affected by salinity and light. Average ammonium NH4 +1of 51.8 mg L-1 was toxic to L. minorand death was observed within a week in experiment 3. The duckweed L. minor was an efficient naturalbiofilter in both brackish and fresh water closed recirculating systems.

Mutaz A. Al-Qutob; Tharwat S. Nashashibi

2012-01-01

39

Comparative study of two bioassays with weakened duckweed and yeast treated with homeopathic preparations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In homeopathic basic research, the question as to the most adequate test systems and apt methodology is still open. This investigation examined the hypothesis that more complex organisms show stronger reactions to homeopathic remedies than less complex ones. We compared two Arsenic (As5+) stressed bioassays with duckweed (Lemna gibba, a multi-cellular autotrophic organism) and yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a single-cellular heterotrophic organism) regarding their response to homeopathic preparations [1]. For duckweed, growth rates of leaf area and leaf number were evaluated. For yeast, growth kinetics were determined by measuring slope, yield and Et50 (point in time when yield was half maximum) of the sigmoid growth curve. The experiments with duckweed and yeast were performed in parallel (same day, same location and identical homeopathic preparations). After screening 17 substances, three homeopathic preparations (Arsenicum album, nosode, gibberellic acid) were chosen for repeated experimental series [2]. Five independent experiments were conducted for each remedy with both organisms in parallel. Potency levels used were in the range of 17x–33x for duckweed and 17x–30x for yeast. To control for test system stability, systematic negative control experiments were conducted over the complete experimentation period. All experiments were blinded and randomized. The systematic negative control experiments did not yield any significant effects. Application of potentized Arsenicum album in the duckweed bioassay yielded the largest effects compared to water controls without remedies for the parameters leaf area and leaf number (p<0.001) [1, 3]. Potentized nosode preparations also had significant effects on duckweed's leaf area and leaf number (p<0.01). Growth was enhanced across all potency levels. In the yeast system the three homeopathic remedies did not show any significant effects on any growth curve parameter. The results obtained are in line with the hypothesis, that more complex organisms show stronger reactions to homeopathic remedies than less complex organisms. The test system with Lemna gibba, the stressor arsenic (As5+) and the homeopathic preparation Arsenicum album is suitable to further investigate factors influencing the quality and effects of potentized substances [4]. 1. Jäger T, Scherr C, Wolf U, Simon M, Heusser P, and Baumgartner S. Investigation of arsenic-stressed yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) as a bioassay in homeopathic basic research. ScientificWorldJournal. 2011 March 7;11:568-583. 2. Jäger T, Scherr C, Simon M, Heusser P, and Baumgartner S. Development of a test system for homeopathic preparations using impaired duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). J Altern Complement Med. 2011;17:315-323. 3. Jäger T, Scherr C, Simon M, Heusser P, and Baumgartner S. Effects of homeopathic arsenicum album, nosode, and gibberellic acid preparations on the growth rate of arsenic-impaired duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). ScientificWorldJournal. 2010 November 4;10:2112-2129. 4. Jäger T, Scherr C, Shah D, Majewsky V, Betti L, Trebbi G, et al. Use of homeopathic preparations in experimental studies with abiotically stressed plants. Homeopathy. 2011;100:275-287.

Tim Jäger; Claudia Scherr; Meinhard Simon; Peter Heusser; Ursula Wolf; Stephan Baumgartner

2012-01-01

40

Detection of Cryptosporidium parvum in lettuce  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Human cryptosporidiosis has emerged as an important gastrointestinal infection in the 1990s as a result of the ingestion of mainly contaminated water and to a lesser extent foodstuffs containing the protozoan parasite, Cryptosporidium parvum. This pathogen has particular clinical significance for immunocompromised persons, including AIDS patients and cancer patients receiving toxic chemotherapeutic drug regimens. There have been a limited number of studies performed examining the occurrence of the parasite on vegetables, including lettuce. Detection rates are very dependent on the laboratory isolation technique employed and has ranged from 1.2% to 14.5%. Current best practice of laboratory recovery, isolation and detection methods include detergent removal, oocysts concentration by immunomagnetic separation, followed by a combination of immunofluorescent microscopy and a nested PCR approach. Employment of contaminated non-potable water in the production of vegetables, particularly lettuce, may represent an important potential source of entry of pathogens into food processing and the human food chain. Given that lettuce is an important constituent of hamburger dressing, and the size of the fast-food industry, where lettuce is an important constituent, horticultural producers of lettuce should therefore place special emphasis on developing suitable and efficient Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point strategies for the critical control of oocysts depending on the type of unit operation employed and vegetable being processed. This review aims to examine (i) the incidence of C. parvum in vegetables, particularly lettuce and (ii) laboratory detection methods for the isolation and identification of this parasite from lettuce.

Moore JohnE; Cherie Millar Beverley; Kenny Fiona; Lowery ColmJ; Xiao LiHua; Rao JuluriR; Nicholson Vera; Watabe Miyuki; Heaney Neville; Sunnotel Olaf; McCorry Kieran; Rooney PaulJ; Snelling WilliamJ; Dooley JamesSG

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

Relationship between lead uptake by lettuce and water-soluble low-molecular-weight organic acids in rhizosphere as influenced by transpiration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relationship between Pb uptake by leaf lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) and water-soluble low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in rhizosphere, as influenced by transpiration (high and low), has been studied. Studies were carried out by culturing lettuce plants grown for 2 weeks in pots filled with quartz sand mixed with anion-exchange resin and then for 30 days in a greenhouse. The potted lettuce plants were subjected to stress by the addition of Pb(NO 3) 2 solutions (100, 200, and 300 mg of Pb L (-1)) and by high and low transpiration treatments for another 10-day period. Blank experiments (without addition of Pb(NO 3) 2 solutions to the pots) were also run. There were no significant differences in the growth of the plants with the addition of Pb(NO 3) 2 solutions in either of the transpirations studies. Uptake of Pb by the shoots and roots of the plants was found to be proportional to the concentration of Pb solutions added, and more accumulation was observed in the roots than in the shoots at the end of days 3 and 10. High transpiration caused more Pb uptake than did low transpiration. One volatile acid (propionic acid) and nine nonvolatile acids (lactic, glycolic, oxalic, succinic, fumaric, oxalacetic, d-tartaric, trans-aconitic, and citric acids) in rhizosphere quartz sand or anion-exchange resin were identified and quantified by gas chromatography analysis with a flame ionization detector. The amount of LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sand or anion-exchange resin increased with higher amounts of Pb in quartz sand solution and also with longer duration of the study. The total quantities of the LMWOAs in the rhizosphere quartz sand or anion-exchange resin were significantly higher under high and low transpiration with a 300 mg of Pb L (-1) solution addition at the end of day 10. Compared with our previous related studies (published work), the present study shows that the presence of LMWOAs in rhizosphere does not significantly affect Pb uptake by lettuce plants under high and low transpiration. A physiological mechanism of the roots of lettuce plants governing the relationship between Pb contamination level and quantity of water-soluble LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sand and resin, as influenced by transpiration, was proposed.

Liao YC; Chang Chien SW; Wang MC; Shen Y; Seshaiah K

2007-10-01

42

Distribution of carbofuran in a simulated fish/duckweed aquatic ecosystem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution, disappearance and residue of carbofuran labelled with 14C in a simulated fish/duckweed aquatic ecosystem have been studied. The results show that the carbofuran content in water decreases with time because of being absorbed by sludge of riverbed, eaten by fish and hydrolysis. The residual carbofuran in fish tissues is higher than that in water because of enrichment. There is much difference among carbofuran contents in various fish tissues, and the order in each tissue is found to be viscera>bone>muscle>gill>skin.

1996-01-01

43

Hurdle enhancement of slightly acidic electrolyzed water antimicrobial efficacy on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach using ultrasonication and water wash.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) is well known as a good sanitizer against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, microbial reductions from SAEW treatment are not enough to ensure produce safety. Therefore, it is necessary to improve its antimicrobial efficiency by combining it with other appropriate approaches. This study examined the microbicidal activity of SAEW (pH 5.2-5.5, oxidation reduction potential 500-600 mV, available chlorine concentration 21-22 mg/l) on Chinese cabbage, lettuce, sesame leaf and spinach, four common fresh vegetables in Korea under same laboratory conditions. Subsequently, effects of ultrasonication and water wash to enhance the sanitizing efficacy of SAEW were studied, separately. Finally, an optimized simple and easy approach consisting of simultaneous SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (3 min) followed by water wash (150 rpm, 1 min) was developed (SAEW + US-WW). This newly developed hurdle treatment significantly enhanced the microbial reductions compared to SAEW treatment alone, SAEW treatment with ultrasonication (SAEW + US) and SAEW treatment followed by water wash (SAEW-WW) at room temperature (23 ± 2 °C). Microbial reductions of yeasts and molds, total bacteria count and inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes were in the range of 1.76-2.8 log cfu/g on different samples using the new hurdle approach.

Forghani F; Oh DH

2013-10-01

44

Effect of transpiration on Pb uptake by lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids in rhizosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of transpiration (high and low) on Pb uptake by leaf lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in rhizosphere has been studied. After two weeks of growth the plants were cultured in greenhouse for more four weeks and two days. Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions of different concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg l(-1) of Pb) were then added to the quartz sand pots of different plants and studies were initiated. Blank experiments (without treating the quartz sand pots with Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions) were also run in parallel. No significant differences in the growth of the plants with the concentrations of added Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions were observed by both low and high transpirations at the end of the 0, 3rd, and 10th days of studies. The total evaporation of the volatiles during 10 days did not depend on the concentration of Pb(2+) but with high transpiration the rate of evaporation was significantly higher than with low transpiration. Uptake of Pb by shoots and roots of the plants was found to be proportional to the concentration of various Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions added and more accumulation was observed in roots than in shoots at the end of 3rd and 10th days. High transpiration created more Pb uptake than low transpiration did. One volatile acid, propionic acid and nine non-volatile acids, lactic, glycolic, oxalic, succinic, fumaric, oxalacetic, D-tartaric, trans-aconitic, and citric acids in rhizosphere quartz sands were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. D-Tartaric and citric acids were major among the non-volatile acids. The amount of LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sands increased with the higher amount of Pb uptake and also with the duration of studies. The total quantities of the LMWOAs in the rhizosphere quartz sands were significantly higher under high transpiration with 300 mg l(-1) Pb solution addition at the end of 10th day. The present study shows prominent correlation between transpiration and uptake of heavy metal and interesting correlation between Pb contaminated level and quantity of water soluble LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sands. The latter thus deserves of further studies. PMID:16554084

Liao, Y C; Chien, S W Chang; Wang, M C; Shen, Y; Hung, P L; Das, Biswanath

2006-03-22

45

Effect of transpiration on Pb uptake by lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids in rhizosphere.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of transpiration (high and low) on Pb uptake by leaf lettuce and on water soluble low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in rhizosphere has been studied. After two weeks of growth the plants were cultured in greenhouse for more four weeks and two days. Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions of different concentrations (100, 200, and 300 mg l(-1) of Pb) were then added to the quartz sand pots of different plants and studies were initiated. Blank experiments (without treating the quartz sand pots with Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions) were also run in parallel. No significant differences in the growth of the plants with the concentrations of added Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions were observed by both low and high transpirations at the end of the 0, 3rd, and 10th days of studies. The total evaporation of the volatiles during 10 days did not depend on the concentration of Pb(2+) but with high transpiration the rate of evaporation was significantly higher than with low transpiration. Uptake of Pb by shoots and roots of the plants was found to be proportional to the concentration of various Pb(NO(3))(2) solutions added and more accumulation was observed in roots than in shoots at the end of 3rd and 10th days. High transpiration created more Pb uptake than low transpiration did. One volatile acid, propionic acid and nine non-volatile acids, lactic, glycolic, oxalic, succinic, fumaric, oxalacetic, D-tartaric, trans-aconitic, and citric acids in rhizosphere quartz sands were identified and quantified by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. D-Tartaric and citric acids were major among the non-volatile acids. The amount of LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sands increased with the higher amount of Pb uptake and also with the duration of studies. The total quantities of the LMWOAs in the rhizosphere quartz sands were significantly higher under high transpiration with 300 mg l(-1) Pb solution addition at the end of 10th day. The present study shows prominent correlation between transpiration and uptake of heavy metal and interesting correlation between Pb contaminated level and quantity of water soluble LMWOAs in rhizosphere quartz sands. The latter thus deserves of further studies.

Liao YC; Chien SW; Wang MC; Shen Y; Hung PL; Das B

2006-10-01

46

Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 ?M) to the highest (100 ?M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r2 = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r2 = 0.999 and r2 = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 ?M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 ?M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 ?M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 ?M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 ?M-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing concentrations of Cu, with a very similar trend between the three populations of duckweed. However, due to the facts that enzyme activity is expressed as units of activity per gram of protein and that protein content decreased with Cu exposure, the increase in SOD activity might partly result from a relative increase of this enzyme inside the pool of proteins. Consequently, the results obtained in our experimental conditions strongly suggest that duckweed species from the uranium-polluted area have developed mechanisms to cope with metal toxicity and that this tolerance is based on the existence of protective mechanism to limit the metal uptake rather than on an enhancement of the antioxidative metabolism.

2009-01-18

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EVALUATION OF LETTUCE GERMPLASM FOR RESISTANCE TO LETTUCE APHID  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley), a problem since the 1970s on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Europe, first occurred in the U.S. on lettuce in the Salinas Valley, California in 1998, and is now present in most of the lettuce production districts of Arizona and California. High-level resis...

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Efeito da salinidade da água de irrigação na produção da alface americana Effect of irrigation water salinity on american lettuce production  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de se verificar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de sais da água de irrigação na produção da alface americana e sua acumulação no extrato saturado durante um ciclo de cultivo, instalou-se o presente experimento em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia da Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo testados seis níveis de salinidade de água (condutividade elétrica de 0,18, 1,0, 1,5, 3,0, 4,5 e 6,0 dS m-1). Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o consumo de água pelas plantas, durante o ciclo de produção, diminuiu com níveis crescentes de salinidade da água de irrigação e que o aumento da salinidade proporcionou decréscimos em todas as variáveis vegetativas avaliadas. A máxima produção comercial da alface americana foi obtida quando a condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado atingiu o valor limite de 0,2 dS m-1. Para cada aumento unitário desta condutividade além do limite citado, houve uma redução de 17% na sua produção comercial.With the objective of verifying the effect of different concentrations of salts in the irrigation water on the production of the American lettuce, as well as its accumulation in the saturation extract during a cultivation cycle, one experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions in the Department of Engineering of the Federal University of Lavras. The statistical design adapted was completely randomized, with 6 levels of water salinity (electric conductivity of 0.18, 1.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 dS m-1) and 5 replications. The results obtained showed that the consumption of water for the plants during the production cycle decreased with increasing levels of salinity of irrigation water, and that the increase of the salinity caused a reduction in appraised vegetative variables. The maximum commercial production of the American lettuce was obtained when the electrical conductivity of the saturated extract reached 0.2 dS m-1. For each unit increase of conductivity beyond the limit cited, there was a reduction of 17% in commercial production.

Eliezer Santurbano Gervásio; Jacinto de Assunção Carvalho; Márcio José de Santana

2000-01-01

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Aplicação de doses de CO2 via água de irrigação na cultura da alface Application of doses of CO2 by means of irrigation water for lettuce  

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Full Text Available A concentração de CO2 na atmosfera vem aumentado significativamente desde a revolução industrial, estando hoje próximo de 365 mmol mol-1, com tendência de aumento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência de doses crescentes de CO2 via água de irrigação por gotejamento sobre o crescimento, o desenvolvimento, a fotossíntese e a produtividade da alface cultivar Elisa, bem como seus efeitos sobre a condutividade elétrica. O experimento foi conduzido sob túneis plásticos, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos por doses de CO2: 0 (testemunha), 52; 155 e 310 kg ha-1, aplicadas via água de irrigação. As irrigações foram realizadas diariamente com base na evaporação do tanque classe A, corrigida pelo coeficiente da cultura e do tanque. O número de folhas e a matéria seca da parte aérea da planta foram influenciados pela aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação, não ocorrendo o mesmo para matéria fresca e índice de área foliar. Os resultados indicaram a dose mensal de 153 kg ha-1 de CO2 como a mais adequada para ser empregada na cultura da alface via água de irrigação, com um aumento de aproximadamente 20,5% de produtividade, quando comparado à testemunha.Carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been increasing since the industrial revolution. Nowadays it is approximately 365 mmol mol-1, with a tendency to increase. The effect of CO2 dosis, supplied by drip irrigation on lettuce development, plants growth, photosynthesis and productivity, and also the effects on electrical conductivity were evaluated. The experiment was conduced under plastic tunnels in a completely randomized block design. The treatments included CO2 rates: 0 (control), 52; 155 and 310 kg ha-1. Water was delivered daily to plants in order to replace lost volumes by evapotranspiration, based on estimates from class A evaporation pan, corrected by the crop and tank coefficients (Kc and Kp, respectively). The CO2 use, via irrigation water, changed the leaves number and the shoot dry weight, but not the leaf area index and the fresh dry weight. The monthly use of 153 kg ha-1 of CO2, via irrigation water, is proper for lettuce since it increased the productivity in 20.5% when compared to the control.

Tamara Maria Gomes; Valéria A. Modolo; Tarlei A. Botrel; Ricardo F. de Oliveira

2005-01-01

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Aplicação de doses de CO2 via água de irrigação na cultura da alface/ Application of doses of CO2 by means of irrigation water for lettuce  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A concentração de CO2 na atmosfera vem aumentado significativamente desde a revolução industrial, estando hoje próximo de 365 mmol mol-1, com tendência de aumento. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a influência de doses crescentes de CO2 via água de irrigação por gotejamento sobre o crescimento, o desenvolvimento, a fotossíntese e a produtividade da alface cultivar Elisa, bem como seus efeitos sobre a condutividade elétrica. O experimento foi conduzido (more) sob túneis plásticos, em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado. Os tratamentos foram compostos por doses de CO2: 0 (testemunha), 52; 155 e 310 kg ha-1, aplicadas via água de irrigação. As irrigações foram realizadas diariamente com base na evaporação do tanque classe A, corrigida pelo coeficiente da cultura e do tanque. O número de folhas e a matéria seca da parte aérea da planta foram influenciados pela aplicação de CO2 via água de irrigação, não ocorrendo o mesmo para matéria fresca e índice de área foliar. Os resultados indicaram a dose mensal de 153 kg ha-1 de CO2 como a mais adequada para ser empregada na cultura da alface via água de irrigação, com um aumento de aproximadamente 20,5% de produtividade, quando comparado à testemunha. Abstract in english Carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been increasing since the industrial revolution. Nowadays it is approximately 365 mmol mol-1, with a tendency to increase. The effect of CO2 dosis, supplied by drip irrigation on lettuce development, plants growth, photosynthesis and productivity, and also the effects on electrical conductivity were evaluated. The experiment was conduced under plastic tunnels in a completely randomized block design. The treatments include (more) d CO2 rates: 0 (control), 52; 155 and 310 kg ha-1. Water was delivered daily to plants in order to replace lost volumes by evapotranspiration, based on estimates from class A evaporation pan, corrected by the crop and tank coefficients (Kc and Kp, respectively). The CO2 use, via irrigation water, changed the leaves number and the shoot dry weight, but not the leaf area index and the fresh dry weight. The monthly use of 153 kg ha-1 of CO2, via irrigation water, is proper for lettuce since it increased the productivity in 20.5% when compared to the control.

Gomes, Tamara Maria; Modolo, Valéria A.; Botrel, Tarlei A.; Oliveira, Ricardo F. de

2005-06-01

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NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor) as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properti...

Zuzanna Witkowska; Agnieszka Saeid; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Zbigniew Dobrzanski; Henryk Gorecki; Izabela Michalak

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EFEITO DO CLORO NA ÁGUA DE LAVAGEM PARA DESINFECÇÃO DE ALFACE MINIMAMENTE PROCESSADA EFFECT OF CHLORINE IN THE WASHING WATER FOR DESINFECTION OF MINIMALLY PROCESSED LETTUCE  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho de pesquisa foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de verificar a eficácia de diferentes concentrações de cloro utilizadas como agente sanitizante na água de lavagem de alface(Lactuca sativa L.), do tipo americana, minimamente processada. Na matéria-prima foram realizadas contagens de bolores, leveduras e coliformes totais. No produto final foram realizadas contagens de bolores e leveduras, coliformes totais e avaliação sensorial. O processamento mínimo da alface compreendeu as seguintes etapas: corte do talo, desfolhamento da cabeça, primeira seleção, primeira lavagem, segunda seleção, corte em tiras, segunda lavagem, tratamento de imersão em soluções contendo 70, 100 e 130mg/L de cloro, centrifugação, acondicionamento em sacos plásticos e armazenamento a 2°C e a 20°C. Os resultados mostraram que a imersão em solução contendo 70mg/L de cloro confere a alface minimamente processada uma vida-útil de seis dias e em solução contendo 100 e 130mg/L, nove dias e que o seu aroma, textura e gosto não foram afetados por estes tratamentos.This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the efficacy of different concentrations of chlorine used as a sanitizer in the washing water of minimally processed lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Total coliform and mould and yeast counts were performed on the raw material. The same microbiological exams plus a sensory evaluation were performed on the final product. The minimal processing of the lettuce consisted of cutting, shredding, first selection of leaves, first washing, second selection, manual slicing, second washing, dipping in solutions of 70,100 and 130mg/L of chlorine, spin drying, packaging in polyethylene bags and storage at 2(0)C and at 20(0)C.The results showed that the chlorine solution containing 70mg/L promoted a shelf-life of 6 days under refrigeration, and the 100 and 130mg/L solutions, 9 days. The sensory characteristics such as texture and flavor were not affected by the treatments studied.

Shirley Aparecida Garcia BERBARI; José Eduardo PASCHOALINO; Neliane F. Arruda SILVEIRA

2001-01-01

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Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage. PMID:22856320

Mohapatra, D P; Ghangrekar, M M; Mitra, A; Brar, S K

2012-06-01

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Sewage treatment in integrated system of UASB reactor and duckweed pond and reuse for aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The performance of a laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a duckweed pond containing Lemna gibba was investigated for suitability for treating effluent for use in aquaculture. While treating low-strength sewage having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of typically less than 200 mg/L, with an increase in hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 10.04 to 33.49 h, COD removal efficiency of the UASB reactor decreased owing to a decrease in organic loading rate (OLR) causing poor mixing in the reactor. However, even at the lower OLR (0.475 kg COD/(m3 x d)), the UASB reactor gave a removal efficiency of 68% for COD and 74% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). The maximum COD, BOD, ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate removal efficiencies of the duckweed pond were 40.77%, 38.01%, 61.87% and 88.57%, respectively. Decreasing the OLR by increasing the HRT resulted in an increase in efficiency of the duckweed pond for removal of ammonia-nitrogen and phosphate. The OLR of 0.005 kg COD/(m2 x d) and HRT of 108 h in the duckweed pond satisfied aquaculture quality requirements. A specific growth rate of 0.23% was observed for tilapia fish fed with duckweed harvested from the duckweed pond. The economic analysis proved that it was beneficial to use the integrated system of a UASB reactor and a duckweed pond for treatment of sewage.

Mohapatra DP; Ghangrekar MM; Mitra A; Brar SK

2012-06-01

55

Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de maneira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remoção dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas.Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through the fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of the majority of the mineral nutrients necessary for vegetable development. Their concentration was close to that found in nutrient solutions, used for lettuce hydroponic cultivation, except for potassium and magnesium. The low concentration of magnesium in the water did not prevent lettuce development, although the plants presented visual symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient. Differences were not found between the varieties produced, regarding productivity and the mean weight of fresh plants.

Glauco E. P. Cortez; Jairo A. C. de Araújo; Paulo A. Bellingieri; Alexandre B. Dalri

2009-01-01

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Produção e indicadores fisiológicos de alface sob hidroponia com água salina Production and physiologic indicators of lettuce grown in hydroponics with saline water  

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Full Text Available O uso de água salina na produção de hortaliças constitui no momento atividade essencial, tendo em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce, tanto pela atividade agrícola quanto pelo abastecimento urbano e industrial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção e os indicadores fisiológicos de alface cultivada em hidroponia com a utilização de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, em Piracicaba-SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl [Condutividade elétrica (Cea): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1] em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa), em esquema fatorial. Foram determinadas massa fresca e seca de folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea; teor de nitrato, prolina e clorofila. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu linearmente as massas fresca e seca das folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea. As massas fresca e seca foram 36% e 57% superiores na cultivar Verônica, respectivamente. A cultivar Pira Roxa apresentou maior teor de nitrato 25% (3008 mg L-1), clorofila total 50% (1,46 mg g-1massa fresca) e prolina, 71,43% (0,21 µM g-1massa fresca-1) em relação à Verônica, o que pode ser um mecanismo de adaptação daquela cultivar ao estresse salino. Com relação à produtividade comercial, obteve-se uma perda de 69 e 64% para as cultivares Pira Roxa e Verônica, quando se utilizou água mais salina (7,43 dS m-1). Em relação à produção de massa seca, a perda pelo uso dessa água foi de 53% e 44%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo hidropônico podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças para produtores que têm disponibilidade de água salina e restrita disponibilidade de água doce, embora com redução na produtividade.The use of saline water in the production of vegetables constitutes at the moment an essential activity, facing the rising demand of fresh water, as for the agricultural activity as for the urban and industrial supplying. This study aimed to evaluate production and physiologic indicators of lettuce in hydroponic system with the use of saline waters. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the period from December 2007 to January 2008, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme - five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl, which resulted in different water electrical conductivity levels (dS m-1): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55, 7,43 - and two cultivars of lettuce - Veronica and Pira Roxa. It was determined the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot and the content of nitrate, proline and chlorophyll. The increase of water salinity reduced lineally the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot. The cv Verônica produced 36% and 57% more shoot fresh and dry mass, respectively, than Pira Roxa. The cv. Pira Roxa accumulated 25% more nitrate (3008 mg L-1), presented 50% more total chlorophyll (1,46 mg g-1fresh mass) and 71,43% more proline (0,21 µM g fresh mass- 1) than the cv Verônica, showing a mechanism of avoiding salinity stress. Cultivars Pira Roxa and Veronica presented loss of 69% and 64% of commercial productivity, respectively, when the most saline water (7,43 dS m-1) was used. In the other hand dry matter was reduced in 53% and 44%, respectively, for cv. Pira Roxa and Verônica in the most saline water. The results obtained in this study can indicate the possibility of using saline water as an alternative for the production of vegetables, specially for growers that have saline water available but restricted fresh water, even with reduction of productivity.

Dalva Paulus; Durval Dourado Neto; José Antônio Frizzone; Tales M Soares

2010-01-01

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SURVEY OF BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN THE LETTUCE USED IN COMMERCIAL SNACKS (SANDWICHES) FROM CURITIBA, PR, BRAZIL  

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Full Text Available Over the last decades, lettuce has been associated to several foodborne outbreaks. The present study surveyed the microbiological and parasitological contamination of green leaf lettuce used in sandwiches sold in snack bars in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Lettuce was collected before and after commercial washing. Such procedure was made by holding and rotating the whole lettuce or separated leaves under the faucet of a sink with cold water for 10-30s. Three samples of 25g of lettuce leaves from each snack bar were assessed for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts, Escherichia coli, incidence (%) of general parasites, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus. The obtained mean counts, expressed as Colony Forming Units per gram of lettuce, were respectively: 5.9 x 106; 6.4 x 103; 2.1 x 102; 73%, for non-washed samples; and 7.3 x 104; 5.9 x 103; 1.0 x 102; 18%, for washed samples. The water washing, as it has been performed in the food establishments investigated, showed to be ineffi cient for sanitizing lettuce. Though Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were not found, the results refl ect unsanitary production practices and show that the assessed lettuce has been a source of biological hazard.

ASSUAN DJAMILA IBRAHIM MOGHARBEL; FELIPE RICHTER REIS; MARIA LUCIA MASSON

2009-01-01

58

SURVEY OF BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN THE LETTUCE USED IN COMMERCIAL SNACKS (SANDWICHES) FROM CURITIBA, PR, BRAZIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the last decades, lettuce has been associated to several foodborne outbreaks. The present study surveyed the microbiological and parasitological contamination of green leaf lettuce used in sandwiches sold in snack bars in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Lettuce was collected before and after commercial washing. Such procedure was made by holding and rotating the whole lettuce or separated leaves under the faucet of a sink with cold water for 10-30s. Three samples of 25g of lettuce leaves from each snack bar were assessed for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, molds and yeasts, Escherichia coli, incidence (%) of general parasites, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus. The obtained mean counts, expressed as Colony Forming Units per gram of lettuce, were respectively: 5.9 x 106; 6.4 x 103; 2.1 x 102; 73%, for non-washed samples; and 7.3 x 104; 5.9 x 103; 1.0 x 102; 18%, for washed samples. The water washing, as it has been performed in the food establishments investigated, showed to be inef? cient for sanitizing lettuce. Though Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were not found, the results re? ect unsanitary production practices and show that the assessed lettuce has been a source of biological hazard.

Assuan Djamila Ibrahim MOGHARBEL; Felipe Richter REIS; Maria Lucia MASSON

2009-01-01

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Effects of allelochemical extracted from water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes Linn.) on the growth, microcystin production and release of Microcystis aeruginosa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explored the optimisation of a method of extracting allelochemicals from Pistia stratiotes Linn., identified the optimal dose range for the allelochemicals' anti-algal effect and investigated their impact on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as the production and release of microcystin-LR (MC-LR). Based on measured changes in algal cell density and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) content, the allelochemicals were confirmed to have the strongest anti-algal effect with the lowest half-effect concentration of 65 mg L(-1) when they were extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent, 1:20 g mL(-1) as the extraction ratio and 1 h as the extraction time. The allelochemicals extracted from P. stratiotes using this optimal method exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of algae when used within a dose range of 60-100 mg L(-1); the relative inhibitory ratio reached 50-90 %, and Chl-a content reduced 50-75 % in algae cell cultures within 3-7 days. In addition, the extracted allelochemical compounds demonstrated no significant impact on the extracellular release of MC-LR during the culturing period. The amount of intracellular MC-LR per 10(6) algal cells increased depending on the increasing dose of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes after 7 days of culturing and maintained stability after 16 days. There was no increase in the total amount of MC-LR in the algal cell culture medium. Therefore, the application of allelochemicals from P. stratiotes to inhibit M. aeruginosa has a high degree of ecological safety and can be adopted in practical applications for treating water subjected to algae blooms because the treatment can effectively inhibit the proliferation of algal cells without increasing the release of cyanotoxin.

Wu X; Wu H; Chen J; Ye J

2013-11-01

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Multiple disease resistance in lettuce  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention provides for multiple pathogen resistant varieties of lettuce, Lactuca sativa. The varieties of this invention have a combined resistance to lettuce mosaic virus isolate Common, resistance to downy mildew pathotype I, resistance to corky root bacteria isolate CA1, Sclerotinia minor and resistance to big vein disease via infection through Olpidium brassicae. The varieties having a non-albino phenotype, a average mature head of 15 cm diameter and are male fertile. The varieties are developed through selective breeding.

SARREAL PHILIP M

 
 
 
 
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Use of a duckweed, Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden, as a protein feedstuff in practical diets for tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of solar-dried duckweed, Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden, as a dietary protein component for tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L., reared in glass tanks was evaluated. Six isonitrogenous diets (30% crude protein) were fed to all-male tilapia fingerlings for 56 days. The fish meal protein in the diets was substituted at a rate of 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 100% with duckweed. A diet without the duckweed served as a control. Growth performance and nutrient utilization of fish were based on daily weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive value. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in growth performance and nutrient utilization of fish fed on diets containing up to 20% duckweed inclusion and the control. However, increases in dietary duckweed inclusion resulted in progressively reduced growth performance and nutrient utilization of fish. Diet without fish meal (100% duckweed) gave the poorest result. The most cost-effective diet in terms of cost per unit gain in weight of fish was obtained with 30% duckweed dietary inclusion. The result showed that solar-dried up to 30% duckweed dietary inclusion as a replacement for fishmeal in practical diets supported fish growth and was cost-effective.

Fasakin EA; Balogun AM; Fasuru BE

1999-05-01

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Efeito de velocidades de rebaixamento do nível freático em diferentes períodos de desenvolvimento da cultura da alface/ Effect of water table drawdown velocities in different stages of lettuce crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Através deste trabalho objetivou-se determinar os efeitos do encharcamento do solo nas variáveis fenológicas e na produtividade da cultura da alface, identificar o estádio fenológico em que ocorre a maior diminuição da produtividade e obter uma relação entre a produtividade relativa da cultura e o índice diário de estresse. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em esquema fatorial [(3x4)+1], com 3 repetições. Os tratament (more) os consistiram do período de inundação (12, 22 e 32 DAT), de velocidades de rebaixamento do nível freático (30 cm em 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) e uma testemunha, na qual não foi aplicado estresse por elevação do lençol freático. A alface apresentou-se como cultura sensível ao encharcamento; entretanto, não foi possível se definir um valor para o coeficiente de drenagem pois, mesmo com a maior velocidade de rebaixamento testada, ocorreu decréscimo de cerca de 50% da produção. Dentre os três períodos nos quais o estresse causado pela elevação do nível freático foi aplicado, o primeiro foi o que ocasionou maiores perdas. A produtividade das plantas de alface apresentou correlação linear negativa com o índice diário de estresse (IDS). Abstract in english The work had the objectives of determining the effect of water table drawdown velocities on the growth and yield of lettuce crop in a flooded soil, identifying the stage of the crop cycle with the highest reduction in the productivity and obtaining a relation between the crop relative productivity and the daily stress index. The statistical experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme [(3 x 4) + 1], with three replications. The water table was lowered (more) at 3 stages of the crop cycle (12, 22 and 32 days after the transplanting), four drawdown velocities (30 cm during 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) and a 13 treatment in which stress was not applied with the elevation of the water table. The lettuce presented as a sensible crop to the water-logging, although, it was not possible to define a value for the drainage coefficient because the highest drawdown velocity tested presented 50% of loss in the yield. Among the three crop stages in witch the stress caused by the water table elevation was applied, the first one caused the highest loss in the yield. The relative yield of lettuce plant had a negative linear relation with the daily stress index.

Mingoti, Rafael; Flecha, Pablo A. N.; Duarte, Sérgio N.; Cruciani, Décio E.

2006-03-01

63

Efeito de velocidades de rebaixamento do nível freático em diferentes períodos de desenvolvimento da cultura da alface Effect of water table drawdown velocities in different stages of lettuce crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Através deste trabalho objetivou-se determinar os efeitos do encharcamento do solo nas variáveis fenológicas e na produtividade da cultura da alface, identificar o estádio fenológico em que ocorre a maior diminuição da produtividade e obter uma relação entre a produtividade relativa da cultura e o índice diário de estresse. O delineamento experimental adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, arranjado em esquema fatorial [(3x4)+1], com 3 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram do período de inundação (12, 22 e 32 DAT), de velocidades de rebaixamento do nível freático (30 cm em 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas) e uma testemunha, na qual não foi aplicado estresse por elevação do lençol freático. A alface apresentou-se como cultura sensível ao encharcamento; entretanto, não foi possível se definir um valor para o coeficiente de drenagem pois, mesmo com a maior velocidade de rebaixamento testada, ocorreu decréscimo de cerca de 50% da produção. Dentre os três períodos nos quais o estresse causado pela elevação do nível freático foi aplicado, o primeiro foi o que ocasionou maiores perdas. A produtividade das plantas de alface apresentou correlação linear negativa com o índice diário de estresse (IDS).The work had the objectives of determining the effect of water table drawdown velocities on the growth and yield of lettuce crop in a flooded soil, identifying the stage of the crop cycle with the highest reduction in the productivity and obtaining a relation between the crop relative productivity and the daily stress index. The statistical experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme [(3 x 4) + 1], with three replications. The water table was lowered at 3 stages of the crop cycle (12, 22 and 32 days after the transplanting), four drawdown velocities (30 cm during 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) and a 13 treatment in which stress was not applied with the elevation of the water table. The lettuce presented as a sensible crop to the water-logging, although, it was not possible to define a value for the drainage coefficient because the highest drawdown velocity tested presented 50% of loss in the yield. Among the three crop stages in witch the stress caused by the water table elevation was applied, the first one caused the highest loss in the yield. The relative yield of lettuce plant had a negative linear relation with the daily stress index.

Rafael Mingoti; Pablo A. N. Flecha; Sérgio N. Duarte; Décio E. Cruciani

2006-01-01

64

Detailed characterization of Mirafiori lettuce virus-resistant transgenic lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce big-vein disease is caused by Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae. A MiLV-resistant transgenic lettuce line was developed through introducing inverted repeats of the MiLV coat protein (CP) gene. Here, a detailed characterization study of this lettuce line was conducted by comparing it with the parental, non-transformed 'Kaiser' cultivar. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic lettuce in terms of pollen fertility, pollen dispersal, seed production, seed dispersal, dormancy, germination, growth of seedlings under low or high temperature, chromatographic patterns of leaf extracts, or effects of lettuce on the growth of broccoli or soil microflora. A significant difference in pollen size was noted, but the difference was small. The length of the cotyledons of the transgenic lettuce was shorter than that of 'Kaiser,' but there were no differences in other morphological characteristics. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used for the production of transgenic lettuce was not detected in transgenic seeds. The transgenic T(3), T(4), and T(5) generations showed higher resistance to MiLV and big-vein symptoms expression than the resistant 'Pacific' cultivar, indicating that high resistance to lettuce big-vein disease is stably inherited. PCR analysis showed that segregation of the CP gene was nearly 3:1 in the T(1) and T(2) generations, and that the transgenic T(3) generation was homozygous for the CP gene. Segregation of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was about 3:1 in the T(1) generation, but the full length npt II gene was not detected in the T(2) or T(3) generation. The segregation pattern of the CP and npt II genes in the T(1) generation showed the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio. These results suggest that the fragment including the CP gene and that including the npt II gene have been integrated into two unlinked loci, and that the T(1) plant selected in our study did not have the npt II gene. DNA sequences flanking T-DNA insertions in the T(2) generation were determined using inverse PCR, and showed that the right side of the T-DNA including the npt II gene had been truncated in the transgenic lettuce.

Kawazu Y; Fujiyama R; Noguchi Y; Kubota M; Ito H; Fukuoka H

2010-04-01

65

Detailed characterization of Mirafiori lettuce virus-resistant transgenic lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce big-vein disease is caused by Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), which is vectored by the soil-borne fungus Olpidium brassicae. A MiLV-resistant transgenic lettuce line was developed through introducing inverted repeats of the MiLV coat protein (CP) gene. Here, a detailed characterization study of this lettuce line was conducted by comparing it with the parental, non-transformed 'Kaiser' cultivar. There were no significant differences between transgenic and non-transgenic lettuce in terms of pollen fertility, pollen dispersal, seed production, seed dispersal, dormancy, germination, growth of seedlings under low or high temperature, chromatographic patterns of leaf extracts, or effects of lettuce on the growth of broccoli or soil microflora. A significant difference in pollen size was noted, but the difference was small. The length of the cotyledons of the transgenic lettuce was shorter than that of 'Kaiser,' but there were no differences in other morphological characteristics. Agrobacterium tumefaciens used for the production of transgenic lettuce was not detected in transgenic seeds. The transgenic T(3), T(4), and T(5) generations showed higher resistance to MiLV and big-vein symptoms expression than the resistant 'Pacific' cultivar, indicating that high resistance to lettuce big-vein disease is stably inherited. PCR analysis showed that segregation of the CP gene was nearly 3:1 in the T(1) and T(2) generations, and that the transgenic T(3) generation was homozygous for the CP gene. Segregation of the neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) gene was about 3:1 in the T(1) generation, but the full length npt II gene was not detected in the T(2) or T(3) generation. The segregation pattern of the CP and npt II genes in the T(1) generation showed the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio. These results suggest that the fragment including the CP gene and that including the npt II gene have been integrated into two unlinked loci, and that the T(1) plant selected in our study did not have the npt II gene. DNA sequences flanking T-DNA insertions in the T(2) generation were determined using inverse PCR, and showed that the right side of the T-DNA including the npt II gene had been truncated in the transgenic lettuce. PMID:19557540

Kawazu, Yoichi; Fujiyama, Ryoi; Noguchi, Yuji; Kubota, Masaharu; Ito, Hidekazu; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

2009-06-26

66

Relative toxicities of formulated glycol aircraft deicers and pure glycol products to duckweed (Lemna minor)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ethylene and propylene glycol deicers are commonly used at airports in the US and other countries to both remove snow and ice from aircraft, and to retard the accumulation of those materials. Snow and ice often pile up at airports during the winter and are then flushed into the storm sewer system during warmer temperatures or rainfall. Some of this water containing deicers may enter waterbodies without prior treatment, While previous studies have investigated the effects of deicers on aquatic animals and algae, data are not available on the effects on aquatic macrophytes, Glycol deicers were obtained in the formulated mixtures used on aircraft; pure ethylene and propylene glycol were obtained from Sigma{reg_sign}. Duckweed (Lemna minor) fronds were exposed to various concentrations of pure and formulated glycol mixtures. The number of fronds at test termination and chlorophyll concentration (measured using a spectrophotometer) were the measured endpoints. Based upon glycol concentration, the formulated products were more toxic than the pure material. These results are consistent with results seen in other animal and plant studies.

DuFresne, D.L.; Pillard, D.A. [ENSR Environmental Toxicology, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1995-12-31

67

Replacement of Sesame Oil Cake by Duckweed (Lemna minor) in Broiler Diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 120, seven-day old Vencobb commercial broiler chick feeding ad libitum upto 42 days of age on 4 different iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diet formulated by replacing dietary sesame oil cake (SOC) by duckweed (DW) to have its effect on performance of broilers. Live weight, feed conversion and profitability increased when sesame oil cake was partially replaced by duck weed. Complete SOC replaced diet significantly reduced live weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and profitability, as compared with partial replacement of SOC by duckweed and SOC based control diet. Partial replacement of SOC by DW did not affect survivability of broiler. So it might be concluded that replacement of costly SOC partially by cheaper unconventional DW in broiler diet resulted in increased profitability. Therefore, cheaper duckweed could be practiced in formulating economic balanced diet for broiler.

M.U. Ahammad; M.S.R. Swapon; T. Yeasmin; M.S. Rahman; M.S. Ali

2003-01-01

68

Selenium speciation using HPLC-ICP-MS in selenium-enriched duckweed (Lemna minor)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Complete text of publication follows. The HPLC-ICP-MS for speciation analysis of selenium was developed and applied to selenium enriched duckweed (Lemna minor). The duckweed in Hoagland's E-medium containing Se from sodium selenate in the concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/L was cultured. The effect of selenium supplemented concentration and cultured periods (0-8 days) were studied. The results revealed that the optimum concentration of supplemented Se and cultured period were 10 mg/L and 6 days, respectively. The Se-enriched duckweed samples (whole plant) were dried and homogenized. The 0.1 M HCl in 10% methanol extracts were analyzed. Selenium speciation was carried out by ion-pairing HPLC (2.5 mM sodium 1-butanesulfonate, 8 mM tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide and trifluoro acetic acid at pH 4.5). The organic selenium species found in the extract was selenomethylcysteine, selenomethionine and others unknown species. The percentage contributions of selenium in both species of the total selenium were 0.6 and 1.0%, respectively. It can be seen that Se-enriched duckweed can feasibility be a dietary source of Se. The authors would like to thank Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Commission on Higher Education, Ministry of Education for financial support.

2009-09-03

69

Short-duration exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation alters the chlorophyll fluorescence of duckweeds (Lemna minor).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8?GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30?min, 1?h and 24?h durations with electric field strength of 45-50?V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal.

Senavirathna MD; Takashi A; Kimura Y

2013-10-01

70

Suitability of duckweed (Lemna minor) as feed for fish in polyculture system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor) as feed on fish production in polyculture. The experiment had 2 treatments where in treatment 1 (T1) ponds were supplied with duckweed as feed and in treatment 2 (T2) ponds were kept as control (without supply of duckweed). Average survival rates in T1 and T2 were 90 and 89%, respectively. The specific growth rates (SGR) were higher in T1. Calculated net production in T1 was 6.25 tons ha.-1 yr.-1 and in T2 was 2.84 tons ha.-1 yr.-1. The ranges of physico-chemical parameters analyzed were within the productive limit and more or less similar in all the ponds under both treatments during the experimental period. There were 24 genera of phytoplankton under 5 major groups and 10 genera of zooplankton under 3 major groups found in the experimental ponds. The net production in T1 was significantly higher than that of T2 indicated the use of duckweed as feed for fishes is economically sustainable in polyculture.

M.Z.H. Talukdar

2012-01-01

71

Replacement of Sesame Oil Cake by Duckweed (Lemna minor) in Broiler Diet  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An experiment was conducted with 120, seven-day old Vencobb commercial broiler chick feeding ad libitum upto 42 days of age on 4 different iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diet formulated by replacing dietary sesame oil cake (SOC) by duckweed (DW) to have its effect on performance of broiler...

M.U. Ahammad; M.S.R. Swapon; T. Yeasmin; M.S. Rahman; M.S. Ali

72

Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1 deg. C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data.

2008-01-01

73

Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce-wash, the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Lettuce pieces were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica (5 log CFU/g) and then immersed in a treatment solution containing 5 ppm free chlorine, cinnamaldehyde, or Sporan(®) (800 and 1000 ppm) alone or in combination with 200 ppm acetic acid (20%) for 1 min. Treated leaves were spin-dried and stored at 4°C. Samples were taken to determine the surviving populations of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, total coliforms, mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, and yeasts and molds during the 14-day storage period. The effect of treatments on lettuce color and texture was also determined. Cinnamaldehyde-Tween (800 ppm, 800T) reduced E. coli O157:H7 by 2.89 log CFU/g (p<0.05) on iceberg lettuce at day 0; Sporan(®)-acetic acid (1000SV) reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce by 2.68 and 1.56 log CFU/g (p<0.05), respectively, at day 0. The effect of essential oils was comparable to that of 5 ppm free chlorine in reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on iceberg and romaine lettuce throughout the storage time. The natural microbiota on treated lettuce leaves increased during the storage time, but remained similar (p>0.05) to those treated with chlorine and control (water). The texture and the color of iceberg and romaine lettuce treated with essential oils were not different from the control lettuce after 14 days of storage. This study demonstrates the potential of Sporan(®) and cinnamaldehyde as effective lettuce washes that do not affect lettuce color and texture.

Yossa N; Patel J; Millner P; Ravishankar S; Lo YM

2013-01-01

74

Effect of water availability on physiological performance and lettuce crop yield (Lactuca sativa)/ Efecto de la disponibilidad hídrica sobre el desempeño fisiológico y productivo de un cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El agua es un elemento esencial para las plantas, afectando la mayoría de los procesos fisiológicos implicados en el crecimiento y productividad. La sequía es uno de los factores de estrés más común que puede limitar la productividad agrícola a nivel mundial. Muchos cultivos poseen altas demandas hídricas, no obstante en muchos países y producto del cambio climático global, el agua disponible para riego se torna limitante. De hecho, los actuales modelos de cambi (more) o climático global señalan a Chile como una de las zonas donde la disminución en las precipitaciones sería más evidente. En el presente trabajo, se evaluó la variación en el intercambio gaseoso y producción de biomasa fresca en cultivos de lechugas sometidos a diferentes niveles de disponibilidad hídrica. Adicionalmente, se evaluó la concentración de azúcares solubles totales y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA) como mecanismos implicados en la tolerancia al déficit hídrico. En general, aquellos individuos sometidos a menor disponibilidad hídrica presentaron menores valores de intercambio gaseoso y biomasa fresca, en comparación a sus con-específicos crecidos con el 75 y 100% de la disponibilidad hídrica. Por otro lado, aquellos individuos con la disponibilidad hídrica intermedia presentaron mayores contenidos de azúcares solubles totales y una mayor EUA. Los resultados de la presente investigación sugieren, que aquellos cultivos sometidos a eventos prolongados o intensos de sequía podrían verse afectados en su fisiología y productividad. No obstante, leves disminuciones en la disponibilidad hídrica permitirían a los cultivos de lechugas mantener una elevada EUA, manteniendo una elevada tasa fotosintética y una alta productividad. Abstract in english Water is essential for plants, affecting the majority of the physiological processes related to growth and productivity. Water shortage is one of the most common factors that limit crop productivity worldwide. Many cultivars have elevated water requirements, nevertheless in some countries due to global climate change effects, the availability of water for irrigation is becoming limited. In fact, current models of climate changes predict that central Chile will be a sensit (more) ive zone where precipitation will drastically decrease. In this study, the variation of gas exchange and production of fresh biomass in a lettuce cultivar, grown under different water availability regimes, was evaluated. Additionally, the concentration of total soluble sugar and water use efficiency (WUE) as mechanisms related to water shortage responses were also evaluated. Overall, individuals with the lowest water availability (50%) showed lower gas exchange and fresh biomass values than their conspecifics grown in optimal irrigated conditions. On the other hand, those individuals with moderate water shortage showed the highest concentration of total soluble sugars and WUE. Our results suggested that cultures exposed to extensive or intense drought events, could be negatively affected in both physiological performance and productivity. Nevertheless, slight decreases in water availability can enable lettuce plants to exhibit a high WUE, maintaining high levels of physiological performance and productivity.

Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Oses, Rómulo

2011-04-01

75

NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor) as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cr(III)). In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II), Zn(II), Cr(III)), the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

Zuzanna Witkowska; Agnieszka Saeid; Katarzyna Chojnacka; Zbigniew Dobrzanski; Henryk Gorecki; Izabela Michalak; Mariusz Korczynski; Sebastian Opalinski

2012-01-01

76

Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas/ Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água ( (more) CEa): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1) em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa), em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca), da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the content of nutrients and nitrate and perform sensory analysis of lettuce in hydroponic system under saline water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from December, 2007 to January, 2008, in Piracicaba. The experimental design was randomized blocks and factorial scheme (five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl that resulted in different electrical conductivities of the water (dS m-1): 0.42, 1.53, 3.52, 5.55, 7.43 (more) and two cultivas of lettuce (Veronica and Pira Roxa). The evaluations were: sensory analysis applying hedonic scale and through this, which sample presented the best and the least taste, the purchase intent and consumption, nitrate, absorption of nutrients by leaves and determination of nutrients in the nutrient solution. For the attribute of cultivars, Veronica received the highest marks in salt level 1.53 and 5.55 dS m-1. For cultivar Pira Roxa was awarded the best grade for lettuce grown in non-saline water. For other attributes there was no significant difference in levels of salinity. To purchase intention, it was found that cv. Verônica and Pira Roxa had good market acceptance. The lowest levels of nitrate (1960 mg kg-1 and 2620 mg kg-1 fresh weight) of Verônica and Pira Roxa, respectively, were related to the electrical conductivity of 0.42 dS m-1, increasing water salinity to 7.43 dS m-1, the leaf content of nitrate increased to 2500 mg kg-1 and 3420 mg kg-1 for the cultivars Verônica and Pira Roxa. As the time of exposure to salt in a hydroponic system was short, around 25 days, there were no symptoms of nutrient deficiency and whole lettuce was classified as suitable for human consumption.

Paulus, Dalva; Dourado Neto, Durval; Paulus, Eloi

2012-03-01

77

Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP). O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água (CEa): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1) em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa), em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca), da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano.This study aimed to evaluate the content of nutrients and nitrate and perform sensory analysis of lettuce in hydroponic system under saline water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from December, 2007 to January, 2008, in Piracicaba. The experimental design was randomized blocks and factorial scheme (five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl that resulted in different electrical conductivities of the water (dS m-1): 0.42, 1.53, 3.52, 5.55, 7.43 and two cultivas of lettuce (Veronica and Pira Roxa). The evaluations were: sensory analysis applying hedonic scale and through this, which sample presented the best and the least taste, the purchase intent and consumption, nitrate, absorption of nutrients by leaves and determination of nutrients in the nutrient solution. For the attribute of cultivars, Veronica received the highest marks in salt level 1.53 and 5.55 dS m-1. For cultivar Pira Roxa was awarded the best grade for lettuce grown in non-saline water. For other attributes there was no significant difference in levels of salinity. To purchase intention, it was found that cv. Verônica and Pira Roxa had good market acceptance. The lowest levels of nitrate (1960 mg kg-1 and 2620 mg kg-1 fresh weight) of Verônica and Pira Roxa, respectively, were related to the electrical conductivity of 0.42 dS m-1, increasing water salinity to 7.43 dS m-1, the leaf content of nitrate increased to 2500 mg kg-1 and 3420 mg kg-1 for the cultivars Verônica and Pira Roxa. As the time of exposure to salt in a hydroponic system was short, around 25 days, there were no symptoms of nutrient deficiency and whole lettuce was classified as suitable for human consumption.

Dalva Paulus; Durval Dourado Neto; Eloi Paulus

2012-01-01

78

Duckweed as a Feed Ingredient in Laying Hen Diets and its Effect on Egg Production and Composition  

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Full Text Available Duckweed, a prolific aquatic plant, can be used for products including: biofuels (ethanol) and animal feeds. Researchers at North Carolina State University have worked for a decade to develop a system to produce high-protein duckweed biomass utilizing the nutrient-rich effluent from anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater. This aspect of the project was to evaluate a feeding trial utilizing duckweed materials as a protein source in laying hen feed. The nutrient and energy composition of the Duckweed grown in these conditions was determined, then the impact of duckweed in a commercial layer diet on egg production and feed conversion was evaluated. The duckweed samples analyzed contained 29.05% CP, 25.08% C Fiber and 695 kcal/kg AMEn based on a feeding trial with marker. The analysis was used to formulate a layer diet containing 12.6% duckweed. Both the Control (C) and Duckweed (D) diets were formulated to be Iso-nitrogenous (18.1% Crude Protein) and Iso-caloric (2930 kcal/kg). Sixty Hy-Line, w-36 hens were randomly divided into 4 replicates each containing 15 hens from 76-88 wks of age, 2 replicates were placed on the C Diet and the remaining 2 were fed the D diet. Feed consumption and egg production monitored daily and each wk one days collection was analyzed for USDA Grades, haugh unit, shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and yolk color. On wks 3, 7 and 11 whole 6 egg pooled samples were collected and sent in for nutrient composition laboratory analysis. The D diet had no impact on the hen performance over that of the C diet group, 71.1 and 69.5% hen-day production, respectively. There was a significant increase in the percent Grade B eggs in the hens fed the D by 2% over the C hens. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the nutrient composition of the eggs except for Omega 3 levels which were 0.06 % higher (P<0.0001) than in the C hens. The results indicate that duckweed can be fed at a 12.6% inclusion rate and not impact the performance of laying hens and may be a means of enhancing Omega 3 levels in eggs.

K.E. Anderson; Z. Lowman; Anne-Marie Stomp; Jay Chang

2011-01-01

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The toxic effects of diethyl phthalate on the activity of glutamine synthetase in greater duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The toxic effects of diethyl phthalate (DEP), a potent allelochemical, on the enzyme activity and polypeptide accumulation of glutamine synthetase (GS) in greater duckweed were investigated. In our previous studies, DEP induced oxidative responses at concentrations from 0.5 to 2 mM in greater duckweed and the antioxidant enzymes played important roles in the defense strategy against DEP stress. In this study, DAB-H(2)O(2) and NBT stain for superoxide radicals (O(2)(·-)), lipid peroxidation, HSP70, and ammonia accumulation in DEP-treated duckweed tissues revealed adverse effect of DEP in plant growth. Biochemical analysis and physiological methods were combined to investigate GS activity and polypeptide accumulation under DEP-induced stress. The results showed that GS activity was reduced with the increasing concentration of DEP, indicative of enhanced toxic effect. Immunoblot analysis with chloroplast soluble fractions indicated that the chloroplastic GS (GS2) polypeptide from greater duckweed was degraded under DEP stress conditions. The response of GS2 to the DEP stress may be modulated by means of redox change in plant tissues, chloroplasts, and chloroplast lysates. The results suggest that DEP is toxic to the greater duckweed by inhibition of the GS isoenzymes in nitrogen assimilation and the GS2 plays important roles in the adaptation strategy against DEP toxicity.

Cheng TS

2012-11-01

80

Efeito de pontas de pulverização e de arranjos populacionais de plantas de Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata na deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de Pistia stratiotes Effect of spray tips and water hyacinth and water lettuce plant population arrangements of watermoss plant spray mix deposition  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o depósito de calda pulverizada por dois tipos de pontas de pulverização sob plantas de alface-d'água (Pistia stratiotes) dispostas em diferentes arranjos populacionais com plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes) e salvínia (Salvinia auriculata). Para isso, foi conduzido um experimento em condições de caixas-d'água em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos estiveram dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, sendo dois tipos de pontas de pulverização (ConeJet TXVK-8 e TeeJet DG 11002 VS) e oito proporções entre as plantas aquáticas, a saber: dominância total da área correspondente a 100% de cobertura da caixa-d'água pelas plantas de alface-d'água; e as proporções entre plantas de alface-d'água e plantas de aguapé ou salvínia a 75%:25%, 50%:50% e 25%:75%. Também foi utilizada uma densidade tripla, na qual as três espécies estiveram igualmente dispostas na proporção de 33,33%. Soluções dos corantes Amarelo Tartrasina FDC-5 a 3.500 ppm e Azul Brilhante FDC-1 a 1.000 ppm foram utilizadas como traçadores para as pontas TXVK-8 e DG 11002VS, respectivamente. A pulverização de ambas as soluções foi efetuada na mesma unidade experimental, com um intervalo de 30 minutos entre si, utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, calibrado de modo a proporcionar um volume de aplicação aproximado de 200 L ha. Após a pulverização, as plantas presentes nos reservatórios foram lavadas com água destilada, até remoção total dos corantes. Os depósitos totais de calda foram estimados em ?L por planta, e os depósitos unitários, em ?L cm-2 de superfície foliar. O aumento na proporção de plantas de aguapé na associação proporcionou menores depósitos de calda de pulverização sobre as plantas de alface-d'água. Em contrapartida, o aumento na proporção de salvínia na associação propiciou maiores depósitos de calda de pulverização, independentemente do tipo de ponta de pulverização. A ponta TXVK-8 proporcionou depósitos unitários e totais de calda de pulverização superiores aos da ponta DG 11002VS.This study aimed to evaluate two types of nozzles (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS) and the amount of spray mix deposited on water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) plants organized under different population arrangements with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and eared watermoss (Salvinia auriculata) plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared watermoss plants, arrangements were used with either water hyacinth or water lettuce at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. Triple density was also used, with the three species being equally displayed at a 33.33% proportion. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no. 1 at 1,000 ppm were used as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within 30 minute interval each through a CO2 pressured backpack knapsack calibrated to deliver a spray volume around 200 L ha-1 . Plants at reservoirs were flushed with distilled water until total removal of the dyes deposited on them. The total spray deposits were estimated in ?L per plant and the unitary deposits where estimated in ?L cm-2 of foliar surface. Increase in water hyacinth plant proportion in the arrangement resulted in lower spray deposition over water lettuce. Increase in water moss plant proportion in the arrangement provided higher spray depositions over water lettuce, independently of the nozzle type used. The TXVK-8 nozzles provided higher unitary and total spray depositions compared to the DG 11002 VS nozzle.

S.R. Marchi; D. Martins; N.V. Costa; V.D. Domingos; L.A. Cardoso

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required lower crop densities and restricted other routine farm activities. Watering cans were the most popular method. Using watering cans with caps on outlets from a height <0.5 m reduced thermotolerant coliforms by 2.5 log units and helminthes by 2.3 eggs per 100 g of lettuce compared with using watering cans without caps from a height >1 m. CONCLUSION: Simple, cheap and easily adoptable irrigation methods have great potential to reduce crop contamination in low-income areas. When used in combination with other on-farm and post-harvest risk reduction measures, these will help to comprehensively reduce public health risks from using polluted water in vegetable farming.

Keraita B; Konradsen F; Drechsel P; Abaidoo RC

2007-12-01

82

IMPROVEMENT METHOD FOR HEAD LETTUCE FRESHNESS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method for improving the freshness of lettuce is provided to enable to keep lettuce fresh for a long period through cut root coating treatment, heat treatment, sealing process and packaging process. A method for improving the freshness of lettuce comprises the following steps of: coating the cut off portion of lettuce with a coating agent thermally treating the lettuce at 35~55 DEG C for 1~4 minutes and packaging the thermally treated lettuce with a moisture absorbing sheet. The coating agent selected among polysaccharide coating agent and lipid-based coating agent is coated on the cut off portion of lettuce. The moisture absorbing sheet is selected among papers and non-woven fabrics. The polysaccharide coating agent is selected among cellulose, dextrin, agar, alginic acid, sodium alginate, carrageenan, pectin, gelatin, dextran, chitin, chitosan, cyclodextrin, processed starch, starch phosphoric ester sodium and gums. The gums are selected among guar gum, tamarind gum, locust bean gum, arabic gum, xanthan gum, pullulan gum, gellan gum, welan gum, diutan gum, rhamsan gum, curdlan gum, furcellaran gum, taragum and Plantaginis semen. The lipid-based coating agent is selected among wax, mineral oil, resin, rosin, emulsifier and Glycolipid. The paper represents Korean paper.

JEONG MOON CHEOL; KIM BYEONG SAM; CHA HWAN SOO; CHOI JEONG HEE; JUNG JOO YEOUN

83

MIRAFIORI LETTUCE VIRUS (MILV) AND LETTUCE BIG VEIN VIRUS (LBVV) SEQUENCE DIVERSITY AND FREQUENCY IN CALIFORNIA AND ARIZONA LETTUCE, AND ANALYSIS OF BIG VEIN RESISTANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce plants with varying severity of lettuce big vein disease symptoms were collected from fields throughout the Salinas Valley (CA), Yuma Valley (AZ), and adjacent lettuce producing areas. Symptom severity was determined based on a disease scale, and total nucleic acids were extracted from leaf ...

84

Characterization of photosynthetically active duckweed (Wolffia australiana) in vitro culture by Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS).  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of oxygen transfer rate (OTR) measurement to non-destructively monitor plant propagation and vitality of photosynthetically active plant in vitro culture of duckweed (Wolffia australiana, Lemnaceae) was tested using Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS). As a result, OTR proofed to be a sensitive indicator for plant vitality. The culture characterization under day/night light conditions, however, revealed a complex interaction between oxygen production and consumption, rendering OTR measurement an unsuitable tool to track plant propagation. However, RAMOS was found to be a useful tool in preliminary studies for process development of photosynthetically active plant in vitro cultures. PMID:17450327

Rechmann, Henrik; Friedrich, Andrea; Forouzan, Dara; Barth, Stefan; Schnabl, Heide; Biselli, Manfred; Boehm, Robert

2007-02-16

85

Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant extracts have been found to be effective in reducing microorganisms. This study evaluated antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes by using a disk diffusion assay, and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) showed the highest inhibitory effect. To investigate the efficacy of clove extract that inactivates pathogens on lettuce, inoculated lettuce with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes was treated with diluted clove extracts or distilled water for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 min. Clove extract treatment significantly reduced populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surface of lettuce. Practical Application: This result indicated that clove extract is a useful antimicrobial agent to reduce the microbial level of foodborne pathogens on fresh lettuce. It also might be a natural antimicrobial for reducing or replacing chemical sanitizers in food preservation.

Kim SY; Kang DH; Kim JK; Ha YG; Hwang JY; Kim T; Lee SH

2011-01-01

86

Rhizonin A from Burkholderia sp. KCTC11096 and its growth promoting role in lettuce seed germination.  

Science.gov (United States)

We isolated and identified a gibberellin-producing Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096 from agricultural field soils. The culture filtrate of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) significantly increased the germination and growth of lettuce and Chinese cabbage seeds. The ethyl acetate extract of the PGPR culture showed significantly higher rate of lettuce seed germination and growth as compared to the distilled water treated control. The ethyl acetate fraction of the Burkholderia sp. was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation and we obtained for the first time from a Burkholderia sp. the plant growth promoting compound rhizonin A (1), which was characterized through NMR and MS techniques. Application of various concentrations of 1 significantly promoted the lettuce seed germination as compared to control. PMID:22759911

Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Ali, Liaqat; Kamran, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

2012-07-03

87

BIOSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER USING DUCKWEED  

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Water pollution has been recognized as a problem for decades. The use of heavy metals in industries and their regular mining increases their concentration in water bodies. Unlike organic compounds, metals cannot degrade, and therefore effective cleanup requires their immobilization to reduce or remo...

Ankita Suhag; Richa Gupta; Archana Tiwari

88

Resource recovery from septic tank effluent using duckweed-based tilapia aquaculture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two parallel duckweed ponds were deployed to utilize nutrients from the effluent of a septic tank treating domestic wastewater. The effluent and fresh biomass of duckweed pond were fed to two subsequent fish ponds stocked with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fish ponds receiving freshwater and commercial feed were used as control. The results of specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio showed no significant difference between the control ponds and treatment ponds. On the other hand, the total and net fish yields were significantly higher in the control. Microbial analysis revealed contamination of gills, intestine and liver of fish in the treatment ponds. The activity of the immune response genes was up-regulated in the brain and liver of the treatment samples. A micronucleus assay revealed a similar percentage of micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of blood in the control and treatment samples, while the treatment samples a had higher incidence of micronuclei in the polychromatic erythrocytes of gills, compared with the control.

El-Shafai SA; Abdel-Gawad FKh; Samhan F; Nasr FA

2013-01-01

89

Effect of electromagnetic fields on duckweed (lemna minor) and alga (chlorella kessleri)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electricity produces extremely low frequency fields (50-60 Hz) while various kinds of radiofrequency fields (10 MHz-300 GHz) are used to transmit information (TV, radio, mobile phones and satellite communications). Duckweed (Lemna minor) and green algae (Chlorella kessleri) were exposed to the magnetic field of 50 Hz in a Helmholtz coil, to an electric field of 50 Hz between two parallel circle electrodes, and to electromagnetic fields of 400 and 900 MHz in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell. The relative growth of Lemna minor exposed to extremely low frequency alternating magnetic field of 50 Hz (1 mT) for 24 hours was slightly reduced at the beginning of the experiment while a 50 Hz electric field (25 kV/m) slightly reduced its growth during the second week of the experiment. Radio frequencies of 400 and 900 MHz (23 V/m) applied for two hours decreased the duckweed growth after the third day, but only 900 MHz affected it significantly. The rate of photosynthesis in green algae increased after exposure to the magnetic field of 50 Hz, but decreased after exposure to the electric field of 50 Hz. Radio frequencies of 400 and 900 MHz generally increased its rate of photosynthesis.(author).

2005-01-01

90

Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application. PMID:22445768

Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

2012-03-13

91

Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application.

Hubenova Y; Mitov M

2012-10-01

92

Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT) tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE) indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT) do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em consórcio. Quanto mais atrasado o transplante da alface menor foi a sua produtividade. Houve efeito de época de cultivo sobre a dimensão da vantagem agronômica do consórcio sobre a monocultura. Na primeira época de cultivo, os consórcios estabelecidos com o transplante da alface de 30 dias antes e até 20 dias após o transplante do tomate proporcionaram índices de eficiência do uso da área (EUA) de 1,63 a 2,22. Na segunda época, os consórcios estabelecidos com o transplante da alface antes do tomate, em até 30 dias, proporcionaram índices EUA de 1,57 a 2,05.

Arthur B. Cecílio Filho; Bráulio L.A. Rezende; José C. Barbosa; Leilson C. Grangeiro

2011-01-01

93

Phytotoxicity testing of lysimeter leachates from aided phytostabilized Cu-contaminated soils using duckweed (Lemna minor L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aided phytostabilization of a Cu-contaminated soil was conducted at a wood preservation site located in southwest France using outdoor lysimeters to study leaching from the root zone and leachate ecotoxicity. The effects of Cu-tolerant plants (Agrostis gigantea L. and Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. Beaupré) and four amendments were investigated with seven treatments: untreated soil without plants (UNT) and with plants (PHYTO), and planted soils amended with compost (OM, 5% per air-dried soil weight), dolomitic limestone (DL, 0.2%), Linz-Donawitz slag (LDS, 1%), OM with DL (OMDL), and OM with 2% of zerovalent iron grit (OMZ). Total Cu concentrations (mgkg(-1)) in lysimeter topsoil and subsoil were 1110 and 111-153, respectively. Lysimeter leachates collected in year 3 were characterized for Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K and Zn concentrations, free Cu ions, and pH. Total Cu concentration in leachates (mgL(-1)) ranged from 0.15±0.08 (LDS) to 1.95±0.47 (PHYTO). Plants grown without soil amendment did not reduce total Cu and free Cu ions in leachates. Lemna minor L. was used to assess the leachate phytotoxicity, and based on its growth, the DL, LDS, OM and OMDL leachates were less phytotoxic than the OMZ, PHYTO and UNT ones. The LDS leachates had the lowest Cu, Cu(2+), Fe, and Zn concentrations, but L. minor developed less in these leachates than in a mineral water and a river freshwater. Leachate Mg concentrations were in decreasing order OMDL>DL>PHYTO=OM=LDS>UNT=OMZ and influenced the duckweed growth.

Marchand L; Mench M; Marchand C; Le Coustumer P; Kolbas A; Maalouf JP

2011-12-01

94

Phytotoxicity testing of lysimeter leachates from aided phytostabilized Cu-contaminated soils using duckweed (Lemna minor L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Aided phytostabilization of a Cu-contaminated soil was conducted at a wood preservation site located in southwest France using outdoor lysimeters to study leaching from the root zone and leachate ecotoxicity. The effects of Cu-tolerant plants (Agrostis gigantea L. and Populus trichocarpa x deltoides cv. Beaupré) and four amendments were investigated with seven treatments: untreated soil without plants (UNT) and with plants (PHYTO), and planted soils amended with compost (OM, 5% per air-dried soil weight), dolomitic limestone (DL, 0.2%), Linz-Donawitz slag (LDS, 1%), OM with DL (OMDL), and OM with 2% of zerovalent iron grit (OMZ). Total Cu concentrations (mgkg(-1)) in lysimeter topsoil and subsoil were 1110 and 111-153, respectively. Lysimeter leachates collected in year 3 were characterized for Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, K and Zn concentrations, free Cu ions, and pH. Total Cu concentration in leachates (mgL(-1)) ranged from 0.15±0.08 (LDS) to 1.95±0.47 (PHYTO). Plants grown without soil amendment did not reduce total Cu and free Cu ions in leachates. Lemna minor L. was used to assess the leachate phytotoxicity, and based on its growth, the DL, LDS, OM and OMDL leachates were less phytotoxic than the OMZ, PHYTO and UNT ones. The LDS leachates had the lowest Cu, Cu(2+), Fe, and Zn concentrations, but L. minor developed less in these leachates than in a mineral water and a river freshwater. Leachate Mg concentrations were in decreasing order OMDL>DL>PHYTO=OM=LDS>UNT=OMZ and influenced the duckweed growth. PMID:22000292

Marchand, Lilian; Mench, Michel; Marchand, Charlotte; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Kolbas, Aliaksandr; Maalouf, Jean-Paul

2011-10-13

95

Analysing spatial patterns of spread of Lettuce necrotic yellows virus and lettuce big-vein disease in lettuce field plantings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spatial patterns of spread of lettuce big-vein disease (LBVD) and Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) were examined in two plantings each consisting of two blocks of lettuce. LBVD came from planting land infested with viruliferous Olpidium brassicae resting spores, while LNYV was introduced by aphid vectors from external sources consisting of LNYV-infected sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus) weeds. Clustering of LBVD was obvious in an area where the soil was heavily infested with only sporadic occurrence elsewhere. There was a steep decline in LNYV incidence over distance from a concentrated external weed source, with clustering of LNYV-infected plants at the crop edge closest to it. There was no evidence of secondary spread with LBVD or LNYV.

Coutts BA; Thomas-Carroll ML; Jones RAC

2004-01-01

96

Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

A process to obtain enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from lettuce (baby, romaine, and iceberg cultivars) and chichory byproducts as a way to valorize these byproducts was developed. Two extraction protocols using water and methanol as solvent were used. Amberlite XAD-2 nonionic polymeric resin was used to purify the extracts. The extraction yield, phenolic content, and phenolic yield were evaluated as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). Baby and romaine lettuce byproducts showed the highest water extract yields [27 and 26 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fresh weight (fw), respectively], whereas baby and iceberg lettuce showed highest methanol extract yields (31 and 23 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fw, respectively). Methanol extraction yielded a raw extract with a high phenolic content, the baby and chicory extracts being the richest with approximately 50 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract. Regarding the purified extracts, water extraction yielded a higher phenolic content, baby and chicory being also the highest with mean values of approximately 190 and 300 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract, respectively. Both raw and purified extracts from baby and chicory showed the higher antioxidant contents (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). The antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated with the phenolic content. The results obtained indicate that lettuce byproducts could be, from the industrial point of view, an interesting and cheap source of antioxidant phenolic extracts to funcionalize foodstuffs. PMID:15291483

Llorach, Rafael; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

2004-08-11

97

Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process to obtain enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from lettuce (baby, romaine, and iceberg cultivars) and chichory byproducts as a way to valorize these byproducts was developed. Two extraction protocols using water and methanol as solvent were used. Amberlite XAD-2 nonionic polymeric resin was used to purify the extracts. The extraction yield, phenolic content, and phenolic yield were evaluated as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). Baby and romaine lettuce byproducts showed the highest water extract yields [27 and 26 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fresh weight (fw), respectively], whereas baby and iceberg lettuce showed highest methanol extract yields (31 and 23 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fw, respectively). Methanol extraction yielded a raw extract with a high phenolic content, the baby and chicory extracts being the richest with approximately 50 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract. Regarding the purified extracts, water extraction yielded a higher phenolic content, baby and chicory being also the highest with mean values of approximately 190 and 300 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract, respectively. Both raw and purified extracts from baby and chicory showed the higher antioxidant contents (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). The antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated with the phenolic content. The results obtained indicate that lettuce byproducts could be, from the industrial point of view, an interesting and cheap source of antioxidant phenolic extracts to funcionalize foodstuffs.

Llorach R; Tomás-Barberán FA; Ferreres F

2004-08-01

98

Transmission by Olpidium brassicae of Mirafiori lettuce virus and Lettuce big-vein virus, and their roles in lettuce big-vein etiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Big-vein disease occurs on lettuce worldwide in temperate conditions; the causal agent has been presumed to be Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV), genus Varicosavirus, vectored by the soilborne fungus Olpidium brassicae. Recently, the role of LBVV in the etiology of big-vein disease has been questioned because a second soilborne virus, Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), genus Ophiovirus, has been found frequently in big-vein-affected lettuce. LBVV and MiLV, detectable and distinguishable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific antisera, were tested for their ability to be transmitted from lettuce to lettuce by mechanical inoculation of sap extracts, or by zoospores of O. brassicae, and to cause big-vein disease. Both viruses were mechanically transmissible from lettuce to herbaceous hosts and to lettuce, but very erratically. LBVV was transmitted by O. brassicae but lettuce infected with only this virus never showed symptoms. MiLV was transmitted in the same manner, and lettuce infected with this virus alone consistently developed big-vein symptoms regardless of the presence or absence of LBVV. With repeated mechanical transmission, isolates of both viruses appeared to lose the ability to be vectored, and MiLV appeared to lose the ability to cause big-vein symptoms. The recovery of MiLV (Mendocino isolate, from California) from stored O. brassicae resting spores puts the earliest directly demonstrable existence of MiLV at 1990.

Lot H; Campbell RN; Souche S; Milne RG; Roggero P

2002-03-01

99

Transmission by Olpidium brassicae of Mirafiori lettuce virus and Lettuce big-vein virus, and Their Roles in Lettuce Big-Vein Etiology.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Big-vein disease occurs on lettuce worldwide in temperate conditions; the causal agent has been presumed to be Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV), genus Varicosavirus, vectored by the soilborne fungus Olpidium brassicae. Recently, the role of LBVV in the etiology of big-vein disease has been questioned because a second soilborne virus, Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), genus Ophiovirus, has been found frequently in big-vein-affected lettuce. LBVV and MiLV, detectable and distinguishable by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using specific antisera, were tested for their ability to be transmitted from lettuce to lettuce by mechanical inoculation of sap extracts, or by zoospores of O. brassicae, and to cause big-vein disease. Both viruses were mechanically transmissible from lettuce to herbaceous hosts and to lettuce, but very erratically. LBVV was transmitted by O. brassicae but lettuce infected with only this virus never showed symptoms. MiLV was transmitted in the same manner, and lettuce infected with this virus alone consistently developed big-vein symptoms regardless of the presence or absence of LBVV. With repeated mechanical transmission, isolates of both viruses appeared to lose the ability to be vectored, and MiLV appeared to lose the ability to cause big-vein symptoms. The recovery of MiLV (Mendocino isolate, from Cali-fornia) from stored O. brassicae resting spores puts the earliest directly demonstrable existence of MiLV at 1990. PMID:18944001

Lot, Hervé; Campbell, Robert N; Souche, Sylvie; Milne, Robert G; Roggero, Piero

2002-03-01

100

Comparison of lettuce diseases and yield under subsurface drip and furrow irrigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were compared on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cvs. Salinas and Misty Day for yield and incidence and severity of three important diseases of lettuce in the Salinas Valley, CA. Experiments were conducted between 1993 and 1995 during the spring and fall seasons. The diseases examined included lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor), downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), and corky root (Rhizomonas suberifaciens). Replicated plots of subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were arranged in a randomized complete-block design. All plants were inoculated with S. minor at the initiation of the experiment during the 1993 spring season. Plots were not inoculated for downy mildew and corky root during any season nor were the plots reinoculated with S. minor. During each season, all plots were sprinkler irrigated until thinning, and subsequently, the irrigation treatments were begun. The furrow plots were irrigated once per week, and the drip plots received water twice per week. The distribution of soil moisture at two soil depths (0 to 5 and 6 to 15 cm) at 5, 10, and 15 cm distance on either side of the bed center in two diagonal directions was significantly lower in drip-irrigated compared with furrow-irrigated plots. Plots were evaluated for lettuce drop incidence and downy mildew incidence and severity at weekly intervals until harvest. Corky root severity and yield components were determined at maturity. Lettuce drop incidence and corky root severity were significantly lower and yields were higher in plots under subsurface drip irrigation compared with furrow irrigation, regardless of the cultivar, except during the 1994 fall season. Incidence and severity of downy mildew were not significantly different between the two irrigation methods throughout the study. The differential microclimates created by the two irrigation treatments did not affect downy mildew infection, presumably because the mesoclimate is usually favorable in the Salinas Valley. Subsurface drip irrigation is a viable, long-term strategy for soilborne disease management in lettuce in the Salinas Valley.

Subbarao KV; Hubbard JC; Schulbach KF

1997-08-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparison of lettuce diseases and yield under subsurface drip and furrow irrigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were compared on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cvs. Salinas and Misty Day for yield and incidence and severity of three important diseases of lettuce in the Salinas Valley, CA. Experiments were conducted between 1993 and 1995 during the spring and fall seasons. The diseases examined included lettuce drop (Sclerotinia minor), downy mildew (Bremia lactucae), and corky root (Rhizomonas suberifaciens). Replicated plots of subsurface drip and furrow irrigation were arranged in a randomized complete-block design. All plants were inoculated with S. minor at the initiation of the experiment during the 1993 spring season. Plots were not inoculated for downy mildew and corky root during any season nor were the plots reinoculated with S. minor. During each season, all plots were sprinkler irrigated until thinning, and subsequently, the irrigation treatments were begun. The furrow plots were irrigated once per week, and the drip plots received water twice per week. The distribution of soil moisture at two soil depths (0 to 5 and 6 to 15 cm) at 5, 10, and 15 cm distance on either side of the bed center in two diagonal directions was significantly lower in drip-irrigated compared with furrow-irrigated plots. Plots were evaluated for lettuce drop incidence and downy mildew incidence and severity at weekly intervals until harvest. Corky root severity and yield components were determined at maturity. Lettuce drop incidence and corky root severity were significantly lower and yields were higher in plots under subsurface drip irrigation compared with furrow irrigation, regardless of the cultivar, except during the 1994 fall season. Incidence and severity of downy mildew were not significantly different between the two irrigation methods throughout the study. The differential microclimates created by the two irrigation treatments did not affect downy mildew infection, presumably because the mesoclimate is usually favorable in the Salinas Valley. Subsurface drip irrigation is a viable, long-term strategy for soilborne disease management in lettuce in the Salinas Valley.

Subbarao KV; Hubbard JC; Schulbach KF

1997-08-01

102

Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods. PMID:19021875

Park, Sunghun; Elless, Mark P; Park, Jungeun; Jenkins, Alicia; Lim, Wansang; Chambers, Edgar; Hirschi, Kendal D

2008-10-13

103

Sensory analysis of calcium-biofortified lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetables represent an attractive means of providing increased calcium nutrition to the public. In this study, it was demonstrated that lettuce expressing the deregulated Arabidopsis H(+)/Ca(2+) transporter sCAX1 (cation exchanger 1) contained 25%-32% more calcium than controls. These biofortified lettuce lines were fertile and demonstrated robust growth in glasshouse growth conditions. Using a panel of highly trained descriptive panellists, biofortified lettuce plants were evaluated and no significant differences were detected in flavour, bitterness or crispness when compared with controls. Sensory analysis studies are critical if claims are to be made regarding the efficacy of biofortified foods, and may be an important component in the public acceptance of genetically modified foods.

Park S; Elless MP; Park J; Jenkins A; Lim W; Chambers E 4th; Hirschi KD

2009-01-01

104

Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Since 1995, lettuce in coastal California, where more than half of the crop in North America is grown, has consistently suffered from severe outbreaks of Verticillium wilt. The disease is confined to this region, although the pathogen (Verticillium dahliae) and the host are present in other crop production regions in California. Migration of the pathogen with infested spinach seed was previously documented, but the geographic sources of the pathogen, as well as the impact of lettuce seed sparsely infested with V. dahliae produced outside coastal California on the pathogen population in coastal California remain unclear. Population analyses of V. dahliae were completed using 16 microsatellite markers on isolates from lettuce plants in coastal California, infested lettuce seed produced in the neighboring Santa Clara Valley of California, and spinach seed produced in four major spinach seed production regions: Chile, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States (Washington State). California produces 80% of spinach in the United States and all seed planted with the majority infested by V. dahliae comes from the above four sources. Three globally distributed genetic populations were identified, indicating sustained migration among these distinct geographic regions with multiple spinach crops produced each year and repeated every year in coastal California. The population structure of V. dahliae from coastal California lettuce plants was heavily influenced by migration from spinach seed imported from Denmark and Washington. Conversely, the sparsely infested lettuce seed had limited or no contribution to the Verticillium wilt epidemic in coastal California. The global trade in plant and seed material is likely contributing to sustained shifts in the population structure of V. dahliae, affecting the equilibrium of native populations, and likely affecting disease epidemiology. PMID:22857515

Atallah, Zahi K; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Subbarao, Krishna V

2012-11-01

105

Sources of Verticillium dahliae affecting lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Since 1995, lettuce in coastal California, where more than half of the crop in North America is grown, has consistently suffered from severe outbreaks of Verticillium wilt. The disease is confined to this region, although the pathogen (Verticillium dahliae) and the host are present in other crop production regions in California. Migration of the pathogen with infested spinach seed was previously documented, but the geographic sources of the pathogen, as well as the impact of lettuce seed sparsely infested with V. dahliae produced outside coastal California on the pathogen population in coastal California remain unclear. Population analyses of V. dahliae were completed using 16 microsatellite markers on isolates from lettuce plants in coastal California, infested lettuce seed produced in the neighboring Santa Clara Valley of California, and spinach seed produced in four major spinach seed production regions: Chile, Denmark, the Netherlands, and the United States (Washington State). California produces 80% of spinach in the United States and all seed planted with the majority infested by V. dahliae comes from the above four sources. Three globally distributed genetic populations were identified, indicating sustained migration among these distinct geographic regions with multiple spinach crops produced each year and repeated every year in coastal California. The population structure of V. dahliae from coastal California lettuce plants was heavily influenced by migration from spinach seed imported from Denmark and Washington. Conversely, the sparsely infested lettuce seed had limited or no contribution to the Verticillium wilt epidemic in coastal California. The global trade in plant and seed material is likely contributing to sustained shifts in the population structure of V. dahliae, affecting the equilibrium of native populations, and likely affecting disease epidemiology.

Atallah ZK; Maruthachalam K; Subbarao KV

2012-11-01

106

Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant Lemna minor after exposure to radiofrequency EMFs, and in particular, to clarify the possible role of oxidative stress in the observed effects. Duckweed was exposed for 2 h to EMFs of 400 and 900 MHz at field strengths of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m-1. The effect of a longer exposure time (4 h) and modulation was also investigated. After exposure, parameters of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, activities and isoenzyme pattern of antioxidative enzymes as well as HSP70 expression were evaluated. At 400 MHz, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content were significantly enhanced in duckweed exposed to EMFs of 23 and 120 V m-1 while other exposure treatments did not have an effect. Compared to the controls, the activities of antioxidative enzymes showed different behaviour: catalase (CAT) activity increased after most exposure treatments while pyrogallol (PPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were not changed. Exceptions were reduced PPX and APX activity after longer exposure at 23 V m-1 and increased PPX activity after exposures at 10 and 120 V m-1. By contrast, at 900 MHz almost all exposure treatments significantly increased level of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content but mostly decreased PPX activity and did not affect CAT activity. Exceptions were exposures to a modulated field and to the field of 120 V m-1 which increased PPX and CAT activity. At this frequency APX activity was significantly decreased after exposure at 10 V m-1 and longer exposure at 23 V m-1 but it increased after a shorter exposure at 23 V m-1. At both frequencies no differences in isoenzyme patterns of antioxidative enzymes or HSP70 level were found between control and exposed plants. Our results showed that non-thermal exposure to investigated radiofrequency fields induced oxidative stress in duckweed as well as unspecific stress responses, especially of antioxidative enzymes. However, the observed effects markedly depended on the field frequencies applied as well as on other exposure parameters (strength, modulation and exposure time). Enhanced lipid peroxidation and H2O2 content accompanied by diminished antioxidative enzymes activity caused by exposure to investigated EMFs, especially at 900 MHz, indicate that oxidative stress could partly be due to changed activities of antioxidative enzymes

2007-12-15

107

Internalisation potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce seedlings and mature plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The internalisation potential of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium in lettuce was evaluated using seedlings grown in vermiculite in seedling trays as well as hydroponically grown lettuce. Sterile distilled water was spiked with one of the four human pathogenic bacteria (10(5) CFU/mL) and used to irrigate the plants. The potential for pathogen internalisation was investigated over time using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and viable plate counts. Additionally, the identities of the pathogens isolated from internal lettuce plant tissues were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with pathogen-specific oligonucleotides. Internalisation of each of the human pathogens was evident in both lettuce seedlings and hydroponically grown mature lettuce plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. aureus internalisation in lettuce plants. In addition, the levels of background microflora in the lettuce plants were determined by plate counting and the isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Background microflora assessments confirmed the absence of the four pathogens evaluated in this study. A low titre of previously described endophytes and soil inhabitants, i.e., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis were identified.

Standing TA; du Plessis E; Duvenage S; Korsten L

2013-06-01

108

Mechanism of seed priming in circumventing thermodormancy in lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Minetto) seeds were primed in aerated solutions of 1% K(3)PO(4) or water at 15 degrees C in the dark for various periods of time to determine the manner by which seed priming bypasses thermodormancy. Seeds which were not primed did not germinate at 35 degrees C, whereas those which were primed for 20 h in 1% K(3)PO(4) or distilled H(2)O had up to 86% germination. The rate of water uptake and respiration during priming were similar regardless of soak solution. Cell elongation occurred in both water and 1% K(3)PO(4), 4 to 6 h prior to cell division. Both processes commenced sooner in water than K(3)PO(4). Radicle protrusion (germination) occurred in the priming solution at 21 h in water and 27 h in 1% K(3)PO(4).Respiration, radicle protrusion and cell division consistently occurred sooner in primed (redried) seeds compared to nonprimed seeds when they were imbibed at 25 degrees C. Cell division and elongation commenced after 10 h imbibition in primed (redried) seeds imbibed at 35 degrees C. Neither process occurred in nonprimed seeds. Respiratory rates were higher in both primed and nonprimed seeds imbibed at 35 degrees C compared to those imbibed at 25 degrees C, although radicle protrusion did not occur in nonprimed seeds which were imbibed at 35 degrees C. It is apparent that cell elongation and division are inhibited during high temperature imbibition in nonprimed lettuce seeds. Seed priming appears to lead to the irreversible initiation of cell elongation, thus overcoming thermodormancy. PMID:16663613

Cantliffe, D J; Fischer, J M; Nell, T A

1984-06-01

109

Mechanism of seed priming in circumventing thermodormancy in lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Minetto) seeds were primed in aerated solutions of 1% K(3)PO(4) or water at 15 degrees C in the dark for various periods of time to determine the manner by which seed priming bypasses thermodormancy. Seeds which were not primed did not germinate at 35 degrees C, whereas those which were primed for 20 h in 1% K(3)PO(4) or distilled H(2)O had up to 86% germination. The rate of water uptake and respiration during priming were similar regardless of soak solution. Cell elongation occurred in both water and 1% K(3)PO(4), 4 to 6 h prior to cell division. Both processes commenced sooner in water than K(3)PO(4). Radicle protrusion (germination) occurred in the priming solution at 21 h in water and 27 h in 1% K(3)PO(4).Respiration, radicle protrusion and cell division consistently occurred sooner in primed (redried) seeds compared to nonprimed seeds when they were imbibed at 25 degrees C. Cell division and elongation commenced after 10 h imbibition in primed (redried) seeds imbibed at 35 degrees C. Neither process occurred in nonprimed seeds. Respiratory rates were higher in both primed and nonprimed seeds imbibed at 35 degrees C compared to those imbibed at 25 degrees C, although radicle protrusion did not occur in nonprimed seeds which were imbibed at 35 degrees C. It is apparent that cell elongation and division are inhibited during high temperature imbibition in nonprimed lettuce seeds. Seed priming appears to lead to the irreversible initiation of cell elongation, thus overcoming thermodormancy.

Cantliffe DJ; Fischer JM; Nell TA

1984-06-01

110

Mechanism of Seed Priming in Circumventing Thermodormancy in Lettuce 1  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv Minetto) seeds were primed in aerated solutions of 1% K3PO4 or water at 15°C in the dark for various periods of time to determine the manner by which seed priming bypasses thermodormancy. Seeds which were not primed did not germinate at 35°C, whereas those which were primed for 20 h in 1% K3PO4 or distilled H2O had up to 86% germination. The rate of water uptake and respiration during priming were similar regardless of soak solution. Cell elongation occurred in both water and 1% K3PO4, 4 to 6 h prior to cell division. Both processes commenced sooner in water than K3PO4. Radicle protrusion (germination) occurred in the priming solution at 21 h in water and 27 h in 1% K3PO4. Respiration, radicle protrusion and cell division consistently occurred sooner in primed (redried) seeds compared to nonprimed seeds when they were imbibed at 25°C. Cell division and elongation commenced after 10 h imbibition in primed (redried) seeds imbibed at 35°C. Neither process occurred in nonprimed seeds. Respiratory rates were higher in both primed and nonprimed seeds imbibed at 35°C compared to those imbibed at 25°C, although radicle protrusion did not occur in nonprimed seeds which were imbibed at 35°C. It is apparent that cell elongation and division are inhibited during high temperature imbibition in nonprimed lettuce seeds. Seed priming appears to lead to the irreversible initiation of cell elongation, thus overcoming thermodormancy. Images Fig. 3

Cantliffe, Daniel J.; Fischer, Jeanne M.; Nell, Terril A.

1984-01-01

111

Contamination of lettuce with antibiotic resistant E. coli after slurry application  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Due to disease outbreaks associated with contaminated vegetables it has been speculated to what extent this may be linked with application of animal manure as fertilizer, which is particularly practiced in organic vegetable production where conventional fertilizers are prohibited. A field survey was therefore performed to assess the survival and transfer of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animal manure to lettuces, with E. coli serving as an indicator of bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied to 3 Danish fields prior to planting of lettuce seedlings, then 5-8 weeks later at the normal time of harvest, inner and outer leafs of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit with a total of 50 pools per field. Additionally, in one field, 15 soil samples were collected weekly until the harvest time. E. coli was enumerated by plating 1 mL of 10-fold serial dilutions of 5 g of homogenized sample material, i.e. manure, soil and lettuce onto PetrifilmTM Select E. coli count plates (3M) containing16 mg/L streptomycin or 16 mg/L ampicilin or no antibiotics. Plates were then incubated 24 h at 44°C. Selected isolates of E. coli (n=83) from slurry, soil and lettuce were analysed by PFGE DNA typing for further discrimination. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0-4.5 Log10 E. coli CFU/g and resistant E. coli ranged from 1.0 to 4.4 Log10 E. coli CFU/g with particular high numbers of streptomycin resistant E. coli in conventional pig slurry (field 1) opposed to organic cow slurry (field 2 and 3). E. coli was found in 36-54% of the pooled lettuce samples at the three fields with a detection limit of 10 CFU/g and 10-18% and 0-2% of pools had streptomycin and ampicilin resistant E. coli, respectively. Unexpectedly, the highest percentage of lettuce pools with antibiotic resistant E. coli were found on fields fertilized with organic cow slurry where 0.1-5% of E. coli was resistant opposed to 5-50% resistant E. coli in conventional slurry. Numbers of E. coli in 14-20% of pooled lettuce samples exceeded a satisfactory microbiological hygiene criteria level of 100 CFU/g. The numbers of resistant E. coli for both antibiotics were approximately 10-fold lower than the sensitive E. coli. At the time of harvest, the numbers of E. coli in 5 of 15 soil samples were reduced below the detection limit and no samples exceeded 100 CFU/g, which was in contrast to the lettuce samples, where 20% of faecally contaminated samples contained >100 E. coli/g. This indicates that fecal contamination of crops originated from alternative sources such as contaminated water or wildlife. This was supported by genotyping of E. coli, where half of the 21 PFGE types were found on single occasions in either soil or lettuce, whereas the other half was found both in slurry and lettuce indicating a possible transfer.

Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina

2011-01-01

112

Effect of the Municipal Garbage on the Growth of Lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Municipal Garbage (MG) as a plant nutrient supply was evaluated. Some of the garbage was collected from Hail city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The garbage was fermented partially after removing its contents of stones and metals. Lettuce plants were transplanted in five greenhouse pot experiments. In the first, a portion of the MG was mixed with a sandy soil at either 1, 2 or 3% before the transplanting. In the second, a portion of the MG was mixed with hydrochloric acid 0.1 Nat ratio of 1:2 for 15 days then extracted. The solid extracted portion was mixed with the sandy soil at 1, 2 , or 3%. A week after lettuce transplanting, a foliar spray technique was used to spray the HCl extract. In third and fourth experiments, the Coca Cola and the distilled water as extractants were used similarly to the second experiment. The fifth experiment was fertilized using the conventional rate of NPK fertilization ( control)). The lettuce plants were harvested after two months from the experiment initiation then soil pH and total soluble salts were determined in 1:2.5 soil water extract. The pH and total soluble salt values among the treatments were not significant. Growth parameters such as the total fresh weight, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and the dry matter percentage were determined. The results of the former three parameters increased as the rate of MG increased under the condition of the first four experiments. In addition, these parameters were great under the MG experiments in comparison to the control experiment. The dry matter percentages using 2% rate of MG were the greatest under all experiments except the Coca Cola experiment. This percentages increased as the rate of MG increased under the Coca Cola experiment condition. All of the growth parameters were the greatest under the condition of distilled water experiment among all of the experiments. The results of the study encourage using the water extract of MG as a source for plant nutrients and the extracted portion as a soil conditioner.

K.N. Al-Redhaiman; I.N. Nassar; I.S. Al-Salamah

2003-01-01

113

First report of lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus in Chile.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce big-vein disease (BVD) is a serious virus disease of lettuce. Recent evidence has brought into question the role of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) in the etiology of BVD, and suggested that Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) and not LBVV is the causal agent of BVD (1,2). Lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) with symptoms similar to those of BVD were observed during the winter of 2003 in open-field and hydroponic-grown lettuce plants located in the Chacabuco Province of central Chile. Symptomatic plants exhibited leaves with chlorotic vein banding that became ruffled and distorted. Symptoms were usually accompanied by reduced plant size and absence of head formation. Roots from symptomatic plants were analyzed by light microscopy-acid fuchsin staining. Zoosporangia and resting spores of Olpidium brassicae were identified on the basis of their morphology and structure. Additionally, soil transmission experiments were performed with 50 healthy lettuce seedlings replanted into contaminated soil collected from lettuce fields having symptomatic crops. After 3 weeks, one-half of the seedlings showed differing degrees of big-vein symptoms, and the presence of spores of O. brassicae was confirmed in the roots by light microscopy. Seedlings raised in sterilized soil showed no symptoms after the same period of time. On the basis of nucleotide sequences of LBVV and MiLV from the GenBank database, primers specific to the coat protein genes of each virus were designed as follows: MiLVV-CP1: 5'-CAAATCTGTCCACAATTCC-3'; MiLVV-CP2: 5'-TCTCACTTGAAAACCTTCC-3'; MiLVV-CP3: 5'-TTGCAACGTGATGAAACC-3'; MiLVV-CP4: 5'-AAAGAAGAGAAGCCTGTTCC-3'; LBVV-CP1: 5'-AAGCTTTCCGTACTGTCC-3'; LBVV-CP2: 5'-CCTTGATACAGTTTTTGACC-3'; LBVV-CP3: 5'-GTATGCTGATTTCTGTAGACC-3'; LBVV-CP4: 5'-TAGATGTTCTTCGCCACC-3'. The primers were used in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays with dsRNA as a template. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained in each of the five symptomatic plants analyzed, using each of the designated primer sets: MiLVV-CP1/MiLVV-CP2: 562 bp; MiLVV-CP3/MiLVV-CP4: 743 bp; LBVV-CP1/LBVV-CP2: 485 bp; and LBVV-CP3/ LBVV-CP4: 570 bp. No amplicons were obtained from healthy lettuce plants. The identity of both viruses was verified by cloning and sequencing of the amplicons. Nucleotide sequences were compared with those in the GenBank database. Sequences derived from the Chilean isolates resulted in identities of 87 to 97% for MiLV and 97 to 99% for LBVV. All samples analyzed were from the Chacabuco Province where 43% of the lettuce crops in Chile are grown. Thus, the impact that BVD may have on lettuce availability for local consumption may be significant. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lettuce big-vein disease and Mirafiori lettuce virus infecting lettuce and the first report of BVD in Chile.

Rosales IM; Sepulveda P; Bruna A

2004-11-01

114

Triacontanol hormone stimulates population, growth and Brilliant Blue R dye removal by common duckweed from culture media.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work is focussed on assessing the potentialities of Lemna minor (L.) for the treatment of reactive dyes polluted wastewaters and investigating the possibility of bioremoval performance stimulation by adding triacontanol hormone to the cultures. In the vast literature describing removal of reactive dyes, considering the lack of reports using of common duckweed in wastewater treatment apparently due to the inadequate efficiency. In the present study, the experiments showed that 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol stimulated duckweed growth. The effect of different dye types (Reactive Orange 14, Reactive Red 120, Reactive Black 5, Brilliant Blue R, and Reactive Brilliant Blue R) onto duckweed growth was tested. Plants grew at most in media with Brilliant Blue R. The highest biomass, in terms of frond number (87+/-1.5) were accompanied with 59.6% maximum dye removal were found in samples containing 2.5 mg l(-1) initial Brilliant Blue R and 1 mg l(-1) triacontanol, indicating hormonal stimulation of both activities. The results presented here that L. minor (L.) could be used effectively to treat wastewaters containing dye.

Kiliç NK; Duygu E; Dönmez G

2010-10-01

115

Comparative Infection Progress Analysis of Lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus in Lettuce Crops by Developed Molecular Diagnosis Techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots. PMID:18943765

Navarro, Jose A; Botella, Francisco; Maruhenda, Antonio; Sastre, Pedro; Sánchez-Pina, M Amelia; Pallas, Vicente

2004-05-01

116

Comparative Infection Progress Analysis of Lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus in Lettuce Crops by Developed Molecular Diagnosis Techniques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Nonisotopic molecular dot blot hybridization technique and multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for the specific detection of Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV) and Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV) in lettuce tissue were developed. Both procedures were suitable for the specific detection of both viruses in a range of naturally infected lettuce plants from various Spanish production areas and seven different cultivars. The study of the distribution of both viruses in the plant revealed that the highest concentration of LBVV and MiLV occurred in roots and old leaves, respectively. LBVV infection progress in a lettuce production area was faster than that observed for MiLV. In spite of different rates of virus infection progress, most lettuce plants became infected with both viruses about 100 days posttransplant. The appearance of both viruses in lettuce crops was preceded by a peak in the concentration of resting spores and zoosporangia of the fungus vector Olpidium brassicae in lettuce roots.

Navarro JA; Botella F; Maruhenda A; Sastre P; Sánchez-Pina MA; Pallas V

2004-05-01

117

Identification and Partial Characterisation of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in Common Weeds Found Amongst Spanish Lettuce Crops and their Role in Lettuce Big-vein Disease Transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential role of 10 frequently occurring weed species found amongst Spanish lettuce crops as host plants for the two viruses associated with the lettuce big-vein disease, Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV), was studied. The results showed that both viruses can infect naturally growing Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle) plants, the unique susceptible species detected among the analysed weeds. The sequences of the coat protein (CP) genes of the LBVaV and MLBVV isolates recovered from S. oleraceus plants were determined. Phylogenetic studies revealed a very close relationship between the CP sequences from these weed isolates and those from Spanish lettuce. Moreover, we showed that S. oleraceus can act as a source of lettuce infection by means of Olpidium brassicae, the vector fungus of both viruses.

Navarro JA; Botella F; Marhuenda A; Sastre P; Sanchez-Pina MA; Pallas V

2005-09-01

118

Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources on mycorrhizal lettuces under organic farming  

Science.gov (United States)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) develop symbiotic associations with plants roots. These associations are very common in the natural environment and can provide a range of benefits to the host plant. AMF improve nutrition, enhance resistance to soil-borne pests and disease, increase resistance to drought and tolerance to heavy metals, and contribute to a better soil structure. However, agricultural intensive managements, such as the use of mineral fertilizes, pesticides, mouldboard tillage, monocultures and use of non-mycorrhizal crops, are detrimental to AMF. As a consequence, agroecosystems are impoverished in AMF and may not provide the full range of benefits to the crop. Organic farming systems may be less unfavourable to AMF because they exclude the use of water-soluble fertilisers and most pesticides, and generally they plan diverse crop rotations. The AMF develop the most common type of symbiosis in nature: about 90% of the plants are mycorrhizal and many agricultural crops are mycorrhizal. One of more mycorrhizal crops is lettuce, that is very widespread in intensive agricultural under greenhouse. Therefore, cultivated lettuce is know to be responsive to mycorrhizal colonization which can reach 80% of root length and contribute to phosphorus and nitrogen absorption by this plant specie. For this work four different lettuce cultivars (Romana, Milanesa, Grande Lagos and Escarola) were used to study mycorrhization under organic agricultural system, supplying compost from agricultural waste (1 kg m-2) as background fertilization for all plots, red guano as phosphorus source (75 U ha-1 and 150 U ha-1 of P2O5), lupine flour as nitrogen source (75 and 150 U/ha of N) and a combination of both. Lettuce plants were cultivated under greenhouse and after two months of growing, plants were harvested and dried and fresh weight of lettuce roots and shoots were evaluated. The number of spores, percentage of colonization, total mycelium and glomalin content were also evaluated as mycorrhizal parameters. The results showed a different response to mycorrhization of the four lettuce Cvs. In general, mycorrhized lettuce plants had a better response to lower level of nitrogen and phosphorus sources.

Scotti, Riccardo; Seguel, Alex; Cornejo, Pablo; Rao, Maria A.; Borie, Fernando

2010-05-01

119

Virus diseases in lettuce in the Mediterranean basin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce is frequently attacked by several viruses causing disease epidemics and considerable yield losses along the Mediterranean basin. Aphids are key pests and the major vectors of plant viruses in lettuce fields. Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is probably the most important because it is seed-transmitted in addition to be transmissible by many aphid species that alight on the crop. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is another virus that causes severe damage since the introduction of its major vector, the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis. In regions with heavy and humid soils, Lettuce Mirafiori big-vein virus (LMBVV) can also produce major yield losses.

Moreno A; Fereres A

2012-01-01

120

Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant Lemna minor after exposure to radiofrequency EMFs, and in particular, to clarify the possible role of oxidative stress in the observed effects. Duckweed was exposed for 2 h to EMFs of 400 and 900 MHz at field strengths of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m{sup -1}. The effect of a longer exposure time (4 h) and modulation was also investigated. After exposure, parameters of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content, activities and isoenzyme pattern of antioxidative enzymes as well as HSP70 expression were evaluated. At 400 MHz, lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content were significantly enhanced in duckweed exposed to EMFs of 23 and 120 V m{sup -1} while other exposure treatments did not have an effect. Compared to the controls, the activities of antioxidative enzymes showed different behaviour: catalase (CAT) activity increased after most exposure treatments while pyrogallol (PPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were not changed. Exceptions were reduced PPX and APX activity after longer exposure at 23 V m{sup -1} and increased PPX activity after exposures at 10 and 120 V m{sup -1}. By contrast, at 900 MHz almost all exposure treatments significantly increased level of lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content but mostly decreased PPX activity and did not affect CAT activity. Exceptions were exposures to a modulated field and to the field of 120 V m{sup -1} which increased PPX and CAT activity. At this frequency APX activity was significantly decreased after exposure at 10 V m{sup -1} and longer exposure at 23 V m{sup -1} but it increased after a shorter exposure at 23 V m{sup -1}. At both frequencies no differences in isoenzyme patterns of antioxidative enzymes or HSP70 level were found between control and exposed plants. Our results showed that non-thermal exposure to investigated radiofrequency fields induced oxidative stress in duckweed as well as unspecific stress responses, especially of antioxidative enzymes. However, the observed effects markedly depended on the field frequencies applied as well as on other exposure parameters (strength, modulation and exposure time). Enhanced lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content accompanied by diminished antioxidative enzymes activity caused by exposure to investigated EMFs, especially at 900 MHz, indicate that oxidative stress could partly be due to changed activities of antioxidative enzymes.

Tkalec, Mirta [Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: mtkalec@zg.biol.pmf.hr; Malaric, Kresimir [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka [Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2007-12-15

 
 
 
 
121

Production of iceberg lettuce using mulches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mulches bring several benefits to lettuce cultivation. This work evaluated the effect of mulches on the cultivation of iceberg lettuce, cv. Lucy Brown. The treatment plots were: 1- no mulch and no weed control (control); 2- no mulch and weed control every 15 days; 3- sugarcane bagasse mulch of 2 cm thickness; 4- black plastic mulch; 5- double-faced plastic mulch (silver/black). Data were collected in regard to plant cycle when in the field, amount of chlorophyll in the leaves, productivity (individual weight per head) and amount of nutrients absorbed by the leaves. Double-faced plastic mulch provides the highest productivity and the highest values for the amount of chlorophyll, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, boron and iron accumulation in the leaves.

Verdial Marcelo Fontanetti; Lima Márcio Santos de; Morgor Átila F.; Goto Rumy

2001-01-01

122

Lettuce ring necrosis, a viruslike disease of lettuce: evidence for transmission by Olpidium brassicae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce ring necrosis (LRN) caused severe symptoms on butterhead and crisphead types of lettuce but only mild symptoms on iceberg or cos types. Single sporangial isolates of Olpidium brassicae were prepared from three sites in France to prove the vector role of the fungus and to attempt the separation of the LRN agent (LRNA) and lettuce big vein virus (LBVV). A vector role for O. brassicae was demonstrated, but few isolates transmitted either agent, apparently because they were lost during one to two generation transfers of the fungus. Isolates transmitted LRNA and LBVV together or LBVV alone, but there was no clear evidence for transmission of LRNA alone. The LRNA was carried within the resting spores of the vector. Isolates of 0. brassicae from two fields in the Salinas Valley of California carried LBVV and LRNA. This is the first report of LRNA in North America.

Campbell RN; Lot H

1996-06-01

123

Damage Threshold of Meloidogyne hapla to Lettuce in Organic Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lettuce was seeded in pots in the greenhouse and in field microplots in 1991 and 1992. Pots and microplots were filled with untreated or fumigated organic soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla at seven initial population densities (Pi) (0 to 32 eggs/cm³ soil). Lettuce weight, severity of root galling...

Viaene, N. M.; Abawi, G. S.

124

A soilless Verticillium wilt assay using an early flowering lettuce  

Science.gov (United States)

A soilless growth chamber assay was evaluated for rapid assessment of Verticillium wilt symptoms on lettuce. Seedlings of the early flowering plant introduction (PI) 251246 were inoculated in tubes with conidial suspensions of Verticillium spp. isolates from lettuce or cauliflower. PI 251246 devel...

125

Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop. This study evaluated the occurrence of parasitoids in eggs of the stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) found on lettuce crop in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Samples were collected in the vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde", in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, in curly lettuce. A bed of lettuce was selected randomly, where the eggs of E. meditabunda were collected. Five-hundred and seventy eight eggs of E. meditabunda were collected, 86.3% of them parasitized by Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), Trissolcus urichi Crawford, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) and Neorileya albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), representing respectively 57.0%, 38.2% and 4.8% of the emerged individuals. This is the first record of these three species parasitizing eggs of E. meditabunda in lettuce.

Bruna M. Favetti; Diones Krinski; Alessandra R. Butnariu; Marta S. Loiácono

2013-01-01

126

Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop. This study evaluated the occurrence of parasitoids in eggs of the stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) found on lettuce crop in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Samples were collected in the vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde", in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, in curly lettuce. A bed of lettuce was selected randomly, where the eggs of E. meditabunda were (more) collected. Five-hundred and seventy eight eggs of E. meditabunda were collected, 86.3% of them parasitized by Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), Trissolcus urichi Crawford, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) and Neorileya albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), representing respectively 57.0%, 38.2% and 4.8% of the emerged individuals. This is the first record of these three species parasitizing eggs of E. meditabunda in lettuce.

Favetti, Bruna M.; Krinski, Diones; Butnariu, Alessandra R.; Loiácono, Marta S.

2013-06-01

127

Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Egg parasitoids of Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius) (Pentatomidae) in lettuce crop. This study evaluated the occurrence of parasitoids in eggs of the stink bug, Edessa meditabunda (Fabricius, 1794) (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae) found on lettuce crop in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Samples were collected in the vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde", in the municipality of Tangará da Serra, in curly lettuce. A bed of lettuce was selected randomly, where the eggs of E. meditabunda were (more) collected. Five-hundred and seventy eight eggs of E. meditabunda were collected, 86.3% of them parasitized by Telenomus podisi Ashmead, 1893 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae), Trissolcus urichi Crawford, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) and Neorileya albipes Girault, 1913 (Hymenoptera, Eurytomidae), representing respectively 57.0%, 38.2% and 4.8% of the emerged individuals. This is the first record of these three species parasitizing eggs of E. meditabunda in lettuce.

Favetti, Bruna M.; Krinski, Diones; Butnariu, Alessandra R.; Loiácono, Marta S.

2013-01-01

128

Leaf Age as a Risk Factor in Contamination of Lettuce with Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica?  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections have been linked increasingly to leafy greens, particularly to lettuce. We present here the first evidence that this enteric pathogen can multiply on the leaves of romaine lettuce plants. The increases in population size of E. coli O157:H7 in the phyllosphere of young lettuce plants ranged from 16- to 100-fold under conditions of warm temperature and the presence of free water on the leaves and varied significantly with leaf age. The population size was consistently ca. 10-fold higher on the young (inner) leaves than on the middle leaves. The growth rates of Salmonella enterica and of the natural bacterial microflora were similarly leaf age dependent. Both enteric pathogens also achieved higher population sizes on young leaves than on middle leaves harvested from mature lettuce heads, suggesting that leaf age affects preharvest as well as postharvest colonization. Elemental analysis of the exudates collected from the surfaces of leaves of different ages revealed that young-leaf exudates were 2.9 and 1.5 times richer in total nitrogen and carbon, respectively, than middle-leaf exudates. This trend mirrored the nitrogen and carbon content of the leaf tissue. Application of ammonium nitrate, but not glucose, to middle leaves enhanced the growth of E. coli O157:H7 significantly, suggesting that low nitrogen limits its growth on these leaves. Our results indicate that leaf age and nitrogen content contribute to shaping the bacterial communities of preharvest and postharvest lettuce and that young lettuce leaves may be associated with a greater risk of contamination with E. coli O157:H7.

Brandl, M. T.; Amundson, R.

2008-01-01

129

Lettuce seed germination: modulation of pregermination protein synthesis by gibberellic Acid, abscisic Acid, and cytokinin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Protein synthesis in gibberellin-treated lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seeds has been studied during the lag phase between the beginning of imbibition and the first signs of radicle protrusion. When compared to the water-imbibed controls, both polyribosome populations and radioactive leucine incorporation into protein increase in the embryos of GA(3)- induced seeds early in the imbibition period. Since these results are contradictory to previously published studies, the reasons for the differences are outlined and various alternative possibilities eliminated. The protocol for protein extraction, particularly the speed at which the supernatant from the seed homogenate is cleared, is important for demonstrating the GA(3)-mediated changes. Embryos maintained in the dormant state by abscisic acid still conduct considerable amounts of protein synthesis, and this is enhanced by concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine which also promote germination. Therefore, the actions of GA(3), abscisic acid, and cytokinin on lettuce seed germination are mediated, directly or indirectly, via protein synthesis.

Fountain DW; Bewley JD

1976-10-01

130

Identification of lettuce genes differentially expressed in a Verticillium dahliae-lettuce interaction by suppression subtractive hybridization  

Science.gov (United States)

Verticillium wilt, caused by the fungus Verticillium dahliae, is an emerging threat to the U.S. lettuce industry. Lettuce germplasm with resistance to race 1of V. dahliae is available for breeding programs, although germplasm with resistance to race 2 of the pathogen has not been identified. The obj...

131

Incidence of naturally internalized bacteria in lettuce leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce is the fresh leafy vegetable most frequently involved in foodborne disease outbreaks. Human bacterial pathogens may be experimentally internalized into lettuce plants, but the occurrence of natural microflora inside lettuce leaves has not been elucidated. To characterize the endophytic microorganism residing in commercial lettuce leaves, two separate studies were conducted. First, a total of 30 and 25 heads of romaine and red leaf lettuce, respectively, served as the source of individual leaves which were surface sterilized, stomached, enriched in BHI broth for 24h and plated onto BHI agar for non-selective isolation of internalized microorganism. In a separate survey, 80 heads of each of the two types of lettuce were similarly processed, except that GN broth and MacConkey agar (MCA) were used for isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Thirty-eight out of 100 leaves were positive for internalized microorganisms, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were the genera most frequently found in both types of lettuce. Members of the genus Erwinia were isolated from romaine lettuce only. In the second study, 21 and 60% of romaine and red leaf lettuce heads, respectively, had internalized bacteria capable of growing on MCA. Among the Gram negative strains, Pseudomonas and Pantoea genera were most frequently isolated. Enterobacter isolates were obtained from three red leaf samples. In summary, spore-forming bacteria and traditional epiphytic bacterial genera were frequently detected in surface-sterilized commercial lettuce leaves. Despite the common occurrence of internalized bacteria, only Enterobacter was related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. PMID:23454817

Hou, Zhe; Fink, Ryan C; Radtke, Christie; Sadowsky, Michael J; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

2013-02-13

132

Incidence of naturally internalized bacteria in lettuce leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce is the fresh leafy vegetable most frequently involved in foodborne disease outbreaks. Human bacterial pathogens may be experimentally internalized into lettuce plants, but the occurrence of natural microflora inside lettuce leaves has not been elucidated. To characterize the endophytic microorganism residing in commercial lettuce leaves, two separate studies were conducted. First, a total of 30 and 25 heads of romaine and red leaf lettuce, respectively, served as the source of individual leaves which were surface sterilized, stomached, enriched in BHI broth for 24h and plated onto BHI agar for non-selective isolation of internalized microorganism. In a separate survey, 80 heads of each of the two types of lettuce were similarly processed, except that GN broth and MacConkey agar (MCA) were used for isolation of Gram negative bacteria. Thirty-eight out of 100 leaves were positive for internalized microorganisms, and Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Pantoea were the genera most frequently found in both types of lettuce. Members of the genus Erwinia were isolated from romaine lettuce only. In the second study, 21 and 60% of romaine and red leaf lettuce heads, respectively, had internalized bacteria capable of growing on MCA. Among the Gram negative strains, Pseudomonas and Pantoea genera were most frequently isolated. Enterobacter isolates were obtained from three red leaf samples. In summary, spore-forming bacteria and traditional epiphytic bacterial genera were frequently detected in surface-sterilized commercial lettuce leaves. Despite the common occurrence of internalized bacteria, only Enterobacter was related to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella.

Hou Z; Fink RC; Radtke C; Sadowsky MJ; Diez-Gonzalez F

2013-04-01

133

Response of Listeria monocytogenes-inoculated leafy salad vegetables following irradiation and refrigerated storage under modified atmosphere. Section 3. Studies on the irradiation destruct values for Shigella Sonnie in liquids or on fresh produce, Salmonella and Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on sprouts and post irradiation survival and growth of indigenous microflora on vegetable sprouts and on warm or cold water-washed cut Iceberg Lettuce  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Consumption of contaminated fresh produce with Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Shigella sonnie resulted in confirmed food-borne outbreaks in the United States and elsewhere. Irradiation destruct values of the produce related isolates are not known and were determined after being inoculated on fresh lettuce or sprouts using a gamma source. The resulting destruct values for Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella sonnie were 0.46 ± 0.02, 0.30 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.03 kGy, respectively. These values are comparable with the published values for the meat-related food-borne isolates. Ionizing irradiation was used as an intervention to reduce the indigenous microbial populations on fresh sprouts and cut lettuce washed in 5 and 47 deg. C water. Microbiological profiles were monitored during refrigerated (4 deg. C) storage and analysed each week for up to three weeks to determine the keeping quality. Regardless of the initial background, after irradiating to 2 kGy, a two log reduction was observed for the total aerobic and coliform counts on the sprouts or lettuce samples. During storage the bacterial counts of the irradiated samples increased but not to the level of the non-irradiated samples. The results indicate that a 2 kGy dose improved the microbial keeping quality of the fresh produce, inhibited microbial spoilage and achieved a 5 log reduction for both the E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella sonnie. The reduced bacterial counts would also provide a margin of safety by also reducing food-borne pathogen levels. (author)

2006-01-01

134

Ethylene evolution and endo-b-mannanase activity during lettuce seed germination at high temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High temperatures during lettuce seed imbibition can delay or completely inhibit germination and the endosperm layer appears to restrict the radicle protrusion. The role of endo-beta-mannanase during lettuce seed germination at 35°C and the influence of ethylene in endo-beta-mannanase regulation were investigated. Seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB) and 'Everglades' (EVE) were germinated in water, or 10 mmol L-1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), or 10 mmol L-1 of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), or 20 mmol L-1 of silver thiosulphate (STS). Seeds were also primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG), or PEG + ACC, PEG + AVG, or PEG + STS. Untreated seeds germinated 100% at 20°C. At 35°C, EVE seeds germinated 100%, whereas DGB seeds germinated only 33%. Seed priming or adding ACC during incubation increased germination at 35°C. Higher ethylene evolution was detected in EVE than in DGB during germination at 35°C. AVG did not inhibit seed germination of DGB at 35°C, but STS did. Higher endo-beta-mannanase activity was observed in EVE compared with DGB seeds. Providing ACC either during priming or during germination increased endo-beta-mannanase activity, whereas AVG and STS led to decreased or no activity. Ethylene may overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature in thermosensitive lettuce seeds due to increased endo-beta-mannanase, possibly leading to weakening of the endosperm.

Nascimento Warley Marcos; Cantliffe Daniel James; Huber Donald John

2004-01-01

135

Separating the effects of hypobaria and hypoxia on lettuce: growth and gas exchange  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of hypobaria (reduced atmospheric pressure) and reduced partial pressure of oxygen (pO?) [hypoxia] on carbon dioxide (CO?) assimilation (CA), dark-period respiration (DPR) and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Buttercrunch). Lettuce plants were grown under variable total gas pressures [25 and 101 kPa (ambient)] at 6, 12 or 21 kPa pO? (approximately the partial pressure in air at normal pressure). Growth of lettuce was comparable between ambient and low total pressure but lower at 6 kPa pO? (hypoxic) than at 12 or 21 kPa pO?. The specific leaf area of 6 kPa pO? plants was lower, indicating thicker leaves associated with hypoxia. Roots were most sensitive to hypoxia, with a 50-70% growth reduction. Leaf chlorophyll levels were greater at low than at ambient pressure. Hypobaria and hypoxia did not affect plant water relations. While hypobaria did not adversely affect plant growth or CA, hypoxia did. There was comparable CA and a lower DPR in low than in ambient total pressure plants under non-limiting CO? levels (100 Pa pCO?, nearly three-fold that in normal air). The CA/DPR ratio was higher at low than at ambient total pressure, particularly at 6 kPa pO?- indicating a greater efficiency of CA/DPR in low-pressure plants. There was generally no significant interaction between hypoxia and hypobaria. We conclude that lettuce can be grown under subambient pressure ([congruent with]25% of normal earth ambient total pressure) without adverse effects on plant growth or gas exchange. Furthermore, hypobaric plants were more resistant to hypoxic conditions that reduced gas exchange and plant growth.

He Chuanjiu; Davies FredTJr; Lacey RonaldE

2007-10-01

136

Desempenho da alface em cultivo orgânico com e sem cobertura morta e diferentes lâminas d'água/ Lettuce crop performance in organic tillage with and without mulching and at different irrigation water depths  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi conduzido no período de 27/05/2006 a 02/08/2006 no SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Agroecológica), localizado no município de Seropédica-RJ. Nesse trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivada sob diferentes lâminas de irrigação em um solo sem e com cobertura de palhada da leguminosa gliricídia. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos simultâneos, utilizando o delineamento experimental de blocos (more) ao acaso, em ambos os experimentos, nos quais foram aplicadas 5 lâminas de irrigação, correspondendo a 25, 50, 80, 100, 115 % da evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc), sendo a produção final avaliada por meio da determinação da massa fresca, área foliar e número de folhas. Até o nível de 100% ETc, todas as variáveis analisadas tiveram seus valores aumentados, e para o nível de 115%, houve um decrescimento das mesmas. Na produção de massa fresca total, o sistema de cultivo com utilização de cobertura morta foi superior ao sem cobertura não diferenciando estatisticamente ao nível de 5 % probabilidade pelo teste F somente nas lâminas de 25 e 115% ETc. Abstract in english This work was carried out in order to evaluate the performance of a lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivated under different irrigation depths in ground with and without covering of gliricidia leguminosa. Two simultaneous experiments were conducted, in which 5 irrigation depths were applied, corresponding to 25, 50, 80, 100, and 115% of crop evapotranspiration (ETc). Final production was evaluated by means of the determination of fresh mass and leaf area. Up to the 100 (more) % ETc level, all the analyzed variables had their values increased. For the 115% level, there was a decrease of the same. In total fresh mass production, the system with covering was superior to the one without covering, not differentiating statistically to the 5% level probability for test F, except at depths of 25 and 115% ETc.

Lima, Márcio Emanoel de; Carvalho, Daniel Fonseca de; Souza, Adilson Pacheco de; Guerra, José Guilherme Marinho; Ribeiro, Raul de Lucena Duarte

2009-12-01

137

Prevention of Escherichia coli cross-contamination by different commercial sanitizers during washing of fresh-cut lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of fresh-cut produce sanitizers has mainly been evaluated by measuring microbial reductions on produce. However, its suitability to ensure that pathogens are rapidly killed avoiding cross-contamination of subsequent product also needs to be considered. The efficacy of chlorine, Tsunami, Citrox and Purac on non pathogenic Escherichia coli reductions in processing water and on fresh-cut lettuce were studied. Selection of minimum effective doses was carried out in processing water, which contained a chemical oxygen demand (COD) within the range of 700-1000 mg/l and a total mesophilic load of about 7 log CFU/ml. The processing water was inoculated with two inoculum levels (3 and 5 log CFU/ml). It was observed that 40 mg/l of chlorine and 500 mg/l of Tsunami were effective in reducing the inoculum levels in the processing water to the detection limit (5 and 4 log units). However, Citrox and Purac were not effective in reducing E. coli population even at the highest manufacturer's recommended doses. Evaluation of cross-contamination in fresh-cut lettuce was carried out by measuring E. coli transfer from inoculated (~5 log CFU/g) to uninoculated lettuce after washing the contaminated product in the water containing different sanitizing agents. Chlorine and Tsunami were able to inactivate E. coli in wash water, avoiding cross-contamination between contaminated and non-contaminated product. However, Citrox and Purac at the recommended doses did not prevent transfer of E. coli cells between inoculated and uninoculated fresh-cut lettuce and therefore indicating cross-contamination. The results obtained show that chlorine and Tsunami are recommended as water disinfection agents preventing E. coli cross-contamination of produce during processing.

López-Gálvez F; Allende A; Selma MV; Gil MI

2009-07-01

138

[Phytoavailable lead in rhizosphere of lettuce].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A greenhouse experiment was performed to investigate the influence of pH TOC, and fractionation of Pb on phytoavailability of Pb in the rhizosphere of lettuce. And the Low molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) were used to evaluate the phytoavailability of soil Pb to lettuce. The results show that the pH is lower in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil, and the rhizosphere becomes more acidic with increasing Pb (NO3)2 applied. In contrast, the TOC content is higher in the rhizospherer compared to the bulk soil, and more TOC accumulates in the rhizosphere with increasing Pb (NO3)2 applied. The concentrations of different fractions in rhizosphere soils follow the order of exchangeable > carbonate bound > Fe-Mn oxide bound > organic bound > residual, and for bulk soil the order is carbonate bound > Fe-Mn oxide bound > exchangeable > organic bound > residual. Compared with bulk soils, exchangeable Pb increases significantly in rhizosphere. With increasing Pb (NO3)2 applied, the transformation of residual Pb to carbonate bound and exchangeable Pb may have happened and results in the accumulation of carbonate bound and exchangeable Pb. The air-drying increases the concentration of exchangeable, carbonate bound and Fe-Mn oxide bound Pb and decreases organic bound and residual Pb. Rhizosphere and bulk soils were extracted by low molecular-weight organic acids(LMWOAs) to fractionate Pb fraction of soil pools, which is considered as the phytoavailable Pb. The results show that phytoavailable Pb in rhizosphere is much higher compared to bulk soil, and phytoavailable Pb increases with increasing Pb (NO3)2 applied due to acidification processes and accumulated TOC in the rhizosphere. Air-drying process also increases the phytoavailable Pb. The root-induced changes of Pb availability in the rhizosphere might also be related to the Pb species, especially carbonate bound and exchangeable Pb. Correlation analysis indicates that application of wet fresh rhizosphere soils and LMWOAs should be recommended in the future study on the phytoavailability of soil Pb to lettuce.

Ren HM; Wang JD; Cao HC; Zhou WM; Zhang XL

2006-08-01

139

Commodity Specific Food Safety Guidelines for the Lettuce ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... This document was prepared by members of the lettuce/leafy greens industry from farm to table (International Fresh-Cut Produce Association exit ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

140

Efficacy of adding detergents to sanitizer solutions for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sanitizer solutions for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on Romaine lettuce. Freshly-cut leaves of Romaine lettuce were dip-inoculated to achieve a final cell concentration of 7.8±0.2 log CFU/g, air-dried for 2h, and stored overnight at 4 °C. Leaves were then washed for 2 min in an experimental short chain fatty acid formulation (SCFA) or in one of the following solutions with or without 0.2% dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid or 0.2% sodium 2-ethyl hexyl sulfate: 1) deionized water; 2) 100 ppm chlorine dioxide; 3) 100 ppm chlorine; and 4) 200 ppm chlorine. Following wash treatment, samples were blended in neutralizing buffer (1:3) and surface plated on the selective media CT-SMAC. The efficacy of wash treatments, with or without the detergents, in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 cells on lettuce leaves were not significantly different. The most effective wash solution was SCFA, which was capable of reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations by more than 5 log CFU/g. The rest of the wash treatments resulted in a population reduction of less than 1 log CFU/g. The effectiveness of SCFA surpasses that of other sanitizer treatments tested in this study and requires further research to optimize treatments to preserve lettuce quality. Conventional detergents did not enhance the efficacy of any of the wash treatments tested during this study.

Keskinen LA; Annous BA

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

...screens; (vi) The lettuce must be packed in an insect-proof packinghouse, individually packed in transparent plastic bags, packed in cartons, placed on pallets, and then covered with shrink wrapping; and (vii) The lettuce must...

2013-01-01

142

Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ?25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled de...

Schwember, Andrés R.; Bradford, Kent J.

143

Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30) were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively) to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include ?-sitosterol (as major component) followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and ?-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6%) namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30) se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente) para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatografía líquida HPLC en conjunción con la cromatografía gaseosa GLC. Los aceites de las semillas de lechuga se caracterizan por un alto contenido en ácidos linoleico y oleico. De los triglicéridos determinados, los acilados con linoleico y oleico son los mayoritarios. Los perfiles de esteroles totales incluyen ?-sitosterol (como componente principal), seguido por 7-estigmasterol, campesterol y 5-estigmasterol en todas las muestras de aceite de semillas de lechuga, pero con ligeras diferencias. Además, se determinaron los esteroles libres y acilados, y esterilglicosidos acilados y libres. Se encontró que los aceites de LS30 tiene el más alto contenido de tocoferoles, siendo el ?-tocoferol el único constituyente en todas las muestras de aceites de semillas de lechuga. Por otra parte, la posición 2 en las tres muestras de aceites de semillas de lechuga se acilan principalmente con los ácidos grasos insaturados (98,6%), oleico y linoleico. De acuerdo con estos resultados, se puede concluir que las condiciones de riego no afectan a los componentes lipídicos del aceite y el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste el proyecto de riego y sus perfiles de lípidos están en acuerdo con los de los aceites vegetales convencionales.

Hassan El-Mallah, M.; El-Shami, S. M.

2012-01-01

144

To duckweeds (Landoltia punctata), nanoparticulate copper oxide is more inhibitory than the soluble copper in the bulk solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NP) were synthesized in a hydrogen diffusion flame. Particle size and morphology were characterized using scanning mobility particle sizing, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The solubility of CuO-NP varied with both pH and presence of other ions. CuO-NP and comparable doses of soluble Cu were applied to duckweeds, Landoltia punctata. Growth was inhibited 50% by either 0.6 mg L{sup -1} soluble copper or by 1.0 mg L{sup -1} CuO-NP that released only 0.16 mg L{sup -1} soluble Cu into growth medium. A significant decrease of chlorophyll was observed in plants stressed by 1.0 mg L{sup -1} CuO-NP, but not in the comparable 0.2 mg L{sup -1} soluble Cu treatment. The Cu content of fronds exposed to CuO-NP is four times higher than in fronds exposed to an equivalent dose of soluble copper, and this is enough to explain the inhibitory effects on growth and chlorophyll content. - Highlights: > Lemna growth is reduced by either Cu ions or CuO-NP releasing much less soluble Cu. > Chlorophyll decreased in plants stressed by CuO-NP but not comparable soluble Cu. > CuO-NP exposure gives fronds four times more Cu than a similar soluble Cu dose. > Plant Cu uptake from CuO-NP can explain decreased growth and chlorophyll. - The large uptake of Cu from nanoparticulate CuO suspension into duckweed tissue causes the toxicity of CuO-NP to be equivalent to about four times the soluble Cu in the NP suspension.

Shi Jiyan, E-mail: jiyanshi@gmail.com [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, HangZhou 310029 (China); Abid, Aamir D., E-mail: abid.aamir@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Kennedy, Ian M., E-mail: kennedyim@mac.com [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hristova, Krassimira R., E-mail: krassimira.hristova@marquette.edu [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Biological Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53233 (United States); Silk, Wendy K., E-mail: wksilk@ucdavis.edu [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2011-05-15

145

IDENTIFIED RESISTANCE IN LETTUCE GERMPLASM TO VERTICILLIUM WILT CAUSED BY VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Since its appearance in 1995, Verticillium wilt of lettuce has spread to several production areas in the Salinas River Valley where nearly 60% of California's lettuce acreage is located. A replicated field trial was conducted to assess various modern and heirloom lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivars ...

146

[Effect of environment and nutrient factors on the content of nitrogen and phosphorus in two duckweeds species: Spirodela polyrrhiza and Lemna aequinoctialis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of temperature, light density, nitrogen level and phosphorus level of medium to the content of two species Spirodela polyrrhiza and Lemna aequinoctialis were researched. The results showed that the content of nitrogen in two species kept constant when the concentration of nitrogen was higher than 3 mg x L(-1) and temperature higher than 25 degrees C. It decreased under lower concentrations of nitrogen and lower temperature. Photon flux density had no effect on it. But weak photon flux density and low temperature led to reduce the content of phosphorus of duckweed. The content of phosphorus in two duckweed species kept constant when photon flux density was higher than 8 000 1x and temperature higher than 25 degrees C. The relationship between the content of phosphorus and concentrations of phosphorus in medium could be described by Monod model. The saturated phosphorus content of Spirodela polyrrhiza was higher than Lemna aequinoctialis. PMID:16366472

Chong, Yun-Xiao; Hu, Hong-Ying; Qian, Yi

2005-09-01

147

Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. ) cultivars  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thiobencarb (S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate) was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of /sup 14/C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of /sup 14/C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized /sup 14/C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides.

Reiners, S.

1987-01-01

148

Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) cultivars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thiobencarb [S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate] was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of 14C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of 14C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized 14C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides

1987-01-01

149

Temporal and spatial spread of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce crops in central Spain: factors involved in Lettuce mosaic virus epidemics  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is transmitted by aphid vectors in a nonpersistent manner as well as by seeds. The virus causes severe disease outbreaks in commercial lettuce crops in several regions of Spain. The temporal and spatial patterns of spread of LMV were studied in autumn 2002 in the central region of Spain. Symptomatic lettuce (var. Cazorla) plant samples were collected weekly, first at the seedling stage from the greenhouse nursery and later outdoors after transplantation. The exact position of symptomatic plants sampled in the field was recorded and then material was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess virus infection. Cumulative spatial data for infected plants at different growth stages were analysed using spatial analysis by distance indices. For temporal analysis, the monomolecular, Gompertz, logistic and exponential models were evaluated for goodness of fit to the entire set of disease progress data obtained. The results indicated that the disease progress curve of LMV epidemics in the selected area is best described by a Gompertz model and that the epidemic follows a polycyclic disease progression. Our data suggest that secondary cycle of spread occurs when noncolonising aphid species land on the primary infected plants (probably coming from infected seed) and move to adjacent plants before leaving the crop. The role of weeds growing close to lettuce fields as potential inoculum sources of virus and the aphid species most likely involved in the transmission of LMV were also identified.

Moreno A; Nebreda M; Diaz BM; Garci?a M; Salas F; Fereres A

2007-06-01

150

Impact of different washing procedures on quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative washing procedures on fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and endive, applying warm water (45 °C), warm water with CaCl? (1 g/L), and chlorinated water (4 °C, 120 ppm), respectively. Processing was conducted on pre-industrial scale, and the produce was subsequently stored in consumer-sized bags (4 °C, 10 days). O? and CO? levels in the modified atmosphere, and activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of the samples were analyzed. Counts of total aerobic bacteria and pseudomonades were determined on the produce and in the process water. In both commodities, wound-induced PAL activities were significantly reduced by warm water treatment. In iceberg lettuce, adding CaCl? to warm water resulted in a further reduction of PAL activities. Chlorinated water was less effective than warm water in suppressing wound-induced PAL activity in endive, but proved to be most effective in reducing total microbial cell counts by 1.1 and 2.1 log?? cfu/g in iceberg lettuce and endive, respectively. Warm water treatment exhibited reduction rates of similar magnitudes. For process water, chlorine proved to be the most efficient sanitizer. PPO and POD activities were only marginally affected by the different washing procedures. As indicated by respiration of the fresh-cut produce, warm water treatments applied retained the vitality of both plant species. The results suggest that warm water treatments are suitable measures to improve the quality of iceberg lettuce and endive, but were less efficient in sanitizing the process water.

Wulfkuehler S; Kurfiss L; Kammerer DR; Weiss A; Schmidt H; Carle R

2013-02-01

151

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in soil and lettuce roots as affected by potential home gardening practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The survival and distribution of enteric pathogens in soil and lettuce systems was investigated in response to several practices (soil amendment supplementation and reduced watering) that could be applied by home gardeners. RESULTS: Leaf lettuce was grown in manure compost:top soil (0:5, 1:5 or 2:5, w:w) mixtures. Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was applied at a low or high dose (10(3) or 10(6) CFU ml(-1) ) to the soil of seedlings and mid-age plants. Supplementation of top soil with compost did not affect pathogen survival in the soil or on root surfaces suggesting that nutrients were not a limiting factor. Salmonella populations on root surfaces were 0.7-0.8 log CFU g(-1) less on mid-age plants compared to seedlings. E. coli O157:H7 populations on root surfaces were 0.8 log CFU g(-1) less for mid-age plants receiving 40 ml water compared to plants receiving 75 ml water on alternate days. Pre-harvest internalization of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella into lettuce roots was not observed at any time. CONCLUSION: Based on the environmental conditions and high pathogen populations in soil used in this study, internalization of Salmonella or E. coli O157:H7 into lettuce roots did not occur under practices that could be encountered by inexperienced home gardeners.

Erickson MC; Liao J; Payton AS; Webb CC; Ma L; Zhang G; Flitcroft I; Doyle MP; Beuchat LR

2013-07-01

152

Improvement of nutritional quality of greenhouse-grown lettuce by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is conditioned by the source of phosphorus nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The improvement of the nutritional quality of lettuce by its association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been recently reported in a previous study. The aim of this research was to evaluate if the fertilization with three P sources differing in water solubility affects the effectiveness of AMF for improving lettuce growth and nutritional quality. The application of either water-soluble P sources (Hewitt's solution and single superphosphate) or the water-insoluble (WI) fraction of a "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" did not exert negative effects on the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. AMF improved lettuce growth and nutritional quality. Nevertheless, the effect was dependent on the source of P and cultivar. Batavia Rubia Munguía (green cultivar) benefited more than Maravilla de Verano (red cultivar) in terms of mineral nutrients, total soluble sugars, and ascorbate contents. The association of lettuce with AMF resulted in greater quantities of anthocyanins in plants fertilized with WI, carotenoids when plants received either Hewitt's solution or WI, and phenolics regardless of the P fertilizer applied. PMID:21913649

Baslam, Marouane; Pascual, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Erro, Javier; García-Mina, José María; Goicoechea, Nieves

2011-10-04

153

Rapid determination of fosetyl-aluminum residues in lettuce by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of fosetyl-aluminum (Al) residues in vegetable samples. The method involves extraction with water by using a high-speed blender and subsequent injection of the 5-fold diluted extract into the liquid chromatograph. Fosetyl-Al is determined by liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry after the addition of tetrabutylammonium acetate as the ion-pairing reagent. The method has been used to assay lettuce samples spiked at 2 and 0.2 mg/kg. Recoveries were satisfactory, with mean values of 98 and 106%, respectively, and relative standard deviations were fosetyl-Al residues in lettuce with very little sample handling and good sensitivity; it was shown to be robust by the analysis of almost 100 samples. PMID:14509444

Hernández, Félix; Sancho, Juan V; Pozo, Oscar J; Villaplana, Carme; Ibáñez, María; Grimalt, Susana

154

Use of a common laboratory glassware detergent improves recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from lettuce, herbs and raspberries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded onto spinach and raspberries and washed with de-ionized water were 38.4 ± 10.1% and 34.9 ± 6.2%, respectively. Two alternative wash solutions viz. 1M glycine, pH 5.5 and a detachment solution were tested also using labeled C. parvum seeded spinach and raspberries. No statistically significant difference was noted in the recovery rates. However, a wash solution containing 0.1% Alconox, a laboratory glassware detergent, resulted in a significant improvement in oocyst recovery. 72.6 ± 6.6% C. parvum oocysts were recovered from basil when washed with 0.1% Alconox compared to 47.9 ± 5.8% using detachment solution. Also, C. cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto lettuces, herbs and raspberries and the recovery using de-ionized water were compared to 0.1% Alconox wash: basil 17.5 ± 5.0% to 76.1 ± 14.0%, lollo rosso lettuce 38.3 ± 5.5% to 72.5 ± 8.1%, Tango leaf lettuce 45.9 ± 5.4% to 71.1 ± 7.8% and spring mix (mesclun) 39.8 ± 0.7% to 80.2 ± 11.3%, respectively. These results suggest that the use of Alconox in a wash solution significantly improves recovery resulting in the detection of these parasitic protozoa on high risk foods.

Shields JM; Lee MM; Murphy HR

2012-02-01

155

Simulación computacional del crecimiento de la población de Lemna sp en el Lago de Maracaibo Computational simulation of duckweed population growth rate in Lake Maracaibo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad determinar las áreas de mayor reproducción de Lemna sp en el Lago de Maracaibo, incorporando en el modelo hidrodinámico MIKE 3 un modelo matemático que estima la tasa de crecimiento de Lemna sp considerando los parámetros que influyen en la misma. El modelo matemático propuesto es desarrollado a partir de un estudio previo sobre modelaje de crecimiento de Lemna en función del nitrógeno, realizado por Landesman, afectado adicionalmente por los parámetros fósforo, salinidad y temperatura. Luego de ajustar el modelo matemático a las condiciones del Lago es introducido al modelo computacional hidrodinámico para simular el crecimiento de Lemna sp en los meses de enero a noviembre; etapa que abarca los períodos seco y lluvioso característicos de la zona. Los resultados de las simulaciones son comparados con imágenes del satélite MODIS, obteniéndose coincidencias en las zonas de mayor crecimiento de Lemna sp. También se realiza un análisis mes a mes de los resultados, encontrando diferencias entre los períodos seco y lluvioso; con un aumento del potencial de crecimiento de Lemna sp en el período lluvioso tanto en la bolsa del Lago como en el estrecho de Maracaibo.The present work has the purpose of determining the zones of highest growth rate of Lemna sp (duckweed) in Lake Maracaibo using a hydrodynamic circulation model (MIKE 3), and a mathematical model to estimate the rate of growth of this aquatic plant. The proposed mathematical model is developed starting from a study on modeling duckweed growth as a function of nitrogen carried out by Landesman, affected additionally by phosphorus, salinity and temperature parameters. After fitting the mathematical model to lake conditions, it is introduced to the computational hydrodynamic model to simulate growth of duckweed from january to november, which comprises a dry and a rainy season, characteristic of the area. The results of the simulations are compared with images of the lake from the MODIS the satellite, showing similarities in the areas of higher growth of duckweed. Also an analysis month by month of the results is carried out, finding differences among the dry and rainy seasons; with an increase of the potential of growth of duckweed towards the rainy season in the Lake as well as in the strait of Maracaibo.

Gustavo Badell; Janett Flores; José Rincón; María Rubio

2008-01-01

156

Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France was found to be the vehicle.

Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.

2010-01-01

157

Effect of the Municipal Garbage on the Growth of Lettuce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Municipal Garbage (MG) as a plant nutrient supply was evaluated. Some of the garbage was collected from Hail city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The garbage was fermented partially after removing its contents of stones and metals. Lettuce plants were transplanted in five greenhouse pot experiments. In th...

K.N. Al-Redhaiman; I.N. Nassar; I.S. Al-Salamah

158

Microbiological Quality of Bagged Cut Spinach and Lettuce Mixes?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of 100 bagged lettuce and spinach samples showed mean total bacterial counts of 7.0 log10 CFU/g and a broad range of <4 to 8.3 log10 CFU/g. Most probable numbers (MPN) of ?11,000 /g coliforms were found in 55 samples, and generic Escherichia coli bacteria were detected in 16 samples, but no...

Valentin-Bon, Iris; Jacobson, Andrew; Monday, Steven R.; Feng, Peter C. H.

159

Effect of Gypsum Application on Enzymatic Browning Activity in Lettuce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comprehensive study to evaluate calcium, in terms of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by soil dressing application, on enzymatic browning activity of Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and internal qualities was tested on lettuce var. Grand Rapids under field conditions. A factorial in completely ...

Prasit Chutichudet; B. Chutichudet; S. Kaewsit

160

Urine as a fertilizer for lettuce grown in greenhouse conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human urine has a fertilizer value that can be utilized to ensure sustainability in agriculture. This can be successful when the urine is safely used. In this experiment, urine from the dry toilet of Tampere University of Applied sciences was used to grow Australian Leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa). ...

Mburu, Catherine

 
 
 
 
161

Photosynthetic measurements in lettuce submitted to different agroindustrial residue composting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work was developed with the objective of evaluate effects of different organic composts on the photosynthesis, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence in lettuce grown under nursery conditions. The experiment was accomplished following a randomized design, with 14 treatments and four replications. Using the following treatments: T1 to T6 (sugarcane based substrates), T7 to T12 (coconut based substrates), T13 (manure) and T14 (mineral fertilization). The following parameters were evaluated: photosynthesis rate, respiration, stomata conductance, the ratio of internal to external CO2 concentrations (Ci /Ca), the efficiency of water use (A/E) and carboxylation efficiency (A/Ci), chlorophyll concentrations, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The plants of lettuce grewn with mineral fertilization and manure showed higher values of stomatal conductance. The treatments with sugarcane based substrates showed higher rates of photosynthesis, transpiration, carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll content, indicating that the better photosynthetic capacity when grown on these substrates.O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo avaliar os efeitos de doses de compostos orgânicos obtidos a partir de resíduos agroindustriais sobre as trocas gasosas e fluorescência da clorofila a em plantas de alface. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de viveiro, com delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 14 tratamentos e quatro repetições. Utilizando os seguintes tratamentos T1 a T6 (tratamentos com mistura básica de cana), T7 a T12 (tratamentos com mistura básica de coco), T13 (esterco) e T14 (fertilizantes minerais). Foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: fotossíntese, transpiração, condutância estomática, razão entre concentrações de CO2 intra/extracelular (Ci /Ca), eficiência instantânea do uso da água (A/E), eficiência de carboxilação (A/Ci), teor de clorofila e eficiência quântica máxima do fotossistema II (Fv/Fm). As plantas de alface cultivada com fertilizantes minerais e esterco revelaram valores maiores para condutância estomática. Os tratamentos com mistura básica de cana apresentaram maiores taxas de fotossíntese, transpiração, eficiência de carboxilação e teor de clorofila, indicando que a alface apresentou melhor capacidade fotossintética quando cultivadas nesses substratos.Este trabajo fue desarrollado con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de diferentes compuestos orgánicos derivados de residuos agro-industriales en el intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila a en la lechuga. Se realizó el experimento en condiciones de vivero, con un diseño completamente al azar con 14 tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Utilizando los siguientes tratamientos T1 a T6 (el tratamiento con la mezcla básica de la caña de azúcar), T7 a T12 (el tratamiento con la mezcla básica de coco), T13 (estiércol) y T14 (abonos minerales). Se evaluaron los siguientes parámetros: la fotosíntesis, la transpiración, la conductancia estomática, la relación de las concentraciones de CO2 intra/extracelular (Ci / Ca), la eficiencia instantánea del uso del agua (A/E), la eficiencia de carboxilación (A/Ci), el contenido de clorofila y la máxima eficiencia cuántica del fotosistema II (Fv/Fm). Las plantas de lechuga cultivadas con fertilizantes minerales y estiércol mostraron mayores valores de la conductancia estomática. Los tratamientos con mezcla básica de la caña de azúcar presentaran mayores tasas de fotosíntesis, transpiración, eficiencia de carboxilación y el contenido de clorofila, lo que indica que la lechuga tiene una mejor capacidad fotosintética cuando cultivada en estos sustratos.

Claudiana Moura dos Santos; Laurício Endres; Tâmara Claudia de Araújo Gomes; Cleber Júnior Jadoski; Luis Antonio do Nascimento; Emanuelle Dias dos Santos

2011-01-01

162

An Ophiovirus isolated from lettuce with big-vein symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Big-vein is a widespread and damaging disease of lettuce, transmitted through soil by the chytrid fungus Olpidium brassicae, and generally supposed to be caused by Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV; genus Varicosavirus). This virus is reported to have rigid rod-shaped particles, a divided double-stranded RNA genome, and one capsid protein of 48 kD, but has not been isolated or rigorously shown to cause the disease. We provide evidence that a totally different virus, here named Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), is also very frequently associated with lettuce showing big-vein symptoms. MiLV was mechanically transmissible from lettuce to Chenopodium quinoa and to several other herbaceous test plants. The virus was partially purified, and an antiserum prepared, which did not react with LBVV particles in decoration tests. As reported for LBVV, MiLV was labile, soil-transmitted and had a single capsid protein of 48 kD, but the particles morphologically resembled those of ophioviruses, and like these, MiLV had a genome of three RNA segments approximately 8.5, 1.9 and 1.7 kb in size. MiLV preparations reacted strongly in Western blots and in ISEM with antiserum to Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus, an ophiovirus from Japan also apparently Olpidium-transmitted. They reacted weakly but clearly in Western blots with antiserum to Ranunculus white mottle virus, another ophiovirus. When lettuce seedlings were mechanically inoculated with crude or partially purified extracts from MiLV-infected test plants, many became systemically infected with MiLV and some developed big-vein symptoms. Such plants did not react in ELISA using an LBVV antiserum or an antiserum to tobacco stunt virus, and varicosavirus-like particles were never seen in them in the EM after negative staining. We conclude that MiLV is a hitherto undescribed virus assignable to the genus Ophiovirus. The cause or causes of lettuce big-vein disease and the properties of LBVV may need to be re-evaluated in light of our results.

Roggero P; Ciuffo M; Vaira AM; Accotto GP; Masenga V; Milne RG

2000-01-01

163

An Ophiovirus isolated from lettuce with big-vein symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Big-vein is a widespread and damaging disease of lettuce, transmitted through soil by the chytrid fungus Olpidium brassicae, and generally supposed to be caused by Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV; genus Varicosavirus). This virus is reported to have rigid rod-shaped particles, a divided double-stranded RNA genome, and one capsid protein of 48 kD, but has not been isolated or rigorously shown to cause the disease. We provide evidence that a totally different virus, here named Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), is also very frequently associated with lettuce showing big-vein symptoms. MiLV was mechanically transmissible from lettuce to Chenopodium quinoa and to several other herbaceous test plants. The virus was partially purified, and an antiserum prepared, which did not react with LBVV particles in decoration tests. As reported for LBVV, MiLV was labile, soil-transmitted and had a single capsid protein of 48 kD, but the particles morphologically resembled those of ophioviruses, and like these, MiLV had a genome of three RNA segments approximately 8.5, 1.9 and 1.7 kb in size. MiLV preparations reacted strongly in Western blots and in ISEM with antiserum to Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus, an ophiovirus from Japan also apparently Olpidium-transmitted. They reacted weakly but clearly in Western blots with antiserum to Ranunculus white mottle virus, another ophiovirus. When lettuce seedlings were mechanically inoculated with crude or partially purified extracts from MiLV-infected test plants, many became systemically infected with MiLV and some developed big-vein symptoms. Such plants did not react in ELISA using an LBVV antiserum or an antiserum to tobacco stunt virus, and varicosavirus-like particles were never seen in them in the EM after negative staining. We conclude that MiLV is a hitherto undescribed virus assignable to the genus Ophiovirus. The cause or causes of lettuce big-vein disease and the properties of LBVV may need to be re-evaluated in light of our results. PMID:11205109

Roggero, P; Ciuffo, M; Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Masenga, V; Milne, R G

2000-01-01

164

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium in iceberg lettuce and the antimicrobial effect of rice vinegar against E. coli O157:H7.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The microbiological safety of fresh produce is a significant concern of consumers and industry. After applying at an inoculated level (about 10(6) CFUg(-1)) of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium on shredded iceberg lettuce and water samples individually, they were stored at 4 degrees C for 14 days and 22 degrees C for 7 days to monitor the growth and survival of pathogens. The results showed that at the end of 4 degrees C storage, populations of two pathogens in lettuce and water decreased approximately 1 log CFUg(-1). However, microbial levels on shredded lettuce increased 3 logs within 3 days at 22 degrees C. Vinegar (acetic acid) had been used to reduce populations of foodborne pathogens in foods; hence, the antimicrobial effect of rice vinegar on the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in inoculated lettuce (10(4) and 10(7) CFUg(-1)) is examined in this study. Results were observed that the treatment of inoculated lettuce (10(7) CFUg(-1)) with commercial vinegar containing 5% acetic acid (pH 3.0) for 5 min would reduce 3 logs population at 25 degrees C. Less than a 1-log decrease in bacterial numbers was recovered during 5 min exposure to 0.5% (pH 3.26) acetic acid.

Chang JM; Fang TJ

2007-10-01

165

Yield and Chemical Composition of Lettuce and Some Soil Characteristics as Affected by Irrigation with Wastewater  

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Full Text Available A field study was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, to investigate the effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on the yield and quality of lettuce and some soil characteristics. Five irrigation treatments were applied to a clay loam soil, classified as fine loamy mixed mesic Calcixerollic Xerochrepts, in a randomized block design with 5 replications. The treatments consisted of T1 (Irrigation with treated wastewater over all growing season), T2 (Alternate irrigation with treated wastewater and well water), T3 (Irrigation with well water and application of cattle manure), T4 (Irrigation with well water plus fertilizer N and P), and T5 (Irrigation with well water only as control). Chemical analysis of well water proved to be a suitable source for agriculture. The results showed that the yield was higher in T1, T2, T3 and T4 as compared to the control treatment. Maximum fresh and dry yields were obtained from T3 & T1 and T1 & T3, respectively. Plant tissue analysis showed an increase in macronutrients (N, P, K) and heavy metal concentrations in shoots and roots of lettuce in the first four treatments as compared to the control. In T1, iron concentration was maximum while that of cadmium was minimum. Furthermore, microbial contamination was considerably higher in T1 and T2. Soil analysis indicated that in plots treated with wastewater, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soluble boron and heavy metal concentration increased. However, their values were all below international standards. More experiments seem to be necessary in this regard.

A. Erfani; G.H. Haghnia; A. Alizadeh

2002-01-01

166

Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.). O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF) em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU) ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos.The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and the carbohydrates storage. The current trial intended to evaluate the effect of soil covering with blue colored film on consumptive water-use in a lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa, L.). The experiment was carried out in a plastic greenhouse in Araras - São Paulo State, Brazil from March 3rd, 2001 to May 5th, 2001. The consumptive water-use was measured through two weighing lysimeter installed inside the greenhouse. Crop spacing was 0.25 m x 0.25 m and the color of the film above soil was blue. Leaf area index (IAF), was measured six times (7; 14; 21; 28; 35; 40 days after transplant) and the water-use efficiency (EU) was measured at the end. The experimental design was subdivided portions with two treatments, "bare soil" and "covered soil". The average consumptive water-use was 4.17 mm day-1 to the "bare soil" treatment and 3.11 mm day-1 to the "covered soil" treatment. The final leaf area index was 25.23 to the "bare soil" treatment and 24.39 to the "covered soil" treatment, and there was no statistical difference between then.

Alexandre O. Gonçalves; Maria A. Fagnani; José G. Peres

2005-01-01

167

Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa/ Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade (more) metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.). O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF) em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU) ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. Abstract in english The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important microclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the pl (more) ants and the carbohydrates storage. The current trial intended to evaluate the effect of soil covering with blue colored film on consumptive water-use in a lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa, L.). The experiment was carried out in a plastic greenhouse in Araras - São Paulo State, Brazil from March 3rd, 2001 to May 5th, 2001. The consumptive water-use was measured through two weighing lysimeter installed inside the greenhouse. Crop spacing was 0.25 m x 0.25 m and the color of the film above soil was blue. Leaf area index (IAF), was measured six times (7; 14; 21; 28; 35; 40 days after transplant) and the water-use efficiency (EU) was measured at the end. The experimental design was subdivided portions with two treatments, "bare soil" and "covered soil". The average consumptive water-use was 4.17 mm day-1 to the "bare soil" treatment and 3.11 mm day-1 to the "covered soil" treatment. The final leaf area index was 25.23 to the "bare soil" treatment and 24.39 to the "covered soil" treatment, and there was no statistical difference between then.

Gonçalves, Alexandre O.; Fagnani, Maria A.; Peres, José G.

2005-12-01

168

[Comparative ecologic study of microbial biocenosis of the lettuce rhizosphere under various conditions of cultivation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The qualitative and quantitative composition of microorganisms occurring in the rhizosphere of lettuce plants grown in a Svet hot-house on the Balcanin substrate using humates, canned and silvered water was investigated. Microbiological experiments were carried out during a 300-day study within which 5 plant vegetations took place. In the course of a long-term use of the substrate. Gram-negative bacteria became inhibited, streptomycetes abundant and Penicillium and Trichoderma perdominant. The granulometric composition of the substrate and different photoperiods influenced rhizosphere microorganisms without changing substrate microorganisms. It can be concluded that humates and canned water help maintain microbiological activity of the plant rhizosphere which allows a longer-term use of the Balcanin substrate for plant cultivation in the Svet hot-house. PMID:2716275

Drugova, N A; Chernova, L S

169

[Comparative ecologic study of microbial biocenosis of the lettuce rhizosphere under various conditions of cultivation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The qualitative and quantitative composition of microorganisms occurring in the rhizosphere of lettuce plants grown in a Svet hot-house on the Balcanin substrate using humates, canned and silvered water was investigated. Microbiological experiments were carried out during a 300-day study within which 5 plant vegetations took place. In the course of a long-term use of the substrate. Gram-negative bacteria became inhibited, streptomycetes abundant and Penicillium and Trichoderma perdominant. The granulometric composition of the substrate and different photoperiods influenced rhizosphere microorganisms without changing substrate microorganisms. It can be concluded that humates and canned water help maintain microbiological activity of the plant rhizosphere which allows a longer-term use of the Balcanin substrate for plant cultivation in the Svet hot-house.

Drugova NA; Chernova LS

1989-03-01

170

Effect of Wastewater from Quetta City on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was concerned to the effects of 5 various level of polluted water of three different localities of Quetta city (viz., Chiltan Ghee Mill, Chiltan Town and Zarghoon Town) on seed germination and seedling growth of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The Lettuce was taken as a test plant and its seeds were germinated in petri-dishes in the Laboratory. Results showed that seed germination was significantly reduced and delayed as the concentration of wastewater (domestic and industrial effluents) increased. Seedling growth (radical and plumule length) also showed adverse effect in response to increasing level of polluted water. Whereas, plumule growth was comparatively better than that of radical subjected to initial doses of polluted water. However, by comparing the source of polluted water, maximum reduction in germination and seedling growth were obtained in the effluents of Chiltan Ghee Mill followed by domestic sewage of Chiltan and Zarghoon towns, respectively. It can be safely concluded that polluted water is becoming a threat for the crops with the passage of time as more and more wastes are becoming the part of it. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the effects of polluted water on plants. Through appropriate awareness campaigns the communities in general and notables in particular, should be made aware of the harmful effects of the activity within the traditional norms and practices.

Zahoor Ahmad Bazai; Abdul Kabir Khan Achakzai

2006-01-01

171

Aceptabilidad de lechuga de hoja fresca troceada, tratada con ácido ascórbico mediante hidroenfriamiento/ Acceptability of fresh cut leaf lettuce treated with ascorbic acid applied by hydrocooling  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto del ácido ascórbico aplicado mediante dos métodos de hidroenfriamiento sobre la aceptabilidad general, sabor y apariencia de lechuga verde de hoja troceada, así como la relación entre el sabor y la apariencia de la lechuga de hoja procesada sobre la aceptabilidad general de este producto. La lechuga de hoja fue hidroenfriada con una solución de ácido ascórbico al 1% mediante inmersión y aspersión, o con agua por inmersión. Se uso como contr (more) ol a lechuga no hidroenfriada. Las soluciones para tratamientos fueron aplicadas a 5 ºC por 2 min, y la lechuga fue luego empacada en bolsas de polietileno impermeables a la humedad, almacenada a 5 ºC por 14 días, y evaluada en los días 1, 7 y 14 de almacenamiento. La aceptabilidad general de la lechuga de hoja procesada (troceada y empacada) estuvo altamente correlacionada con su sabor (R²= 0.85), pero no con su apariencia (R²= 0.39). Todos los tratamientos mantuvieron sus valores de aceptabilidad general y sabor durante el almacenamiento de 14 días (p>0.05). Sin embargo, la lechuga hidroenfriada mediante aspersión con ácido ascórbico y la no hidroenfriada (control) fueron los únicos tratamientos que mantuvieron su apariencia durante el estudio. Es requerida más experimentación con la aplicación de ácido ascórbico mediante hidroenfriamiento para garantizar su utilidad para la conservación de la calidad sensorial de la lechuga de hoja procesada durante su almacenamiento. Abstract in english We assessed the effect of ascorbic acid, applied by two hydrocooling methods, on the overall acceptability, taste and appearance of cut green leaf lettuce, and the relationship between the taste and appearance of processed leaf lettuce regarding the overall acceptability of this product. Leaf lettuce was hydrocooled with a solution of 1% ascorbic acid by immersion and spraying, or by immersion in water. Non-hydrocooled lettuce was used as control. The treatment solutions (more) were applied at 5 °C for 2 min, and the lettuce was then packed in polyethylene bags, impervious to moisture, stored at 5 °C for 14 days, and evaluated after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The overall acceptability of processed leaf lettuce (cut and packed) was highly correlated with its taste (R²= 0.85), but not with its appearance (R²= 0.39). All treatments maintained the overall acceptability values and taste of the lettuce during the 14 days of storage (p> 0.05). However, the lettuce that was hydrocooled by spraying with ascorbic acid, and the non-hydrocooled lettuce (control) were the only treatments that maintained appearance during the study. Further experimentation with the application of ascorbic acid by hydrocooling is required to ensure its usefulness for maintaining the sensory quality of processed leaf lettuce during storage.

Esparza-Rivera, Juan Ramón; Navarro Bravo, Agustín; Kendall, Patricia; Fortis Hernández, Manuel; Preciado Rangel, Pablo; Meza Velázquez, Jorge Armando

2013-08-01

172

Tentoxin. An uncompetitive inhibitor of lettuce chloroplast coupling factor 1.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of tentoxin [cyclo-(-L-leucyl-N-methyl-(Z)-dehydrophenylalanyl-glycyl-N-methyl-L-alanyl-)] with solubilized lettuce chloroplast coupling factor 1 was characterized by direct binding studies, measurement of the time course of ATPase inhibition, and steady-state enzyme kinetics. Neither substrates, products or Ca2+ competed with the tentoxin binding site, nor did they induce any large change in tentoxin affinity. The inhibition of lettuce chloroplast coupling factor 1 ATPase was found to be the time dependent, and at equilibrium the affinities estimated by equilibrium ultrafiltration and enzyme inhibition were similar (1.8 . 10(8) M-1). The steady-state kinetics best fit an uncompetitive pattern suggesting that the inhibited steps follow an irreversible step occurring after ATP binding. PMID:145874

Steele, J A; Durbin, R D; Uchytil, T F; Rich, D H

1978-01-11

173

Tentoxin. An uncompetitive inhibitor of lettuce chloroplast coupling factor 1.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The interaction of tentoxin [cyclo-(-L-leucyl-N-methyl-(Z)-dehydrophenylalanyl-glycyl-N-methyl-L-alanyl-)] with solubilized lettuce chloroplast coupling factor 1 was characterized by direct binding studies, measurement of the time course of ATPase inhibition, and steady-state enzyme kinetics. Neither substrates, products or Ca2+ competed with the tentoxin binding site, nor did they induce any large change in tentoxin affinity. The inhibition of lettuce chloroplast coupling factor 1 ATPase was found to be the time dependent, and at equilibrium the affinities estimated by equilibrium ultrafiltration and enzyme inhibition were similar (1.8 . 10(8) M-1). The steady-state kinetics best fit an uncompetitive pattern suggesting that the inhibited steps follow an irreversible step occurring after ATP binding.

Steele JA; Durbin RD; Uchytil TF; Rich DH

1978-01-01

174

Fate of [14C]-zineb on lettuce plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[1,2-14C]-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb) was prepared and applied in droplets to leaves of lettuce plants. In aqueous suspension zineb decomposes mainly into ethylenethiourea (ETU) and 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-C]-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione (DIDT). Lettuce plants were harvested 0,1,3,7,14 and 21 days after treatment and analysed. A high proportion of radioactivity remained on the surface of the plant and could be washed off. The following identified products were present: unchanged zineb, ETU, DIDT, 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea. The ETU residue disappeared within 7 days, while 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea were formed gradually. Radioactivity inside the plant consisted mostly of ethyleneurea: no ETU was present. (author)

1976-01-01

175

Damage Threshold of Meloidogyne hapla to Lettuce in Organic Soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce was seeded in pots in the greenhouse and in field microplots in 1991 and 1992. Pots and microplots were filled with untreated or fumigated organic soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla at seven initial population densities (Pi) (0 to 32 eggs/cm(3) soil). Lettuce weight, severity of root galling, and number of eggs per root system (Pf) were determined after 8 weeks. At the highest Pi, M. hapla caused yield losses up to 64% in the microplots and plant death in the greenhouse tests. The Seinhorst equation was used to describe the relation between lettuce weight and Pi (r(2) = 0.73 - 0.98) and to calculate the damage threshold density (T). Values of T were 7 and 8 eggs/cm(3) soil in the greenhouse tests of 1991 and 1992, respectively. In the microplot tests, T was 1 egg/cm(3) soil in 1991 and 2 eggs/cm(3) soil in 1992. The damage threshold was the same in untreated and fumigated soils. At low Pi, root galling was more severe in the pots than in the microplots. Pf increased with increasing Pi of M. hapla in both tests, but declined at Pi > T in the greenhouse tests. The reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of M. hapla was highest at the lowest Pi. PMID:19277172

Viaene, N M; Abawi, G S

1996-12-01

176

Damage Threshold of Meloidogyne hapla to Lettuce in Organic Soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce was seeded in pots in the greenhouse and in field microplots in 1991 and 1992. Pots and microplots were filled with untreated or fumigated organic soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla at seven initial population densities (Pi) (0 to 32 eggs/cm(3) soil). Lettuce weight, severity of root galling, and number of eggs per root system (Pf) were determined after 8 weeks. At the highest Pi, M. hapla caused yield losses up to 64% in the microplots and plant death in the greenhouse tests. The Seinhorst equation was used to describe the relation between lettuce weight and Pi (r(2) = 0.73 - 0.98) and to calculate the damage threshold density (T). Values of T were 7 and 8 eggs/cm(3) soil in the greenhouse tests of 1991 and 1992, respectively. In the microplot tests, T was 1 egg/cm(3) soil in 1991 and 2 eggs/cm(3) soil in 1992. The damage threshold was the same in untreated and fumigated soils. At low Pi, root galling was more severe in the pots than in the microplots. Pf increased with increasing Pi of M. hapla in both tests, but declined at Pi > T in the greenhouse tests. The reproduction rate (Pf/Pi) of M. hapla was highest at the lowest Pi.

Viaene NM; Abawi GS

1996-12-01

177

Effect of Gypsum Application on Enzymatic Browning Activity in Lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comprehensive study to evaluate calcium, in terms of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) by soil dressing application, on enzymatic browning activity of Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and internal qualities was tested on lettuce var. Grand Rapids under field conditions. A factorial in completely randomized design was arranged with four replications. The results showed that plants-treated with 50 mg kg-1 gypsum applied at 40 DAP had the maximal fresh weight of 25.83 g plant-1. The internal qualities of the lettuce at harvest showed that plants treated with 50 mg kg-1 gypsum had the maximal chlorophyll content (26.80 mg m-2), while all gypsum concentrations applied in this study, had less content of ascorbic acid than the control plants. Plants-treated with 100 mg kg-1 gypsum affected to the lowest level of PPO activity at week 3 after transplanting. Furthermore, gypsum application had no effect to biomass, leaf colour, the contents of phenolic and quinone in lettuce at harvesting stage.

Prasit Chutichudet; B. Chutichudet; S. Kaewsit

2009-01-01

178

Frequency distribution analyses of lettuce drop caused by Slerotinia minor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The location of lettuce plants with symptoms of lettuce drop, which is caused by Sclerotinia minor, was mapped in six lettuce fields 2- 3 wk before harvest. Disease incidence ranged from 2.00 to 9.16%. Frequency distribution analyses were performed with different sizes and numbers of quadrats. Eight different frequency distributions were analyzed for goodness of fit to the data by the chi square (X2) goodness-of-fit test. Quadrat size and number of quadrats influenced the type of distribution model fit and the goodness of fit of the frequency distributions. In only one instance was the Poisson distribution fit (X2 P = 0.88)?when Field 1 was sampled with a quadrat size of 0.9 by 0.9 m. In all other cases, the X2 probability for the Poisson distribution was less than 0.01. Of the distributions tested, the negative binomial distribution was fit most often. Lloyd's index of mean patchiness ranged from 1.10 to 3.62, indicating various degrees of aggregation. Lloyd's index of mean patchiness is a better index to compare the degree of aggregation because it does not require a goodness-of-fit test, was not affected by the mean in this study, and was not affected significantly (P?0.05) by quadrat size. The standard-runs test also indicated that the disease was not random.

Marois JJ; Adams PB

1985-08-01

179

Internalization of sapovirus, a surrogate for norovirus, in romaine lettuce and the effect of lettuce latex on virus infectivity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Noroviruses are the leading cause of food-borne outbreaks, including those that involve lettuce. The culturable porcine sapovirus (SaV) was used as a norovirus surrogate to study the persistence and the potential transfer of the virus from roots to leaves and from outer to inner leaves of lettuce plants. Treatment of lettuce with SaV was done through the roots of young plants, the soil, or the outer leaves of mature plants. Sampling of roots, xylem sap, and inner and outer leaves followed by RNA extraction and SaV-specific real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was performed at 2 h and on postinoculation days (PID) 2, 5, 7, 14, and/or 28. When SaV was inoculated through the roots, viral RNA persisted on the roots and in the leaves until PID 28. When the virus was inoculated through the soil, viral RNA was detected on the roots and in the xylem sap until PID 14; viral RNA was detected in the leaves only until PID 2. No infectious virus was detected inside the leaves for either treatment. When SaV was inoculated through the outer leaves, viral RNA persisted on the leaves until PID 14; however, the virus did not transfer to inner leaves. Infectious viral particles on leaves were detected only at 2 h postinoculation. The milky sap (latex) of leaves, but not the roots' xylem sap, significantly decreased virus infectivity when tested in vitro. Collectively, our results showed the transfer of SaV from roots to leaves through the xylem system and the capacity of the sap of lettuce leaves to decrease virus infectivity in leaves.

Esseili MA; Wang Q; Zhang Z; Saif LJ

2012-09-01

180

76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection...United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on this analysis, we believe that...importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. We are making the pest risk...

2011-08-17

 
 
 
 
181

76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United States AGENCY...United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest risk...importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. DATES: Effective Date: December...

2011-12-28

182

Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and number of leaves per plant of the lettuce grown in the 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ and OP were the highest, which showed increased values compared with that of PL by 11.56, 9.77, 3.48, 17.35 and 16.53%, respectively. The shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight, root fresh weight, root dry weight and number of leaves per plant of the lettuce grown in the 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ and OP showed increased percentages compared with that of PE by 12.12, 11.37, 3.74, 23.66 and 17.50%, respectively. In addition, the growth and yield parameters of lettuce grown in the 1 : 3 mixing ratio and the OP did not show any significant difference with PL and PE but differed from the 1 : 10 mixing ratio. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice. PMID:19039073

Jayasinghe, Guttila Y; Tokashiki, Yoshihiro; Kitou, Makato; Kinjo, Kazutoshi

2008-12-01

183

ROLE OF PH IN THE ACCUMULATION OF LEAD AND NICKEL BY COMMON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy metals are the most common non-biodegradable pollutants. Various remediation methods have been used for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated water. However, phytoremediation technology is currently being used due to its economically feasible and ecologically viable advantages. The aim of this study was to examine the role of pH in the accumulation capacity of Lemna minor in Pb and Ni contaminated water. The removal rate of Pb and Ni from L. minor was 99.99% and 99.30% respectively, after 28 days of exposure to the 10 mgl-1 Pb and Ni contaminated water at pH 5-6 and pH 6 respectively. // //

Leela Kaur; Kasturi Gadgil; Satyawati Sharma

2012-01-01

184

VARIATION FOR RESISTANCE TO VERTICILLIUM WILT IN LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Host resistance offers the most cost-effective control method of Verticillium wilt of lettuce, caused by V. dahliae. One hundred and seven lettuce cultivars were screened in infested fields for resistance and disease progress on resistant and susceptible cultivars was determined. Subsequent greenhou...

185

Transcriptional and functional responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 growing in the lettuce rhizoplane.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce and spinach are increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks due to contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. While this bacterium has been shown to colonize and survive on lettuce leaf surfaces, little is known about its interaction with the roots of growing lettuce plants. In these studies, a microarray analyses, mutant construction and confocal microscopy were used to gain an understanding of structure and function of bacterial genes involved in the colonization and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce roots. After three days of interaction with lettuce roots, 94 and 109 E. coli O157:H7 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated at least 1.5 fold, respectively. While genes involved in biofilm modulation (ycfR and ybiM) were significantly up-regulated, 40 of 109 (37%) of genes involved in protein synthesis were significantly repressed. E. coli O157:H7 was 2 logs less efficient in lettuce root colonization than was E. coli K12. We also unambiguously showed that a ?ycfR mutant of E. coli O157:H7 was unable to attach to or colonize lettuce roots. Taken together these results indicate that bacterial genes involved in attachment and biofilm formation are likely important for contamination of lettuce plants with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. PMID:23664265

Hou, Zhe; Fink, Ryan C; Sugawara, Masayuki; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Sadowsky, Michael J

2013-03-19

186

Transcriptional and functional responses of Escherichia coli O157:H7 growing in the lettuce rhizoplane.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce and spinach are increasingly implicated in foodborne illness outbreaks due to contamination by Escherichia coli O157:H7. While this bacterium has been shown to colonize and survive on lettuce leaf surfaces, little is known about its interaction with the roots of growing lettuce plants. In these studies, a microarray analyses, mutant construction and confocal microscopy were used to gain an understanding of structure and function of bacterial genes involved in the colonization and growth of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce roots. After three days of interaction with lettuce roots, 94 and 109 E. coli O157:H7 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated at least 1.5 fold, respectively. While genes involved in biofilm modulation (ycfR and ybiM) were significantly up-regulated, 40 of 109 (37%) of genes involved in protein synthesis were significantly repressed. E. coli O157:H7 was 2 logs less efficient in lettuce root colonization than was E. coli K12. We also unambiguously showed that a ?ycfR mutant of E. coli O157:H7 was unable to attach to or colonize lettuce roots. Taken together these results indicate that bacterial genes involved in attachment and biofilm formation are likely important for contamination of lettuce plants with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains.

Hou Z; Fink RC; Sugawara M; Diez-Gonzalez F; Sadowsky MJ

2013-09-01

187

Effects of phosphorus fertility on competition between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Field studies were conducted to determine the influence of phosphorus (P) fertility and method of application (banded versus broadcast) on the competitive interaction of lettuce and spiny amaranth. Weed density significantly affected lettuce head weight and spiny amaranth shoot biomass after 5 wk of interference. Weed density and duration of interference had little or no effect on P content of lettuce tissue. Duration of interference did affect P concentration of spiny amaranth; however, weed density did not spiny amaranth competition reduced lettuce yield, but P was not the limiting factor: Duration of interference and method of P application interactively affected lettuce head weight; however, only duration of interference affected spiny amaranth biomass. Seven wk of interference caused a decrease in lettuce head weight of 20, 8, and 24% when P was broadcast banded, or not applied, respectively. Banding of P reduced the negative impact of spiny amaranth on lettuce. Although method of P application influenced the interaction between lettuce and spiny amaranth, interspecific competition between the two species probably was not due to competition for P but some other factor.

Shrefler JW; Dusky JA; Shilling DG; Brecke BJ; Sanchez CA

1994-12-01

188

Development of rapid pathogenicity assay for Verticillium dahliae using early flowering lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional assays of Verticillium wilt on lettuce require approximately three months from the time of seeding. A reduction in time required for analyses of symptom development would be useful in studies of the Verticillium dahliae-lettuce interaction. In this study, a growth chamber assay was ev...

189

CHARACTERIZATION OF RACE-SPECIFIC INTERACTIONS AMONG ISOLATES OF VERTICILLIUM DAHLIAE PATHOGENIC ON LETTUCE  

Science.gov (United States)

Verticillium wilt, caused by Verticillium dahliae poses a major threat to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) production in California. Incorporation of resistance into commercial lettuce cultivars offers the least expensive technique of sustaining production in infested areas. To test the breadth of the resis...

190

Phytotoxicity to transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa) of three pre-emergence herbicides: metolachlor, pendimethalin, and propachlor.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phytotoxicity of the pre-emergence herbicides metolachlor, pendimethalin, and propachlor to heading lettuce was investigated in 5 experiments conducted in southern Queensland during 1990-91. Metolachlor was applied before transplanting lettuce seedlings in 2 experiments. On a krasnozem soil at Toowoomba, spraying >1.75 kg a.i./ha reduced lettuce growth and the number of marketable lettuce heads. When applied on a black earth at Gatton, 1.44 kg a.i./ha stunted the lettuce and reduced the number of marketable heads by 30% compared with hand-weeded treatments. On both soils, 2.2-2.9 kg a.i./ha of metolachlor is recommended for broadleaf weed control in other crops. The risks of phytotoxicity from such rates preclude its use in transplanted lettuce in this environment. Lettuce were severely stunted from application of 1 kg a.i./ha of pendimethalin after transplanting. Spraying at the same rate before transplanting initially reduced lettuce width in 1 of 4 experiments, but the lettuce recovered. Lettuce yields from areas treated with 1 kg a.i./ha before transplanting were unaffected. The number and size of harvested heads tended to decline where >1.3 kg a.i./ha was applied. Higher rates (up to 1.5 kg a.i./ha) may be acceptable on krasnozem soils. Use of pendimethalin at 1-1.3 kg a.i./ha would control or suppress many important broadleaf weeds in lettuce, as well as a range of grasses. Propachlor was less phytotoxic when applied immediately after transplanting the lettuce seedlings than when sprayed before transplanting. Yields were unaffected from application of 2-2.5 kg a.i./ha after transplanting on black earth and sandy soils. When sprayed before transplanting, >2 kg a.i./ha caused significant yield reductions in several experiments, although lettuce grown on a krasnozem soil appeared more tolerant. Use of 2 kg a.i./ha of propachlor would give a suppressive effect against several broadleaf weeds, but another herbicide would also be required to achieve effective weed control. A spraying strategy involving pendimethalin and propachlor herbicides in transplanted lettuce has the potential to reduce weed control costs by up to 80%.

Henderson CWL; Webber MJ

1993-01-01

191

Optimization of chitosan treatments for managing microflora in lettuce seeds without affecting germination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Many studies have focused on seed decontamination but no one has been capable of eliminating all pathogenic bacteria. Two objectives were followed. First, to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of chitosan against: (a) Escherichia coli O157:H7, (b) native microflora of lettuce and (c) native microflora of lettuce seeds. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of chitosan on reducing microflora on lettuce seeds. The overall goal was to find a combination of contact time and chitosan concentration that reduces the microflora of lettuce seeds, without affecting germination. After treatment lettuce seeds presented no detectable microbial counts (<10(2)CFU/50 seeds) for all populations. Moreover, chitosan eliminated E. coli. Regardless of the reduction in the microbial load, a 90% reduction on germination makes imbibition with chitosan, uneconomical. Subsequent treatments identified the optimal treatment as 10 min contact with a 10 g/L chitosan solution, which maintained the highest germination percentage.

Goñi MG; Moreira MR; Viacava GE; Roura SI

2013-01-01

192

Oil palm waste and synthetic zeolite: an alternative soil-less growth substrate for lettuce production as a waste management practice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to assess the characteristics and the prospective utilization of oil palm waste (OP) and synthetic zeolite (SZ) developed by coal fly ash, as an alternative substrate to peat and commercial perlite for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The SZ, OP, sphagnum peat (PE), perlite (PL) and two different SZ-OP mixtures (v/v) at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 were utilized as the substrates under this study. The substrates formulated by mixing SZ with OP at the ratio of 1 : 3 and 1 : 10 showed improved substrate physical and chemical properties such as air space, bulk density, particle density, water-holding capacity, pH and electrical conductivity (EC), which were in the ideal substrate range when compared with PL. Furthermore, the water-holding capacity of the substrate having a 1 : 10 mixing ratio of SZ with OP was higher than that of the PL by 28.23%, whereas the bulk density was lower than that of PL by 35%. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to assess the influence of the substrates on the growth and development of lettuce. The results of the study suggest that the SZ-OP-based substrates and OP can be successfully utilized as alternatives to the commercial perlite and to substitute the conventional peat substrate for lettuce cultivation. In addition, this can be proposed as an alternative waste management practice.

Jayasinghe, G.Y.; Tokashiki, Y.; Kitou, M.; Kinjo, K. [Kagoshima University, Kagoshima (Japan). United Graduate School of Agricultural Science

2008-12-15

193

Host resistance to Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus and Lettuce big-vein associated virus and virus sequence diversity and frequency in California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Big vein is an economically damaging disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) caused by the Olpidium brassicae-vectored Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV). Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) is also frequently identified in symptomatic plants, but no causal relationship has been demonstrated. Although big vein is a perennial problem in the United States, the extent of MLBVV and LBVaV infection and diversity is unknown. Lettuce cultivars partially resistant to big vein reduce losses, but do not eliminate disease. While Lactuca virosa does not develop big vein symptoms, it has not been tested for infection with MLBVV or LBVaV. Lettuce cultivars Great Lakes 65, Pavane, Margarita, and L. virosa accession IVT280 were evaluated for big vein incidence and virus infection in inoculated greenhouse trials. Additional lettuce samples were collected from field sites in California, classified for symptom severity, and evaluated for virus infection. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing were used to determine infection with MLBVV and LBVaV, and sequence diversity among viral isolates, respectively. Infections with MLBVV and MLBVV/LBVaV were dependent on big vein symptom expression in California production areas, and isolates were closely related to those found in Europe and Japan. Partial big vein resistance was identified in Margarita and Pavane; however, MLBVV infection was found in asymptomatic plants. L. virosa IVT280 remained symptomless and virus free, suggesting that it is immune to MLBVV and LBVaV.

Hayes RJ; Wintermantel WM; Nicely PA; Ryder EJ

2006-02-01

194

Analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression during turion formation induced by abscisic acid in Spirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquatic plants differ in their development from terrestrial plants in their morphology and physiology, but little is known about the molecular basis of the major phases of their life cycle. Interestingly, in place of seeds of terrestrial plants their dormant phase is represented by turions, which circumvents sexual reproduction. However, like seeds turions provide energy storage for starting the next growing season. Results To begin a characterization of the transition from the growth to the dormant phase we used abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, to induce controlled turion formation in Spirodela polyrhiza and investigated their differentiation from fronds, representing their growth phase, into turions with respect to morphological, ultra-structural characteristics, and starch content. Turions were rich in anthocyanin pigmentation and had a density that submerged them to the bottom of liquid medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of turions showed in comparison to fronds shrunken vacuoles, smaller intercellular space, and abundant starch granules surrounded by thylakoid membranes. Turions accumulated more than 60% starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment. To further understand the mechanism of the developmental switch from fronds to turions, we cloned and sequenced the genes of three large-subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (APLs). All three putative protein and exon sequences were conserved, but the corresponding genomic sequences were extremely variable mainly due to the invasion of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) into introns. A molecular three-dimensional model of the SpAPLs was consistent with their regulatory mechanism in the interaction with the substrate (ATP) and allosteric activator (3-PGA) to permit conformational changes of its structure. Gene expression analysis revealed that each gene was associated with distinct temporal expression during turion formation. APL2 and APL3 were highly expressed in earlier stages of turion development, while APL1 expression was reduced throughout turion development. Conclusions These results suggest that the differential expression of APLs could be used to enhance energy flow from photosynthesis to storage of carbon in aquatic plants, making duckweeds a useful alternative biofuel feedstock.

Wang Wenqin; Messing Joachim

2012-01-01

195

Analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression during turion formation induced by abscisic acid in Spirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aquatic plants differ in their development from terrestrial plants in their morphology and physiology, but little is known about the molecular basis of the major phases of their life cycle. Interestingly, in place of seeds of terrestrial plants their dormant phase is represented by turions, which circumvents sexual reproduction. However, like seeds turions provide energy storage for starting the next growing season. RESULTS: To begin a characterization of the transition from the growth to the dormant phase we used abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone, to induce controlled turion formation in Spirodela polyrhiza and investigated their differentiation from fronds, representing their growth phase, into turions with respect to morphological, ultra-structural characteristics, and starch content. Turions were rich in anthocyanin pigmentation and had a density that submerged them to the bottom of liquid medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of turions showed in comparison to fronds shrunken vacuoles, smaller intercellular space, and abundant starch granules surrounded by thylakoid membranes. Turions accumulated more than 60% starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment. To further understand the mechanism of the developmental switch from fronds to turions, we cloned and sequenced the genes of three large-subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (APLs). All three putative protein and exon sequences were conserved, but the corresponding genomic sequences were extremely variable mainly due to the invasion of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) into introns. A molecular three-dimensional model of the SpAPLs was consistent with their regulatory mechanism in the interaction with the substrate (ATP) and allosteric activator (3-PGA) to permit conformational changes of its structure. Gene expression analysis revealed that each gene was associated with distinct temporal expression during turion formation. APL2 and APL3 were highly expressed in earlier stages of turion development, while APL1 expression was reduced throughout turion development. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the differential expression of APLs could be used to enhance energy flow from photosynthesis to storage of carbon in aquatic plants, making duckweeds a useful alternative biofuel feedstock.

Wang W; Messing J

2012-01-01

196

Survival of Pathogenic Escherichia Coli on Basil, Lettuce, and Spinach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix substrate using drip and overhead irrigation. When overhead inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each strain, E. coli populations were significantly (P = 0.03) higher on overhead-irrigated plants than on drip-irrigated plants. APECstx-, E. coli O104:H4 and APECstx+ populations were recovered on plants at 3.6, 2.3 and 3.1 log CFU/g at 10 dpi (days post-inoculation), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected on basil after 4 dpi. The persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and APECstx- were similar when co-inoculated on lettuce and spinach plants. On spinach and lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 and APEC populations declined from 5.7 to 6.1 log CFU/g and 4.5 log CFU/g, to undetectable at 3 dpi and 0.6-1.6 log CFU/g at 7 dpi, respectively. The detection of low populations of APEC and E. coli O104:H4 strains 10 dpi indicates these strains may be more adapted to environmental conditions than E. coli O157:H7. This is the first reported study of E. coli O104:H4 on a produce commodity.

Markland SM; Shortlidge KL; Hoover DG; Yaron S; Patel J; Singh A; Sharma M; Kniel KE

2012-12-01

197

Survival of Pathogenic Escherichia Coli on Basil, Lettuce, and Spinach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contamination of lettuce, spinach and basil with pathogenic E. coli has caused numerous illnesses over the past decade. E. coli O157:H7, E. coli O104:H4 and avian pathogenic E. coli (APECstx- and APECstx+) were inoculated on basil plants and in promix substrate using drip and overhead irrigation. When overhead inoculated with 7 log CFU/ml of each strain, E. coli populations were significantly (P = 0.03) higher on overhead-irrigated plants than on drip-irrigated plants. APECstx-, E. coli O104:H4 and APECstx+ populations were recovered on plants at 3.6, 2.3 and 3.1 log CFU/g at 10 dpi (days post-inoculation), respectively. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected on basil after 4 dpi. The persistence of E. coli O157:H7 and APECstx- were similar when co-inoculated on lettuce and spinach plants. On spinach and lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 and APEC populations declined from 5.7 to 6.1 log CFU/g and 4.5 log CFU/g, to undetectable at 3 dpi and 0.6-1.6 log CFU/g at 7 dpi, respectively. The detection of low populations of APEC and E. coli O104:H4 strains 10 dpi indicates these strains may be more adapted to environmental conditions than E. coli O157:H7. This is the first reported study of E. coli O104:H4 on a produce commodity. PMID:23280331

Markland, S M; Shortlidge, K L; Hoover, D G; Yaron, S; Patel, J; Singh, A; Sharma, M; Kniel, K E

2012-12-28

198

Influence of phosphorus fertility on intra- and interspecific interference between lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the effect of phosphorus (P) fertility on intra- and interspecific competition between lettuce and spiny amaranth for 4 wk after emergence. Total lettuce shoot biomass per pot and weight per plant increased 39 and 44% in response to increased P fertility, respectively. P fertility had no impact on growth of spiny amaranth. Total shoot biomass of spiny amaranth increased with increasing density from four to eight plants, however, lettuce did not. Total shoot biomass of both species increased as density increased from 4 to 16 plants. Spiny amaranth, but not lettuce, weight per plant decreased in response to intraspecific competition. Reciprocal yield analysis showed that spiny amaranth produced 2.4 times more biomass than lettuce when competing intraspecifically and four times more biomass under interspecific competition. Lettuce weight per plant was not affected. Relative yield analysis indicated that spiny amaranth was more competitive than lettuce regardless of P fertility. However, increased P fertility increased competitiveness of lettuce. Relative crowding coefficients indicated that spiny amaranth at the low density with low P fertility was 33 times more competitive than lettuce. Addition of P caused lettuce and spiny amaranth to be equally competitive at the lowest density; however, at the highest density, spiny amaranth was 4 times more competitive than lettuce regardless of additional P.

Shrefler JW; Shilling DG; Dusky JA; Brecke BJ

1994-12-01

199

Sequence diversity in the coat protein gene of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus infecting lettuce in Brazil Variabilidade genética na porção codificadora para a proteína capsidial do Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus provenientes de alface no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MLBVV) have been found in mixed infection in Brazil causing the lettuce big vein disease. Analysis of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of Brazilian isolates of LBVaV collected from lettuce, showed at least 93% amino acid sequence identity with other LBVaV isolates. Genetic diversity among MLBVV CP sequences was higher when compared to LBVaV CP sequences, with amino acid sequence identity ranging between 91% to 100%. Brazilian isolates of MLBVV belong to subgroup A, with one RsaI restriction site on the coat protein gene. There is no indication for a possible geografical origin for the Brazilian isolates of LBVaV and MLBVV.Lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) e Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MLBVV) têm sido encontrados em infecções mistas no Brasil, causando a doença conhecida como engrossamento das nervuras da alface. Análise de parte do gene da proteína capsidial (CP) de isolados brasileiros de LBVaV coletados em alface, indicou que estes possuem identidade superior a 93% com isolados coletados em diferentes regiões geográficas. A diversidade genética entre a CP de isolados de MLBVV de alface foi maior comparada às sequências da CP de LBVaV, com a identidade de aminoácidos variando entre 91 a 100%. Os isolados brasileiros de MLBVV pertencem ao subgrupo A, com um único sítio de restrição RsaI no gene da proteína capsidial. Não há indicação para uma provável origem geográfica dos isolados brasileiros de MLBVV e LBVaV.

Márcio Martinello Sanches; Renate Krause-Sakate; Marcelo Agenor Pavan

2008-01-01

200

Sequence diversity in the coat protein gene of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus infecting lettuce in Brazil/ Variabilidade genética na porção codificadora para a proteína capsidial do Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus provenientes de alface no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) e Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MLBVV) têm sido encontrados em infecções mistas no Brasil, causando a doença conhecida como engrossamento das nervuras da alface. Análise de parte do gene da proteína capsidial (CP) de isolados brasileiros de LBVaV coletados em alface, indicou que estes possuem identidade superior a 93% com isolados coletados em diferentes regiões geográficas. A diversidade genética entre a CP de isolad (more) os de MLBVV de alface foi maior comparada às sequências da CP de LBVaV, com a identidade de aminoácidos variando entre 91 a 100%. Os isolados brasileiros de MLBVV pertencem ao subgrupo A, com um único sítio de restrição RsaI no gene da proteína capsidial. Não há indicação para uma provável origem geográfica dos isolados brasileiros de MLBVV e LBVaV. Abstract in english Lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MLBVV) have been found in mixed infection in Brazil causing the lettuce big vein disease. Analysis of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of Brazilian isolates of LBVaV collected from lettuce, showed at least 93% amino acid sequence identity with other LBVaV isolates. Genetic diversity among MLBVV CP sequences was higher when compared to LBVaV CP sequences, with amino acid sequence identity ran (more) ging between 91% to 100%. Brazilian isolates of MLBVV belong to subgroup A, with one RsaI restriction site on the coat protein gene. There is no indication for a possible geografical origin for the Brazilian isolates of LBVaV and MLBVV.

Sanches, Márcio Martinello; Krause-Sakate, Renate; Pavan, Marcelo Agenor

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Irrigation with industrial wastewater activates antioxidant system and osmoprotectant accumulation in lettuce, turnip and tomato plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We focused on the impact of industrial wastes on the water quality of the El-Amia drain in Egypt and the effect of irrigation with industrial wastewater on the growth, cell membranes, photosynthetic pigment content, the antioxidant system and selected osmoprotectants (proline, total amino nitrogen and soluble sugars) in three crop plants: turnip, tomato and lettuce. Furthermore, the present work focused on the analysis of the heavy metal content and its accumulation in the studied plants. For this purpose, water samples were collected 1, 10 and 19 km from the beginning of the drain and used for irrigation, with fresh water as a control. We found that industrial wastewater contained significant amounts of heavy metals (Cd, Ni and Co) warranted a pollution problem as their amounts exceed the maximum recommended concentrations according to FAO guidelines for trace metals in irrigation water. The three crop plants accumulate significant amounts of heavy metals in their shoots and roots and showed a significant decrease in leaf area, fresh weight and dry weight of shoots and roots, accompanied by a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigment content and damage to cell membranes, as indicated by increased electrolyte leakage and a lower membrane stability index. Significant increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and in the glutathione, proline, soluble sugar and total amino nitrogen content in response to irrigation with wastewater may be defense mechanisms induced in response to heavy metal stress.

Hashem HA; Hassanein RA; El-Deep MH; Shouman AI

2013-09-01

202

THE GROWTH OF DUCKWEEDS IN MINERAL NUTRIENT SOLUTIONS WITH AND WITHOUT ORGANIC EXTRACTS.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

1. Detmer's solution and a modified Knop's solution are unfavorable culture media for the growth of Spirodela polyrhiza. 2. When the modified Knop's solution was diluted to 10 times its volume, Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna valdiviana grew and reproduced for periods of 26 months and 21 months, respectively. 3. Growth in the dilute Knop's solution, which alone can support the growth of Spirodela indefinitely, was considerably stimulated over a period of 23 days by adding to every liter the water-soluble material of 0.4 gm. autolyzed yeast, or the material of 2.5 gm. peat soluble in a 1 per cent solution of NaHCO(3). 4. The nature of the stimulus or of the protection afforded by the organic material is as yet unknown. 5. The necessity of organic accessory foods (auximones) in the nutrition of green plants cannot be accepted as an established fact.

Saeger A

1925-03-01

203

Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil on iceberg lettuce with different attachment conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: In this study, the antimicrobial activity of oregano oil was investigated under different attachment conditions of Salmonella spp. to iceberg lettuce. Inoculated lettuce was either not dried or dried for 30 min, 60 min, or 120 min, under either static air or moving air. Washing iceberg lettuce with 500 ppm oregano oil for 1, 5, and 10 min reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by (respectively) 1.3, 1.65, and 2.28 log cfu/g following the most challenging inoculation conditions, an inoculum drying period of 2 h under moving air. Across all inoculation conditions, increasing the treatment time significantly increased the reductions in the populations of Salmonella spp. (P < 0.05). Browning and softening of the lettuce leaf surface was observed after 10 min of treatment with oregano oil. For each treatment time, attachment times and drying under static compared with moving air did not significantly affect the antimicrobial efficacy of the various oregano oil treatments (P > 0.05). The results obtained in this study suggest that oregano oil can effectively reduce populations of Salmonella attached to lettuce leaf surfaces. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The use of essential oils as an antimicrobial treatment can help to ensure the safety of leafy green products. As used in this study, oregano oil effectively reduced Salmonella spp., even after the pathogen had dried onto the lettuce leaves. Treatments that incorporate oregano oil therefore hold promise as a biocide treatment for process and packaged lettuce.

Gündüz GT; Niemira BA; Gönül SA; Karapinar M

2012-07-01

204

TiO2 photocatalytic inactivation under simulated solar light of bacterial consortia in domestic wastewaters previously treated by UASB, duckweed and facultative ponds  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In this work, TiO2 photocatalysis was used to disinfect domestic wastewaters previously treated by different biological treatment systems: Upward-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB), facultative pond, and duckweed pond. The microorganisms monitored were E. coli, total coliforms, Shigella species, and Salmonella species. Photocatalytic experiments were carried out using two light sources: a solar simulator (UV intensity: 68-70 W m-2) and black-light lamps (BLL UV intensit (more) y: 17-20 W m-2). Samples were taken after each treatment stage. Results indicate that bacterial photocatalytic inactivation is affected by characteristics of the effluent, including turbidity, concentration of organic matter, and bacterial concentration, which depend of the type of biological pretreatment previously used.

Rengifo-Herrera, Julián Andrés; Pulgarin, Cesar; Machuca, Fiderman; Sanabria, Janeth

2010-01-01

205

TiO2 photocatalytic inactivation under simulated solar light of bacterial consortia in domestic wastewaters previously treated by UASB, duckweed and facultative ponds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, TiO2 photocatalysis was used to disinfect domestic wastewaters previously treated by different biological treatment systems: Upward-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB), facultative pond, and duckweed pond. The microorganisms monitored were E. coli, total coliforms, Shigella species, and Salmonella species. Photocatalytic experiments were carried out using two light sources: a solar simulator (UV intensity: 68-70 W m-2) and black-light lamps (BLL UV intensity: 17-20 W m-2). Samples were taken after each treatment stage. Results indicate that bacterial photocatalytic inactivation is affected by characteristics of the effluent, including turbidity, concentration of organic matter, and bacterial concentration, which depend of the type of biological pretreatment previously used.

Julián Andrés Rengifo-Herrera; Cesar Pulgarin; Fiderman Machuca; Janeth Sanabria

2010-01-01

206

Kinetics of basic dye (methylene blue) biosorption by giant duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sorbent dosage, pH and contact time were evaluated as factors affecting dye uptake by Spirodela polyrrhiza. - Wastewater containing pigments and/or dyes can cause serious water pollution problems in the form of reduced light penetration and photosynthesis, and the toxicity from heavy metals associated with pigments and/or dyes. Laboratory investigations, of the potential use of dried Spirodela polyrrhiza biomass as an adsorbent for the removal of the basic dye methylene blue from aqueous solution were conducted. A series of experiments were undertaken in an agitated batch adsorber to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. sorbent dosage, pH, and contact time. The results showed that as the amount of the dried S. polyrrhiza increased, the percentage of dye sorption increased accordingly. At pH 2.0 the sorption of dye was not favorable, while the sorption at other pHs (3.0-11.0) was remarkable. There was no significant difference in the dye concentration remaining when the pH was increased from 3.0 to 11.0. The dye removal time was influenced by the initial dye concentration, and the process followed the first-order rate kinetics. The rate constants for intraparticle diffusion were 1.00 and 3.27 mg/g/min1/2 for 300 and 500 mg/l of dye, respectively.

2003-01-01

207

Control of lettuce big-vein disease by soil sterilisation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce plants grown in the glasshouse in big-vein-contaminated soil previously treated with methyl bromide at 125–2000 kg/ha (x 0.125– 2.0 the dose used in the field) did not develop big-vein symptoms, although at dosages up to 500 kg/ha their roots were infected by Olpidium brassicae(Wor.) Dang., the vector of the disease. Soil treatment with dazomet, chloropicrin, 1, 3-dichloropropene or metham sodium gave symptom-free plants at doses corresponding to those normally applied in the field. When applied to contaminated field plots, methyl bromide at 750 or 1000 kg/ha controlled the disease, but 10 per cent of plants showed big-vein symptoms in plots treated at 500 kg/ha. All methyl bromide treatments significantly increased lettuce head weight compared with the untreated controls, and resulted in bromide residues in the plants of 2300–5300 ng/g of dry tissue compared with 30 ?g/g in plants from untreated plots. Plants were harvested 12 weeks after completion of methyl bromide application, by which time there was evidence of leaching of bromide from the upper 10 cm of soil.

White JG

1980-09-01

208

Application of a simple method using minute particles of amorphous calcium phosphate for recovery of norovirus from cabbage, lettuce, and ham.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) method developed previously for calicivirus concentration from water was applied for norovirus detection from food. The viral recovery from cabbage, lettuce, or ham (10g of each) was firstly examined in seeding experiments with feline caliciviruses (FCVs). The viruses were concentrated by viral adsorption to ACP particles (0.3g) in the eluent solution (40ml) from foods, collection of the particles by centrifugation, followed by dissolution of the particles with 3.3M citric acid (3ml). In ham, FCV recovery was improved by addition of ascorbic acids into the eluent solution before ACP-particle adsorption. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that FCV recoveries were 32-33%, 50-55%, and 37-46% from cabbage, lettuce, and ham, respectively, when seeded with 10(3)-10(4) viruses, and detection limits were estimated ?10(3) genomic copies in all 3 foods. Subsequently, the ACP-concentration method was evaluated for norovirus (NoV) detection from these 3 foods. The recoveries and detection limit of NoVs determined by qRT-PCR were 12-41% and 10(3) (genomic copies) from cabbage, 30-57% and 10(3) from lettuce, and 20-26% and 10(4) from ham, when seeded with 10(3)-10(5) viruses. This simple method may be suitable for NoV detection from these foods.

Shinohara M; Uchida K; Shimada S; Tomioka K; Suzuki N; Minegishi T; Kawahashi S; Yoshikawa Y; Ohashi N

2013-01-01

209

Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.

Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina

2013-01-01

210

Escherichia coli contamination of lettuce grown in soils amended with animal slurry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.

Jensen AN; Storm C; Forslund A; Baggesen DL; Dalsgaard A

2013-07-01

211

Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons with Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring the recombinant plasmid. It is the first description of a lettuce Brazilian variety "Vitória de Verão" genetically modified.

Jackson Marcondes; Ekkehard Hansen

2008-01-01

212

Rapid determination of fosetyl-aluminum residues in lettuce by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a new method for the sensitive and selective determination of fosetyl-aluminum (Al) residues in vegetable samples. The method involves extraction with water by using a high-speed blender and subsequent injection of the 5-fold diluted extract into the liquid chromatograph. Fosetyl-Al is determined by liquid chromatography with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry after the addition of tetrabutylammonium acetate as the ion-pairing reagent. The method has been used to assay lettuce samples spiked at 2 and 0.2 mg/kg. Recoveries were satisfactory, with mean values of 98 and 106%, respectively, and relative standard deviations were < 10%. The limit of quantitation was 0.2 mg/kg, and the limit of detection was as low as 0.05 mg/kg. Matrix-matched calibration was used for quantitation, and the addition of an internal standard improved repeatability. The developed method allows the accurate and rapid determination of low levels of fosetyl-Al residues in lettuce with very little sample handling and good sensitivity; it was shown to be robust by the analysis of almost 100 samples.

Hernández F; Sancho JV; Pozo OJ; Villaplana C; Ibáñez M; Grimalt S

2003-07-01

213

Assessment of lettuce quality during storage at low relative humidity using Global Stability Index methodology/ Avaliação da qualidade da alface durante o armazenamento em baixa umidade relativa usando o Índice Global da Estabilidade  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Durante a pós-colheita a alface é exposta a condições adversas (baixa umidade relativa) que reduzem a qualidade do vegetal. A fim de avaliar sua vida útil, um grande número de índices de qualidade tem que ser analisado, requerendo um cuidadoso delineamento experimental e um longo consumo de tempo. Neste trabalho, o método modificado do Índice Global da Estabilidade foi aplicado para estimar a qualidade da alface manteiga a uma baixa umidade relativa durante o arm (more) azenamento diferenciando três zonas (interna, média e externa). Os resultados indicaram que, para a zona externa, os índices mais relevantes foram o conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, ácido ascórbico e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Para a zona média, foram conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, clorofila total, ácido ascórbico e, para a interna, conteúdo da umidade relativa, água ligada, conteúdo da água e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Foi proposto um modelo matemático entre o Índice Global da Estabilidade e qualidade visual geral para cada zona da alface. Ademais, foi aplicada a distribuição de Weibull para estimar o tempo da vida útil do vegetal, o qual foi: 5, 4 e 3 dias para as zonas interna, média e externa, respectivamente. Quando foi estudado o efeito do tempo de armazenamento para cada zona da alface, todos os índices avaliados na zona externa mostraram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english During postharvest, lettuce is usually exposed to adverse conditions (e.g. low relative humidity) that reduce the vegetable quality. In order to evaluate its shelf life, a great number of quality attributes must be analyzed, which requires careful experimental design, and it is time consuming. In this study, the modified Global Stability Index method was applied to estimate the quality of butter lettuce at low relative humidity during storage discriminating three lettuce (more) zones (internal, middle, and external). The results indicated that the most relevant attributes were: the external zone - relative water content, water content , ascorbic acid, and total mesophilic counts; middle zone - relative water content, water content, total chlorophyll, and ascorbic acid; internal zone - relative water content, bound water, water content, and total mesophilic counts. A mathematical model that takes into account the Global Stability Index and overall visual quality for each lettuce zone was proposed. Moreover, the Weibull distribution was applied to estimate the maximum vegetable storage time which was 5, 4, and 3 days for the internal, middle, and external zone, respectively. When analyzing the effect of storage time for each lettuce zone, all the indices evaluated in the external zone of lettuce presented significant differences (p

Ansorena, María Roberta; Agüero, María Victoria; Goñi, María Grabriela; Roura, Sara; Ponce, Alejandra; Moreira, María del Rosario; Di Scala, Karina

2012-06-01

214

Cross-contamination of fresh-cut lettuce after a short-term exposure during pre-washing cannot be controlled after subsequent washing with chlorine dioxide or sodium hypochlorite.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) has been postulated as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for fresh-cut produce sanitization to avoid risks associated with chlorination by-products. Experiments were performed to determine the prevention of cross-contamination of fresh-cut lettuce by Escherichia coli using chlorine dioxide (3 mg/L) or sodium hypochlorite (100 mg/L) as sanitation agents. The efficacy of these sanitation solutions was evaluated simulating as much as possible the conditions of a fresh-cut processing line. Thus, to evaluate the potential risk of cross-contamination during pre-washing, inoculated fresh-cut lettuce was pre-washed and after that non-inoculated lettuce was then pre-washed in the same water. After this pre-washing, non-inoculated lettuce was cross-contaminated, changing from 0 to 3.4 log units of E. coli cells. During washing with sanitizers, none of the tested sanitation agents significantly reduced E. coli counts in both inoculated and cross-contaminated lettuce. These results suggest that when cross-contamination occurs, even if the event is recent, subsequent sanitation steps are inefficient for inactivating E. coli cells on the vegetable tissue. However, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite solutions were able to inactivate most E. coli cells that passed from inoculated product to wash water. Therefore, they might be able to avoid cross-contamination between clean and contaminated product during the washing step. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that bacterial cells were mainly located in clusters or tissue stomata where they might be protected, which explains the low efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide solutions observed in this study.

López-Gálvez F; Gil MI; Truchado P; Selma MV; Allende A

2010-04-01

215

Reúso de águas residuárias da piscicultura e da suinocultura na irrigação da cultura da alface/ Reuse of wastewater from swine and fish activities in the lettuce culture  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade sanitária da cultura da alface irrigada com águas residuárias originadas da suinocultura e da piscicultura. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - alface irrigada com água de origem subterrânea e adubação suplementar; T2 - alface irrigada com água residuária de viveiro de peixes alimentados com ração; T3 - alface irrigada com água residuária originária de lagoa de estabiliza (more) ção de dejetos de suínos, e T4 - água de lagoa de cultivo de algas, alimentada com resíduo de biodigestor de dejeto de suíno. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças significativas para altura da alface, diâmetro da cabeça, comprimento da raiz, massa da raiz, massa total da planta, massa fresca e massa seca; os tratamentos T4 e T2 apresentaram os maiores valores para comprimento da maior folha e número de folhas, respectivamente; em geral, as análises foliares e a extração de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura não apresentaram diferenças significativas; ocorreu contaminação de coliformes fecais e totais em todos os tratamentos; não ocorreu contaminação de Escherichia coli em todos os tratamentos; todos os Coeficientes de Uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC) encontrados foram acima de 85%, exceto para o tratamento T3 que foi de 74,05%; ocorreram alterações químicas no solo proporcionais às características das águas utilizadas nos respectivos tratamentos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate development, production and sanitary quality of the irrigated lettuce with wastewater from fish and swine activities. The evaluated treatments was: T1 - lettuce irrigated with water from underground origin and supplemental fertilization; T2 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from fish activities and fish fed with ration; T3 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from swine treated in stabilization lagoon; and T4 - lettuce irrigated (more) with effluent from seaweed lagoon, fed with wastewater from swine activities treated with anaerobic reactor. The treatments did not present significant differences for next culture characteristics: height, diameter head, length root, mass root, total mass plant, green mass and dry mass; the treatments T4 and T2 presented the biggest values for length and number leaf, respectively; in general, leaf analyses and extraction of macro and micronutrients by culture did not present significant differences; contamination by fecal coliforms in all treatments occurred; no contamination by Escherichia coli was observed in all treatments; all the Coefficients of Uniformity of Christiansen (CUC) observed were above 85%, except for treatment T3 where was 74%; chemical alterations in the soil occurred proportional to characteristics of waters used in the treatments.

Baumgartner, Dirceu; Sampaio, Silvio C.; Silva, Tatiana R. da; Teo, Carla R. P. A.; Vilas Boas, Márcio A.

2007-04-01

216

Reúso de águas residuárias da piscicultura e da suinocultura na irrigação da cultura da alface Reuse of wastewater from swine and fish activities in the lettuce culture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade sanitária da cultura da alface irrigada com águas residuárias originadas da suinocultura e da piscicultura. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - alface irrigada com água de origem subterrânea e adubação suplementar; T2 - alface irrigada com água residuária de viveiro de peixes alimentados com ração; T3 - alface irrigada com água residuária originária de lagoa de estabilização de dejetos de suínos, e T4 - água de lagoa de cultivo de algas, alimentada com resíduo de biodigestor de dejeto de suíno. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças significativas para altura da alface, diâmetro da cabeça, comprimento da raiz, massa da raiz, massa total da planta, massa fresca e massa seca; os tratamentos T4 e T2 apresentaram os maiores valores para comprimento da maior folha e número de folhas, respectivamente; em geral, as análises foliares e a extração de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura não apresentaram diferenças significativas; ocorreu contaminação de coliformes fecais e totais em todos os tratamentos; não ocorreu contaminação de Escherichia coli em todos os tratamentos; todos os Coeficientes de Uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC) encontrados foram acima de 85%, exceto para o tratamento T3 que foi de 74,05%; ocorreram alterações químicas no solo proporcionais às características das águas utilizadas nos respectivos tratamentos.The objective of this work was to evaluate development, production and sanitary quality of the irrigated lettuce with wastewater from fish and swine activities. The evaluated treatments was: T1 - lettuce irrigated with water from underground origin and supplemental fertilization; T2 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from fish activities and fish fed with ration; T3 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from swine treated in stabilization lagoon; and T4 - lettuce irrigated with effluent from seaweed lagoon, fed with wastewater from swine activities treated with anaerobic reactor. The treatments did not present significant differences for next culture characteristics: height, diameter head, length root, mass root, total mass plant, green mass and dry mass; the treatments T4 and T2 presented the biggest values for length and number leaf, respectively; in general, leaf analyses and extraction of macro and micronutrients by culture did not present significant differences; contamination by fecal coliforms in all treatments occurred; no contamination by Escherichia coli was observed in all treatments; all the Coefficients of Uniformity of Christiansen (CUC) observed were above 85%, except for treatment T3 where was 74%; chemical alterations in the soil occurred proportional to characteristics of waters used in the treatments.

Dirceu Baumgartner; Silvio C. Sampaio; Tatiana R. da Silva; Carla R. P. A. Teo; Márcio A. Vilas Boas

2007-01-01

217

Manejo de irrigação para cultivo de alface em ambiente protegido Irrigation management for growing lettuce in greenhouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A determinação do consumo de água de irrigação é fundamental para o manejo correto dos cultivos irrigados. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar o desenvolvimento de duas cultivares da alface (AF 1743 e OGR 326), em ambiente protegido, no município de Juazeiro-BA, sob dois métodos de manejos de irrigação: reposição de água de irrigação determinada por tensiometria (M1) e reposição de água determinada na evaporação de água de tanque reduzido (M2), instalados em ambiente protegido. Observou-se efeito de interação entre os tratamentos impostos e as cultivares de alface estudadas, para a massa fresca das raízes das plantas. O uso da tensiometria promoveu desempenho superior para as variáveis de produção analisadas, como observado na massa fresca da parte aérea, apresentando média geral de 145,0 g, enquanto no manejo M2 tal valor foi de 59,4 g. Dentre as cultivares analisadas para referida variável, observou-se um resultado superior para a cultivar OGR 326 quando comparada à AF 1743.The determination of the water consumption is fundamental for the correct management of irrigated crops. The development of two lettuce cultivars (AF 1743 and OGR 326) was determined, when cultivated in a protected environment under two irrigation management methods: water consumption determined by the tensiometry (M1) and water consumption determined by evaporation of water in the reduced pan (M2), which were installed inside the protected environment. There was significant interaction among the imposed treatment and the cultivars of lettuce studied, for the fresh weight of the roots of the plants. The use of tensiometry promoted superior performance for the analyzed production variables as observed in the fresh weight of the aboveground part, with an overall average of 145.0 g, whereas for the management M2 the overall average was 59.4 g. For this variable, among the cultivars a superior result was obtained for the cultivar OGR 326 in comparison to AF1743.

George RL Bandeira; Helder C dos S Pinto; Paula S Magalhães; Carlos A Aragão; Sérgio OP de Queiroz; Essione R Souza; Sirando L Seido

2011-01-01

218

Consumer acceptance of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce treated with 2% hydrogen peroxide and mild heat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An antibacterial treatment consisting of 2% hydrogen peroxide at 50 degrees C for 60 s was evaluated for its effects on the sensory quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Treated lettuce was packaged in polyethylene film by a protocol used in the fresh-cut produce industry and then stored along with untreated controls for 3, 10, and 15 days at 5 degrees C. Gas chromatographic analysis confirmed that the desired initial volume (approximately 6 liters) and oxygen gas content (approximately 10%) were maintained during storage. Consumers from the local community who were the primary shoppers for their households and who purchased and ate lettuce regularly evaluated the appearance, color, aroma, flavor, and texture of the lettuce and their overall liking of the lettuce. Forty consumers were recruited to evaluate processing replication 1 on 26 April, and another 40 were chosen to evaluate processing replication 2 on 3 May. Because replication differences were observed in instrumental color measurements and in mean sensory ratings, replications were not pooled for the two test dates. Lettuce purchased for processing replication 2 was considerably greener than that used in replication 1. Overall, the antibacterial treatment was more effective than the control treatment in maintaining sensory quality over 15 days of storage, provided that the lettuce was initially intensely green. Three-fourths of the participants indicated that they would be willing to buy precut packaged lettuce that had already been treated at the packinghouse or processing plant with an antibacterial solution, and of these participants, 62.5% indicated that they would be willing to pay 5 to 10 cents more per bag.

McWatters LH; Chinnan MS; Walker SL; Doyle MP; Lin CM

2002-08-01

219

Radiotracer studies of maneb residues in lettuce plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lettuce plants have received different treatments of 14C-maneb at variable time. A cleaning is made to determine the foliar surface residues. The analysis of CS2 showed relatively important amount especially for lots which have received 4 treatments (10,3ppm and 6,49ppm). The amounts found after combustion have showed increasing amounts, proportionally to the number of treatments. The analysis of ETU revealed a presence only for lots which have received several treatments (3 and 4). The analysis by TLC showed many metabolites. Two of them have been identified (ETU, EU). Interfoliar migration of 14C product occurred between treated leaves and untreated leaves of the same plant

1990-01-01

220

Effects of seasonal variation on sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Butterhead, crisphead, green leaf, red leaf, and romaine types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are all commonly available in U.S. markets. Sensory properties of lettuce may vary in response to environmental factors that often fluctuate widely throughout the growing season. Bitterness is generally thought to increase in lettuce grown at higher temperatures and may be related to phenolic content. This study evaluated sensory properties and total phenolic content of 5 lettuce cultivars harvested early, midway, and late in the growing season and investigated possible correlations with environmental temperature and light intensity indexes. Thirty panelists rated bitterness, appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of "Crisp and Green" (green leaf), "Crispino" (crisphead), "Green Forest" (romaine), "Lochness" (butterhead), and "Vulcan" (red leaf) lettuce. There was considerable variation in sensory ratings among the 5 cultivars (P < 0.005) but few differences within cultivars across the growing season. The crisphead cultivar, Crispino, received higher scores (P < 0.01) for flavor, texture, and overall acceptability and was rated less bitter (P < 0.05) than other cultivars. Total phenolic content varied significantly (P < 0.001) among cultivars with the red leaf cultivar, Vulcan, exhibiting the highest levels. There was no correlation between bitterness and total phenolic content or environmental factors. Differences among lettuce cultivars appear to have a larger impact on sensory and phenolic profiles than environmental variation during the growing season.

Bunning ML; Kendall PA; Stone MB; Stonaker FH; Stushnoff C

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Short communication. Effect of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce grown under semiarid conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Field experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of deficit irrigation on curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Crispa cv. Bohemia) evapotranspiration, water use efficiency, marketable yield, yield components and mineral contents. The experiments were performed under semiarid climatic conditions in Erzurum province (east of Turkey) in the summer periods of 2005 and 2006. Irrigation water levels were selected to be 100% of usable soil water in full irrigation treatment (control) (T-100) and 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% of usable soil water in deficit irrigation treatments (T-80, T-60, T-40 and T- 20, respectively). Average seasonal evapotranspiration was 232 mm in T-100 and 121 mm in T-20. Average marketable yield was 39.49 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-100 and 14.57 Mg ha{sup -}1 in T-20. A linear relationship (y=0.23x-13.97; R{sup 2}0.94) was found between seasonal evapotranspiration (x) and marketable plant yield (y). According to the regression equation, the yield response factor (k{sub y}) was found to be 1.39, and the coefficient of determination 0.91. Average water use efficiency was 168.88 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-100 and 117.39 kg ha{sup -}1 mm{sup -}1 in T-20. The lowest plant length, width, steam diameter, leaf number, macro and micro element content values were obtained for T-20 in both years. (Author) 21 refs.

Kuslu, Y.; Dursun, A.; Sahin, U.; Kiziloglu, F. M.; Turan, M.

2008-07-01

222

Gazania spp.: a new host of lettuce mosaic potyvirus, and a potential inoculum source for recent lettuce mosaic outbreaks in the Salinas Valley of California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce mosaic potyvirus (LMV) outbreaks in the Salinas Valley of California have increased in recent years despite a comprehensive lettuce mosaic management program. In a previous study, it was established that new serologically and/or genetically distinct LMV strains were not responsible for these outbreaks. Therefore, the role of alternate hosts was investigated. Here we provide evidence that the ornamental plant, Gazania spp., is an alternate host of LMV. A number of lines of evidence were used to establish that gazanias were infected by LMV, including indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blot hybridization with an LMV coat protein (CP) probe, and sap- and aphid-transmission of LMV from gazania to lettuce and Nicotiana benthamiana. Additionally, an LMV CP fragment was amplified from an infected gazania plant by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and the nucleotide sequence of this fragment was 99% identical to the CP sequence of an LMV isolate from the Salinas Valley. We further show that LMV-infected gazanias are widely distributed in the Salinas Valley, and are present near areas where LMV outbreaks have occurred. Field experiments demonstrated that LMV could be transmitted from infected gazania to lettuce. LMV-infected gazanias also were found in local nurseries, suggesting that infection of gazania with LMV had occurred prior to planting in the Salinas Valley (i.e., lettuce was not serving as the source of inoculum for infection of gazania in the Salinas Valley). These results establish that gazania is an alternate host of LMV, and suggest that gazanias may be a primary inoculum source for recent lettuce mosaic outbreaks in the Salinas Valley.

Zerbini FM; Koike ST; Gilbertson RL

1997-06-01

223

DEMONSTRATION OF IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW WATER QUALITY CONTROL IN THE MESILLA VALLEY, NEW MEXICO  

Science.gov (United States)

A 182-ha operating farm was used to demonstrate the water pollution control benefits of implementing improved irrigation management techniques and structures. The commodity crops produced on the farm included wheat, tomatoes, cotton, lettuce, peppers, chiles, grain sorghum, and a...

224

Efeitos na fotossíntese e área foliar de cultivares de alface inoculadas mecanicamente com patótipos do Lettuce mosaic virus e Lettuce mottle virus Effects on photosynthesis and foliar area of lettuce cultivar mechanically inoculated with Lettuce mosaic virus pathotypes and Lettuce mottle virus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Levantamentos realizados no estado de São Paulo indicaram a ocorrência isolada e em infecções mistas do Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) e do Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV) em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa). O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da infecção isolada e mista entre o LMV (patótipos II e IV) e o LeMoV, em cultivares de alface suscetível (White Boston) e tolerante (Elisa - gene mol¹) ao LMV patótipo II. As plantas foram inoculadas via extrato vegetal tamponado com isolados de LMV-II, LMV-IV e LeMoV separadamente e em diferentes combinações, com intervalo de 24 h ou simultaneamente com os dois vírus. As plantas infetadas foram analisadas utilizando-se hospedeiras diferenciais para o LMV e o LeMoV, e no caso do LMV pelo teste sorológico de PTA-ELISA. Nas avaliações de peso fresco e seco, área foliar e teor de clorofila, observou-se que a cultivar White Boston foi a mais afetada por ambos os vírus. As infecções mistas e isoladas na cultivar Elisa causaram efeitos semelhantes, provavelmente devido a presença do gene mo1¹ de tolerância ao LMV-II. O isolado LMV-IV foi considerado o mais agressivo nestas cultivares quando comparado ao LMV-II e o LeMoV.A survey of virus isolates causing mosaic in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, indicated the occurrence of Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV) alone or in mixed infections. The objective of this work was to study the effects of single and mixed infections between LMV (pathotypes II and IV) and LeMoV in susceptible (White Boston) and tolerant (Elisa, mo1¹ gene) lettuce cultivars. Plants were sap-inoculated with LMV-II, LMV-IV and LeMoV, in single infections and in different combinations, with either a 24 h interval between the two viruses or simultaneously. Plants were tested for the presence of LMV and LeMoV using differential hosts and, in the case of LMV, the serological test (PTA-ELISA) was used. In the evaluations of fresh and dry weight, leaf area and chlorophyll content, the White Boston cultivar was observed to be the most affected by both viruses. This cultivar's response to single and mixed infections was similar, probably due to the presence of the mo1¹ gene which confers tolerance to LMV-II. When compared to LMV-IV and LeMoV, LMV-IV was the most aggressive isolate.

Adriana S Jadão; Marcelo A Pavan; Renate Krause-Sakate; F. Murilo Zerbini

2004-01-01

225

Quantitative trait loci associated with lettuce seed germination under different temperature and light environments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Temperature and light are primary environmental cues affecting seed germination. To elucidate the genetic architecture underlying lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination under different environmental conditions, an F8 recombinant inbred line population consisting of 131 families was phenotyped for final germination and germination rate. Seeds were imbibed in water at 20 degrees C under continuous red light (20-Rc), 20 degrees C continuous dark (20-Dc), 31.5 degrees C continuous red light (31.5-Rc), 31.5 degrees C continuous dark (31.5-Dc), or 20 degrees C far-red light for 24 h followed by continuous dark (20-FRc-Dc). Thirty-eight quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified from two seed maturation environments: 10 for final germination and 28 for germination rate. The amount of variation attributed to an individual QTL ranged from 9.3% to 17.2% and from 5.6% to 26.2% for final germination and germination rate, respectively. Path analysis indicated that factors affecting germination under 31.5-Rc or 31.5-Dc are largely the same, and these appear to differ from those employed under 20-FRc-Dc. QTL and path analysis support the notion of common and unique factors for germination under diverse temperature and light regimes. A highly significant effect of the seed maturation environment on subsequent germination capacity under environmental stress was observed.

Hayashi E; Aoyama N; Still DW

2008-11-01

226

Economic analysis of organic greenhouse lettuce production in Turkey Análise econômica da produção orgânica de alface em estufas na Turquia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Health issues and environmental concerns have drawn the attention to organic agriculture aiming to protect the natural balance and to produce without damaging the environment. This study aims determining economic feasibility of organic greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in an on farm trial, to foster organic greenhouse vegetable production in the preservation area of Tahtali Dam, projected as the sole water resource of Izmir, Turkey's third largest. A 384 m² greenhouse, constructed of galvanized metal tubing anchored and covered with a polyethylene was analyzed to identify typical operation procedures, and to determine unitary construction and operation cost. Organic lettuces were produced during autumn season of 2001-2002, testing different organic fertilizer applications, including two rates of farmyard and poultry manure (30 and 50 t ha-1) with and without two organic fertilizers based on either bacteria or algae. Economical analysis was performed according to different organic fertilizer applications. Cost, yield, and price data were analyzed to determine the profitability of a typical operation. Net return obtained from organic lettuce growing ranged between us $ 0.376 and us $ 0.901 m-2, as a result of different fertilizer applications.Preocupações sanitárias e ambientais têm atraído a atenção para a prática da agricultura orgânica como meio de proteger o balanço ambiental e produzir sem danificar o ambiente. Este estudo objetiva determinar a viabilidade econômica da produção em estufa da alface (Latuca sativa L.) em um ensaio de campo, a fim de incentivar a produção orgânica de vegetais na área de preservação do Reservatório Tahtali, projetado como o único recurso hídrico de Izmir, a terceira maior cidade da Turquia. Uma estufa de tubos galvanizados (384 m²), ancorados e cobertos com polietileno, foi analisada para identificar procedimentos operacionais padronizados e determinar custos unitários de construção e operação. Alfaces orgânicas foram produzidas no outono de 2001-2002, testando diferentes aplicações de sobras compostadas e esterco de granja avícola como fertilizantes orgânicos (30 e 50 t ha-1), com ou sem a adição de fertilizantes comerciais bacterianos ou algais. A análise econômica foi feita de acordo com as quantidades de fertilizantes utilizadas. A determinação da lucratividade foi feita com base na análise de dados de custos, produtividade e preço. O lucro líquido obtido da produção orgânica de alface em estufa variou entre US$ 0.376 e US$ 0.901 m-2.

Sait Engindeniz; Yuksel Tuzel

2006-01-01

227

Economic analysis of organic greenhouse lettuce production in Turkey/ Análise econômica da produção orgânica de alface em estufas na Turquia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Preocupações sanitárias e ambientais têm atraído a atenção para a prática da agricultura orgânica como meio de proteger o balanço ambiental e produzir sem danificar o ambiente. Este estudo objetiva determinar a viabilidade econômica da produção em estufa da alface (Latuca sativa L.) em um ensaio de campo, a fim de incentivar a produção orgânica de vegetais na área de preservação do Reservatório Tahtali, projetado como o único recurso hídrico de Izmir (more) , a terceira maior cidade da Turquia. Uma estufa de tubos galvanizados (384 m²), ancorados e cobertos com polietileno, foi analisada para identificar procedimentos operacionais padronizados e determinar custos unitários de construção e operação. Alfaces orgânicas foram produzidas no outono de 2001-2002, testando diferentes aplicações de sobras compostadas e esterco de granja avícola como fertilizantes orgânicos (30 e 50 t ha-1), com ou sem a adição de fertilizantes comerciais bacterianos ou algais. A análise econômica foi feita de acordo com as quantidades de fertilizantes utilizadas. A determinação da lucratividade foi feita com base na análise de dados de custos, produtividade e preço. O lucro líquido obtido da produção orgânica de alface em estufa variou entre US$ 0.376 e US$ 0.901 m-2. Abstract in english Health issues and environmental concerns have drawn the attention to organic agriculture aiming to protect the natural balance and to produce without damaging the environment. This study aims determining economic feasibility of organic greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in an on farm trial, to foster organic greenhouse vegetable production in the preservation area of Tahtali Dam, projected as the sole water resource of Izmir, Turkey's third largest. A 384 m² greenhou (more) se, constructed of galvanized metal tubing anchored and covered with a polyethylene was analyzed to identify typical operation procedures, and to determine unitary construction and operation cost. Organic lettuces were produced during autumn season of 2001-2002, testing different organic fertilizer applications, including two rates of farmyard and poultry manure (30 and 50 t ha-1) with and without two organic fertilizers based on either bacteria or algae. Economical analysis was performed according to different organic fertilizer applications. Cost, yield, and price data were analyzed to determine the profitability of a typical operation. Net return obtained from organic lettuce growing ranged between us $ 0.376 and us $ 0.901 m-2, as a result of different fertilizer applications.

Engindeniz, Sait; Tuzel, Yuksel

2006-06-01

228

Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação/ Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas (more) da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea. Abstract in english A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the s (more) eedling. The aerial part of the lettuce was analyzed as for the levels of total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, sodium, boron, cobalt and molybdenum. The sodium and the sulfur presented higher levels than the maximum suitable in the aerial part of the lettuce and the smallest level of magnesium, while other chemical elements analyzed were normal and appropriate considering the standard for well-nourished plants, not being influenced by the water type. The sodium was the chemical element that presented the highest levels in the aerial part of the lettuce in the treatments irrigated with wastewater, presenting significant difference in relationship to the treatments irrigated with source deposit water in the three irrigation systems. The use of the different irrigation systems by the application of wastewater treated with constructed wetland did not interfere in the levels of nutrients in the aerial part of the lettuce.

Sandri, Delvio; Matsura, Edson E.; Testezlaf, Roberto

2006-04-01

229

Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea.A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling. The aerial part of the lettuce was analyzed as for the levels of total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, sodium, boron, cobalt and molybdenum. The sodium and the sulfur presented higher levels than the maximum suitable in the aerial part of the lettuce and the smallest level of magnesium, while other chemical elements analyzed were normal and appropriate considering the standard for well-nourished plants, not being influenced by the water type. The sodium was the chemical element that presented the highest levels in the aerial part of the lettuce in the treatments irrigated with wastewater, presenting significant difference in relationship to the treatments irrigated with source deposit water in the three irrigation systems. The use of the different irrigation systems by the application of wastewater treated with constructed wetland did not interfere in the levels of nutrients in the aerial part of the lettuce.

Delvio Sandri; Edson E. Matsura; Roberto Testezlaf

2006-01-01

230

Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage

2004-01-01

231

Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D{sub 10}-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M. E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

2004-10-01

232

Sensory quality attributes of lettuce obtained using different harvesting performance systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the best lettuce cultivar (American 'Graciosa', 'Vanda', 'Marcela' and 'Lavínia') harvesting method. Therefore, quality and shelf-life were evaluated using sensory analyses. Lettuce heads was harvested with the root on by the producer, so that they were cut in different ways in the laboratory. The samples were stored in a cold chamber at 10 °C and 80% ± 2% of relative humidity for nine days, and the sensorial analyses were p (more) erformed according to Qualitative Descriptive Analysis method on days 1, 3, 6, and 9 of storage by twelve trained testers. The results were evaluated by variance analysis, principal component analysis, and the Tukey test with a reliability of 95%. The results indicate that there was a reduction in the quality of lettuce between the 1st and the 5th day of storage and that after the sixth day of storage the lettuce samples were considered unfit for consumption, except for the 'Lavínia' lettuce cultivar with root and cut treatment 2. On the ninth day of storage all samples were considered inappropriate for consumption.

Oliveira, Denize Cristine Rodrigues de; Leal, Paulo Ademar Martins; Honório, Sylvio Luís; Soares, Eveline Kássia Braga

2013-01-01

233

Expression of dengue-3 premembrane and envelope polyprotein in lettuce chloroplasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dengue is an acute febrile viral disease with >100 million infections occurring each year and more than half of the world population is at risk. Global resurgence of dengue in many urban centers of the tropics is a major concern. Therefore, development of a successful vaccine is urgently needed that is economical and provide long-lasting protection from dengue virus infections. In this manuscript, we report expression of dengue-3 serotype polyprotein (prM/E) consisting of part of capsid, complete premembrane (prM) and truncated envelope (E) protein in an edible crop lettuce. The dengue sequence was controlled by endogenous Lactuca sativa psbA regulatory elements. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed transgene integration into the lettuce chloroplast genome via homologous recombination at the trnI/trnA intergenic spacer region. Western blot analysis showed expression of polyprotein prM/E in different forms as monomers (~65 kDa) or possibly heterodimers (~130 kDa) or multimers. Multimers were solubilized into monomers using guanidine hydrochloride. Transplastomic lettuce plants expressing dengue prM/E vaccine antigens grew normally and transgenes were inherited in the T1 progeny without any segregation. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of virus-like particles of ~20 nm diameter in chloroplast extracts of transplastomic lettuce expressing prM/E proteins, but not in untransformed plants. The prM/E antigens expressed in lettuce chloroplasts should offer a potential source for investigating an oral Dengue vaccine. PMID:21431782

Kanagaraj, Anderson Paul; Verma, Dheeraj; Daniell, Henry

2011-03-24

234

Phoma Basal Rot of Romaine Lettuce in California Caused by Phoma exigua: Occurrence, Characterization, and Control  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Beginning in 2000 and continuing into 2004, a previously undescribed disease caused significant damage to romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in the coastal Salinas Valley of California. Symptoms were brownish black, sunken cavities on the crown and upper taproot. Cavities were firm, lacked signs of fungal growth, and resulted in cracking and weakening of the crown. Affected plants were stunted, uneven in growth, and unmarketable. Crisphead lettuce also developed these symptoms, although disease incidence was always lower than that for romaine. A fungus was consistently isolated from cavities. Using morphological features and molecular methods, the fungus was identified as Phoma exigua. Pathogenicity of isolates from romaine and crisphead lettuce was demonstrated on both of these lettuce types. Replicated field studies showed that azoxystrobin, boscalid, and cyprodinil + fludioxonil fungicides effectively controlled the disease. This is the first report of a crown disease caused by P. exigua in the United States. A similar disease, Phoma basal rot on greenhouse grown lettuce in the United Kingdom, had been previously observed, but no report has been published.

Koike ST; Subbarao KV; Verkley GJM; Fogle D; O'Neill TM

2006-10-01

235

Sensory quality attributes of lettuce obtained using different harvesting performance systems  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the best lettuce cultivar (American 'Graciosa', 'Vanda', 'Marcela' and 'Lavínia') harvesting method. Therefore, quality and shelf-life were evaluated using sensory analyses. Lettuce heads was harvested with the root on by the producer, so that they were cut in different ways in the laboratory. The samples were stored in a cold chamber at 10 °C and 80% ± 2% of relative humidity for nine days, and the sensorial analyses were p (more) erformed according to Qualitative Descriptive Analysis method on days 1, 3, 6, and 9 of storage by twelve trained testers. The results were evaluated by variance analysis, principal component analysis, and the Tukey test with a reliability of 95%. The results indicate that there was a reduction in the quality of lettuce between the 1st and the 5th day of storage and that after the sixth day of storage the lettuce samples were considered unfit for consumption, except for the 'Lavínia' lettuce cultivar with root and cut treatment 2. On the ninth day of storage all samples were considered inappropriate for consumption.

Oliveira, Denize Cristine Rodrigues de; Leal, Paulo Ademar Martins; Honório, Sylvio Luís; Soares, Eveline Kássia Braga

2013-06-01

236

Fifteen years of verticillium wilt of lettuce in america’s salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation and abatement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable that is globally cultivated. The US ranks second in production, with coastal California producing half of the US supply. In 1995, Verticillium wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae was identified as a disease of lettuce in coastal California, ...

237

Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

238

Health effect of vegetable-based diet: lettuce consumption improves cholesterol metabolism and antioxidant status in the rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is often assumed that fruits and vegetables contribute to protect against degenerative pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Besides epidemiological observations, scientific evidences for their mechanism of action are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the mean term and post-prandial effects of lettuce ingestion on lipid metabolism and antioxidant protection in the rat. RESULTS: Feeding rats a 20% lettuce diet for 3 weeks resulted in a decrease cholesterol LDL/HDL ratio and a marked decrease of liver cholesterol levels (-41%). Concurrently, fecal total steroid excretion increased (+44%) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-37%) by the lettuce diet. Lettuce diet also displayed an improvement of vitamin E/TG ratio in plasma and limited lipid peroxidation in heart as evidenced by TBARS. In post-prandial experiment, lettuce intake significantly increased both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol plasma levels which contribute to improve plasma antioxidant capacity within 2 h of consumption. Other lipid-soluble antioxidants (lutein and vitamin E) may also improve the plasma antioxidant capacity. CONCLUSION: Lettuce consumption increases the total cholesterol end-products excretion and improves antioxidant status due to the richness in antioxidants (vitamins C, E and carotenoids). In our model, lettuce clearly shows a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism and on tissue oxidation. Therefore regular consumption of lettuce should contribute to improve protection against cardiovascular diseases.

Nicolle C; Cardinault N; Gueux E; Jaffrelo L; Rock E; Mazur A; Amouroux P; Rémésy C

2004-08-01

239

Improved control of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Contans combined with lignin or a reduced fungicide application  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of Contans (Coniothyrium minitans) in Belgian commercial lettuce greenhouses has so far not always fulfilled the expectations of growers. With the aim of improving the efficacy of control of lettuce drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), Contans applied alone and Contans combined with Radix (Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma gamsii), Kraft pine lignin and Rovral was compared in three successive lettuce crops in a naturally infested greenhouse. At harvest of each crop, the effect on disease incidence, and the effect on viability and fungal infection of sclerotia buried prior to each crop was evaluated. Contans applied alone negatively affected the sclerotial viability, but did not reduce lettuce drop symptoms. The combination of Contans with Kraft pine lignin, on the other hand, reduced sclerotial viability and lettuce drop compared with the untreated control in the last crop. Furthermore, when Contans was combined with Kraft pine lignin, a higher number of infected sclerotia was observed compared with Contans applied alone. When Radix was added to the combination, there was no extra benefit for the control of lettuce drop. The combination of one Rovral application and Contans resulted in a significant control of lettuce drop together with a negative effect on sclerotial survival. Two Rovral applications, by contrast, reduced the ability of C. minitans to parasitize and kill the sclerotia. To conclude, integration of Contans with a reduced Rovral application and with Kraft pine lignin has potential to improve the control of lettuce drop in commercial greenhouses.

Van Beneden Sarah; Leenknegt Ilse; França SorayaC; Höfte Monica

2010-02-01

240

Nutrient absorption and response of lettuce to phosphorus fertilization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of lettuce (cultivar Verônica) to different levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experiment was conducted from 25/09/2003 (sowing) to 03/12/2003 (harvesting) at the Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, UNESP/FCA, Botucatu/SP, under protective structures. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800kg.ha-1 of P2O5, in the form of triple superphosphate) and five replications. Plants were grown in 13L plastic pots containing Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico Típico. A quadratic response was observed for the fresh mass of the plant shoots and leaf area, with maximum equivalent levels of 733 and 756kg.ha-1 of P2O5, respectively, as well as for potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc accumulation. Linear increases were observed with the treatments of P2O5 for dry mass of the shoots, leaf number, plant height and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation.

Cristiaini Kano; Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso; Roberto Lyra Villas Boas

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Binding of virus-like particles of Norwalk virus to romaine lettuce veins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. NoV are associated with raw shellfish outbreaks, particularly oysters, which are thought to bioaccumulate NoV particles during the filter-feeding process. NoV outbreaks, however, have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles, such as lettuce, frozen raspberries, and salad. In this study, we evaluated romaine lettuce as a potential vehicle for NoV transmission by testing the binding and distribution of NoV to the surface of romaine. Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNVLP) applied to the surface of romaine lettuce localized as large clusters primarily on the leaf veins. An extract of romaine lettuce leaves in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (romaine extract [RE]) bound rNVLP in a dose-dependent manner. RE did not bind rNVLP by histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), nor was RE competitive with rNVLP binding to porcine gastric mucin. These results suggested that non-HBGA molecules in RE bind rNVLP by a binding site(s) that is different from the defined binding pocket on the virion. Extracts of cilantro, iceberg lettuce, spinach, and celery also bound rNVLP. Samples of each of the vegetables spiked with rNVLP and tested with anti-NVLP antibody revealed by confocal microscopy the presence of rNVLP not only on the veins of cilantro but also throughout the surface of iceberg lettuce.

Gandhi KM; Mandrell RE; Tian P

2010-12-01

242

Binding of virus-like particles of Norwalk virus to romaine lettuce veins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. NoV are associated with raw shellfish outbreaks, particularly oysters, which are thought to bioaccumulate NoV particles during the filter-feeding process. NoV outbreaks, however, have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles, such as lettuce, frozen raspberries, and salad. In this study, we evaluated romaine lettuce as a potential vehicle for NoV transmission by testing the binding and distribution of NoV to the surface of romaine. Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNVLP) applied to the surface of romaine lettuce localized as large clusters primarily on the leaf veins. An extract of romaine lettuce leaves in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (romaine extract [RE]) bound rNVLP in a dose-dependent manner. RE did not bind rNVLP by histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), nor was RE competitive with rNVLP binding to porcine gastric mucin. These results suggested that non-HBGA molecules in RE bind rNVLP by a binding site(s) that is different from the defined binding pocket on the virion. Extracts of cilantro, iceberg lettuce, spinach, and celery also bound rNVLP. Samples of each of the vegetables spiked with rNVLP and tested with anti-NVLP antibody revealed by confocal microscopy the presence of rNVLP not only on the veins of cilantro but also throughout the surface of iceberg lettuce. PMID:21037300

Gandhi, Kamal M; Mandrell, Robert E; Tian, Peng

2010-10-29

243

Binding of Virus-Like Particles of Norwalk Virus to Romaine Lettuce Veins?  

Science.gov (United States)

Noroviruses (NoV) annually cause millions of cases of gastrointestinal disease in the United States. NoV are associated with raw shellfish outbreaks, particularly oysters, which are thought to bioaccumulate NoV particles during the filter-feeding process. NoV outbreaks, however, have also been known to occur from other common-source food-borne vehicles, such as lettuce, frozen raspberries, and salad. In this study, we evaluated romaine lettuce as a potential vehicle for NoV transmission by testing the binding and distribution of NoV to the surface of romaine. Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNVLP) applied to the surface of romaine lettuce localized as large clusters primarily on the leaf veins. An extract of romaine lettuce leaves in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (romaine extract [RE]) bound rNVLP in a dose-dependent manner. RE did not bind rNVLP by histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), nor was RE competitive with rNVLP binding to porcine gastric mucin. These results suggested that non-HBGA molecules in RE bind rNVLP by a binding site(s) that is different from the defined binding pocket on the virion. Extracts of cilantro, iceberg lettuce, spinach, and celery also bound rNVLP. Samples of each of the vegetables spiked with rNVLP and tested with anti-NVLP antibody revealed by confocal microscopy the presence of rNVLP not only on the veins of cilantro but also throughout the surface of iceberg lettuce.

Gandhi, Kamal M.; Mandrell, Robert E.; Tian, Peng

2010-01-01

244

Nitrogen fertilization on intercropping of lettuce and rocket Adubação nitrogenada em consórcio de alface e rúcula  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work was carried out at UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September to December 2006, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on intercropping of lettuce and rocket. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, treatments being arranged in a 4 x 4 + 2 factorial design. The treatments were the result of a combination of four N rates for lettuce (0, 65, 130 and 195 kg ha-1) and four N rates for rocket (0, 65, 130 and 195 kg ha-1), plus two additional treatments, which corresponded to lettuce and rocket under single cropping. Veronica (lettuce) and Folha Larga (rocket) were the cultivars used. An increase in the N rate for both cultures, under intercropping system, caused fresh matter gains and higher yields for lettuce and rocket, maximizing the land equivalent ratio (1.84) at 127 kg ha-1 of N for lettuce and 195 kg ha-1 of N for rocket.O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro a dezembro de 2006, com objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada em consórcio de alface e rúcula. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados completos, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 2. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de quatro doses de N para a alface (0, 65, 130 e 195 kg ha-1) e quatro doses de N para a rúcula (0, 65, 130 e 195 kg ha-1), mais dois tratamentos adicionais, correspondentes aos monocultivos de alface e rúcula. As cultivares utilizadas foram Verônica (alface) e Folha Larga (rúcula). O aumento da dose de N para ambas as culturas, em consórcio, proporcionou incrementos na massa fresca e produtividade de alface e da rúcula e maximizou o índice de eficiência de uso da área (1,84) na dose 127 kg ha-1 de N para a alface e 195 kg ha-1 de N para rúcula.

Aurélio P Barros Júnior; Arthur B Cecílio Filho; Bráulio Luciano A Rezende; Diego RQ Pôrto; Renato de M Prado

2011-01-01

245

Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to assess selected bioassays and ecological screening tools for their suitability in a weight of evidence risk screening process of acidic metal contaminated soil. Intact soil cores were used for the tests, which minimizes changes in pH and metal bioavailability that may result from homogenization and drying of the soil. Soil cores were spiked with ZnCl(2) or CaCl(2). Leachate collected from the soil cores was used to account for the exposure pathways through pore water and groundwater. Tests assessed included MetSTICK in soil cores and Microtox in soil leachate, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red fescue (Festuca rubra) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in the soil cores and lettuce and red clover in soil leachate, Hyallella azteca in soil leachate, and an ecological soil function test using Bait Lamina in soil cores. Microtox, H. azteca, lettuce and red fescue showed higher sensitivity to low pH than to Zn concentrations and are therefore not recommended as tests on intact acidic soil cores and soil leachate. The Bait Lamina test appeared sensitive to pH levels below 3.7 but should be investigated further as a screening tool in less acidic soils. Among the bioassays, the MetSTICK and the T. pratense bioassays in soil cores were the most sensitive to Zn, with the lowest nominal NOEC of 200 and 400mg Zn/kg d.w., respectively. These bioassays were also tolerant of low pH, which make them suitable for assessing hazards of metal contaminated acid soils.

Chapman EE; Hedrei Helmer S; Dave G; Murimboh JD

2012-06-01

246

Utility of bioassays (lettuce, red clover, red fescue, Microtox, MetSTICK, Hyalella, bait lamina) in ecological risk screening of acid metal (Zn) contaminated soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to assess selected bioassays and ecological screening tools for their suitability in a weight of evidence risk screening process of acidic metal contaminated soil. Intact soil cores were used for the tests, which minimizes changes in pH and metal bioavailability that may result from homogenization and drying of the soil. Soil cores were spiked with ZnCl(2) or CaCl(2). Leachate collected from the soil cores was used to account for the exposure pathways through pore water and groundwater. Tests assessed included MetSTICK in soil cores and Microtox in soil leachate, lettuce (Lactuca sativa), red fescue (Festuca rubra) and red clover (Trifolium pratense) in the soil cores and lettuce and red clover in soil leachate, Hyallella azteca in soil leachate, and an ecological soil function test using Bait Lamina in soil cores. Microtox, H. azteca, lettuce and red fescue showed higher sensitivity to low pH than to Zn concentrations and are therefore not recommended as tests on intact acidic soil cores and soil leachate. The Bait Lamina test appeared sensitive to pH levels below 3.7 but should be investigated further as a screening tool in less acidic soils. Among the bioassays, the MetSTICK and the T. pratense bioassays in soil cores were the most sensitive to Zn, with the lowest nominal NOEC of 200 and 400mg Zn/kg d.w., respectively. These bioassays were also tolerant of low pH, which make them suitable for assessing hazards of metal contaminated acid soils. PMID:22444727

Chapman, E Emily V; Hedrei Helmer, Stephanie; Dave, Göran; Murimboh, John D

2012-03-22

247

Alelopatia de extratos de diferentes órgãos de mulungu na germinação de alface Allelopathy of extracts of different organs of coral tree on the germination of lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O mulungu (Erythrina velutina) é uma árvore de crescimento rápido, com propriedades medicinais. O objetivo no presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sementes, flores e cascas de mulungu na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface cv. Mônica SF FI. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos [extrato de sementes a 100°C, extrato de sementes a 25°C, extrato de cascas a 100°C, extrato de cascas a 25°C, extrato de flores a 100°C, extrato de flores a 25°C e água destilada (testemunha)] com quatro repetições. Os extratos obtidos de sementes, independente da temperatura de extração reduziram a porcentagem e velocidade de germinação de sementes de alface e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os demais extratos não afetaram a germinação, mas causaram o aparecimento de plântulas anormais e mortas. Os extratos aquosos de sementes de mulungu têm potencial alelopático sobre as sementes de alface cv. Mônica SF FI.The coral tree (Erythrina velutina) is a fast growing tree with medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of seeds, flowers and bark of coral tree on seed germination and seedling development of lettuce cv. Mônica SF FI. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments [seed extract at 100°C, seed extract at 25°C, bark extract at 100°C, bark extract at 25°C, flower extract at 100°C, flower extract at 25°C and distilled water (control)] with four replications. The extracts of seeds, independent of the extraction temperature decreased the percentage and speed of germination of lettuce and affected the development of the seedlings. The other extracts did not affect germination, but caused the appearance of abnormal seedlings and dead. The aqueous extract of seeds of coral tree has allelopathic potential in the seeds of lettuce cv. Mônica SF FI.

Andreya K Oliveira; Maria de Fatima B Coelho; Sandra Sely S Maia; Francisco EP Diógenes; Sebastião Medeiros Filho

2012-01-01

248

Lack of internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after leaf surface and soil inoculation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survival and internalization characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg, romaine, and leaf lettuce after inoculation of leaf surfaces and soil were determined. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 in water and cow manure extract was used as an inoculum for abaxial and adaxial sides of leaves at populations of 6 to 7 log and 4 log CFU per plant. The five strains were individually inoculated into soil at populations of 3 and 6 log CFU/g. Soil, leaves, and roots were analyzed for the presence and population of E. coli O157:H7. Ten (4.7%) of 212 samples of leaves inoculated on the adaxial side were positive for E. coli O157:H7, whereas 38 (17.9%) of 212 samples inoculated on the abaxial side were positive. E. coli O157:H7 survived for at least 25 days on leaf surfaces, with survival greater on the abaxial side of the leaves than on the adaxial side. All 212 rhizosphere samples and 424 surface-sanitized leaf and root samples from plants with inoculated leaves were negative for E. coli O157:H7, regardless of plant age at the time of inoculation or the location on the leaf receiving the inoculum. The pathogen survived in soil for at least 60 days. Five hundred ninety-eight (99.7%) of 600 surface-sanitized leaf and root samples from plants grown in inoculated soil were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 in lettuce leaves and roots did not occur, regardless of the type of lettuce, age of plants, or strain of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:19833024

Zhang, Guodong; Ma, Li; Beuchat, Larry R; Erickson, Marilyn C; Phelan, Vanessa H; Doyle, Michael P

2009-10-01

249

Lack of internalization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) after leaf surface and soil inoculation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Survival and internalization characteristics of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg, romaine, and leaf lettuce after inoculation of leaf surfaces and soil were determined. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 in water and cow manure extract was used as an inoculum for abaxial and adaxial sides of leaves at populations of 6 to 7 log and 4 log CFU per plant. The five strains were individually inoculated into soil at populations of 3 and 6 log CFU/g. Soil, leaves, and roots were analyzed for the presence and population of E. coli O157:H7. Ten (4.7%) of 212 samples of leaves inoculated on the adaxial side were positive for E. coli O157:H7, whereas 38 (17.9%) of 212 samples inoculated on the abaxial side were positive. E. coli O157:H7 survived for at least 25 days on leaf surfaces, with survival greater on the abaxial side of the leaves than on the adaxial side. All 212 rhizosphere samples and 424 surface-sanitized leaf and root samples from plants with inoculated leaves were negative for E. coli O157:H7, regardless of plant age at the time of inoculation or the location on the leaf receiving the inoculum. The pathogen survived in soil for at least 60 days. Five hundred ninety-eight (99.7%) of 600 surface-sanitized leaf and root samples from plants grown in inoculated soil were negative for E. coli O157:H7. Internalization of E. coli O157:H7 in lettuce leaves and roots did not occur, regardless of the type of lettuce, age of plants, or strain of E. coli O157:H7.

Zhang G; Ma L; Beuchat LR; Erickson MC; Phelan VH; Doyle MP

2009-10-01

250

Effect of foliar calcium chloride treatment on the level of chlorogenic acid, ?-carotene, lutein and tocopherols in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to determine the effect of foliar application of CaCl2 on the level of ?-carotene, lutein, tocopherols and phenolic compounds in the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega (Lactuca sativa L.). The experiments were conducted in the greenhouse of the Faculty of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 7 and 14 days before harvest, the plants were treated with a solution of CaCl2 with concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.2 M. Plants sprayed with water were the control treatment in the experiment. Analyses were performed on whole leaves and the blade without midrib. The obtained results indicate that the leaves of lettuce cv. Omega are a good source of phenolic compounds, carotenoids and tocopherols. The dominant carotenoid in lettuce cv. Omega was ?-carotene. Foliar application of CaCl2 on the plants did not have any significant effect on the level of ?-carotene and lutein in the whole leaves. The contents of tocopherols, total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid were dependent on the concentration of CaCl2. The application of 0.1 M CaCl2 solution in the plants resulted in a decrease in the level of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid, and an increase in tocopherol content. However, the treatment of the plants with 0.2M CaCl2 solution caused a lowering of the concentration of tocopherols and an increase in the content of chlorogenic acid and total phenolic compounds.

Irena Perucka; Katarzyna Olszówka

2011-01-01

251

Produção de sementes de alface em cultivo hidropônico Lettuce seeds production in hydroponic system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.Lettuce seeds of Deyse and Regina cultivars were produced in greenhouse, in hydroponic system, with excelents rendiments per plant and seed quality, when compared to conventional systems, of parcels in field. This results recommend studies in lettuce seeds production in greenhouse.

Nilson Lemos de Menezes; Osmar Souza dos Santos; Denise Schmidt

2001-01-01

252

Effect of heat stress on the MDA, proline and soluble sugar content in leaf lettuce seedlings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High temperature stress on different varieties of lettuce seedlings in MDA, proline and soluble sugar content were studied. The results were as follows : With the stress temperature, varieties of leaf lettuce seedlings in the MDA, proline and soluble sugar content gradually increased; Different varieties had the most significant difference in 38/33?(d/n). The increase of heat-resistant varieties on proline and soluble sugar content was quick and high, while its increase in MDA content was slow and small.

Yingyan Han; Shuangxi Fan; Qiao Zhang; Yanan Wang

2013-01-01

253

Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author)

2009-01-01

254

Índices morfofisiológicos e de produção de alface sob estresse salino Morphophysiological indices and production of lettuce under saline stress  

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Full Text Available No Nordeste brasileiro, a alface é uma importante olerícola cultivada sob condições de irrigação em que são utilizadas águas de qualidade variada; uma das características da região é a variação espacial e temporal da qualidade dos recursos hídricos. Mesmo assim, são escassos os trabalhos referentes aos efeitos da salinidade na formação de mudas e seu reflexo sobre a produção. Neste trabalho estudaram-se os efeitos de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,3, 1,0, 1,7, 2,4 e 3,1 dS m-1), em relação aos índices morfofisiológicos da alface 'Elba', a partir de mudas produzidas com águas de 0,3 e 3,1 dS m-1. Não houve efeito interativo entre os fatores estudados. O índice raiz/parte-aérea e a taxa de crescimento absoluto, foram afetados pela CEa, mas sem efeito sobre a taxa de crescimento relativo. O crescimento das plantas, cujas mudas foram produzidas com CEa de 3,1 dS m-1, foi inferior no início do ciclo, recuperando-se paulatinamente durante o crescimento; no momento da colheita, as taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo foram, respectivamente, iguais e superiores às das plantas produzidas com água de baixa salinidade. A evapotranspiração diminuiu com o aumento da salinidade. As relações Na+/(Ca2++Mg2+) e Na+/K+ em folhas foram incrementadas linearmente com a salinidade, mas as plantas conseguiram manter o balanço iônico favorável. O rendimento da alface diminuiu 6,1 e 9,0% por aumento unitário de condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo e da água de irrigação, acima de 0,3 e 1,73 dS m-1, respectivamente.Lettuce is an important vegetable crop in the Northeast of Brazil cultivated under irrigated conditions using water of variable quality; one of the characteristics of this region is spatial and temporal variation in quality of water resources. In spite of this, research related to effects of salinity on the seedling formation and its posterior reflex on production is limited. In the present study, the effects of salinity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.3, 1.0, 1.7, 2.4 and 3.1 dS m-1) on growth response of lettuce 'Elba' using two types of seedlings produced with ECw of 0.3 and 3.1 dS m-1 were evaluated in a greenhouse. The studied factors had no interactive effect. Root/shoot ratio and absolute growth rate were affected by salinity although relative growth rate was not affected directly. The seedlings produced with ECw of 3.1 dS m-1 had lower growth rates at the beginning but recovered gradually during the growth cycle. In the last evaluation, the absolute and relative growth rates of these plants were, respectively, equal and superior to that of plants produced with water of low salinity. Increasing water salinity decreased evapotranspiration. The Na+/(Ca2++Mg2+) and Na+/K+ ratios in leaf increased linearly with the salinity but plants maintained favorable ionic balance. The decrease in lettuce yield was 6.1 and 9.0% per unit increase in electrical conductivity of the saturation extract of soil and of irrigation water above 0.3 and 1.73 dS m-1, respectively.

Sergio B. A. Viana; Pedro D. Fernandes; Hans R. Gheyi; Frederico A. L. Soares; Paulo T. Carneiro

2004-01-01

255

Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157: H7 on fresh cut lettuce introduced through cross-contamination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H7 (4.10 CFU/cm(2)) following exposure to 50 ?g/ml chlorine for 30 sec. After immersion studies, lettuce was spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 (2.38 CFU/cm(2)). Phage-treated, inoculated lettuce pieces were stored at 4°C for and analyzed for E. coli O157:H7 populations for up to 7 d. Immersion of lettuce in 9.8 log PFU/ml EcoShield™ for 2 min significantly (p < 0.05) reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations after 24 h when stored at 4°C compared with controls. Immersion of lettuce in suspensions containing high concentrations of EcoShield™ (9.8 log PFU/ml) resulted in the deposition of high concentrations (7.8 log log PFU/cm(2)) of bacteriophages on the surface of fresh cut lettuce, potentially contributing to the efficacy of the lytic phages on lettuce. Spraying phages on to inoculated fresh cut lettuce after being washed in hypochlorite solution was significantly more effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations (2.22 log CFU/cm(2)) on day 0 compared with control treatments (4.10 log CFU/cm(2)). Both immersion and spray treatments provided protection from E. coli O157:H7 contamination on lettuce, but spray application of lytic bacteriophages to lettuce was more effective in immediately reducing E. coli O157:H7 populations fresh cut lettuce.

Ferguson S; Roberts C; Handy E; Sharma M

2013-01-01

256

Detection of Varicosavirus and Ophiovirus in lettuce associated with lettuce big-vein symptoms in Brazil Detecção de Varicosavirus e Ophiovirus associados à síndrome do espessamento clorótico das nervuras da alface no Brasil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During surveys undertaken from 1998 to 2003 in the major vegetable growing areas of the city of São Paulo green belt, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and endive (Cichorium endivia) plants were observed, which showed chlorotic thickening of foliar veins, defective growth and, in some cases, failure to form complete heads. Biological and serological [DAS-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa)] tests together with electron microscope observations, revealed the presence of Lettuce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus, in these plants both responsible for the lettuce big-vein syndrome.Em levantamentos realizados entre 1998 e 2003, nas principais regiões produtoras de alface (Lactuca sativa) e escarola (Cichorium endivia) no cinturão verde de São Paulo, foram observados sintomas de espessamento de nervuras foliares, clorose, crescimento irregular e ausência de formação da cabeça. Por meio de testes biológicos, DAS-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão constatou-se a presença do Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce virus, responsáveis pela síndrome do espessamento clorótico das nervuras da alface ("lettuce big-vein").

Addolorata Colariccio; Alexandre L.R. Chaves; Marcelo Eiras; César M. Chagas; Piero Roggero

2005-01-01

257

Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultivares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados.Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa (smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

F.R. Baptista; C.L.A Pires-Zottarelli; L.D. Teixeira; N.A. Santos Júnior

2011-01-01

258

Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L.) minimamente processada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine) for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L.) minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo) por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de polipropileno contendo sachês com 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP) e seladas com filme biodegradável de amido. Logo após o processamento, o produto foi armazenado a 4ºC por 12 dias. Periodicamente amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente (aparência e intenção de compra) e foram determinados os teores de sólidos solúveis e vitamina C, pH, textura, cor, perda de massa e contagem total de microrganismos mesófilos, psicrotróficos, bactérias láticas, bolores e leveduras. O uso de 1-MCP na forma de sachê não aumentou a vida útil da alface em relação ao controle, mas o processamento mínimo associado à embalagem selada com filme biodegradável é uma técnica viável, pois o produto apresentou boa aceitação sensorial, contaminação microbiológica baixa e vida de prateleira de 5 dias a 4oC.

Tatiana Marin; Jonatas Renan Montanucci; Marta de Toledo Benassi; Fábio Yamashita

2010-01-01

259

Condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva e produção de alface em hidroponia Electrical conductivity of nutrient solution and hidroponic crisp head lettuce yield  

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Full Text Available A variação da condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva altera a absorção de água e nutrientes pelas plantas, interferindo no metabolismo e, consequentemente, na produção das mesmas. Este trabalho, conduzido no período de agosto a outubro de 1999, avaliou o efeito da condutividade elétrica (CE) sobre a produção e desenvolvimento de alface americana de cabeça crespa, cultivar Ryder em hidroponia. As tendências de variação da condutividade elétrica do meio nutritivo, durante o desenvolvimento da alface, foram também avaliadas. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições e três tratamentos, constituídos pelas condutividade elétricas: CE1= 1,46, CE2= 2,46 e CE3= 4,21 (± 0,24) mS cm-1. O diâmetro e altura da cabeça e peso seco da raiz não foram influenciados pelas condutividades elétricas da solução nutritiva. Os maiores pesos do material fresco e seco foram conseguidos com CE 2,46 (± 0,24) mS cm-1. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram a tendência de diminuição da condutividade elétrica, durante o cultivo da alface verificando-se que a condutividade elétrica teve influência sobre as características de produção da alface americana.The levels of electrical conductivity (EC) can alter water and nutrient uptake by plants, influencing their metabolism and yield. This experiment was carried out to verify the effects of EC on the yield and the development of the crisp head lettuce cv. Ryder in hidroponics. The tendency of the electrical conductivity changes of the nutrient solution during the development of the lettuce was also evaluated. A completely randomized design was used, with six replications and three treataments: EC1= 1.46, EC2= 2.46 and EC3= 4.21 (± 0.24) mS cm-1. Lettuce head diameter and height, and root dry weight were not influenced by EC. The largest fresh and dry weights of heads were obtained for 2.46 (± 0.24) mS cm-1. All treatments had the same tendency of reducing EC during lettuce growth.

Paulo César Costa; Evanessa B. Didone; Thaís M. Sesso; Kathia Alexandra Lara Cañizares; Rumy Goto

2001-01-01

260

Tolerance of wheat and lettuce plants grown on human mineralized waste to high temperature stress  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of a life support system for space missions is to supply a crew with food, water and oxygen, and to eliminate their wastes. The ultimate goal is to achieve the highest degree of closure of the system using controlled processes offering a high level of reliability and flexibility. Enhancement of closure of a biological life support system (BLSS) that includes plants relies on increased regeneration of plant waste, and utilization of solid and liquid human wastes. Clearly, the robustness of a BLSS subjected to stress will be substantially determined by the robustness of the plant components of the phototrophic unit. The aim of the present work was to estimate the heat resistance of two plants (wheat and lettuce) grown on human wastes. Human exometabolites mineralized by hydrogen peroxide in an electromagnetic field were used to make a nutrient solution for the plants. We looked for a possible increase in the heat tolerance of the wheat plants using changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity during heat stress. At age 15 days, plants were subjected to a rise in air temperature (from 23 ± 1 °C to 44 ± 1 °) under different PAR intensities for 4 h. The status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants was assessed by external 2 gas exchange and fluorescence measurements. The increased irradiance of the plants during the high temperature period demonstrated its protective action for both the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaves and subsequent plant growth and development. The productivity of the plants subjected to temperature changes at 250 W m-2 of PAR did not differ from that of controls, whereas the productivity of the plants subjected to the same heat stress but in darkness was halved.

Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Shikhov, Valentin N.; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Golovko, Tamara K.; Dal'ke, Igor V.; Zakhozhii, Ilya G.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Yield of crisphead lettuce under different amounts of irrigationProdutividade da alface americana submetida a diferentes lâminas de irrigação  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the aim of minimizing the difficulties faced by the producers on cultivating the crisphead lettuce (Lactuta sativa L), specifically those related to the lack of technical information about the quantity of water to be applied, a study was made in order to determine the effect of various water depths on crisphead lettuce yielding characteristics. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal de Lavras, from October to December 2008 in greenhouse. A randomized block design with five treatments and four repetitions was applied. The treatments, consisting of the five respective evaporation factors; , 0.30 EVm; 0.60 EVm; 0.90 EVm; 1.20 EVm; 1.50 EVm (evaporate depth), were done according to an evaporated depth of a reduced pan. The results showed that: The maximum commercial yield, 36.5 t ha-1, was estimated by applying a 164.8 mm depth, which corresponded to a water reposition factor of 98 %; the highest water usage efficiency (962.45 kg ha-1 mm-1) was attained when an irrigation depth of 50.10 mm (30%) was used.Visando reduzir as dificuldades do produtor no cultivo da alface (Lactuta sativa L) americana, especificamente quanto à falta de informações técnicas sobre a quantidade de água a ser aplicada, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de água referentes às características produtivas dessa cultura. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no período de outubro a dezembro de 2008, em casa de vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram cinco fatores de evaporação, correspondentes a 0,30 EVm; 0,60 EVm; 0,90 EVm; 1,20 EVm e 1,50 EVm (lâmina evaporada), baseado na lâmina evaporada de um minitanque. A máxima produtividade comercial, 36,5 t ha-1, foi estimada com a aplicação da lâmina de 164,8 mm, correspondente ao fator de reposição de 98 %, sendo a maior eficiência no uso da água (962,45 kg ha-1 mm-1) obtida com a aplicação da lâmina de irrigação de 50,10 mm, correspondente ao fator de reposição de água de 30%.

Joaquim Alves Lima Junior; Geraldo Magela Pereira; Luciano Oliveira Geisenhoff; Renato Carvalho Vilas Boas; Welligton Gomes da Silva; Andre Luiz Pereira Silva

2012-01-01

262

Effects of deep plowing on the distribution and density of Sclerotinia minor sclerotia and lettuce drop incidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of deep plowing on the density and distribution of Sclerotinia minor sclerotia and disease incidence were evaluated in a field with a history of severe lettuce drop. Incidence of lettuce drop was recorded on the crop prior to deep plowing. A 40 X 102 m area was divided into four replicate plots of 40 X 24 m with a 2-m space between replications. Each plot was further subdivided into 60 subplots of 4 X 4 m. Soil samples were collected and bulked from six random locations within each subplot to a depth of 15 cm before, immediately after, and one lettuce crop after deep plowing from each subplot. Aliquots of 100 g of soil from each subplot were assayed for S. minor sclerotia by wet sieving. In two successive lettuce crops following deep plowing, the total number of plants and the number showing lettuce drop symptoms were counted in each subplot prior to crop harvest. Significant reductions in the mean number of sclerotia and lettuce drop incidence occurred on the crop immediately after deep plowing; however, disease incidence was significantly greater in the second crop. Calculated values of Lloyd's index of patchiness showed that the distribution of sclerotia had changed from a highly aggregated pattern prior to deep plowing to less aggregated patterns approaching randomness subsequently. While the desired effect of reducing the number of sclerotia was accomplished with deep plowing, the altered distribution of sclerotia increased the likelihood of infection of a greater number of lettuce plants. Consequently, a higher lettuce drop incidence was recorded in the succeeding crops. The viability of sclerotia was also significantly higher following deep plowing. Deep plowing is therefore unlikely to be a successful disease management strategy for lettuce drop in the high inoculum density fields in the Salinas Valley.

Subbarao KV; Koike ST; Hubbard JC

1996-01-01

263

Post-Harvest Transfer and Survival of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis on Living Lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Potential for post-harvest transfer of Salmonella to "living lettuce" is not well understood. In this study transfer of Salmonella enterica Enteritidis (6 log CFU g(-1) ) from worker hands or contaminated roots to leaves of living lettuce was quantified. Transfer rates of Salmonella from contaminated gloves to sequentially handled lettuce heads ranged from 94% to head 1, 82% to head 2 and 69% to head 3. On average 2.9±0.1 log CFU g(-1) (64%) Salmonella was transferred from inoculated roots to leaves resulting from typical post-harvest handling activities for living lettuce. Salmonella persisted on leaves stored at recommended storage temperatures (4°C) and increased 0.5 log CFU g(-1) when stored at temperature abuse conditions (12°C). Salmonella increased 1.6 log CFU g(-1) on roots after 18d stored at 12°C emphasizing the need to maintain temperature control to reduce risk of human illness. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Waitt JA; Kuhn DD; Welbaum GE; Ponder MA

2013-10-01

264

PROGRESS IN BREEDING MELON FOR RESISTANCE TO LETTUCE INFECTIOUS YELLOWS VIRUS  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to lettuce infectious yellows closterovirus is being transferred from PI 313970 to western U.S. shipping type orange flesh cantaloupe. Although resistance is inherited as a single dominant gene, uncertainty of symptom expression requires use of ELISA assays and serial transfers to indicat...

265

The effect of humic and glutamic acids in nutrient solution on the N metabolism in lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This paper reports for the first time the influence of partially replacing the nitrogen (N) source of a nutrient solution with amino acids and humic acid on the physiological and antioxidant activities and N metabolism in lettuce. A hydroponic experiment was designed to replace 25 and 50% of the N in nutrient solutions (NSs) with glutamic acid (GA) and humic acid (HA) and evaluate the effects on growth, nitrate (NO(3)) assimilation, protein content, nitrate reductase (NR) activity and antioxidant changes in lettuce. RESULTS: The results showed that, when a portion of the N was replaced with GA and HA, the fresh and dry weights of lettuce shoots did not change significantly compared with the full NO(3) treatment. The titratable acidity was not affected by adding HA and/or GA to the NS. The nitrite concentration and NR activity decreased with reductions in the N concentration of the NS and improved with the addition of GA and HA. GA enhanced the NO(3) uptake and protein content more than HA. Changes in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities and malondialdehyde content were inconclusive: SOD and POD activities decreased with decreasing N content of the NS, and HA addition improved the SOD and POD activities. CONCLUSION: When HA and GA were substituted for NO(3) in an NS, the acids effectively adjusted the N metabolism and growth in lettuce and decreased the N consumption of the NS.

Haghighi M

2012-12-01

266

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in field-inoculated lettuce  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impact of drip and overhead sprinkler irrigation on the persistence of attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the lettuce phyllosphere was investigated using a split-plot design in four field trials conducted in the Salinas Valley, California, between summer 2007 and fall 2009. Rifampicin-resistant attenuated E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 700728 (BLS1) was inoculated onto the soil beds after seeding with a backpack sprayer or onto 2- or 4-week-old lettuce plant foliage with a spray bottle at a level of 7 log CFU ml?1. When E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto 2-week-old plants, the organism was recovered by enrichment in 1 of 120 or 0 of 240 plants at 21 or 28 days post-inoculation, respectively. For the four trials where inoculum was applied to 4-week-old plants, the population size of E. coli O157:H7 declined rapidly and by day 7, counts were near or below the limit of detection (10 cells per plant) for 82% or more of the samples. However, in 3 out 4 field trials E. coli O157:H7 was still detected in lettuce plants by enrichment 4-weeks post-inoculation. Neither drip nor overhead sprinkler irrigation consistently influenced the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce.

Moyne Al; Sudarshana MR; Blessington T; Koike ST; Cahn MD; Harris LJ

2011-12-01

267

Biological and molecular characterization of lettuce mosaic potyvirus isolates from the Salinas Valley of California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent lettuce mosaic outbreaks in the Salinas Valley of California have been attributed to the emergence or introduction of necrosis-inducing or severe strains of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). A combination of molecular, serological, and biological methods were used to characterize LMV isolates associated with these outbreaks, including 5 putative necrosis-inducing isolates and a "type" LMV isolate. Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences of the coat protein (CP) N-terminal region (referred to here as the hypervariable [HV] region) did not indicate the presence of distinct strains. The amino acid identities of CP-HV ranged from 88 to 98%, and the sequences of the 5 putative necrosis-inducing isolates were no more identical to each other than they were to those of the other LMV isolates nor did they share common amino acid residues not present in the other isolates. All isolates were classified as pathotype II based on virulence on lettuce differential cultivars. Under the conditions of these inoculations, all isolates induced necrotic symptoms on susceptible cultivars. Induction of necrosis was attributed to host and environmental factors rather than to viral variability. Taken together, these results failed to indicate that new highly virulent LMV strains (pathotypes) are responsible for the recent lettuce mosaic outbreaks. This study illustrates the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction in the characterization of viral variability and establishes that individual isolates of a potyvirus strain may show as much as 12% divergence in the CP-HV region without changes in biological properties.

Zerbini FM; Koike ST; Gilbertson RL

1995-07-01

268

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in field-inoculated lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impact of drip and overhead sprinkler irrigation on the persistence of attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the lettuce phyllosphere was investigated using a split-plot design in four field trials conducted in the Salinas Valley, California, between summer 2007 and fall 2009. Rifampicin-resistant attenuated E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 700728 (BLS1) was inoculated onto the soil beds after seeding with a backpack sprayer or onto 2- or 4-week-old lettuce plant foliage with a spray bottle at a level of 7 log CFU ml?¹. When E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto 2-week-old plants, the organism was recovered by enrichment in 1 of 120 or 0 of 240 plants at 21 or 28 days post-inoculation, respectively. For the four trials where inoculum was applied to 4-week-old plants, the population size of E. coli O157:H7 declined rapidly and by day 7, counts were near or below the limit of detection (10 cells per plant) for 82% or more of the samples. However, in 3 out 4 field trials E. coli O157:H7 was still detected in lettuce plants by enrichment 4-weeks post-inoculation. Neither drip nor overhead sprinkler irrigation consistently influenced the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce. PMID:21925023

Moyne, Anne-Laure; Sudarshana, Mysore R; Blessington, Tyann; Koike, Steven T; Cahn, Michael D; Harris, Linda J

2011-02-11

269

Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in field-inoculated lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impact of drip and overhead sprinkler irrigation on the persistence of attenuated Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the lettuce phyllosphere was investigated using a split-plot design in four field trials conducted in the Salinas Valley, California, between summer 2007 and fall 2009. Rifampicin-resistant attenuated E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 700728 (BLS1) was inoculated onto the soil beds after seeding with a backpack sprayer or onto 2- or 4-week-old lettuce plant foliage with a spray bottle at a level of 7 log CFU ml?¹. When E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated onto 2-week-old plants, the organism was recovered by enrichment in 1 of 120 or 0 of 240 plants at 21 or 28 days post-inoculation, respectively. For the four trials where inoculum was applied to 4-week-old plants, the population size of E. coli O157:H7 declined rapidly and by day 7, counts were near or below the limit of detection (10 cells per plant) for 82% or more of the samples. However, in 3 out 4 field trials E. coli O157:H7 was still detected in lettuce plants by enrichment 4-weeks post-inoculation. Neither drip nor overhead sprinkler irrigation consistently influenced the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce.

Moyne AL; Sudarshana MR; Blessington T; Koike ST; Cahn MD; Harris LJ

2011-12-01

270

Taxonomy, distribution and biology of lettuce powdery mildew (Golovinomyces cichoracearum sensu stricto)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews the taxonomy, biology, importance, host-pathogen interactions and control of lettuce powdery mildew. The main causal agent of this disease, Golovinomyces cichoracearum s.s., is an important powdery mildew pathogen of many members of the family Asteraceae. The pathogen is distributed worldwide and occurs on Lactuca sativa as well as wild Lactuca spp. and related taxa (e.g. Cichorium spp.). Powdery mildew of lettuce can be a major problem in production areas with favourable environmental conditions for disease development (dry, hot weather). The fungus grows ectophytically and appears as white, powdery growth on both the upper and lower sides of leaves. There is rather limited information on the geographic distribution of powdery mildew on wild Lactuca spp. Most L. sativa cultivars have been found to be susceptible. Large variability in virulence was confirmed and existence of different races is supposed. Resistance in L. sativa and some related wild Lactuca spp. is characterized by race-specificity, but the genetic background of resistance is poorly understood. Sources of resistance are known in L. saligna and L. virosa. Lettuce powdery mildew can be effectively controlled by common fungicides (e.g. sulphur, myclobutanil, quinoline, strobilurins, etc.) and protective compounds (e.g. extract of neem oil, Reynoutria sachaliensis extracts). However, fungicide resistance may arise. Non-fungicidal activators of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR) had no direct effect on the causal agent. Future issues regarding lettuce powdery mildew research are summarized.

Lebeda A; Mieslerová B

2011-06-01

271

Banded cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance in romaine lettuce: understanding latex chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Many plants subjected to herbivore damage exude latex, a rich source of biochemicals, which play important roles in host plant resistance. Our previous studies showed that fresh latex from Valmaine, a resistant cultivar of romaine lettuce Lactuca sativa L., applied to artificial diet is highly deter...

272

Population biology of Verticillium dahliae isolates from lettuce in the Sallinas Valley of Californis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Verticillium dahliae is a soil borne fungus and the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilt, which affects many crops worldwide. Many crops grown in the Salinas Valley (SV) of California, including strawberry and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), are susceptible to V. dahliae and severe outbreaks are comm...

273

Evaluation of Heavy Metals from Soil and Lettuce Grown in Irrigated Farmlands of Kaduna Metropolis Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research study is to determine the level of heavy metal such as cadmium, copper and lead were investigated in soil and lettuce grown in irrigated farmlands of Kaduna metropolis so as to ascertain the extent of pollution. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results obtained were compared with limit recommended by FAO/WHO (2007) Allimentarius standard so as to ascertain the extent of their pollution. The level of cadmium in lettuce ranged from 0.03-1.37 ?g/g. The concentrations of lead was found to be in range of 0.96-3.81 ?g/g, were above the limit stipulated by WHO while copper concentration ranged from 0.27-4.97 ?g/g were within the recommended limit given by the FAO/WHO (2007) standard. This suggests that the lettuce grown in the studied areas were prone to lead and cadmium toxicity as at the time of this research work. Pearson correlation shows positive correlation between soil and vegetable (lettuce) in these irrigation sites.

W.L.O. Jimoh; Mahmud Imam Mohammed

2012-01-01

274

Uptake, translocation and metabolism of aminocyclopyrachlor in prickly lettuce, rush skeletonweed and yellow starthistle.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Aminocyclopyrachlor is a new herbicide proposed to control broadleaf weeds and shrubs in non-crop and rangeland systems. To gain a better understanding of observed field efficacy, the uptake and translocation of foliar-applied aminocyclopyrachlor (DPX-MAT28) and aminocyclopyrachlor methyl ester (DPX-KJM44) were evaluated in two annuals, prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.), and one perennial, rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea L.). RESULTS: Absorption and translocation varied between species. While absorption of DPX-KJM44 was greater than absorption of DPX-MAT28, rush skeletonweed absorbed the most, followed by yellow starthistle and prickly lettuce. Overall, the total translocation of either herbicide was highest in yellow starthistle, followed by rush skeletonweed and prickly lettuce. Proportional herbicide movement between species was similar, with the majority translocating to developing shoots. However, in rush skeletonweed, early translocation was directed to root tissue. In rush skeletonweed, no DPX-MAT28 metabolism occurred, while DPX-KJM44 was rapidly de-esterified and translocated as DPX-MAT28. CONCLUSION: Aminocyclopyrachlor absorption and translocation are dependent on active ingredient structure and species sensitivity. Highly sensitive species such as prickly lettuce absorb and translocate less material than relatively less sensitive species such as rush skeletonweed. De-esterification of DPX-KJM44 appears to delay translocation of the resulting acid in yellow starthistle and rush skeletonweed.

Bell JL; Burke IC; Prather TS

2011-10-01

275

Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars to cabbage and lettuce leaves  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the ability of five Salmonella enterica serovars to attach to and colonize intact and cut lettuce (Iceberg, Romaine) and cabbage surfaces. Biofilm assay and attachment of Salmonella serovars to intact and cut leaves were determined. Bacterial populations of loosely and strong...

276

Chemical control of downy mildew on lettuce and basil under greenhouse.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eight experimental trials were carried out during 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides against downy mildew of lettuce (Bremia lactucae) and basil (Peronospora belbahrii) under greenhouse conditions, at temperatures ranging from 19 to 24 degrees C. The mixture fluopicolide (fungicide belonging to the + propamocarb hydrochloride (fungicide belonging to the new chemical class of acyl-picolides) was compared with metalaxyl m + copper, zoxamide + mancozeb, iprovalicarb + Cu, fenamidone + fosetyl-Al and azoxystrobin. Two treatments were carried out at 8-12 day interval on lettuce and basil. The artificial inoculation of B. lactucae on lettuce (cv Cobham Green) and P. belbahrii. on basil (cv Genovese gigante) was carried out by using 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml 24 h after the first treatment. In the presence of a medium-high disease severity, all fungicides tested in these trials were effective against downy mildew on lettuce and basil as the other fungicides already available. The importance of the availability of a number of different chemicals to control downy mildews is discussed.

Gullino ML; Gilardi G; Garibaldi A

2009-01-01

277

Chemical control of downy mildew on lettuce and basil under greenhouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight experimental trials were carried out during 2007 and 2008 to evaluate the efficacy of different fungicides against downy mildew of lettuce (Bremia lactucae) and basil (Peronospora belbahrii) under greenhouse conditions, at temperatures ranging from 19 to 24 degrees C. The mixture fluopicolide (fungicide belonging to the + propamocarb hydrochloride (fungicide belonging to the new chemical class of acyl-picolides) was compared with metalaxyl m + copper, zoxamide + mancozeb, iprovalicarb + Cu, fenamidone + fosetyl-Al and azoxystrobin. Two treatments were carried out at 8-12 day interval on lettuce and basil. The artificial inoculation of B. lactucae on lettuce (cv Cobham Green) and P. belbahrii. on basil (cv Genovese gigante) was carried out by using 1 x 10(5) CFU/ml 24 h after the first treatment. In the presence of a medium-high disease severity, all fungicides tested in these trials were effective against downy mildew on lettuce and basil as the other fungicides already available. The importance of the availability of a number of different chemicals to control downy mildews is discussed. PMID:20222581

Gullino, M L; Gilardi, G; Garibaldi, A

2009-01-01

278

SURVEY OF BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS IN THE LETTUCE USED IN COMMERCIAL SNACKS (SANDWICHES) FROM CURITIBA, PR, BRAZIL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the last decades, lettuce has been associated to several foodborne outbreaks. The present study surveyed the microbiological and parasitological contamination of green...

ASSUAN DJAMILA IBRAHIM MOGHARBEL; FELIPE RICHTER REIS; MARIA LUCIA MASSON

279

Romaine lettuce latex deters feeding of banded cucumber beetle: a vehicle for deployment of biochemical defenses  

Science.gov (United States)

Latex is widely found among plant species and is known to play a defensive role against certain herbivores. Two romaine lettuce cultivars, ‘Valmaine’ (resistant) and ‘Tall Guzmaine’ (susceptible) were selected to study the potential of latex as a defense mechanism against the banded cucumber beetle,...

280

Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1) obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1) produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito salino (5,15 dS m-1), um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN) e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca) foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito.Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1) obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1) produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1), a wastewater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS) and/or replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc). The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter) was higher under Floating conditions. The single use of deep well water and reject brine decreased 22.7 and 39.6% the lettuce yield, respectively. For a better combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish water to replace ETc loss may increase the lettuce yield in comparison to use these waters to prepare the NS; this result was registered for deep well water and reject.

Alexandre Nascimento dos Santos; Ênio Farias de França e Silva; Tales Miler Soares; Raquele Mendes Lira Dantas; Manassés Mesquita da Silva

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização/ Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1) obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1) produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito salino (5,15 dS m-1), um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar (more) a solução nutritiva (SN) e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca) foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito. Abstract in english Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1) obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1) produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1), a wastewater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS) and/or replace the evapotransp (more) iration loss (ETc). The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter) was higher under Floating conditions. The single use of deep well water and reject brine decreased 22.7 and 39.6% the lettuce yield, respectively. For a better combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish water to replace ETc loss may increase the lettuce yield in comparison to use these waters to prepare the NS; this result was registered for deep well water and reject.

Santos, Alexandre Nascimento dos; Silva, Ênio Farias de França e; Soares, Tales Miler; Dantas, Raquele Mendes Lira; Silva, Manassés Mesquita da

2011-06-01

282

Analyses of Lettuce Drop Incidence and Population Structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To understand the geographical distribution of lettuce drop incidence and the structure of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum populations, commercial lettuce fields were surveyed in the Salinas, San Joaquin, and Santa Maria Valleys in California. Lettuce drop incidence, pathogen species, and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were determined and analyzed using geostatistic and geographical information system tools. Lettuce drop incidence was lowest in the San Joaquin Valley, and not significantly different between the other two valleys. Semivariogram analysis revealed that lettuce drop incidence was not spatially correlated between different fields in the Salinas Valley, suggesting negligible field-to-field spread or influence of inoculum in one field on other fields. Lettuce drop incidence was significantly lower in fields with a surface drip system than in fields with furrow or sprinkler irrigation systems, suggesting that the surface drip system can be a potential management measure for reducing lettuce drop. In the San Joaquin Valley, S. sclerotiorum was the prevalent species, causing drop in 63.5% of the fields, whereas S. minor also was identified in 25.4% of the fields. In contrast, in the Salinas Valley, S. minor was the dominant species (76.1%) whereas S sclerotiorum only observed in only 13.6% fields, in which only a few plants were infected by S. sclerotiorum. In the Santa Maria Valley, both species frequently were identified, with S. minor being slightly more common. Although many MCGs were identified in S. minor, most of them consisted of only one or two isolates. In all, approximately 91.4% of the isolates belonged to four MCGs. Among them, MCG-1 was the most prevalent group in all three valleys, accounting for 49.8% of total isolates. It was distributed all over the surveyed areas, whereas other MCGs were distributed more or less locally. Populations of S. sclerotiorum exhibited greater diversity, with 89 isolates collected from the Salinas and San Joaquin Valleys belonging to 37 different MCGs. Among them, the most recurrent MCG-A contained 16 isolates, and 30 MCGs contained only 1 isolate each. Many MCGs occurred within only one or a part of the two valleys. Potential reasons for this abundant diversity are discussed.

Wu BM; Subbarao KV

2006-12-01

283

Analyses of Lettuce Drop Incidence and Population Structure of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT To understand the geographical distribution of lettuce drop incidence and the structure of Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum populations, commercial lettuce fields were surveyed in the Salinas, San Joaquin, and Santa Maria Valleys in California. Lettuce drop incidence, pathogen species, and mycelial compatibility groups (MCGs) were determined and analyzed using geostatistic and geographical information system tools. Lettuce drop incidence was lowest in the San Joaquin Valley, and not significantly different between the other two valleys. Semivariogram analysis revealed that lettuce drop incidence was not spatially correlated between different fields in the Salinas Valley, suggesting negligible field-to-field spread or influence of inoculum in one field on other fields. Lettuce drop incidence was significantly lower in fields with a surface drip system than in fields with furrow or sprinkler irrigation systems, suggesting that the surface drip system can be a potential management measure for reducing lettuce drop. In the San Joaquin Valley, S. sclerotiorum was the prevalent species, causing drop in 63.5% of the fields, whereas S. minor also was identified in 25.4% of the fields. In contrast, in the Salinas Valley, S. minor was the dominant species (76.1%) whereas S sclerotiorum only observed in only 13.6% fields, in which only a few plants were infected by S. sclerotiorum. In the Santa Maria Valley, both species frequently were identified, with S. minor being slightly more common. Although many MCGs were identified in S. minor, most of them consisted of only one or two isolates. In all, approximately 91.4% of the isolates belonged to four MCGs. Among them, MCG-1 was the most prevalent group in all three valleys, accounting for 49.8% of total isolates. It was distributed all over the surveyed areas, whereas other MCGs were distributed more or less locally. Populations of S. sclerotiorum exhibited greater diversity, with 89 isolates collected from the Salinas and San Joaquin Valleys belonging to 37 different MCGs. Among them, the most recurrent MCG-A contained 16 isolates, and 30 MCGs contained only 1 isolate each. Many MCGs occurred within only one or a part of the two valleys. Potential reasons for this abundant diversity are discussed. PMID:18943664

Wu, B M; Subbarao, K V

2006-12-01

284

Effect of Sulfur Blended N-Fertilizers on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Quality of Lettuce Yield  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Volatilization of NH3 is a major factor affects ammonical fertilizer use efficiency particularly when N-fertilizers are surface applied to sandy soil characterized by high pH values and low CEC. Effect of blending various N-fertilizers; urea, U, ammonium sulfate, AS, ammonium nitrate, AN and di-ammonium phosphate, DAP; with elemental sulfur, on fertilizer-N utilization and quality of lettuce yield were studied. The results of lettuce yield grown in greenhouse showed significant increase in lettuce fresh yield (ranging from 9.8-18.9%) of treatments received S comparing with those received no S. The effect of S on dry matter of leaves and stems was insignificant. Total N content of leaves and stems showed a significant increase varied between 10.4-20.6 and 8.4-18.5%, respectively. Total-N uptake by lettuce plants treated with sulfur-blended fertilizers was increased by 20%(U)-52(AN)%. Also, an increase in N recovery reached 70% of the applied was observed for sulfur- blended N- fertilizer treatments, instead of 39-52% of those received no S. Nitrate and sulfate contents of lettuce dry matter were significantly increased using S-blended fertilizers particularly in the case of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium sulphate (AS). The results of soil analysis showed significant decrease in soil pH in the treatments received S blended fertilizer compared to those received no S. On the other hand, electrical conductivity increased significantly from 1.8-2.1 to 2.1-3.2 dS m?1 as a result of S addition. Insignificant increase in both SO4 and NH4 contents were recorded for S treated samples.

K.N. Al-Redhaiman; M.I.D. Helal; R.R. Shahin

2003-01-01

285

Plant Lesions Promote the Rapid Multiplication of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Postharvest Lettuce?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections have been associated with minimally processed leafy vegetables in the United States. Harvesting and processing cause plant tissue damage. In order to assess the role of plant tissue damage in the contamination of leafy greens with E. coli O157:H7, the effect of mechanical, physiological, and plant disease-induced lesions on the growth of this pathogen on postharvest romaine lettuce was investigated. Within only 4 h after inoculation, the population sizes of E. coli O157:H7 increased 4.0-, 4.5-, and 11.0-fold on lettuce leaves that were mechanically bruised, cut into large pieces, and shredded into multiple pieces, respectively. During the same time, E. coli O157:H7 population sizes increased only twofold on leaves that were left intact after harvest. Also, the population size of E. coli O157:H7 was 27 times greater on young leaves affected by soft rot due to infection by Erwinia chrysanthemi than on healthy middle-aged leaves. Confocal microscopy revealed that leaf tip burn lesions, which are caused by a common physiological disorder of lettuce, harbored dense populations of E. coli O157:H7 cells both internally and externally. Investigation of the colonization of cut lettuce stems by E. coli O157:H7 showed that the pathogen grew 11-fold over 4 h of incubation after its inoculation onto the stems, from which large amounts of latex were released. The results of this study indicate that plant tissue damage of various types can promote significant multiplication of E. coli O157:H7 over a short time and suggest that harvesting and processing are critical control points in the prevention or reduction of E. coli O157:H7 contamination of lettuce.

Brandl, M. T.

2008-01-01

286

Cadmium determination in lettuce grown in contaminated soil by INAAA and GFAAS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although Cd is not essential for the mammalian organism, it follows in body the same pathways of essential elements such as zinc and copper. There is evidence that the Cd induced reduction of Ca absorption, may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Anthropogenic activities associated with industrial activities, mining and use of fertilizers, limestone pesticides in agriculture are the main sources of Cd enrichment in soils. Due to the possibility that Cd being absorbed by plants and through them to reach the food chain, interest has increased in regard to developing techniques for remediation of contaminated sites. The addition of substances capable of immobilizing the toxic elements from the soil is a procedure that has been used for remediation of contaminated sites. The function of these substances is to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in the soil. In this study, five doses of phosphorus as triple phosphorus were used in a number of lettuce plants grown in contaminated soil. The concentration of Cd present in lettuce leaves treated with phosphate was compared with the Cd absorbed by the control plant leaves. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Graphite-Furnace Absorption Atomic Spectrometry (GFAAS) were the analytical methods used to determine Cd contents in lettuce leaves. The objective was to evaluate the performance of the employed analytical methods: INAA and GFAAS in the assessment of the efficiency of phosphorus treatments to reduce the Cd concentrations in leaves of lettuce. Results obtained indicated that both analytical methods were efficient to discriminate the response of Cd concentration in lettuce as a function of soil treatment with phosphorus. Although INAA has shown a positive performance in this study, GFAAS seemed more appropriate because its sensitivity was much higher than that obtained by INAA, in the experimental conditions. (author)

Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: marmelin@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Trevizam, Anderson R.; Silva, Maria Ligia S. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Muraoka, Takashi, E-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

2011-07-01

287

Alface minimamente processada: uma revisão Minimally processed lettuce: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Segurança e qualidade na produção de alimentos frescos são dependentes da microflora. Cada etapa da cadeia de produção desde o plantio até o consumo final influencia a qualidade microbiológica do alimento. Manipulação inadequada e ausência de procedimentos adequados, como a não sanitização dos equipamentos utilizados no beneficiamento, levam a um incremento do crescimento microbiano, podendo comprometer a qualidade e segurança de frutas e vegetais frescos. Por razões de ordem econômica e higiênica, o consumo de vegetais frescos pré-preparados, "prontos para consumo" (ready-to-eat), tornou-se bastante popular, pois se encontram disponíveis já higienizados e embalados nos mais diversos formatos, isto é, minimamente processados. Etapas de processamento como a picagem e o corte normalmente incrementam a população de microorganismos, diminuindo, conseqüentemente, a vida-de-prateleira do alimento. A utilização de técnicas para estender a vida-de-prateleira de um produto alimentício pode incrementar os riscos com problemas correlacionados com a segurança alimentar. O uso adequado de desinfetantes pode complementar um programa de sanitização, mas pode não obter sucesso absoluto na erradicação de microorganismos patogênicos em alimentos pré-contaminados. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os principais aspectos envolvendo a qualidade e segurança na produção da alface picada minimamente processada.Quality and safety of fresh produce depend on their microbial flora. Every step from production to consumption will influence the microbiology of fresh produce. Improper handling and unsanitary equipment lead to an increase in populations of microorganisms in fresh fruits and vegetables and can compromise quality and safety. For reasons of expense, labor and hygiene, fresh prepacked vegetables have become very popular, since they are already peeled, sliced, shredded, that is, minimally processed. Processing steps such as cutting usually increase the populations of microorganisms and developing shorten shelf life. The use of techniques to extend shelf life can increase the risk of developing safety problems and therefore need to be carefully evaluated. Proper use of disinfectants can complement an effective sanitization program but should not be relied upon to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms from contaminated produce. The aim of this review article is to present quality and safety aspects of minimal processing of ready-to-eat shredded lettuce.

Liliane Corrêa MAISTRO

2001-01-01

288

Alface minimamente processada: uma revisão/ Minimally processed lettuce: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Segurança e qualidade na produção de alimentos frescos são dependentes da microflora. Cada etapa da cadeia de produção desde o plantio até o consumo final influencia a qualidade microbiológica do alimento. Manipulação inadequada e ausência de procedimentos adequados, como a não sanitização dos equipamentos utilizados no beneficiamento, levam a um incremento do crescimento microbiano, podendo comprometer a qualidade e segurança de frutas e vegetais frescos. (more) Por razões de ordem econômica e higiênica, o consumo de vegetais frescos pré-preparados, "prontos para consumo" (ready-to-eat), tornou-se bastante popular, pois se encontram disponíveis já higienizados e embalados nos mais diversos formatos, isto é, minimamente processados. Etapas de processamento como a picagem e o corte normalmente incrementam a população de microorganismos, diminuindo, conseqüentemente, a vida-de-prateleira do alimento. A utilização de técnicas para estender a vida-de-prateleira de um produto alimentício pode incrementar os riscos com problemas correlacionados com a segurança alimentar. O uso adequado de desinfetantes pode complementar um programa de sanitização, mas pode não obter sucesso absoluto na erradicação de microorganismos patogênicos em alimentos pré-contaminados. O objetivo desta revisão é apresentar os principais aspectos envolvendo a qualidade e segurança na produção da alface picada minimamente processada. Abstract in english Quality and safety of fresh produce depend on their microbial flora. Every step from production to consumption will influence the microbiology of fresh produce. Improper handling and unsanitary equipment lead to an increase in populations of microorganisms in fresh fruits and vegetables and can compromise quality and safety. For reasons of expense, labor and hygiene, fresh prepacked vegetables have become very popular, since they are already peeled, sliced, shredded, that (more) is, minimally processed. Processing steps such as cutting usually increase the populations of microorganisms and developing shorten shelf life. The use of techniques to extend shelf life can increase the risk of developing safety problems and therefore need to be carefully evaluated. Proper use of disinfectants can complement an effective sanitization program but should not be relied upon to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms from contaminated produce. The aim of this review article is to present quality and safety aspects of minimal processing of ready-to-eat shredded lettuce.

MAISTRO, Liliane Corrêa

2001-12-01

289

SSH reveals a linkage between a senescence-associated protease and Verticillium wilt symptom development in lettuce (Lactuca sativa)  

Science.gov (United States)

Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to identify lettuce (Lactuca sativa) genes that are differentially expressed in symptomatic leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. Genes expressed only in symptomatic leaves included those with homology to pathogenesis-related (PR) protei...

290

Some Aspects of the Struggle for Agricultural Farm Labor Constracts in the Salinas Valley Lettuce Industry, 1970-1972.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1970 three lettuce growers rescinded signed labor contracts with the Teamsters, and negotiated contracts with the United Farm Workers Union. Two years later, at contract renewal time, negotiations resulted in the renewal of only one contract. The reaso...

J. A. Peschka

1973-01-01

291

Detection of Varicosavirus and Ophiovirus in lettuce associated with lettuce big-vein symptoms in Brazil/ Detecção de Varicosavirus e Ophiovirus associados à síndrome do espessamento clorótico das nervuras da alface no Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em levantamentos realizados entre 1998 e 2003, nas principais regiões produtoras de alface (Lactuca sativa) e escarola (Cichorium endivia) no cinturão verde de São Paulo, foram observados sintomas de espessamento de nervuras foliares, clorose, crescimento irregular e ausência de formação da cabeça. Por meio de testes biológicos, DAS-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) e microscopia eletrônica de transmissão constatou-se a presença do Lettuce big-vein asso (more) ciated virus e Mirafiori lettuce virus, responsáveis pela síndrome do espessamento clorótico das nervuras da alface ("lettuce big-vein"). Abstract in english During surveys undertaken from 1998 to 2003 in the major vegetable growing areas of the city of São Paulo green belt, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and endive (Cichorium endivia) plants were observed, which showed chlorotic thickening of foliar veins, defective growth and, in some cases, failure to form complete heads. Biological and serological [DAS-Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa)] tests together with electron microscope observations, revealed the presence of Lettu (more) ce big-vein virus and Mirafiori lettuce virus, in these plants both responsible for the lettuce big-vein syndrome.

Colariccio, Addolorata; Chaves, Alexandre L.R.; Eiras, Marcelo; Chagas, César M.; Roggero, Piero

2005-08-01

292

Mustard and Other Cover Crop Effects Vary on Lettuce Drop Caused by Sclerotinia minor and on Weeds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mustard cover crops have been suggested as a potential biofumigant for managing soilborne agricultural pests and weeds. We conducted several experiments in commercial lettuce fields in the Salinas Valley, CA, to evaluate the effects of mustard cover crops on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and on weed density and seed viability. In a long-term study, we measured the effects of white and Indian mustard cover crops on the density of S. minor sclerotia in soil, lettuce drop incidence, weed densities, weed seed viability, and crop yield in head lettuce. We also tested broccoli and rye cover crop treatments and a fallow control. Across several short-term studies, we evaluated the density of S. minor sclerotia in soil, lettuce drop incidence, weed densities, and weed seed viability following cover cropping with a mustard species blend. Numbers of sclerotia in soil were low in most experimental locations and were not affected by cover cropping. Mustard cover crops did not reduce disease incidence in the long-term experiment but the incidence of lettuce drop was lower in mustard-cover-cropped plots across the short-term experiments. With the exception of common purslane and hairy nightshade, weed densities and weed seed viability were not significantly reduced by cover cropping with mustard. Head lettuce yield was significantly higher in mustard-cover-cropped plots compared with a fallow control. Glucosinolate content in the two mustard species was similar to those measured in other studies but, when converted to an equivalent of a commercial fumigant, the concentrations were much lower than the labeled rate for lettuce production. Although mustard cover cropping resulted in yield benefits in this study, there was little to no disease or weed suppression.

Bensen TiffanyA; Smith RichardF; Subbarao KrishnaV; Koike StevenT; Fennimore StevenA; Shem-Tov Shachar

2009-10-01

293

Assessment of lettuce quality during storage at low relative humidity using Global Stability Index methodology Avaliação da qualidade da alface durante o armazenamento em baixa umidade relativa usando o Índice Global da Estabilidade  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During postharvest, lettuce is usually exposed to adverse conditions (e.g. low relative humidity) that reduce the vegetable quality. In order to evaluate its shelf life, a great number of quality attributes must be analyzed, which requires careful experimental design, and it is time consuming. In this study, the modified Global Stability Index method was applied to estimate the quality of butter lettuce at low relative humidity during storage discriminating three lettuce zones (internal, middle, and external). The results indicated that the most relevant attributes were: the external zone - relative water content, water content , ascorbic acid, and total mesophilic counts; middle zone - relative water content, water content, total chlorophyll, and ascorbic acid; internal zone - relative water content, bound water, water content, and total mesophilic counts. A mathematical model that takes into account the Global Stability Index and overall visual quality for each lettuce zone was proposed. Moreover, the Weibull distribution was applied to estimate the maximum vegetable storage time which was 5, 4, and 3 days for the internal, middle, and external zone, respectively. When analyzing the effect of storage time for each lettuce zone, all the indices evaluated in the external zone of lettuce presented significant differences (p Durante a pós-colheita a alface é exposta a condições adversas (baixa umidade relativa) que reduzem a qualidade do vegetal. A fim de avaliar sua vida útil, um grande número de índices de qualidade tem que ser analisado, requerendo um cuidadoso delineamento experimental e um longo consumo de tempo. Neste trabalho, o método modificado do Índice Global da Estabilidade foi aplicado para estimar a qualidade da alface manteiga a uma baixa umidade relativa durante o armazenamento diferenciando três zonas (interna, média e externa). Os resultados indicaram que, para a zona externa, os índices mais relevantes foram o conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, ácido ascórbico e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Para a zona média, foram conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, clorofila total, ácido ascórbico e, para a interna, conteúdo da umidade relativa, água ligada, conteúdo da água e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Foi proposto um modelo matemático entre o Índice Global da Estabilidade e qualidade visual geral para cada zona da alface. Ademais, foi aplicada a distribuição de Weibull para estimar o tempo da vida útil do vegetal, o qual foi: 5, 4 e 3 dias para as zonas interna, média e externa, respectivamente. Quando foi estudado o efeito do tempo de armazenamento para cada zona da alface, todos os índices avaliados na zona externa mostraram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05). Para as zonas interna e média, todos os índices medidos, com exceção do conteúdo da água e do total de clorofila, mostraram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05).

María Roberta Ansorena; María Victoria Agüero; María Grabriela Goñi; Sara Roura; Alejandra Ponce; María del Rosario Moreira; Karina Di Scala

2012-01-01

294

Browning inhibition and quality preservation of fresh-cut romaine lettuce exposed to high intensity light  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fresh-cut romaine lettuce (FRL) is susceptible to tissue browning and quality deterioration, and thus has short shelf-life. The effect of continuous high intensity light (HIL, 2500lx), low intensity light (LIL, 500lx), and darkness on FRL browning and quality was studied upon 7d cold storage. Changes in browning index (BI), browning-related enzyme activity, quinone, total phenol (TP), ascorbic acid (AA) content, antioxidant capacity (AC), and fresh weight loss were investigated. HIL significantly decreased BI and inhibited polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, and quinone accumulation. While HIL preserved more TP and AA content and resulted in higher AC value compared to darkness. Conversely, LIL induced PPO and POD activities as well as quinone generation, resulting in higher BI compared with darkness. Meanwhile, LIL induced low both TP content and AC value that contributed to low quality property. Both HIL and LIL notably increased PAL activity and fresh weight loss that progressively increased over time compared to darkness. Conclusively, HIL exposure effectively protected FRL from browning and quality decay by inhibiting browning-related enzyme activity and maintaining nutritional constituents during refrigeration. INDUSTRIAL RELEVANCE: Romaine lettuce is consumers’ favorite leafy vegetable for its crispness, good aroma, tender appearance as well as high phytochemicals like phenolic compounds. However, by nature, romaine lettuce is very perishable and susceptible to quality decay and enzymatic browning. In current retail marketing, fresh-cut produce is unavoidably exposed to light conditions during its displayed shelf-life for consumers’ choice. This study investigated the effect of continuous high intensity light, low intensity light exposure and darkness on tissue browning and quality property of fresh-cut romaine lettuce. Result indicated that the high intensity light exposure was effective in inhibiting tissue browning and maintaining quality of fresh-cut romaine lettuce upon cold storage. The findings are innovative and very helpful for fresh-cut lettuce producers, distributors, and sellers to decrease the occurrence of undesirable color and nutrition changes by modifying light illumination during storage.

Zhan L; Li Y; Hu J; Pang L; Fan H

2012-04-01

295

Phytotoxicity and antioxidative enzymes of green microalga (Desmodesmus subspicatus) and duckweed (Lemna minor) exposed to herbicides MCPA, chloridazon and their mixtures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we evaluate the toxicity of MCPA (auxin-like growth inhibitor), chloridazon (CHD) (PSII-inhibitor) and their mixtures to floating plants and planktonic algae. Toxicity of MCPA (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid) and CHD (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-3(2H)-pyridazinone) was first assessed in two growth inhibition tests with Lemna minor (ISO/DIS 20079) and Desmodesmus subspicatus (ISO 8692). Next, herbicide mixtures at concentrations corresponding to the EC values were used to assess their interactive effects, and the biomarkers were: for duckweed fresh weight, frond area, chlorophyll content and number of fronds, and for algae cell count and cell volume. The 3d EC?? and EC?? values using cell counts of D. subspicatus were 142.7 and 529.1 mg/L for MCPA and 1.7 and 5.1 mg/L for CHD. The 7d EC?? and EC?? values using frond number of L. minor amounted to 0.8 and 5.4 mg/L for MCPA and 0.7 and 10.4 mg/L for CHD. Higher sensitivity of reproductive (number of cells/fronds) than growth processes (cell volume/frond area) to herbicides applied individually and in mixtures was especially pronounced in the responses of Desmodesmus. Herbicide interactions were assessed by the two-way ANOVA and Abbott's formula. Generally, an antagonistic interaction with Lemna was revealed by MCPA and chloridazon, whereas additive effect of both herbicides was observed for Desmodesmus. A significant stimulation of SOD and APX activity by binary mixtures was noted in algal cells mainly after 24 and 48 hours of exposure. The extremely high stimulation of the activity of both enzymes was induced by the combination EC??CHD + EC??MCPA (48 h). Presumably due to oxidative stress, the treatment with CHD at concentration EC?? after 72 h was lethal for algae grown in aerated cultures, in contrast to standardized test conditions. Taking into account the consequences of risk assessment for herbicide mixtures we can state that a relatively low toxicity, as well as the lack of significant synergy between MCPA and CHD to non-target plants appears to be the most important result.

Bisewska J; Sarnowska EI; Tukaj ZH

2012-09-01

296

Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system  

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Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica) e lisa (Regina e Elisa), infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique), sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano.Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica) and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa), infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique), two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

Zayame Vegette Pinto; Matheus Aparecido Pereira Cipriano; José Abrahão Haddad Galvão; Wagner Bettiol; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Amaury da Silva dos Santos

2011-01-01

297

Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico/ Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, causada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica) e (more) lisa (Regina e Elisa), infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique), sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano. Abstract in english Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica) and leafy lettuce cultivars (Reg (more) ina and Elisa), infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique), two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

Pinto, Zayame Vegette; Cipriano, Matheus Aparecido Pereira; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Bettiol, Wagner; Patrício, Flávia Rodrigues Alves; Santos, Amaury da Silva dos

2011-12-01

298

Potencial de rizobactérias na promoção de crescimento e controle da podridãoradicular em alface hidropônica Potential of rhizobacteria to promote root rot growth and control in hydroponically cultivated lettuce  

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Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar se isolados de rizobactérias do grupo fluorescente do gênero Pseudomonas: 1) produzem metabólitos envolvidos na promoção do crescimento (AIA e HCN); 2) têm potencial para controle biológico de Pythium aphanidermatum; 3) podem promover o crescimento de plantas de alface cultivadas em sistema hidropônico; 4) e verificar se há correspondência nas interações in vitro e in vivo desses microrganismos. Com esses objetivos, placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura ágar-água, com ou sem Pythium aphanidermatum, receberam sementes prégerminadas de alface tratadas com os isolados de rizobactérias. Os comprimentos do hipocótilo e da radícula foram medidos cinco ou sete dias após a incubação a 28 ºC. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação com plantas de alface hidropônica e 17 isolados bacterianos. As unidades experimentais receberam a suspensão dos isolados de Pseudomonas spp. e, uma semana depois, a suspensão de zoósporos de P. aphanidermatum. Avaliaram-se o escurecimento das raízes e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes das plantas. Os isolados produzem metabólitos que beneficiam o crescimento de alface mesmo na presença do patógeno. Os isolados LP15, LP25, LP28, LP44 e LP47 reduziram os danos causados por P. aphanidermatum nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. Este é o primeiro estudo que demonstrou que rizobactérias obtidas de solos brasileiros têm potencial para promover o controle biológico de P. aphanidermatum e o crescimento de plantas de alface em sistemas hidropônicos.The aims of this study were to evaluate whether rhizobacteria with hydroponic lettuce plants and 17 bacterial isolates. The experimental isolates of the fluorescent group of the genus Pseudomonas: 1) units received Pseudomonas spp. isolate suspension and, one week later, produce metabolites involved in growth promotion (AIA and HCN); P. aphanidermatum zoospore suspension. The plants were evaluated for 2) have the potential for the biological control of Pythium root darkening and shoot and root dry matter mass. The isolates produce aphanidermatum; 3) promote the growth of lettuce cultivated in metabolites which benefit the growth of lettuce even in the presence of hydroponic system; 4) show correspondence in the in vitro and in vivo the pathogen. The isolates LP15, LP25, LP28, LP44 and LP47 reduced interactions. Thus, Petri dishes containing agar-water culture medium, the damage caused by P. aphanidermatum in experiments in vitro and in with or without Pythium aphanidermatum, received pre-germinated vivo. This is the first study which demonstrated that rhizobacteria seeds of lettuce treated with the rhizobacteria isolates. The lengths of obtained from Brazilian soils have the potential to promote the the hypocotyl and radicle were measured at five or seven days after biological control of P. aphanidermatum and the growth of lettuce incubation at 28 ºC. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse plants in hydroponic systems.

Matheus Aparecido Pereira Cipriano; Flávia Rodrigues Alves Patrício; Sueli dos Santos Freitas

2013-01-01

299

Decrease and increase profile of Cu, Cr and Pb during stable phase of removal by duckweed (Lemna minor L.).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present work details the decrease-increase profiles of Cu, Cr, and Pb by the aquatic plant Lemna minor. A mixture of these metals were utilized at different concentrations. Removal profiles of each metal was determined with water samples taken every 24 h for a 144 h period after the 48 h mark and was examined with correlation analysis. Removal profiles of Cr and Pb by L. minor from the mixture were observed to be highly similar with each other (r = 0.943). High proportion of Cr and Pb were removed compared to Cu and removal equations were defined with the aid of regression analysis.

Uçüncü E; Tunca E; Fikirde?ici S; Altinda? A

2013-01-01

300

Decrease and increase profile of Cu, Cr and Pb during stable phase of removal by duckweed (Lemna minor L.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work details the decrease-increase profiles of Cu, Cr, and Pb by the aquatic plant Lemna minor. A mixture of these metals were utilized at different concentrations. Removal profiles of each metal was determined with water samples taken every 24 h for a 144 h period after the 48 h mark and was examined with correlation analysis. Removal profiles of Cr and Pb by L. minor from the mixture were observed to be highly similar with each other (r = 0.943). High proportion of Cr and Pb were removed compared to Cu and removal equations were defined with the aid of regression analysis. PMID:23488003

Uçüncü, Esra; Tunca, Evren; Fikirde?ici, Seyda; Altinda?, Ahmet

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Erigeron bonariensis: hospedeira alternativa do Lettuce mosaic virus no Brasil Erigeron bonariensis: an alternative host of Lettuce mosaic virus in Brazil  

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Full Text Available O gênero Erigeron (Asteraceae), de plantas da vegetação espontânea, encontra-se amplamente disseminado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, sendo freqüentemente encontrado em lavouras perenes e anuais. Plantas de E. bonariensis com sintoma de mosaico, típico do induzido por vírus, foram coletadas no município de São Paulo e submetidas a análises ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, testes biológicos, sorológicos e moleculares. Em cortes ultrafinos do tecido foliar original, observaram-se inclusões tubulares e cata-ventos dispersos no citoplasma. Através de inoculação mecânica, somente Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana e N. clevelandii foram infetadas. Os resultados obtidos em ELISA foram negativos quando se utilizaram antissoros contra o Turnip mosaic vírus (TuMV) e diferentes estirpes do Potato virus Y (PVY), constatando-se relacionamento sorológico com o Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Com a utilização de oligonucleotídeos específicos para LMV amplificaram-se fragmentos esperados de aproximadamente 280 pb, que seqüênciados confirmaram a identidade do vírus. A ocorrência do LMV em E. bonariensis, gênero da mesma família botânica da alface (Lactuca sativa), é de grande importância, pois talvez possa atuar como reservatório para infecção de campos de produção de alface. Este é o primeiro relato, no Brasil, de vírus infetando Erigeron sp., o qual só havia sido reportado como hospedeira natural do Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV) e do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) nos Estados Unidos.The genus Erigeron, Asteraceae family, comprises weed plants spread over Southern and Southeastern Brazil, and, frequently, is found among annual and perennial crop plants. Erigeron bonariensis L.plants showing symptoms of mosaic, similar to those caused by plant viruses, were collected in São Paulo State and submitted to electron microscopy, biological, serological and molecular analysis. Ultrathin sections of the original foliar tissues samples showed tubular and pinwheel inclusions dispersed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Following transmission by mechanical inoculation, only Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii were infected. The ELISA results were negative with antisera against Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) and positive for Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) antiserum. With specific primers to LMV, 280 bp fragments were amplified and sequenced, confirming the virus identity as LMV. The occurrence of LMV in E. bonariensis, which belongs to the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) family, is significant since it may also act as LMV reservoir for lettuce field crops. This is the first report in Brazil of a virus infecting Erigeron sp. which has also been reported as a natural host of Bidens mottle virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in the United States.

Alexandre L. R. Chaves; Marina R. Braun; Marcelo Eiras; Addolorata Colariccio; Silvia R. Galleti

2003-01-01

302

Erigeron bonariensis: hospedeira alternativa do Lettuce mosaic virus no Brasil/ Erigeron bonariensis: an alternative host of Lettuce mosaic virus in Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O gênero Erigeron (Asteraceae), de plantas da vegetação espontânea, encontra-se amplamente disseminado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, sendo freqüentemente encontrado em lavouras perenes e anuais. Plantas de E. bonariensis com sintoma de mosaico, típico do induzido por vírus, foram coletadas no município de São Paulo e submetidas a análises ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, testes biológicos, sorológicos e moleculares. Em cortes ultrafinos do (more) tecido foliar original, observaram-se inclusões tubulares e cata-ventos dispersos no citoplasma. Através de inoculação mecânica, somente Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana e N. clevelandii foram infetadas. Os resultados obtidos em ELISA foram negativos quando se utilizaram antissoros contra o Turnip mosaic vírus (TuMV) e diferentes estirpes do Potato virus Y (PVY), constatando-se relacionamento sorológico com o Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Com a utilização de oligonucleotídeos específicos para LMV amplificaram-se fragmentos esperados de aproximadamente 280 pb, que seqüênciados confirmaram a identidade do vírus. A ocorrência do LMV em E. bonariensis, gênero da mesma família botânica da alface (Lactuca sativa), é de grande importância, pois talvez possa atuar como reservatório para infecção de campos de produção de alface. Este é o primeiro relato, no Brasil, de vírus infetando Erigeron sp., o qual só havia sido reportado como hospedeira natural do Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV) e do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) nos Estados Unidos. Abstract in english The genus Erigeron, Asteraceae family, comprises weed plants spread over Southern and Southeastern Brazil, and, frequently, is found among annual and perennial crop plants. Erigeron bonariensis L.plants showing symptoms of mosaic, similar to those caused by plant viruses, were collected in São Paulo State and submitted to electron microscopy, biological, serological and molecular analysis. Ultrathin sections of the original foliar tissues samples showed tubular and pinwh (more) eel inclusions dispersed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Following transmission by mechanical inoculation, only Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii were infected. The ELISA results were negative with antisera against Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) and positive for Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) antiserum. With specific primers to LMV, 280 bp fragments were amplified and sequenced, confirming the virus identity as LMV. The occurrence of LMV in E. bonariensis, which belongs to the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) family, is significant since it may also act as LMV reservoir for lettuce field crops. This is the first report in Brazil of a virus infecting Erigeron sp. which has also been reported as a natural host of Bidens mottle virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in the United States.

Chaves, Alexandre L. R.; Braun, Marina R.; Eiras, Marcelo; Colariccio, Addolorata; Galleti, Silvia R.

2003-06-01

303

An improved method for transformation of lettuce by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a gene that confers freezing resistance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Um método eficiente de obtenção de cultivares de alface por meio de transformação com Agrobacterium tumefaciens foi descrito por Torres et al., 1993. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um procedimento melhorado a partir do trabalho descrito acima foi aplicado para transformação da cultivar de alface Grand Rapids com o gene mutado P5CS. As principais modificações nos protocolos de transformação e regeneração, com o objetivo de torná-los mais práticos. Também f (more) oi procurado o melhoramento das etapas de transformação no sentido de se aumentar a superfície de infecção, além do aumento no tempo de co-cultivo com Agrobacterium (em uma alta concentração celular). Maior pressão seletiva foi utilizada contra plantas não transformadas e bactérias. Neste trabalho também se trabalhou na produção de sementes das gerações T1 e T2, para que se pudesse fazer os ensaios fisiológicos e genéticos. Este gene codifica para delta¹-pirrolina-5-carboxilato sintetase, uma enzima bifuncional que catalisa dois passos na biossíntese de prolina em plantas (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996), só que neste caso se tornou insensível para inibição por retroalimentação por prolina. O potencial deste gene é conferir resistência ao estresse hídrico (seca, alta concentração salina, frio) devido ao aumento na concentração de prolina intracelular, que funciona como um osmoprotetor. Neste trabalho foram obtidas e analisadas linhagens de alface transgênicas resistentes ao congelamento. Abstract in english An efficient method for constructing transgenic lettuce cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was described by Torres et al., 1993. In the present work, an improvement of the above procedure is described and applied to transform the cultivar Grand Rapids with a mutated P5CS gene. The major modifications were concerned with turning more practical the transformation and regeneration protocols. Also we tried to improve transformation steps by increasing injured area in expl (more) ants and prolonging co-cultivation with Agrobacteria (in larger concentration). A more significant selective pressure was used against non-transformed plants and bacteria. In these work we were concerned to obtain T1 and T2 seeds. The P5CS gene codes for a delta¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two steps of proline biosynthesis in plants (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996), while the mutated gene is insensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. The potential benefit of this gene is to confer water stress resistance (drought, salt, cold) due to increased intracellular levels of proline that works like an osmoprotectant. In this work could obtain and characterize transgenic lettuce lineages which are resistant to freezing temperature.

Pileggi, Marcos; Pereira, Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki; Silva, Joandrei dos Santos; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; Verma, Desh Pal S.

2001-06-01

304

Avaliação de substratos para produção de mudas de alface Evaluation of substrates in the production of lettuce plantlets  

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Full Text Available Normalmente, os substratos disponíveis no mercado são recomendados indistintamente para grande número de culturas, sem considerar suas características e necessidades nutricionais na fase da formação de mudas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, onde foram avaliados três substratos (Plantmax, Esfagno e G-III) para o desenvolvimento de mudas de alface cv. Regina. Foram realizadas as análises químicas e físicas de pH, macronutrientes, sódio e micronutrientes, sendo calculadas a capacidade de troca catiônica (CTC) e a saturação por bases (V%), além das análises de condutividade elétrica (CE), capacidade máxima de retenção de água (CRA) e granulometria dos substratos. A semeadura foi feita em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células cada. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliadas massa fresca da parte aérea e das raízes, massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, número de folhas verdadeiras e altura média de plantas. Dentre os substratos avaliados, Plantmax demonstrou ser mais eficiente para produção de mudas de alface com melhor qualidade.Normally, the substrates available in the market are recommended indistinctly for a great number of crops, without taking into account its characteristics and nutritional requirements during the plantlet stage. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse, where three different substrates (Plantmax, Sphagnum and G-III) were evaluated in the development of lettuce cv. Regina plantlets. Chemical and physical analysis such as pH, macro and micronutrients and sodium, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation (V%) were calculated as well as physical analysis such as electric conductivity, maximum water holding capacity and particle size of the substrates were carried out. The sowing was done in trays of expanded polystyrene with 128 cells each. We analyzed the fresh and dry mass of the aerial parts and of the roots, number of true leaves and mean height of the plantlets. Among the evaluated substrates, the Plantmax showed to be the most efficient in yielding lettuce plantlets with better quality.

Paulo Espíndola Trani; Deise Maria Feltrin; Cristiano André Pott; Márcio Schwingel

2007-01-01

305

Avaliação de substratos para produção de mudas de alface/ Evaluation of substrates in the production of lettuce plantlets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Normalmente, os substratos disponíveis no mercado são recomendados indistintamente para grande número de culturas, sem considerar suas características e necessidades nutricionais na fase da formação de mudas. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação, onde foram avaliados três substratos (Plantmax, Esfagno e G-III) para o desenvolvimento de mudas de alface cv. Regina. Foram realizadas as análises químicas e físicas de pH, macronutrientes, sódio e micro (more) nutrientes, sendo calculadas a capacidade de troca catiônica (CTC) e a saturação por bases (V%), além das análises de condutividade elétrica (CE), capacidade máxima de retenção de água (CRA) e granulometria dos substratos. A semeadura foi feita em bandejas de poliestireno expandido com 128 células cada. O delineamento utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso com três repetições. Foram avaliadas massa fresca da parte aérea e das raízes, massa seca da parte aérea e das raízes, número de folhas verdadeiras e altura média de plantas. Dentre os substratos avaliados, Plantmax demonstrou ser mais eficiente para produção de mudas de alface com melhor qualidade. Abstract in english Normally, the substrates available in the market are recommended indistinctly for a great number of crops, without taking into account its characteristics and nutritional requirements during the plantlet stage. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse, where three different substrates (Plantmax, Sphagnum and G-III) were evaluated in the development of lettuce cv. Regina plantlets. Chemical and physical analysis such as pH, macro and micronutrients and sodium, cati (more) on exchange capacity (CEC) and base saturation (V%) were calculated as well as physical analysis such as electric conductivity, maximum water holding capacity and particle size of the substrates were carried out. The sowing was done in trays of expanded polystyrene with 128 cells each. We analyzed the fresh and dry mass of the aerial parts and of the roots, number of true leaves and mean height of the plantlets. Among the evaluated substrates, the Plantmax showed to be the most efficient in yielding lettuce plantlets with better quality.

Trani, Paulo Espíndola; Feltrin, Deise Maria; Pott, Cristiano André; Schwingel, Márcio

2007-06-01

306

Comportamento produtivo e econômico da alface americana em função de diferentes lâminas de água/ Economic and productive behavior of production of crisphead lettuce under different irrigation depths  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Visando às dificuldades encontradas pelo produtor no cultivo da alface (Lactuta sativa L.) americana, cv. Laureau, especificamente quanto à falta de informações técnicas sobre quantidade de água a aplicar, objetivou-se estudar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de água sobre o comportamento produtivo e econômico da alface americana. O experimento foi realizado na Universidade Federal de Lavras, no período de outubro a dezembro de 2008, em casa de vegetação. O deli (more) neamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco fatores de evaporação, correspondentes a 0,30, 0,60, 0,90, 1,20 e 1,50 EVm, baseados na lâmina evaporada de um minitanque. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a máxima produtividade total e comercial, 65.918 kg ha-1 e 35.544 kg ha-1, foram estimadas com a aplicação de lâminas equivalentes a 152,1 e 155 mm, respectivamente, correspondentes ao fator de reposição de 92%; considerando o preço do fator água (R$ 0,67 mm-1) e o preço da alface americana (R$ 0,90 kg-1), a lâmina economicamente ótima foi 154 mm, identificando que a eficiência técnica do experimento foi significativamente igual à máxima eficiência econômica. Abstract in english With the aim of minimizing the difficulties faced by the producers on cultivating the crisphead lettuce (Lactuta sativa L.), specifically those related to the lack of technical information about the quantity of water to be applied, a study was conducted to determine the economic and productive behavior of crisphead lettuce yielding characteristics. The experiment was carried out at the Universidade Federal de Lavras, from October to December 2008 in greenhouse. A randomiz (more) ed block design with five treatments and four repetitions was adopted. The treatments, consisting of the five respective evaporation factors: 0.30, 0.60, 0.90, 1.20 and 1.50 EVm, were done according to an evaporated depth of a reduced pan. The results showed that the maximum total and commercial yield, 65.918 and 35.544 kg ha-1, were estimated by applying depths equivalent to 152.1 and 155 mm, respectively, corresponding to 92 % replacement factor; regarding water factor price (R$ 0.67 mm-1) and crisphead lettuce price (R$ 0.90 kg-1), the economically optimum depth was 154 mm, which resulted in a commercial yield practically equal to the maximum economical efficiency.

Lima Júnior, Joaquim A. de; Pereira, Geraldo M.; Geisenhoff, Luciano O.; Silva, Welligton G. da; Vilas-Boas, Renato C.; Lobato, Allan K. S.

2011-11-01

307

Statistics analysis regarding nitrate and nitrite content in lettuce from the west side of Romania  

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Full Text Available In this paper we studied the statistics interpretation of nitrate and nitrite content in lettuce.During three years, between 2005 - 2007 have been made determinations regarding nitrate and nitrite content in garden lettuce. Samples have been taken from agro-food markets in Timisoara, proceed from a few places in Timis County, in the west part of Romania.Nitrate and nitrite content determination have been realized colorimetrically in the Laboratory for the Measurement of Residues of the Department of Agro-techniques of the U.S.A-V.M.B in Timisoara. The analysis were done with the help of rapid tests AQUA MERCK, with the Spectrophotometer SQ 118 at a wavelength of 515 and 525 nm for nitrate, nitrites.The statistics interpretation of the results was done by using the analysis of some statistics parameters like: mean, range, kurtosis, skewness.

Monica NEGREA; Ciprian RUJESCU; Ersilia ALEXA; Aurel LAZUREANU

2009-01-01

308

Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of lettuce improved by espresso coffee residues.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The antioxidant activity and individual bioactive compounds of lettuce, cultivated with 2.5-30% (v/v) of fresh or composted espresso spent coffee grounds, were assessed. A progressive enhancement of lettuce's antioxidant capacity, evaluated by radical scavenging effect and reducing power, was exhibited with the increment of fresh spent coffee amounts, while this pattern was not so clear with composted treatments. Total reducing capacity also improved, particularly for low spent coffee concentrations. Additionally, very significant positive correlations were observed for all carotenoids in plants from fresh spent coffee treatments, particularly for violaxanthin, evaluated by HPLC. Furthermore, chlorophyll a was a good discriminating factor between control group and all spent coffee treated samples, while vitamin E was not significantly affected. Espresso spent coffee grounds are a recognised and valuable source of bioactive compounds, proving herein, for the first time, to potentiate the antioxidant pool and quality of the vegetables produced.

Cruz R; Gomes T; Ferreira A; Mendes E; Baptista P; Cunha S; Pereira JA; Ramalhosa E; Casal S

2014-02-01

309

Manejo do cálcio em alface de cultivo hidropônico Calcium management in hydroponic lettuce  

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Full Text Available "Tipburn" ou "queima dos bordos" é um distúrbio fisiológico da alface ocasionado pelo suprimento inadequado de cálcio, principalmente nas folhas novas. Neste experimento foram avaliadas alternativas de manejo do fornecimento de cálcio, visando propiciar maior fluxo deste nutriente para as folhas internas de alface, cv. Vera, e consequentemente, reduzir a incidência de "tipburn". Foram testados cinco tratamentos dispostos em blocos, com cinco repetições: Água; Solução com 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1; Aplicação foliar de cálcio (3 g.L-1) e Completa (solução nutritiva completa). Os três primeiros tratamentos foram aplicados à noite para promover o desenvolvimento da pressão radicular e translocação do cálcio para as folhas internas; durante o dia circulava solução nutritiva completa em todos os tratamentos. Constatou-se que as plantas com maior desenvolvimento foram as mais suscetíveis ao aparecimento de "tipburn". O tratamento Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1 apresentou plantas com teor de cálcio superior aos demais tratamentos, porém a baixa incidência de "tipburn" durante o experimento dificultou a avaliação da eficiência dos tratamentos no seu controle. Mesmo os tratamentos que não receberam todos os nutrientes essenciais durante à noite não apresentaram deficiência nutricional e produziram plantas de peso adequado aos padrões de comercialização.Tipburn is a physiological disorder in lettuce caused an by inadequate supply of calcium, mainly in young leaves. In this trial different management systems were evaluated in order to provide calcium and to increase the stream of calcium and reduce tipburn. Five treatments were studied in block design with five replications: Water; Solution with 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1; Spray calcium (3 g.L-1) and Complete (complete nutrient solution). The three first treatments were applied at night to promote the root pressure and translocation of calcium to young leaves; during the day all treatments received a complete nutrient solution. More developed plants were more susceptible to tipburn. Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1 treatment increased the concentration of calcium in young leaves, but the low incidence of tipburn during the trial made the assessment of the treatments efficiency difficult. Even the treatments without all the essential nutrients during the night, didn't show nutritional deficiency and produced plants with suitable weight according to commercial standards.

Elisabete R. Y. Beninni; Hideaki Wilson Takahashi; Carmen Silvia V.J. Neves

2003-01-01

310

First Record of Edessa meditabunda (F.) on Lettuce in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first record of the stink bug Edessa meditabunda (F.) on lettuce Lactuca sativa in the organic vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde" in Tangará da Serra, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (14°37'13? S, 57°28'46? W). During September, October, and November 2009, we collected 1,099 adults, 43 nymphs, and 29 egg masses. Feeding by this stink bug possibly caused early bolting. PMID:23950014

Krinski, D; Favetti, B M; Butnariu, A R

2012-02-14

311

First Record of Edessa meditabunda (F.) on Lettuce in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report the first record of the stink bug Edessa meditabunda (F.) on lettuce Lactuca sativa in the organic vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde" in Tangará da Serra, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (14°37'13? S, 57°28'46? W). During September, October, and November 2009, we collected 1,099 adults, 43 nymphs, and 29 egg masses. Feeding by this stink bug possibly caused early bolting.

Krinski D; Favetti BM; Butnariu AR

2012-02-01

312

Immunogenic properties of a lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 multiepitopic HIV protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Elicitation of broad humoral immune responses is a critical factor in the development of effective HIV vaccines. In an effort to develop low-cost candidate vaccines based on multiepitopic recombinant proteins, this study has been undertaken to assess and characterize the immunogenic properties of a lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 multiepitopic protein. This protein consists of V3 loops corresponding to five different HIV isolates, including MN, IIIB, RF, CC, and RU. In this study, both Escherichia coli and lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 have elicited local and systemic immune responses when orally administered to BALB/c mice. More importantly, lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 has shown a higher immunogenic potential than that of E. coli-derived C4(V3)6. Moreover, when reactivity of sera from mice immunized with C4(V3)6 are compared with those elicited by a chimeric protein carrying a single V3 sequence, broader responses have been observed. The lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 has elicited antibodies with positive reactivity against V3 loops from isolates MN, RF, and CC. In addition, splenocyte proliferation assays indicate that significant T-helper responses are induced by the C4(V3)6 immunogen. Taken together, these findings account for the observed elicitation of broader humoral responses by the C4(V3)6 multiepitopic protein. Moreover, they provide further validation for the production of multiepitopic vaccines in plant cells as this serves not only as a low-cost expression system, but also as an effective delivery vehicle for orally administered immunogens.

Govea-Alonso DO; Rubio-Infante N; García-Hernández AL; Varona-Santos JT; Korban SS; Moreno-Fierros L; Rosales-Mendoza S

2013-10-01

313

Immunogenic properties of a lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 multiepitopic HIV protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

Elicitation of broad humoral immune responses is a critical factor in the development of effective HIV vaccines. In an effort to develop low-cost candidate vaccines based on multiepitopic recombinant proteins, this study has been undertaken to assess and characterize the immunogenic properties of a lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 multiepitopic protein. This protein consists of V3 loops corresponding to five different HIV isolates, including MN, IIIB, RF, CC, and RU. In this study, both Escherichia coli and lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 have elicited local and systemic immune responses when orally administered to BALB/c mice. More importantly, lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 has shown a higher immunogenic potential than that of E. coli-derived C4(V3)6. Moreover, when reactivity of sera from mice immunized with C4(V3)6 are compared with those elicited by a chimeric protein carrying a single V3 sequence, broader responses have been observed. The lettuce-derived C4(V3)6 has elicited antibodies with positive reactivity against V3 loops from isolates MN, RF, and CC. In addition, splenocyte proliferation assays indicate that significant T-helper responses are induced by the C4(V3)6 immunogen. Taken together, these findings account for the observed elicitation of broader humoral responses by the C4(V3)6 multiepitopic protein. Moreover, they provide further validation for the production of multiepitopic vaccines in plant cells as this serves not only as a low-cost expression system, but also as an effective delivery vehicle for orally administered immunogens. PMID:23897297

Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Rubio-Infante, Néstor; García-Hernández, Ana Lilia; Varona-Santos, Javier T; Korban, Schuyler S; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

2013-07-30

314

Development of genomic SSR markers for fingerprinting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars and mapping genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the major crop from the group of leafy vegetables. Several types of molecular markers were developed that are effectively used in lettuce breeding and genetic studies. However only a very limited number of microsattelite-based markers are publicly available. We have employed the method of enriched microsatellite libraries to develop 97 genomic SSR markers. Results Testing of newly developed markers on a set of 36 Lactuca accession (33?L. sativa, and one of each L. serriola L., L. saligna L., and L. virosa L.) revealed that both the genetic heterozygosity (UHe?=?0.56) and the number of loci per SSR (Na?=?5.50) are significantly higher for genomic SSR markers than for previously developed EST-based SSR markers (UHe?=?0.32, Na?=?3.56). Fifty-four genomic SSR markers were placed on the molecular linkage map of lettuce. Distribution of markers in the genome appeared to be random, with the exception of possible cluster on linkage group 6. Any combination of 32 genomic SSRs was able to distinguish genotypes of all 36 accessions. Fourteen of newly developed SSR markers originate from fragments with high sequence similarity to resistance gene candidates (RGCs) and RGC pseudogenes. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of L. sativa accessions showed that approximately 3% of genetic diversity was within accessions, 79% among accessions, and 18% among horticultural types. Conclusions The newly developed genomic SSR markers were added to the pool of previously developed EST-SSRs markers. These two types of SSR-based markers provide useful tools for lettuce cultivar fingerprinting, development of integrated molecular linkage maps, and mapping of genes.

Rauscher Gilda; Simko Ivan

2013-01-01

315

Combined effects of ultrasound and surfactants to reduce Bacillus cereus spores on lettuce and carrots.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound treatment singly and in combination with surfactants as an alternative method to conventional sanitizers containing chlorine for reducing numbers of Bacillus cereus spores on fresh produce. A cocktail of three strains of B. cereus (10876, ATCC 13061, and W-1) spores was inoculated onto iceberg lettuce and then treated with ultrasound for 0, 5, 10, 20 and 60 min. Five minutes was found to be an adequate ultrasound (40 kHz, 30 W/L) treatment time which also caused no damage to lettuce leaf surfaces as observed through a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Iceberg lettuce and carrots were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of B. cereus spores and treated with combinations of ultrasound and various concentrations (0.03 to 0.3%) of surfactant (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and Span 20, 80, 85) solutions for 5 min. The efficacy of the combination of ultrasound and surfactant increased depending on the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB). The most effective treatment for reducing levels of B. cereus spores was the combination of ultrasound and 0.1% Tween 20, yielding reductions of 2.49 and 2.22 log CFU/g on lettuce and carrots, respectively, without causing deterioration of quality. These reductions were 1 log greater than those obtained by immersion in 200 ppm chlorine for 5 min. Further research for elimination of B. cereus spores involving study of spore adhesion and removal mechanisms from food surfaces is needed, as well as devising an industrial-scale ultrasound system for the food industry. PMID:23290247

Sagong, Hun-Gu; Cheon, Ho-Lyeong; Kim, Sang-Oh; Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Ki-Hwan; Chung, Myung-Sub; Choi, Young-Jin; Kang, Dong-Hyun

2012-11-05

316

Association of double-stranded ribonucleic acids with lettuce big vein disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Healthy roots and leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants lacked detectable double-stranded ribonucleic acid (dsRNA). Disease-specific dsRNAs were readily detected in lettuce plants experimentally infected with each of four isolates of Olpidium brassicae known to transmit the lettuce big vein (LBV) agent. No dsRNAs were detected when an isolate of O. brassicae that does not transmit the LBV agent was used. The highest concentration of dsRNA was in the roots of plants maintained at 18 C for 30?40 days after inoculation, but dsRNA could be detected as early as 6 days after inoculation. No dsRNA has been detected before or after symptom development in extracts from up to 100g of leaves of plants infected by the LBV agent. The dsRNAs were detected in roots, but not leaves, of lettuce plants vegetatively propagated from shoots from plants infected by the LBV agent. These roots were no longer infected with O. brassicae, and an isolate of O. brassicae known to be free of the LBV agent acquired the dsRNAs from these roots and transmitted them to healthy plants. These plants developed LBV symptoms 3?4 wk later, and dsRNA was detected in their roots. The dsRNAs of tobacco necrosis virus are distinct from, and do not hybridize to, the dsRNAs associated with LBV disease. The number (between one and six) and the relative amounts of dsRNAs associated with LBV disease varied with the experiment, the isolate, and the time of harvest. Three dsRNAs (MW = 2.3, 2.1, and 0.72 ? 106) have been detected more consistently than the others. The results suggest that an RNA virus causes LBV disease.

Mirkov TE; Dodd JA

1985-06-01

317

Influence of nickel nutrition and nitrogen source on growth and yield of lettuce in hydroponic culture  

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Full Text Available Nickel (Ni) is the most recently discovered essential element for higher plants. But there is limited information about the effect of this element on yield and nitrogen (N) metabolism of different plants. In this research, the interaction of Ni supplement and N source was studied on nitrate accumulation and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Baker) in solution culture. In a greenhouse experiment, lettuce plants were exposed to two Ni levels (0 and 0.04 µM in the form of NiCl2) and three N levels (5, 10, and 20 µM in the form of urea and ammonium nitrate). The plants were harvested 6 weeks after transplanting and the fresh weight of shoots and roots, total N concentration, nitrate concentration and Fe content of shoots were determined. The results indicated that shoot and root fresh weight of nitrate-fed plants were higher than urea-fed plants. Ni nutrition significantly enhanced the yield of urea-fed plants. The shoot nitrate concentration in nitrate-fed plants was significantly greater in comparison with urea-fed plants. On the other hand, nitrate concentration in the shoots of lettuce plants decreased significantly with Ni nutrition. Ni supplementation in urea-fed plants increased the shoot Fe content. The shoot concentration of total-N in the urea-fed plants increased with the Ni supplement. While, Ni had no significant effect on shoot concentration of total-N in the nitrate-fed plants. Addition of low levels of Ni to the nutrient solution, particularly to the urea-containing solution, improved the yield of lettuce. In addition, these plant leaves are safer for human consumption because the shoot nitrate content is significantly reduced by application of Ni.

F. Hosseini; A.H. Khoshgoftarmanesh; M. Afyuni

2012-01-01

318

Combined effects of ultrasound and surfactants to reduce Bacillus cereus spores on lettuce and carrots.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was performed to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound treatment singly and in combination with surfactants as an alternative method to conventional sanitizers containing chlorine for reducing numbers of Bacillus cereus spores on fresh produce. A cocktail of three strains of B. cereus (10876, ATCC 13061, and W-1) spores was inoculated onto iceberg lettuce and then treated with ultrasound for 0, 5, 10, 20 and 60 min. Five minutes was found to be an adequate ultrasound (40 kHz, 30 W/L) treatment time which also caused no damage to lettuce leaf surfaces as observed through a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Iceberg lettuce and carrots were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains of B. cereus spores and treated with combinations of ultrasound and various concentrations (0.03 to 0.3%) of surfactant (Tween 20, 40, 60, 80 and Span 20, 80, 85) solutions for 5 min. The efficacy of the combination of ultrasound and surfactant increased depending on the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB). The most effective treatment for reducing levels of B. cereus spores was the combination of ultrasound and 0.1% Tween 20, yielding reductions of 2.49 and 2.22 log CFU/g on lettuce and carrots, respectively, without causing deterioration of quality. These reductions were 1 log greater than those obtained by immersion in 200 ppm chlorine for 5 min. Further research for elimination of B. cereus spores involving study of spore adhesion and removal mechanisms from food surfaces is needed, as well as devising an industrial-scale ultrasound system for the food industry.

Sagong HG; Cheon HL; Kim SO; Lee SY; Park KH; Chung MS; Choi YJ; Kang DH

2013-01-01

319

Season, irrigation, leaf age, and Escherichia coli inoculation influence the bacterial diversity in the lettuce phyllosphere.  

Science.gov (United States)

The developmental and temporal succession patterns and disturbance responses of phyllosphere bacterial communities are largely unknown. These factors might influence the capacity of human pathogens to persist in association with those communities on agriculturally-relevant plants. In this study, the phyllosphere microbiota was identified for Romaine lettuce plants grown in the Salinas Valley, CA, USA from four plantings performed over 2 years and including two irrigation methods and inoculations with an attenuated strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7. High-throughput DNA pyrosequencing of the V5 to V9 variable regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered in lettuce leaf washes revealed that the bacterial diversity in the phyllosphere was distinct for each field trial but was also strongly correlated with the season of planting. Firmicutes were generally most abundant in early season (June) plantings and Proteobacteria comprised the majority of bacteria recovered later in the year (August and October). Comparisons within individual field trials showed that bacterial diversity differed between sprinkler (overhead) and drip (surface) irrigated lettuce and increased over time as the plants grew. The microbiota were also distinct between control and E. coli O157:H7-inoculated plants and between E. coli O157:H7-inoculated plants with and without surviving pathogen cells. The bacterial inhabitants of the phyllosphere therefore appear to be affected by seasonal, irrigation, and biological factors in ways that are relevant for assessments of fresh produce food safety. PMID:23844230

Williams, Thomas R; Moyne, Anne-Laure; Harris, Linda J; Marco, Maria L

2013-07-02

320

Lettuce calcium deficiency detection with machine vision computed plant features in controlled environments  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conventional greenhouse environmental conditions are determined by observation. However, destructive or invasive contact measurements are not practical for real-time monitoring and control applications. At the canopy scale, machine vision has the potential to identify emerging stresses and guide sampling for identification of the stressor. A machine vision-guided plant sensing and monitoring system was used to detect calcium deficiency in lettuce crops grown in greenhouse conditions using temporal, color and morphological changes of the plant. The machine vision system consisted of two main components: a robotic camera positioning system and an image processing module. The machine vision system extracted plant features to determine overall plant growth and health status, including top projected canopy area (TPCA) as a morphological feature; red-green-blue (RGB) and hue-saturation-luminance (HSL) values as color features; and entropy, energy, contrast, and homogeneity as textural features. The machine vision-guided system was capable of extracting plant morphological, textural and temporal features autonomously. The methodology developed was capable of identifying calcium-deficient lettuce plants 1 day prior to visual stress detection by human vision. Of the extracted plant features, TPCA, energy, entropy, and homogeneity were the most promising markers for timely detection of calcium deficiency in the lettuce crop studied.

Story David; Kacira Murat; Kubota Chieri; Akoglu Ali; An Lingling

2010-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Beneficial effects of exogenous iodine in lettuce plants subjected to salinity stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Salinity inhibits plant growth due to ionic and osmotic effects on metabolic processes and nutritional balance, leading to impaired physiological functions. Selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) can be partially alleviated by the effects wrought by NaCl on the plant metabolism. Iodine (I), applied as iodate (IO(3)(-)) in biofortification programmes, has been confirmed to improve the antioxidant response in lettuce plants. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the application of IO(3)(-) can improve the response to severe salinity stress in lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Philipus). In this work, the application of IO(3)(-) (20-80 ?M) in lettuce plants under salinity stress (100mM of NaCl) exerted a significantly positive effect on biomass and raised the levels of soluble sugars while lowering the Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations as well as boosting the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, APX, DHAR and GR. Therefore, IO(3)(-) could be considered a possibly beneficial element to counteract the harmful effects of salinity stress.

Leyva R; Sánchez-Rodríguez E; Ríos JJ; Rubio-Wilhelmi MM; Romero L; Ruiz JM; Blasco B

2011-08-01

322

An unusual spliced variant of DELLA protein, a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling, in lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

DELLA proteins are negative regulators of the signaling of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone regulating plant growth. DELLA degradation is triggered by its interaction with GID1, a soluble GA receptor, in the presence of bioactive GA. We isolated cDNA from a spliced variant of LsDELLA1 mRNA in lettuce, and named it LsDELLA1sv. It was deduced that LsDELLA1sv encodes truncated LsDELLA1, which has DELLA and VHYNP motifs at the N terminus but lacks part of the C-terminal GRAS domain. The recombinant LsDELLA1sv protein interacted with both Arabidopsis GID1 and lettuce GID1s in the presence of GA. A yeast two-hybrid assay suggested that LsDELLA1sv interacted with LsDELLA1. The ratio of LsDELLA1sv to LsDELLA1 transcripts was higher in flower samples at the late reproductive stage and seed samples (dry seeds and imbibed seeds) than in the other organ samples examined. This study suggests that LsDELLA1sv is a possible modulator of GA signaling in lettuce. PMID:22451398

Sawada, Yoshiaki; Umetsu, Asami; Komatsu, Yuki; Kitamura, Jun; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Asami, Tadao; Fukuda, Machiko; Honda, Ichiro; Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Toyomasu, Tomonobu

2012-01-01

323

An unusual spliced variant of DELLA protein, a negative regulator of gibberellin signaling, in lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DELLA proteins are negative regulators of the signaling of gibberellin (GA), a phytohormone regulating plant growth. DELLA degradation is triggered by its interaction with GID1, a soluble GA receptor, in the presence of bioactive GA. We isolated cDNA from a spliced variant of LsDELLA1 mRNA in lettuce, and named it LsDELLA1sv. It was deduced that LsDELLA1sv encodes truncated LsDELLA1, which has DELLA and VHYNP motifs at the N terminus but lacks part of the C-terminal GRAS domain. The recombinant LsDELLA1sv protein interacted with both Arabidopsis GID1 and lettuce GID1s in the presence of GA. A yeast two-hybrid assay suggested that LsDELLA1sv interacted with LsDELLA1. The ratio of LsDELLA1sv to LsDELLA1 transcripts was higher in flower samples at the late reproductive stage and seed samples (dry seeds and imbibed seeds) than in the other organ samples examined. This study suggests that LsDELLA1sv is a possible modulator of GA signaling in lettuce.

Sawada Y; Umetsu A; Komatsu Y; Kitamura J; Suzuki H; Asami T; Fukuda M; Honda I; Mitsuhashi W; Nakajima M; Toyomasu T

2012-01-01

324

Detection of shigella in lettuce by the use of a rapid molecular assay with increased sensitivity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay to be used as an alternative to the conventional culture method in detecting Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) virulence genes ipaH and ial in lettuce was developed. Efficacy and rapidity of the molecular method were determined as compared to the conventional culture. Lettuce samples were inoculated with different Shigella flexneri concentrations (from 10 CFU/ml to 10(7) CFU/ml). DNA was extracted directl (more) y from lettuce after inoculation (direct-PCR) and after an enrichment step (enrichment PCR). Multiplex PCR detection limit was 10(4) CFU/ml, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% accurate. An internal amplification control (IAC) of 100 bp was used in order to avoid false negative results. This method produced results in 1 to 2 days while the conventional culture method required 5 to 6 days. Also, the culture method detection limit was 10(6) CFU/ml, diagnostic sensitivity was 53% and diagnostic specificity was 100%. In this study a Multiplex PCR method for detection of virulence genes in Shigella and EIEC was shown to be effective in terms of diagnostic sensitivity, detection limit and amount of time as compared to Shigella conventional culture.

Jiménez, Kenia Barrantes; McCoy, Clyde B.; Achí, Rosario

2010-12-01

325

Effector identification in the lettuce downy mildew Bremia lactucae by massively parallel transcriptome sequencing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) is a rapidly adapting oomycete pathogen affecting commercial lettuce cultivation. Oomycetes are known to use a diverse arsenal of secreted proteins (effectors) to manipulate their hosts. Two classes of effector are known to be translocated by the host: the RXLRs and Crinklers. To gain insight into the repertoire of effectors used by B. lactucae to manipulate its host, we performed massively parallel sequencing of cDNA derived from B. lactucae spores and infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seedlings. From over 2.3 million 454 GS FLX reads, 59 618 contigs were assembled representing both plant and pathogen transcripts. Of these, 19 663 contigs were determined to be of B. lactucae origin as they matched pathogen genome sequences (SOLiD) that were obtained from >270 million reads of spore-derived genomic DNA. After correction of cDNA sequencing errors with SOLiD data, translation into protein models and filtering, 16 372 protein models remained, 1023 of which were predicted to be secreted. This secretome included elicitins, necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1-like proteins, glucanase inhibitors and lectins, and was enriched in cysteine-rich proteins. Candidate host-translocated effectors included 78 protein models with RXLR effector features. In addition, we found indications for an unknown number of Crinkler-like sequences. Similarity clustering of secreted proteins revealed additional effector candidates. We provide a first look at the transcriptome of B. lactucae and its encoded effector arsenal.

Stassen JH; Seidl MF; Vergeer PW; Nijman IJ; Snel B; Cuppen E; Van den Ackerveken G

2012-09-01

326

Dose-dependent effects of gamma radiation on lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) seedlings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of gamma radiation on lettuce growth and development, as well as on the content of photosynthetic pigments in 28 days lettuce leaf. Materials and methods: Lettuce dry seeds were exposed to a (60)Co [Cobalt-60] gamma source at doses ranging from 2-70 Gray (Gy). The photosynthetic pigment content was determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Our results showed that an irradiation dose between of 2-30 Gy enhanced the growth parameters (final germination percentage, germination index, root and hypocotyl length) as compared to untreated plants. Seed germination test revealed that 30 Gy irradiation dose induced the highest increase of growth parameters, while at 70 Gy a significant decrease of plant vegetative growth was recorded. The results indicated that exposing the seeds at doses ranging from 2-30 Gy enhanced the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids) content, while at higher doses (70 Gy)) the decrease of the assimilatory pigments was noticed. Conclusion: The present results suggested that seed treatment with gamma radiations (0-30 Gy) was effective in stimulating plant growth and development, as well as the content of assimilatory pigments. At a higher dose of 70 Gy, there was a drastic reduction in the length of shoots and roots and also in the total chlorophyll content. These observations confirm that ionizing radiation stimulates physiological parameters up to certain low doses, and then it inhibits these parameters at higher doses.

Marcu D; Cristea V; Daraban L

2013-03-01

327

Incidence of weed reservoirs and vectors of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus on southern Tasmanian lettuce farms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Thrips species and tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) alternate weed hosts were surveyed on two lettuce farms in southern Tasmania during 1994 and 1995. Only one known vector species, Thrips tabaci, was found at either site, comprising on average 36.8% of the total monthly catch. A major peak of thrips activity in the summer corresponded with an increase of disease in autumn harvested lettuce. Two thrips species new for Tasmania were recorded, Pseudanaphothrips achaetus and Tenothrips frici. Infection patterns within the crop indicated that localized weed infestations were the most likely reservoir of virus. ELISA testing showed that TSWV was present in a range of dicotyledonous weed species, although usually infecting only a low percentage of the plants. Arctotheca calendula appeared to be the single most important reservoir host species at one property, whilst this species and Sonchus oleraceus, Malva sylvestris, Brassica rapa ssp. silvestris, Erodium moschatum and Trifolium sp. were probably the most important reservoirs at the other property. Two new natural TSWV host species were recorded, Erodium moschatum and Brassica rapa ssp. silvestris. The property with the highest incidence of TSWV-infected lettuce had a relatively higher proportion of virus-infected weeds but less thrips activity during the infection period.

Wilson CR

1998-04-01

328

Nutritional disorder of lettuce cv. Veronica in nutrient solution with suppressed macronutrients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lettuce is the most popular of the leafy vegetables. It is known worldwide and its consumption occurs mainly in the natural form. The objective was to evaluate the effect of macronutrient omission on the growth and nutritional status of the lettuce cv. Veronica, and to describe the visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency. The treatments complete consisted of the solution and the individual omission of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S, under a completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were grown in Hoagland & Arnon, in pots (8L). At 56 days after transplant we evaluated plant height, leaf number, leaf area, SPAD index, dry matter of shoots, roots and whole plant, levels of macronutrients in shoots and roots, and the nature of nutritional disorders. The omission of nutrients affected the growth variables. The nutrients found in lettuce plants from nutrient solution and the complete omission in the shoot were, respectively, N= 23.2 to 9.5, P= 5.4 to 1.3, K= 58,9 to 3.2, Ca= 12.1 to 3.6, Mg= 5.5 to 0.7 and S= 3.2 to 1.5g.kg-1. The omission of macronutrients caused quality losses, since it affected the nutrition of the vegetables and this resulted in morphological changes, reflected as symptoms of deficiency for each nutrient.

Thiago Batista Firmato de Almeida; Renato de Mello Prado; Marcus André Ribeiro Correia; Aline Peregrina Puga; José Carlos Barbosa

2011-01-01

329

Enhanced proton translocating pyrophosphatase activity improves nitrogen use efficiency in Romaine lettuce.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Plant nitrate (NO3(-)) acquisition depends on the combined activities of root high- and low-affinity NO3(-) transporters and the proton gradient generated by the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase. These processes are coordinated with photosynthesis and the carbon status of the plant. Here, we present the characterization of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa 'Conquistador') plants engineered to overexpress an intragenic gain-of-function allele of the type I proton translocating pyrophosphatase (H(+)-PPase) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The proton-pumping and inorganic pyrophosphate hydrolytic activities of these plants are augmented compared with control plants. Immunohistochemical data show a conspicuous increase in H(+)-PPase protein abundance at the vasculature of the transgenic plants. Transgenic plants displayed an enhanced rhizosphere acidification capacity consistent with the augmented plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase proton transport values, and ATP hydrolytic capacities evaluated in vitro. These transgenic lines outperform control plants when challenged with NO3(-) limitations in laboratory, greenhouse, and field scenarios. Furthermore, we report the characterization of a lettuce LsNRT2.1 gene that is constitutive up-regulated in the transgenic plants. Of note, the expression of the LsNRT2.1 gene in control plants is regulated by NO3(-) and sugars. Enhanced accumulation of (15)N-labeled fertilizer by transgenic lettuce compared with control plants was observed in greenhouse experiments. A negative correlation between the level of root soluble sugars and biomass is consistent with the strong root growth that characterizes these transgenic plants.

Paez-Valencia J; Sanchez-Lares J; Marsh E; Dorneles LT; Santos MP; Sanchez D; Winter A; Murphy S; Cox J; Trzaska M; Metler J; Kozic A; Facanha AR; Schachtman D; Sanchez CA; Gaxiola RA

2013-03-01

330

Desempenho de sementes nuas e peletizadas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) submetidas a estresses hídrico e térmico Performance of bare and pelleted lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds exposed to hydric and thermal stresses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A alface é a hortaliça folhosa de maior importância na alimentação dos brasileiros. Seu plantio é feito por meio de sementes, cujo tamanho reduzido dificulta o seu manuseio. Além disto, essas sementes apresentam dificuldades na germinação quando submetidas a condições desfavoráveis de umidade e temperatura. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o desempenho fisiológico de sementes nuas e peletizadas de alface da cv. Karla sob diferentes potenciais hídricos e temperaturas. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar sobre papel filtro umedecido com solução de polietileno glicol (PEG 6000), nos níveis de zero, -0,3; -0,6; e -0,9MPa, associados às temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada por meio do teste de germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. Concluiu-se que para potenciais hídricos menores ou iguais a -0,3MPa e nas temperaturas iguais ou superiores a 25ºC ocorreu redução na velocidade e porcentagem de germinação de sementes de alface da cv. Karla. O potencial hídrico de -0,9MPa e/ou a temperatura de 35ºC impediram a germinação das sementes nuas e peletizadas. As sementes nuas tiveram maior redução na qualidade fisiológica do que as sementes peletizadas, quando submetidas a condições de estresses hídrico e térmico.Lettuce is the most important leafy vegetable in Brazil. Its planting is made by seeds, which are small, making their handling difficult. Moreover lettuce seeds present low germination when submitted to unfavorable moisture and temperature conditions. The objective of this work was to study the physiological performance of bare and pelleted lettuce seeds, cv. Karla, under different hydric and temperature potentials. Both kinds of seeds were placed to germinate on filter paper wetted with solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), with the following levels of water potential: zero, -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9MPa. Seeds from each water potential treatment were placed to germinate under four temperatures: 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by germination test, first counting and speed of germination index. It was concluded that water potentials lower than or equal to -0.3MPa, and temperatures equal to or greater than 25°C caused a reduction in the speed and percentage of germination of lettuce seeds. The water potential of -0.9MPa and/or the temperature of 35°C inhibited seed germination of bare and pelleted seeds. Bare seeds had larger reduction in physiological quality than pelleted seeds when exposed to hydric and thermal stress.

Carla Medianeira Bertagnolli; Nilson Lemos de Menezes; Lindolfo Storck; Osmar Souza dos Santos; Leandro Lourenço Pasqualli

2003-01-01

331

Desempenho de sementes nuas e peletizadas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) submetidas a estresses hídrico e térmico/ Performance of bare and pelleted lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds exposed to hydric and thermal stresses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A alface é a hortaliça folhosa de maior importância na alimentação dos brasileiros. Seu plantio é feito por meio de sementes, cujo tamanho reduzido dificulta o seu manuseio. Além disto, essas sementes apresentam dificuldades na germinação quando submetidas a condições desfavoráveis de umidade e temperatura. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o desempenho fisiológico de sementes nuas e peletizadas de alface da cv. Karla sob diferentes potenciais h? (more) ?dricos e temperaturas. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar sobre papel filtro umedecido com solução de polietileno glicol (PEG 6000), nos níveis de zero, -0,3; -0,6; e -0,9MPa, associados às temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada por meio do teste de germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. Concluiu-se que para potenciais hídricos menores ou iguais a -0,3MPa e nas temperaturas iguais ou superiores a 25ºC ocorreu redução na velocidade e porcentagem de germinação de sementes de alface da cv. Karla. O potencial hídrico de -0,9MPa e/ou a temperatura de 35ºC impediram a germinação das sementes nuas e peletizadas. As sementes nuas tiveram maior redução na qualidade fisiológica do que as sementes peletizadas, quando submetidas a condições de estresses hídrico e térmico. Abstract in english Lettuce is the most important leafy vegetable in Brazil. Its planting is made by seeds, which are small, making their handling difficult. Moreover lettuce seeds present low germination when submitted to unfavorable moisture and temperature conditions. The objective of this work was to study the physiological performance of bare and pelleted lettuce seeds, cv. Karla, under different hydric and temperature potentials. Both kinds of seeds were placed to germinate on filter p (more) aper wetted with solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), with the following levels of water potential: zero, -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9MPa. Seeds from each water potential treatment were placed to germinate under four temperatures: 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by germination test, first counting and speed of germination index. It was concluded that water potentials lower than or equal to -0.3MPa, and temperatures equal to or greater than 25°C caused a reduction in the speed and percentage of germination of lettuce seeds. The water potential of -0.9MPa and/or the temperature of 35°C inhibited seed germination of bare and pelleted seeds. Bare seeds had larger reduction in physiological quality than pelleted seeds when exposed to hydric and thermal stress.

Bertagnolli, Carla Medianeira; Menezes, Nilson Lemos de; Storck, Lindolfo; Santos, Osmar Souza dos; Pasqualli, Leandro Lourenço

2003-07-01

332

Hirsutella rhossiliensisand Verticillium chlamydosporium as Biocontrol Agents of the Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne hapla on Lettuce.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hirsutella rhossiliensis and Verticillium chlamydosporium infected second-stage juveniles (J2) and eggs of Meloidogyne hapla, respectively, in petri dishes and in organic soil in pots planted to lettuce in the greenhouse. In vitro, H. rhossiliensis produced 78 to 124 spores/infected J2 of M. hapla. The number of J2 in roots of lettuce seedlings decreased exponentially with increasing numbers of vegetative colonies of H. rhossiliensis in the soil. At an infestation of 8 M. hapla eggs/cm(3) soil, 1.9 colonies of H. rhossiliensis/cm(3) soil were needed for a 50% decrease in J2 penetration of lettuce roots. Egg-mass colonization with V. chlamydosporium varied from 16% to 43% when soil was infested with 8 M. hapla eggs and treated with 5,000 or 10,000 chlamydospores of V. chlamydosporium/cm(3) soil. This treatment resulted in fewer J2 entering roots of bioassay lettuce seedlings planted in the infested soils after harvesting the first lettuce plants 7 weeks after infestation with M. hapla. Hirsutella rhossiliensis (0 to 4.3 colonies/cm3 soil), V. chlamydosporium (500 to 10,000 chlamydospores/cm3 soil), or their combination, added to organic soils with 8 M. hapla eggs/cm(3) soil, generally did not affect lettuce weight, root galling, or egg production of M. hapla. However, when lettuce was replanted in a mix of infested and uninfested soil (1:3 and 1:7, v:v), egg production was lower in soils with V. chlamydosporium than in soils without the fungus. Both fungi have potential to reduce the M. hapla population, but at densities below 8 eggs/cm(3) soil. PMID:19270953

Vianene, N M; Abawi, G S

2000-03-01

333

Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira/ Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A alface é considerada a principal hortaliça folhosa no Brasil. Nas ultimas décadas, houve muitas mudanças quanto aos tipos varietais predominantes no país bem como para a preferência do uso de semente peletizada. O domínio do cultivo da alface lisa foi até a década de 90 com as cultivares do tipo 'manteiga' e 'Regina'. Posteriormente, houve uma mudança para o tipo crespa e que, atualmente, corresponde ao principal segmento cultivado no Brasil. A ausência de fo (more) rmação de cabeça aliada à presença de folhas flabeladas conferiram a esse tipo de alface uma melhor adaptação no cultivo de verão com altas temperaturas e índices de pluviosidade. A preferência brasileira pela alface crespa é um fato único na alfacicultura mundial. A alface americana vem apresentando maiores índices de crescimento e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de apresentar formação de cabeça e que tem limitado seu cultivo no verão, na ausência de cultivo protegido, suas folhas mais espessas têm conferido melhor sabor, crocância e durabilidade pós-colheita na alface americana. Alface com folha espessa é mandatória para o mercado de processamento que apresenta alta tendência de crescimento. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para contribuir, pelo menos em parte, com essa situação são discutidas com o surgimento de novos tipos varietais tropicalizados, com a tendência de segmentação de mercado e da necessidade de uma cadeia pós-colheita mais eficiente. Abstract in english Lettuce is considered the main leafy vegetable crop in Brazil. In recent decades, many changes occurred towards the varietal types as well as in the preference for pelleted seeds. Until mid 90 decade, the dominant varieties of looseleaf lettuce were the type 'White Boston' and 'Regina'. Later, there was a change toward the Grand Rapids type which represents the main varietal segment grown in Brazil. The non-head Grand Rapids type with its earliness performed better adapta (more) tion for hot and high rainfall summer season. Brazilian preference for the Grand Rapids type is a unique event in the world market of lettuce. Crisp head lettuce had increased its preference, but there are many limitations to grow this type outdoors in our rainy hot summer. Thicker leaves of iceberg have a better flavor, crispness and long shelf live under refrigeration for its post-harvest management. Crispness is an important and mandatory quality for the fresh cut market which is a growing tendency. Considerations on breeding focus to get tropical-adapted varieties with crispness and resistance to specific Brazilian diseases which are limiting to lettuce are discussed.

Sala, Fernando Cesar; Costa, Cyro Paulino da

2012-06-01

334

Molecular Genetic Characterization of Olpidium virulentus Isolates Associated with Big-Vein Diseased Lettuce Plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lettuce plants showing symptoms of lettuce big-vein disease were collected from fields in the Perth Metropolitan region of southwest Australia. When root extracts from each plant were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific to the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Olpidium brassicae and O. virulentus, only O. virulentus was detected in each of them. The nucleotide sequences of the complete rDNA ITS regions of isolates from five of the root samples and 10 isolates of O. virulentus from Europe and Japan showed 97.9 to 100% identities. However, with the six O. brassicae isolates, their identities were only 76.9 to 79.4%. On phylogenetic analysis of the complete rDNA-ITS region sequences of the five Australian isolates and 10 others, the Australian isolates fitted within two clades of O. virulentus (I and II), and within clade I into two of its four subclades (Ia and Id). Japanese isolates had greatest sequence diversity fitting into both clades and into all of clade I subclades except Ib, while European isolates were restricted to subclades Ib and Id. When the partial rDNA-ITS region sequences of two additional southwest Australian isolates, four from Europe, and four from the Americas were included in the analyses, the Australian isolates were within O. virulentus subclades Ia and Id, the European isolates within subclade Ic, and the American isolates within subclades Ia and Ib. These findings suggest that there may have been at least three separate introductions of O. virulentus into the isolated Australian continent since plant cultivation was introduced following its colonization by Europeans. They also have implications regarding numbers of different introductions to other isolated regions. Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus were both detected when symptomatic lettuce leaf tissue samples corresponding to the root samples from southwest Australia were tested using virus-specific primers in reverse transcription–PCR, so presence of both viruses was associated with O. virulentus occurrence.

Maccarone LD; Barbetti MJ; Sivasithamparam K; Jones RAC

2010-05-01

335

Qualidade de cultivares de alface produzidos em hidroponia Quality of lettuce cultivars grown in hydroponic solution  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a composição centesimal de seis cultivares de alface (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina e Verônica) utilizando quatro soluções nutritivas em Santa Maria, RS. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com parcelas subdivididas. O experimento constou de oito bancadas, duas para cada solução nutritiva, sendo que cada bancada continha seis canais, um para cada cultivar. O espaçamento utilizado foi 0,18 m entre canais e 0,25 m entre plantas no canal. A solução Ueda, por ter concentração de nutrientes inicial baixa e por essa não ter sido mantida, apresentou maior produção de massa de matéria seca, valor calórico, teores de extrato etéreo e de fibras, depreciando a qualidade do produto final. A alface sob hidroponia (soluções Castellane-Araújo, Furlani e Bernardes) é um alimento altamente saudável por manter ou melhorar sua composição centesimal (teores de proteína, extrato etéreo, fibra e resíduo mineral) quando comparada com a cultivada no solo, e por ser um produto de baixo valor calórico.The purpose of this research was to define the centesimal composition of six lettuce cultivars (Aurora, Brisa, Lívia, Mimosa, Regina and Verônica) using four nutrient solutions. The experimental design was carried out in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, consisting of entirely randomized subdivided parcels. The used spacing was 0.18 m between array and 0.25 m among plants. It was observed that the Ueda solution should not be used for the lettuce production in NFT system, due to the high dry mass production and, consequently, high caloric value, content of lipids and fibers, depreciating the quality of the final product, in spite of its low nitrate content. The lettuce production in the NFT system using the Castellane-Araújo, Furlani and Bernardes solutions maintained the nutricional quality (protein, ethereal extract and fiber, mineral residue contents) equivalent to the lettuce produced in soil, but presenting smaller caloric value. Therefore, the hydroponic lettuce is a healthy food for maintaining and improving its centesimal composition for being a product of low caloric value, easy cleaning and high durability.

Silvana Ohse; Durval Dourado-Neto; Paulo Augusto Manfron; Osmar Souza dos Santos

2001-01-01

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Essential oils as biopreservatives: different methods for the technological application in lettuce leaves.  

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Investigations were carried out to assess the efficiency of 3 essential oils, clove, tea tree, and rosemary, as natural preservatives during the postharvest of lettuce leaves. The effect of different concentration (1 and 0.5 MIC