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Sample records for water lettuce duckweed

  1. Diminished mercury emission from waters with duckweed cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-06-01

    Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and limits gas exchange at the water-air interface by decreasing the area of open water surface. Experiments were conducted to determine whether duckweed decreases mercury emission by limiting gas diffusion across the water-air interface and attenuating light, or, conversely, enhances emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. Microcosm flux chamber experiments indicate that duckweed decreases mercury emission from the water surface compared to open water controls. Fluxes under duckweed were 17-67% lower than in controls, with lower fluxes occurring at higher percent cover. The decrease in mercury emission suggests that duckweed may limit emission through one of several mechanisms, including limited gas transport across the air-water interface, decreased photoreactions due to light attenuation, and plant-mercury interactions. The results of this experiment were applied to a model lake system to illustrate the magnitude of potential effects on mercury cycling. The mercury retained in the lake as a result of hindered emission may increase bioaccumulation potential in lakes with duckweed cover.

  2. Suitability of Using Duckweed as Feed and Treated Sewage as Water Source in Tilapia Aquaculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of treated effluent and duckweed biomass from a pilot-scale UASB-duckweed ponds system treating domestic sewage was evaluated in rearing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Nutritional value of duckweed as sole feed was compared with wheat bran. Two sources of water were used for each feed trial, treated-sewage and freshwater. The experiment was conducted in parallel with a conventional settled sewage-fed fishpond. Results of growth performance demonstrated that, in case of freshwater ponds specific growth rate (SGR) of tilapia fed on fresh duckweed was significantly (p 0.05) was observed between the two feeding regimes in treated sewage fed ponds. The SGR of tilapia reared in the treated sewage-wheat bran-fed pond (TWP) was significant higher (p <0.01) than the SGR in the freshwater-wheat bran-fed pond (FWP). On the other hand, due to the early spawning in the treated sewage-duckweed fed pond (TOP) SGR of tilapia in the latter was significantly lower (p <0.05) than the SGR in the freshwater-duckweed-fed pond (FDP). The results of net fish yield were 11.8, 8.9, 9.6 and 6.4 ton/ha/y in TDP, TWP, FDP and FWP, respectively. negative net yield (-0.16 ton/ha/y) was observed in the settled sewage- fed pond (SSP) due to high mortality

  3. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza; Simone Sano Rossi de Rezende; Joseane Marioto de Souza; Antonio Claudio Testa Varallo

    2011-01-01

    Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP) market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, ...

  4. DUCKWEED – A PERSPECTIVE VEGETABLE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of use duckweed as green vegetable are considered in article. The structure of types of duckweeds, their biological features, distribution in the world and in the territory of the Krasnodar region is shown. Possibility of their use as biotesters and bioindicators of the water environment, as analytical system for the analysis is shown. Questions of use of duckweed in artificial conditions as well as requirements to the content of culture are considered

  5. Comparative Analysis of Duckweed Cultivation with Sewage Water and SH Media for Production of Fuel Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Changjiang; Sun, Changjiang; Yu, Li; Zhu, Ming; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Jinshan; Ma, Yubin; Zhou, Gongke

    2014-01-01

    Energy crises and environmental pollution have caused considerable concerns; duckweed is considered to be a promising new energy plant that may relieve such problems. Lemna aequinoctialis strain 6000, which has a fast growth rate and the ability to accumulate high levels of starch was grown in both Schenk & Hildebrandt medium (SH) and in sewage water (SW). The maximum growth rates reached 10.0 g DW m?2 day?1 and 4.3 g DW m?2 day?1, respectively, for the SH and SW cultures, while the starch co...

  6. Nitrate Content on Summer Lettuce Production Using Fish Culture Water

    OpenAIRE

    E. Rico-Garcia; V.E. Casanova-Villareal; A. Mercado-Luna; G.M. Soto-Zarazua; R.G. Guevara-Gonzalez; G. Herrera-Ruiz; I. Torres-Pacheco; R.V. Velazquez-Ocampo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nitrate concentration on lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Px06516006) grown in fish culture water. This study was carried out in Queretaro State, Mexico. Lettuce cultivars were grown in a floating system inside a plastic greenhouse. The cultivation of lettuce was divided into 10 beds; four beds were used as a control group, with a standard nutrient solution and the other six beds were used as treatment group, fish culture water with the addition ...

  7. Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations.

  8. Evaluation of sanitary quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. irrigated with reused water in comparison with commercialized lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Fonseca Souza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate use of water resources reduces their availability and therefore, research focused on their reutilization is required. This work evaluated the sanitary quality of lettuce irrigated with reused water in comparison with samples of lettuce commercialized in Taubaté (SP market. An experiment was developed in a greenhouse with three beds of lettuce irrigated with reused water and three beds of lettuce irrigated with urban water supply. After lettuce biological cycle had been completed, lettuce samples were collected from the beds (irrigated and non-irrigated with reused water and from samples of lettuce commercialized in the city market that were analyzed in the laboratory. The analyses were done using the multiple tubes methodology. The results showed that the samples from lettuce irrigated with urban water supply were not contaminated by either total or thermotolerant coliforms while samples of irrigated lettuce with reused water were contaminated by total coliforms. Samples from commercialized lettuce were contaminated by both kinds of coliforms. Results indicated that the application of reused water for agricultural purposes should occur only after carefully treatment to allow a safe use and to contribute to the water use sustainability.

  9. Plant growth-promoting bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 increases the chlorophyll content of the monocot Lemna minor (duckweed) and the dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Wakako; Sugawara, Masayuki; Miwa, Kyoko; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus P23 is a plant growth-promoting bacterium that was isolated from the surface of duckweed (Lemna aoukikusa). The bacterium was observed to colonize on the plant surfaces and increase the chlorophyll content of not only the monocotyledon Lemna minor but also the dicotyledon Lactuca sativa in a hydroponic culture. This effect on the Lactuca sativa was significant in nutrient-poor (×1/100 dilution of H2 medium) and not nutrient-rich (×1 or ×1/10 dilutions of H2 medium) conditions. Strain P23 has the potential to play a part in the future development of fertilizers and energy-saving hydroponic agricultural technologies. PMID:24468072

  10. Feasibility of Producing Selenium-Enriched Water Lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Anut Chantiratikul; Panida Atiwetin; Piyanete Chantiratikul

    2008-01-01

    The feasibility of producing selenium-enriched water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) was studied by cultivating water lettuce in Hoagland's solution containing 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg Se from sodium selenite/L. There were 4 replicates in each Se concentration. Each replicate consisted of 30 plants of water lettuce. Three plants of water lettuce in each replicate were sampled on day 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 of the experiment. The samples were washed with deionized water, separated for leaves and...

  11. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lages Barbosa, Guilherme; Almeida Gadelha, Francisca Daiane; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M.; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-01-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/k...

  12. Potential cross-contamination of E. coli between lettuce and wash water simulating an industrial fresh-cut lettuce wash process

    OpenAIRE

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to provide information about E. coli contamination of washing water to prevent water becoming a vehicle for transfer of microbial contamination to lettuce and to get insight on the factors affecting proper water management. A lettuce wash process was simulated to determine (1) the ability to use “clean” water and the tolerable E. coli levels for “clean” water and its’ potential to respect it upon re-use of water in the first washing bath, (2) the need and effect of using potable w...

  13. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Lages Barbosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2 of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation, respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture.

  14. Comparison of Land, Water, and Energy Requirements of Lettuce Grown Using Hydroponic vs. Conventional Agricultural Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Guilherme Lages; Gadelha, Francisca Daiane Almeida; Kublik, Natalya; Proctor, Alan; Reichelm, Lucas; Weissinger, Emily; Wohlleb, Gregory M; Halden, Rolf U

    2015-06-01

    The land, water, and energy requirements of hydroponics were compared to those of conventional agriculture by example of lettuce production in Yuma, Arizona, USA. Data were obtained from crop budgets and governmental agricultural statistics, and contrasted with theoretical data for hydroponic lettuce production derived by using engineering equations populated with literature values. Yields of lettuce per greenhouse unit (815 m2) of 41 ± 6.1 kg/m2/y had water and energy demands of 20 ± 3.8 L/kg/y and 90,000 ± 11,000 kJ/kg/y (±standard deviation), respectively. In comparison, conventional production yielded 3.9 ± 0.21 kg/m2/y of produce, with water and energy demands of 250 ± 25 L/kg/y and 1100 ± 75 kJ/kg/y, respectively. Hydroponics offered 11 ± 1.7 times higher yields but required 82 ± 11 times more energy compared to conventionally produced lettuce. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first quantitative comparison of conventional and hydroponic produce production by example of lettuce grown in the southwestern United States. It identified energy availability as a major factor in assessing the sustainability of hydroponics, and it points to water-scarce settings offering an abundance of renewable energy (e.g., from solar, geothermal, or wind power) as particularly attractive regions for hydroponic agriculture. PMID:26086708

  15. WARM WATER TREATMENT IN COMBINATION WITH MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING REDUCED UNDESIRABLE EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON THE QUALITY OF FRESH-CUT ICEBERG LETTUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce, immersed into 5 C or 47 C water for 2 min and packaged in breathable film bags, was irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1 and 2 kGy. The lettuce was then stored at 3 C for 21 days. Dipping lettuce to 47 °C water for 2 min prior to irradiation reduced antioxidant and phenolic accumulati...

  16. THE ROLE OF DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR L. IN SECONDARY CLARIFIER TANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Gürtekin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor L. presence on the effluent water quality and settling characteristics in the secondary clarifier tank of a conventional biological treatment plant were investigated. For this purpose, the performances of the secondary clarifier with and without duckweed were compared. In the secondary clarifier tank with duckweed, COD, BOD5, ammonium and phosphate removal efficiencies were higher by 15, 25, 35 and 45%, respectively. SS concentration of effluent and values of sludge volume index (SVI were the same. The results showed that duckweed contributes to treatment efficiency of conventional biological treatment plant, which reduces the need of tertiary nutrients removal.

  17. A Comparative Study of the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce And Parrot's Feather

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Snow; Abdel E Ghaly

    2008-01-01

    Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot?s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot?s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm) m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm) m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to signi...

  18. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lettuce Grown in Soils Irrigated with Different Water Sources in the Accra Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Mark O. Akrong; Samuel J. Cobbina; Joseph A. Ampofo

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the levels of different heavy metals like Iron, Manganese, Copper, Zinc, Cadmium and Lead in three different irrigation water sources, irrigated soils and irrigated lettuce. The result indicates positive and significant correlation of heavy metals concentrations between the irrigation water, irrigated soils and irrigated lettuce. The range of various heavy metals in drained water irrigated lettuce was 162.00-190.00, 60.25-78.25, 6.03-8.80 and 23.88-52.00 m...

  19. Resurgence of duckweed research and applications: report from the 3rd International Duckweed Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Sree, K Sowjanya; Fakhoorian, Tamra; Lam, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Duckweed, flowering plants in the Lemnaceae family, comprises the smallest angiosperms in the plant kingdom. They have some of the fastest biomass accumulation rates reported to date for plants and have the demonstrated ability to thrive on wastewater rich in dissolved organic compounds and thus could help to remediated polluted water resources and prevents eutrophication. With a high quality genome sequence now available and increased commercial interest worldwide to develop duckweed biomass for renewables such as protein and fuel, the 3rd International Duckweed Conference convened at Kyoto, Japan, in July of 2015, to update the community of duckweed researchers and developers on the progress in the field. In addition to sharing results and ideas, the conference also provided ample opportunities for new-comers as well as established workers in the field to network and create new aliances. We hope this meeting summary will also help to disseminate the key advances and observations that have been presented in this conference to the broader plant biology community in order to encourage increased cross-fertilization of ideas and technologies. PMID:26506824

  20. Duck-Weed as an ecotoxicological biotest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1989 duck-weed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) has been used as an ecotoxicological biotest at the Radioecological Section of Institute of Botany. It was used to estimate precipitation toxicity of Mazheikiai and Akmene regions, waste waters of industrial galvanic departments, water reservoirs of the Ignalina and Leningrad NPP, also the Dniepr cascade. The data obtained showed Spirodela polyrrhiza to be a rather sensitive and specific biotest for the estimation of contamination with heavy metals. Spirodela polyrrhiza is advisable to estimate pollution of the air, waste-waters and solutions of heavy metals. (author). 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Phytoremediation of parboiled rice mill wastewater using water lettuce (pistia stratiotes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Majumdar, Madhurina; Gangopadhyay, Amitava; Chakraborty, Sankar; Chaterjee, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology applied for treatment of wastewater. It is a suitable option notably in developing countries as it is simple, sustainable and cost effective. In the present lab-based batch study the free floating aquatic plant water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) is used for treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater having low pH, high chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrogen, and phosphate. In raw rice mill wastewater (undiluted) growth of water lettuce is found to be inhibited. Later on, two different dilution approaches (raw and facultative pond effluent 1:1; raw and tap water 1:1) are applied in order to effectively use this technology. In all cases a control (without plant) is maintained to compare the performance with the Aquatic Plant based Treatment (APT) system. In the APT system results reveal that removal of soluble COD (SCOD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), and soluble phosphorus (sol. P) are upto 65%, 98%, 70%, and 65% respectively. The study highlights the efficacy of water lettuce in removing organics and nutrients from parboiled rice mill wastewater. PMID:25192197

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF ELECTROLYZED OXIDIZING WATER FOR INACTIVATING Listeria monocytogenes IN LETTUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casadiego Laíd Paola

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO water for the inactivation of L. monocytogenes in suspension and when inoculated on lettuce leaves was evaluated. An electrolytic cell for the production of EO water was built and a solution of 5% NaCl was used. The EO water produced had a residual chlorine concentration of 29 parts per million (ppm and pH 2.83. Ten strains of L. monocytogenes isolated from processed chicken (109 CFU/ml were inoculated into 9 ml of EO water or 9 ml of deionized water (control and incubated at 15°C for 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The surviving population of each strain was determined on Columbia agar. An exposure time of 5 min reduced the populations by approximately 6.6 log CFU/ml. The most resistant strains to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl were selected and used in a strain mixture (9.56 log CFU/ml, 109UFC/ml approximately for the inoculation of 35 lettuce samples, by the dip inoculation method using distilled water as control. The population mean of L. monocytogenes after treatment with EO water and distilled water was reduced by 3.92 and 2.46 log CFU/ml respectively (p=0.00001. EO water and 6% acetic acid (vinegar were combined to improve the EO water effect on L. monocytogenes inoculated in lettuce; the effectiveness of this combination was examined. The results showed that there was a synergistic effect of both antimicrobial agents (population reduction by 5.49 log CFU/ml approximately on the viability of L. monocytogenes cells.

  3. Effect of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca on Soil Water Holding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Hulusi Dede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca on soil water-holding capacity and the variation by over time were investigated. Sea lettuce (algae was collected from the Black Sea coast, rinsed with rain water and dried to constant weight. Dried algae were added to soil at rate of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10% and 20%. Mixtures were filling the pots and incubated for 0, 20, 40, 60 days at 25 ºC. At the end of the incubation, soil organic matter and water holding capacity were determined. Adding of algae to soil was increased the porosity and water holding capacity. The amount of the organic matter was decreased by the incubation progress. At the 20 and 40 days, micro-porosity was increased, air capacity decreased and water-holding capacity has not changed. At the 60th incubation days, reduction of organic matter content was slowed, air capacity was reached to normal values and water holding capacity was decreased. Total porosity was not changed. At the beginning (0th and the 60th incubation days, the distinctive dose was obtained at 5% for porosity and water holding capacity increases. Increased doses of the above have been limited. The optimum dose of 5% as determined by the addition of algae was increased soil water holding capacity by 48% on average.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Purification of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Water Hyacinth, Water Lettuce And Parrot's Feather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Snow

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot?s feather plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater at two retention times. During the experiment, the aquatic plants grew rapidly and appeared healthy with green color. At hydraulic retention times (HRTs of 6 and 12 days, the average water hyacinth, water lettuce and parrot?s feather yields were 83, 51 and 51 g (dm m-2 and 49, 29 and 22 g (dm m-2, respectively. The aquatic plants were able to significantly reduce the pollution load of the aquaculture wastewater. The TS, COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and PO43--P reductions ranged from 21.4 to 48.0%, from 71.1 to 89.5%, from 55.9 to 76.0%, from 49.6 to 90.6%, from 34.5 to 54.4% and from 64.5 to 76.8%, respectively. Generally, the reductions increased with longer retention times and were highest in compartments containing water hyacinth followed by compartments containing water lettuce and parrot?s feather. In terms of COD, NO3--N and PO43--P, the effluent leaving the hydroponics system was suitable for reuse in aquaculture. However, the effluent had slightly high levels of TS, NH3-N, NO2--N and pH after treatment.

  5. Estudio de comparación del tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas utilizando lentejas y buchón de agua en humedales artificiales / Comparative study of domestic wastewater treatments using common duckweed (Lemna minor) and water hyacint (Eichhornia crassipes) in artificial wetlands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Pablo, Rodríguez-Miranda; Esteban, Gómez; Laura, Garavito; Francy, López.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de comparación del tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas utilizando sistemas naturales como los humedales artificiales presenta resultados de remoción de materia orgánica (DBO5) de entre 70 y 86% al utilizar el buchón de agua, y de 58% cuando se utiliza lenteja de agua. El sistema de [...] humedales artificiales se comporta hidráulicamente como un modelo de flujo pistón, sin distinción del tipo de planta acuática que se use. Durante la experimentación se observó que cuando se utilizó la lenteja de agua en el humedal artificial, ésta le aportó al agua elementos característicos de la planta que aumentan el pH (> 11) en el agua efluente; mientras que con el buchón de agua, los valores de pH del agua están en el rango de 6 a 8.0, favoreciendo la estabilización de la materia orgánica dentro del sistema biológico. Abstract in english This comparative study of domestic wastewater treatment using natural systems like artificial wetlands shows organic matter (BOD) removal rates between 70% and 86% using water hyacinth and of 58% using common duckweed. The artificial wetland system behaves hydraulically as a piston-flow model regard [...] less of the aquatic plant used. During the experiment, it was observed that common duckweed contributes characteristic elements to water that increase the effluent's pH (> 11), whereas water hyacinth elevates the pH value in the range of 6-8, thus favoring the stabilization of the organic matter within the biological system.

  6. A study on cadmium phytoremediation potential of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suchismita; Goswami, Sunayana; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-02-01

    Aquatic macrophytes have tremendous potential for remediation of the heavy metal cadmium. The objective of this study was to investigate Cd phytoremediation ability of water lettuce, Pistia stratiotes L. The study was conducted with 5, 10, 15 and 20 mg L(-1) CdCl2 in hydroponic system for 21 days and the Cd concentrations in the root and shoot tissues were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The values obtained were used to evaluate the bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF) and translocation efficiency of this plant. The plant showed high Cd tolerance of up to 20 mg L(-1) but there was a general trend of decline in the root and shoot biomass. The maximum BCF values for root and shoot tissues were 2,294 and 870 respectively, obtained for 5 mg L(-1) Cd, which indicated that the plant was a Cd hyperaccumulator. The TF maxima was found to be 0.6 and as much as 60 % root to shoot translocation efficiency was observed for 15 mg L(-1) Cd which points towards the suitability of water lettuce for removing Cd from surface waters. PMID:24220931

  7. Trichoderma spp. alleviate phytotoxicity in lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with arsenic-contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporale, Antonio G; Sommella, Alessia; Lorito, Matteo; Lombardi, Nadia; Azam, Shah M G G; Pigna, Massimo; Ruocco, Michelina

    2014-09-15

    The influence of two strains of Trichoderma (T. harzianum strain T22 and T. atroviride strain P1) on the growth of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with As-contaminated water, and their effect on the uptake and accumulation of the contaminant in the plant roots and leaves, were studied. Accumulation of this non-essential element occurred mainly into the root system and reduced both biomass development and net photosynthesis rate (while altering the plant P status). Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) of both Trichoderma species alleviated, at least in part, the phytotoxicity of As, essentially by decreasing its accumulation in the tissues and enhancing plant growth, P status and net photosynthesis rate. Our results indicate that inoculation of lettuce with selected Trichoderma strains may be helpful, beside the classical biocontrol application, in alleviating abiotic stresses such as that caused by irrigation with As-contaminated water, and in reducing the concentration of this metalloid in the edible part of the plant. PMID:25046759

  8. Effect of irrigation water on the incidence of Salmonella spp. on lettuces produced by urban agriculture and sold on the markets in Dakar, Senegal

    OpenAIRE

    Ndiaye, Mamadou Lamine; Dieng, Y.; Niang, S.; Pfeifer, H.R.; Tonolla, M; Peduzzi, Raffael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our survey was to assess the effect of irrigation water of the microbiological quality on the production chain of lettuce in the Dakar area. Microbiological analysis showed that 35% of irrigation water was contaminated by Salmonella spp. between the two water-types used for irrigation (groundwater and wastewater), no significant difference (p>0.05) in their degree of contamination was found. The incidence of different types of irrigation water on the contamination rate of lettuces ...

  9. Nutrients valorisation via duckweed-based wastewater treatment and aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    El-Shafai, S.A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a sustainable wastewater treatment scheme to recycle sewage nutrients and water in tilapia aquaculture was the main objective of this PhD research. Use of an Integrated UASB-duckweed ponds system for domestic wastewater treatment linked to tilapia aquaculture was investigated. The treatment system was efficiënt in organic matter removal during the entire year, while nitrogen, phosphorus and faecal coliform removal were negatively affected by the decline in temperat...

  10. Assessing water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassopes) and lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbile, C O; Yusoff, Mohd S

    2012-03-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) were analyzed to determine their effectiveness in aquaculture wastewater treatment in Malaysia. Wastewater from fish farm in Semanggol Perak, Malaysia was sampled and the parameters determined included, the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrite phosphate (PO4(3-)), nitrate (NO(3-)), nitrite (NO(-2)), ammonia (NH3), and total kjedahl nitrogen (TKN). Also, hydroponics system was set up and was added with fresh plants weights of 150 +/- 20 grams Eichhornia crassipes and 50 +/- 10 grams Pistia stratiotes during the 30 days experiment. The phytoremediation treatment with Eichhornia crassipes had pH ranging from 5.52 to 5.59 and from 4.45 to 5.5 while Pistia stratiotes had its pH value from 5.76 to 6.49 and from 6.24 to 7.07. Considerable percentage reduction was observed in all the parameters treated with the phytoremediators. Percentage reduction of turbidity for Eichhornia crassipes were 85.26% and 87.05% while Pistia stratiotes were 92.70% and 93.69% respectively. Similar reductions were observed in COD, TKN, NO(3-), NH3, and PO4(3-). The capability of these plants in removing nutrients was established from the study. Removal of aquatic macrophytes from water bodies is recommended for efficient water purification. PMID:22567705

  11. Potential of domestic sewage effluent treated as a source of water and nutrients in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Cuba

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative sources of water for agriculture makes the use of treated sewage sludge an important strategy for achieving sustainability. This study evaluated the feasibility of reusing treated sewage effluent as alternative source of water and nutrients for the hydroponic cultivation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. The experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the Center for Agricultural Sciences - UFSCar, in Araras, SP. The cultivation took place from February to March 2014. The hydroponic system used was the Nutrient Film Technique, and included three treatments: 1 water supply and mineral fertilizers (TA; 2 use of effluent treated and complemented with mineral fertilizers based on results of previous chemical analysis (TRA; and 3 use of treated effluent (TR. The applied experimental design was four randomly distributed blocks. We evaluated the fresh weight, nutritional status, the microbiological quality of the culture, and the amount of mineral fertilizers used in the treatments. The fresh weights were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. Only the TR treatment showed a significant difference in the evaluated variables, as symptoms of nutritional deficiencies in plants and significant reduction in fresh weights (p <0.01 were found. There was no detectable presence of Escherichia coli in any treatment, and it was possible to use less of some fertilizers in the TRA treatment compared to TA.

  12. Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto Brevilato Novaes; Delmo Santiago Vaitsman; Paulo Bechara Dutra; Daniel Vidal Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using micr...

  13. Stress responses of duckweed (Lemna minor L.) and water velvet (Azolla filiculoides Lam.) to anionic surfactant sodium-dodecyl-sulphate (SDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forni, C; Braglia, R; Harren, F J M; Cristescu, S M

    2012-04-01

    Surfactants are used for several purposes and recently they have attracted the attention for their ability to modify the behavior of other preexistent or co-disposed contaminants, although their use or discharge in wastewaters can represent a real or potential risk for the environment. Lemna minor L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. are floating aquatic macrophytes, very effective in accumulating several pollutants including sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). In this work we evaluated the effects of SDS on these species by determining the stress ethylene production via laser-based trace gas detection, and the activities of enzymes involved in stress response, such as guaiacol peroxidase (G-POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol-oxidase (PPO). Phenolics content was also determined. The macrophytes were treated with different concentrations of SDS for one week. SDS affected duckweed enzymatic activities and phenol content. While in the fern phenolics amount, PAL, G-POD and PPO activities were not affected by SDS except for 100 ppm SDS, the only concentration that was taken up and not completely degraded. Stress ethylene production was induced only in the fern treated with 50 and 100 ppm SDS. PMID:22277247

  14. Accumulation of contaminants of emerging concern in food crops-part 1: Edible strawberries and lettuce grown in reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Katherine C; Blaine, Andrea C; Dickenson, Eric R V; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern present in domestic waste streams include a highly diverse group of potentially biologically active compounds that can be detected at trace levels in wastewater. Concerns about potential uptake into crops arise when reclaimed water is used in food crop production. The present study investigated how 9 contaminants of emerging concern in reclaimed water are taken up into edible portions of two food crops. Two flame retardant chemicals, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and several polar pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) accumulated in a linear, concentration-dependent manner in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) irrigated with reclaimed water, suggesting passive uptake of both neutral and ionizable chemical contaminants in lettuce. Furthermore, concentration-dependent accumulation of TCEP and TCPP from reclaimed water was also observed in strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa). Collectively, these data suggest that highly polar or charged contaminants can be taken up by crops from water bearing contaminants of emerging concern and can be accumulated in the edible portions. Using these data, however, estimates of human exposure to these contaminants from reclaimed water food crop accumulation suggest that exposure to the contaminants of emerging concern examined in the present study is likely substantially lower than current exposure guidelines. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:2213-2221. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:25988333

  15. Influence of season growth, soils and irrigation water composition on the concentration of uranium in two lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) varieties. Field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, M. M.; Neves, O.; Marcelino, M.

    2012-04-01

    Former uranium mines areas are frequently the sources of environmental radionuclides problems even many years after the closure of mining operations. A concern for inhabitants from mining areas is the use of contaminated land or irrigation water for agriculture, and the potential transfer of metals from soils to vegetables, and to humans through the food chain. The main aim of this study was to compare the uranium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. varieties Marady and Romana) grown in different seasons (autumn and summer) and exposed to high and low uranium concentrations both in irrigation water and agricultural soil. The content of uranium in irrigation water, soil (total and available fraction) and in lettuce leaf samples was analyzed in a certified laboratory. In the field experiments, two agricultural soils were divided into two plots (four replicates each); one of them was irrigated with uranium contaminated water (0.94 to 1.14 mg/L) and the other with uncontaminated water (lettuce varieties, namely yield reduction (up to 53% and 87% in autumn and summer experiments, respectively) and increase of uranium leaf concentration (up to 1.4 and 7 fold in autumn and summer, respectively). Effect on lettuce yield was mainly due to the high soil salinity (1.01 to 6.31 mS/cm) as a consequence of high irrigation water electrical conductivity (up to 1.82 mS/cm) and low lettuce soil salinity tolerance (1 to 3 mS/cm). The highest lettuce uranium concentration (dry weight) observed was 2.13 and 5.37 mg/kg for Marady and Romana variety, respectively. The highest uranium lettuce concentration in Romana variety was also the effect of its growing in summer season when it was subject to greatest frequency and amount of water irrigation. The consumption by an adult of the lettuce that concentrate more uranium, represents only 16.7% of the tolerable daily limit intake set by World Health Organisation for this element (0.6 mg/kg body weight daily), suggesting that lettuce uranium intake had a low contribution and do not represent a potential health risk for Cunha Baixa's residents.

  16. Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Humberto Brevilato, Novaes; Delmo Santiago, Vaitsman; Paulo Bechara, Dutra; Daniel Vidal, Pérez.

    Full Text Available Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was t [...] o evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using microwave oven digestion. The results indicated that nitrate level produced in the conventional system was lower than in the hydroponic system.

  17. Determination of nitrate in lettuce by ion chromatography after microwave water extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Brevilato Novaes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is worldwide known as the most important vegetable. In this context, most farmers are searching new techniques for best quality products including hydropony. However, nitrate is of great concern, since it has a negative impact on human metabolism. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate the nitrate content of lettuce produced by conventional and hydroponic systems. The determination was conducted by ion chromatography and a new method of extraction was tested using microwave oven digestion. The results indicated that nitrate level produced in the conventional system was lower than in the hydroponic system.

  18. The distribution of submersed aquatic vegetation and water lettuce in the fresh and oligohaline tidal Potomac River, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah Hunter; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys documenting the composition of species of submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been conducted in the Potomac River for decades. These surveys can help managers assess the proportion of native and exotic plants in the river or can be used to determine relationships between native and exotic plants, environmental conditions, and wildlife. SAV coverage increased from 2005 to 2007 throughout the fresh and oligohaline study area. The 2007 survey documented here determined that eleven species of SAV were present. The abundance of the exotic species Hydrilla verticillata (hydrilla) was relatively low, and species diversity was relatively high compared to previous years. The survey also revealed a new population of the invasive, floating aquatic plant Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce). In 2007, water lettuce, the latest exotic aquatic plant to be found in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River, was most abundant in Mattawoman Creek, Charles County, Maryland. However, it was not observed in the fresh to oligohaline portion of the Potomac River in the summer of 2008. An understanding of the distribution of SAV species and factors governing the abundance of native and invasive aquatic species is enhanced by long-term surveys.

  19. Sequential disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves by aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nepal; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Stroshine, Richard L.; Simon, James E.

    2001-03-01

    There have been numerous studies on effectiveness of different sanitizers for microbial inactivation. However, results obtained from different studies indicate that microorganism cannot be easily removed from fresh cut vegetables because of puncture and cut surfaces with varying surface topographies. In this study, three step disinfection approach was evaluated for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves. Sequential application of thyme oil, ozonated water, and aqueous chlorine dioxide was evaluated in which thyme oil was applied first followed by ozonated water and aqueous chlorine dioxide. Shredded lettuce leaves inoculated with cocktail culture of E. coli O157:H7 (C7927, EDL 933 and 204 P), were washed with ozonated water (15 mg/l for 10min), aqueous chlorine dioxide (10 mg/l,for 10min) and thyme oil suspension (0.1%, v/v for 5min). Washing of lettuce leaves with ozonated water, chlorine dioxide and thyme oil suspension resulted in 0.44, 1.20, and 1.46 log reduction (log10 cfu/g), respectively. However, the sequential treatment achieved approximately 3.13 log reductions (log10 cfu/g). These results demonstrate the efficacy of sequential treatments in decontaminating shredded lettuce leaves containing E. coli O157:H7.

  20. BIOSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER USING DUCKWEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Suhag

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution has been recognized as a problem for decades. The use of heavy metals in industries and their regular mining increases their concentration in water bodies. Unlike organic compounds, metals cannot degrade, and therefore effective cleanup requires their immobilization to reduce or remove toxicity. A few conventional methods employed to remove heavy metals from wastewater are expensive, require skilled labors and maintenance. Therefore, the use of aquatic plants has come up since the last few decades. Duckweed is onesuch plant employed as a biosorbent and has been considered a better alternative than any other aquatic plant because of high tolerance to cold than water hyacinth, more easilyharvested than algae, capable of rapid growth (0.1 to 0.5 g g-1 day-1 and small size of plant. This study aims to determine the suitability of this plant for biosorbing toxic heavy metalscommonly found in industrial wastewater, domestic wastewater, and seepage water.

  1. Comprehensive Study Of Duckweed Cultivation And Growth Conditions Under Controlled Eutrophication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartošová Alica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discussed the issue of eutrophication. The most conspicuous effect of eutrophication is the creation of dense blooms of noxious, foul-smelling phytoplankton that reduce water clarity and harm water quality. Nutrient concentration, temperature and pH of the water largely influence the growth rate and composition of duckweed in general, but it can be said that the temperature and solar irradiation are the most important factors. In order to compare the rate of biomass increase of duckweed biomass in natural conditions and in a laboratory grown sample was analysed by spectrophotometric methods in UV/VIS region (Spectrophotometer GENESYSTM for the selected nutrients such as ammonium, ammonium nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate.

  2. Nutrient removal from swine lagoon effluent by duckweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, B.A.; Cheng, J.; Classen, J.; Stomp, A.M.

    2000-04-01

    Three duckweed geographic isolates were grown on varying concentrations of swine lagoon effluent in a greenhouse to determine their ability to remove nutrients from the effluent. Duckweed biomass was harvested every other day over a 12-day period. Duckweed biomass production, nutrient loss from the swine lagoon effluent, and nutrient content of duckweed biomass were used to identify effluent concentrations/geographic isolate combinations that are effective in terms of nutrient utilization from swine lagoon effluent and production of healthy duckweed biomass. When Lemna minor geographic isolate 8627 was grown on 50% swine lagoon effluent, respective losses of TKN, NH{sub 3}-N, TP, OPO{sub 4}-P, TOC, K, Cu, and Zn were 83, 100, 49, 31, 68, 21, 28 and 67%.

  3. Crescimento, consumo hídrico e composição mineral de alface cultivada em hidroponia com águas salinas / Growth, water consumption and mineral composition of lettuce in hydroponic system with saline water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dalva, Paulus; Eloi, Paulus; Gilmar Antônio, Nava; Cláudia Andrade, Moura.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o crescimento, o consumo hídrico e a extração de nutrientes, por alface (Lactuca sativa L.) em sistema hidropônico NFT (fluxo laminar de nutrientes), com a utilização de águas salinas no preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição da lâmina diária evapotranspira [...] da. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, em ambiente protegido. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água, utilizando-se NaCl. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu, de forma linear, o crescimento e o consumo hídrico da alface. A salinidade reduziu a concentração de macronutrientes na parte aérea, mas não se observaram sintomas de deficiência nutricional. O rendimento (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea) foi reduzido entre 6 e 6,5% por dS m-1, no primeiro e segundo cultivo, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo NFT podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças, para produtores que têm disponibilidade restrita de água doce, porém, com redução de produtividade. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, water consumption and extraction of nutrients of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in a NFT (nutrient film technique) in hydroponic system using saline water. Two experiments were conducted in a protected environment. The experiment was arranged in a [...] completely randomized design with five replications and five levels of salinity in the irrigation water using NaCl. Increasing water salinity reduced the growth and water consumption of lettuce linearly. The salinity reduced the macronutrient concentration, but symptoms of nutritional deficiency were not observed. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter) was reduced by 6% and 6.5% per dS m¹, in the first and second crops, respectively. The results obtained in the NFT system indicate the possibility of using saline water as an alternative for the production of vegetables by farmers who have freshwater restriction, although with a reduction in the yield.

  4. Effects of A200 superabsorbent, bentonite and water stress on physiological traits and vitamin C of lettuce under greenhouse cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is a global crisis and is considered a serious threat for agriculture. Superabsorbent polymers, through improving soil physical conditions, prevent moisture stress in arid and semi-arid areas. To evaluate the effects of a natural superabsorbent (bentonite and a synthetic superabsorbent (A200 on growth of lettuce, a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with four replications was conducted. The amount of each superabsorbent at 3 levels (0, 0.15 and 0.3% w/w and 2 levels of water stress (60 and 100% of field capacity were tested. The results showed that in 100% of field capacity treatment, leaf relative water content, chlorophyll index and stomatal conductance were more than 60% of field capacity treatment. Electrolyte leakage, vitamin C, total soluble solids and chlorophyll b were higher in 60% of field capacity treatment. Application of 0.3% bentonite decreased electrolyte leakage, vitamin C and soluble solids by 74, 19 and 31 percent, respectively, and increased relative water content, chlorophyll index, stomatal conductance and total chlorophyll content by 3, 2, 22 and 8 percent, respectively, relative to the control. While, application of 0.3% of superabsorbent A200 decreased electrolyte leakage, vitamin C and soluble solids by 28, 18 and 37 percent, respectively, and increased relative water content, chlorophyll index, stomatal conductance and total chlorophyll content by 6, 32, 25 and 42 percent, respectively, as compared to the control treatment. These results indicated that bentonite can reduce the negative impacts of drought stress as much as artificial superabsorbent.

  5. Tapioca-starch wastewater toxicity characterized by Microtox and duckweed tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik (Stockholm University, Institute of Applied Environmental Research, Laboratory for Aquatic Ecotoxicology, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Triet, T. (University of Wisconsin, Institute for Environmental Studies, Madison, WI (United States))

    1994-12-01

    The toxicity of treated and untreated effluents from a tapioca (cassava), Manihot esculenta, starch industry in Thailand were tested on Microtox and a subtropical duckweed, Lemna aequinoctialis. Untreated samples demonstrated high toxicity in both tests, but also the treated effluent was toxic to duckweed. Aging of wastewater resulted in decreased toxicity which was partly correlated to cyanide content, but other (unidentified) components of the tapioca tubers also contribute to the toxicity. Considering the present findings and the fact that the majority of the tapioca starch industries in Southeast Asia have no effluent treatment there is a great risk for severe effects on crops (e.g. young stages of rice, vegetables, etc.) when the wastewater in traditional way is used for irrigation of farmland. Negative effects on local aquaculture and/or sensitive stages of valuable feral fish and crustacea populations in receiving water bodies can also be expected. 32 refs, 6 tabs

  6. Estratégias de uso de água salobra na produção de alface em hidroponia NFT Strategies for use of brackish water in NFT hydroponic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio S. Alves

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa 'Verônica' foram cultivadas em condições hidropônicas, objetivando avaliar três diferentes estratégias de emprego de águas salobras: 1 águas salobras para reposição das perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc e água doce para o preparo da solução nutritiva (SN; 2 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc; 3 águas salobras para o preparo da SN e reposição da ETc. Os níveis de salinidade da água foram obtidos pela adição de NaCl à água doce (0,27 dS m-1: 1,45; 2,51; 3,6; 5,41 e 7,5 dS m-1. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro blocos aleatorizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma estrutura de pesquisa foi construída com 72 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. O uso de água salobra apenas para repor a ETc não produziu efeito sobre a produção da alface. Por outro lado, o uso de águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc, reduziu o rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea em 4,99% por (dS m-1. O rendimento foi reduzido em 7% por dS m-1 quando águas salobras foram usadas tanto para o preparo da SN quanto para reposição da ETc. Apesar da redução linear da produção da alface com o aumento da salinidade da água, sintomas depreciativos para a qualidade da alface hidropônica não foram registrados.Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. 'Verônica' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate three different strategies of brackish waters utilization: 1 brackish waters to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc and fresh water to prepare nutrient solution (NS; 2 brackish waters to prepare NS and fresh water to replace the ETc; 3 brackish waters to prepare NS and replace ETc. The levels of water salinity were obtained by addition of NaCl to fresh water (0.27 dS m-1: 1.45; 2.51; 3.6; 5.41 and 7.5 dS m-1. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications per treatment. A research structure was built with 72 experimental units which simulate the nutrient film technique (NFT. The use of brackish water only to replace the ETc did not affect the lettuce yield. On the other hand, the use of brackish waters to prepare NS, and fresh water to replace the ETc loss, reduce the lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter by 4.99% per (dS m-1. The lettuce yield was reduced by 7% per dS m-1 as brackish water was used to prepare NS and replace ETc loss. Despite the linear decline of lettuce yield as the water salinity increased, depreciative symptoms for quality of hydroponic lettuce were not registered.

  7. Estratégias de uso de água salobra na produção de alface em hidroponia NFT / Strategies for use of brackish water in NFT hydroponic lettuce production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio S., Alves; Tales M., Soares; Luana T., Silva; Joseane P., Fernandes; Mariana L. A., Oliveira; Vital P. S., Paz.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa 'Verônica' foram cultivadas em condições hidropônicas, objetivando avaliar três diferentes estratégias de emprego de águas salobras: 1) águas salobras para reposição das perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc) e água doce para o preparo da solução nutritiva (SN); 2) águas salobra [...] s para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc; 3) águas salobras para o preparo da SN e reposição da ETc. Os níveis de salinidade da água foram obtidos pela adição de NaCl à água doce (0,27 dS m-1): 1,45; 2,51; 3,6; 5,41 e 7,5 dS m-1. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro blocos aleatorizados, com quatro repetições por tratamento. Uma estrutura de pesquisa foi construída com 72 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT). O uso de água salobra apenas para repor a ETc não produziu efeito sobre a produção da alface. Por outro lado, o uso de águas salobras para o preparo da SN e água doce para reposição da ETc, reduziu o rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea) em 4,99% por (dS m-1). O rendimento foi reduzido em 7% por dS m-1 quando águas salobras foram usadas tanto para o preparo da SN quanto para reposição da ETc. Apesar da redução linear da produção da alface com o aumento da salinidade da água, sintomas depreciativos para a qualidade da alface hidropônica não foram registrados. Abstract in english Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. 'Verônica' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate three different strategies of brackish waters utilization: 1) brackish waters to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc) and fresh water to prepare nutrient solution (NS); 2) brackish waters to pre [...] pare NS and fresh water to replace the ETc; 3) brackish waters to prepare NS and replace ETc. The levels of water salinity were obtained by addition of NaCl to fresh water (0.27 dS m-1): 1.45; 2.51; 3.6; 5.41 and 7.5 dS m-1. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks with four replications per treatment. A research structure was built with 72 experimental units which simulate the nutrient film technique (NFT). The use of brackish water only to replace the ETc did not affect the lettuce yield. On the other hand, the use of brackish waters to prepare NS, and fresh water to replace the ETc loss, reduce the lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter) by 4.99% per (dS m-1). The lettuce yield was reduced by 7% per dS m-1 as brackish water was used to prepare NS and replace ETc loss. Despite the linear decline of lettuce yield as the water salinity increased, depreciative symptoms for quality of hydroponic lettuce were not registered.

  8. Duckweed Lemna minor (Liliopsida, Lemnaceae as a natural biofilter in brackish and fresh closed recirculating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat S. Nashashibi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to assess the potential use of common duckweed Lemna minor asnatural biofilter in brackish closed recirculating systems of 4 g/L salinity and to evaluate the effect ofsalinities in the ranges of 1-7 g L-1 on the duckweed’s ammonium NH4 +1uptake. Furthermore thepossibility of nitrification as a second mechanism of nitrogen removal in closed recirculating systems wasinvestigated. Three closed recirculating systems each having 20 mixed Oreochromis niloticus were used.Duckweed L. minor and fresh water were added in system 1, fresh water only in system 2, and duckweedwith brackish water in system 3. Ammonium NH4 +1and nitrate NO3-1 were tested periodically in eachsystem during a 1.5 month period. Another three experiments were run in parallel using aquariumsincubated with 60.00 g fresh weight L. minor at salinities in the ranges of 1-7 g L-1 for two weeks.Aquariums were exposed directly to sunlight in experiment 1 and 3, and were placed in the dark inexperiment 2. The nitrogen source in experiment 1 and 2 was 100 mg L-1 of NH4Cl, and 280 mg L-1 ofNH4Cl in experiment 3. NH4 +1and NO3-1 levels were monitored as above. L. minor managed to reduce theaverage NH4 +1levels to 0.5 mg L-1, 0.43 mg L-1below the standard recommended levels in both brackishand fresh water systems, respectively. Ammonium NH4 +1 uptake was coupled with nitrate NO3-1 uptakeunder favorable conditions of sunlight. Salinity in the ranges from 1-7 g L-1 enhanced ammonium NH4 +1uptake (r = 0.8819, p = 0.023 without affecting nitrate NO3-1 uptake or any observed mortality of theduckweed. Nitrification was a second mechanism of nitrogen removal in a closed recirculating system,but it was affected by salinity and light. Average ammonium NH4 +1of 51.8 mg L-1 was toxic to L. minorand death was observed within a week in experiment 3. The duckweed L. minor was an efficient naturalbiofilter in both brackish and fresh water closed recirculating systems.

  9. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2015-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two re...

  10. Influence of Salinity on Duckweed Growth and Duckweed Based Wastewater Treatment System

    OpenAIRE

    Sena Peace Hounkpe Wendeou; Martin Pepin Aina; Martin Crapper; Edmond Adjovi; Daouda Mama

    2013-01-01

    The growth of duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was investigated in an outdoor batch system under 15 different conductivities ranging from 200 ?S/cm to 3000 ?S/cm with average 110 ?mol/m2 daylight intensity. The growth was performed in an anaerobically treated domestic wastewater using an initial plants population of 50 fronds. Increase in Relative Growth Rate—RGR—(in terms of fresh weight and number of fronds) had a significant non-linear (polynomial) relationship with the conductivity. T...

  11. Lettuce contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus E

    2015-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its varieties are important vegetable crops worldwide. They are also well-known, rarely reported, causes of contact allergy. As lettuce allergens and extracts are not commercially available, the allergy may be underdiagnosed. The aims of this article are to present new data on lettuce contact allergy and review the literature. Lettuce is weakly allergenic, and occupational cases are mainly reported. Using aimed patch testing in Compositae-allergic patients, two recent Danish studies showed prevalence rates of positive lettuce reactions of 11% and 22%. The majority of cases are non-occupational, and may partly be caused by cross-reactivity. The sesquiterpene lactone mix seems to be a poor screening agent for lettuce contact allergy, as the prevalence of positive reactions is significantly higher in non-occupationally sensitized patients. Because of the easy degradability of lettuce allergens, it is recommended to patch test with freshly cut lettuce stem and supplement this with Compositae mix. As contact urticaria and protein contact dermatitis may present as dermatitis, it is important to perform prick-prick tests, and possibly scratch patch tests as well. Any person who is occupationally exposed to lettuce for longer periods, especially atopics, amateur gardeners, and persons keeping lettuce-eating pets, is potentially at risk of developing lettuce contact allergy.

  12. Role of Cellulose and Colanic Acid in Attachment of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli to Lettuce and Spinach in Different Water Hardness Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ching; Chen, Jinru; Frank, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the role of extracellular cellulose production by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) on attachment to lettuce and spinach in different water hardness environments. Two cellulose-producing wild-type STEC strains, 19 (O5:H-) and 49 (O103:H2), and their cellulose-deficient derivatives were used. Strain 49 also produced colanic acid as a constituent of its extracellular polymeric substances. Attached cells were determined by plate counts on the surface and cut edge of the leaves after an attachment period of 2 h at 4°C. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of the cells were determined. Strain 49 attached at levels 0.3 and 0.6 log greater to the surface and 0.9 and 0.4 log greater to the cut edges of spinach compared to strain 19 for both wild-type and cellulose-deficient cells (P > 0.05). Cellulose-producing cells attached more to the surface of lettuce but not of spinach than did cellulose-deficient cells. However, more cellulose-deficient cells attached (at levels 0.66 and 0.3 log greater) to the cut edge of lettuce (representing damaged tissue) than did cellulose-proficient cells (P > 0.05). Colanic acid production was associated with cell surfaces of low hydrophobicity. There was a decreasing level of attachment for the colanic acid-producing strain when water hardness increased from 200 to 1,000 pm on lettuce and spinach leaf surfaces, but no effects were seen for other cells. This decreased attachment was associated with a more negative surface charge. Cells that produced colanic acid were less hydrophobic and exhibited greater attachment to the surface and cut edge of spinach when compared to cells that did not produce colanic acid. Attachment of colanic acid-producing cells to leafy green surfaces was enhanced in higher water hardness environments. These data indicate that attachment of E. coli O157:H7 to leafy greens involves multiple mechanisms that are influenced by the type of leafy green, damage to the leaf, and the water hardness environment. PMID:26219358

  13. Effect of grape seed extract on human norovirus GII.4 and murine norovirus 1 in viral suspensions, on stainless steel discs, and in lettuce wash water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Baert, Leen; Zhang, Dongsheng; Xia, Ming; Zhong, Weiming; Van Coillie, Els; Jiang, Xi; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-11-01

    The anti-norovirus (anti-NoV) effect of grape seed extract (GSE) was examined by plaque assay for murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), cell-binding reverse transcription-PCR for human NoV GII.4, and saliva-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human NoV GII.4 P particles, with or without the presence of interfering substances (dried milk and lettuce extract). GSE at 0.2 and 2 mg/ml was shown to reduce the infectivity of MNV-1 (>3-log PFU/ml) and the specific binding ability of NoV GII.4 to Caco-2 cells (>1-log genomic copies/ml), as well as of its P particles to salivary human histo-blood group antigen receptors (optical density at 450 nm of >0.8). These effects were decreased as increasing concentrations of dried milk (0.02 and 0.2%) or lettuce extract were added. Under an electron microscope, human NoV GII.4 virus-like particles showed inflation and deformation after treatment with GSE. Under conditions that simulated applications in the food industry, the anti-NoV effect of GSE using MNV-1 as a target organism was shown to be limited in surface disinfection (13697:2001). However, a 1.5- to 2-log PFU/ml reduction in MNV-1 infectivity was noted when 2 mg of GSE/ml was used to sanitize water in the washing bath of fresh-cut lettuce, and this occurred regardless of the chemical oxygen demand (0 to 1,500 mg/ml) of the processing water. PMID:22904060

  14. Distribution of carbofuran in a simulated fish/duckweed aquatic ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution, disappearance and residue of carbofuran labelled with 14C in a simulated fish/duckweed aquatic ecosystem have been studied. The results show that the carbofuran content in water decreases with time because of being absorbed by sludge of riverbed, eaten by fish and hydrolysis. The residual carbofuran in fish tissues is higher than that in water because of enrichment. There is much difference among carbofuran contents in various fish tissues, and the order in each tissue is found to be viscera>bone>muscle>gill>skin

  15. Combinação de águas doce e salobra para produção de alface hidropônica / Combination of fresh and brackish waters for hydroponic lettuce production

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tales M., Soares; Sergio N., Duarte; Ênio F. F., Silva; Cristiano A., Jorge.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface crespa cv. Verônica foram cultivadas em condição hidropônica objetivando-se avaliar dois tipos de emprego combinado de águas doce e salobras, quais sejam: usar as águas salobras para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN) e a água doce para repor a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc) (Ex [...] perimento I) e usar a água doce para preparar a SN e as salobras para a reposição da ETc (Experimento II). Uma estrutura de pesquisa com 40 parcelas que simulam a técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT) foi construída. Os níveis de salinidade da água testados foram: 0,585; 1,17; 1,755; 2,925 e 4,095 g L-1 de NaCl. A salinidade diminuiu a produtividade da alface (massa de matéria fresca da parte aérea) em 10,9 e 3,91% para cada acréscimo unitário na salinidade da água (g L-1 de NaCl), considerando-se os Experimentos I e II, respectivamente. De acordo com os resultados obtidos com os dois tipos de combinação de águas doce e salobras, o uso de águas salobras para repor a ETc pode aumentar a produtividade da alface em comparação com o uso dessas águas para preparar a SN. Abstract in english Plants of crisphead lettuce cv. Verônica were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate two types of combination of brackish and fresh waters: using the brackish waters to prepare nutrient solution (NS) and fresh water to replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc) (Experiment I) and using [...] the fresh water to prepare NS and the brackish waters to replace the ETc loss (Experiment II). A research structure was built up with 40 experimental units which simulated the nutrient film technique (NFT). The levels of water salinity were 0.585; 1.17; 1.755; 2.925 and 4.095 g L-1 NaCl. The lettuce yield (fresh shoot matter) decreased 10.9 and 3.91% for each unit increase in water salinity (g L-1 NaCl) in Experiments I and II, respectively. According to results obtained with the two types of combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish waters to replace ETc loss may increase the lettuce yield in comparison to using these waters to prepare the NS.

  16. Mutations in Lettuce Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Beiquan Mou

    2011-01-01

    Lettuce is a major vegetable in western countries. Mutations generated genetic variations and played an important role in the domestication of the crop. Many traits derived from natural and induced mutations, such as dwarfing, early flowering, male sterility, and chlorophyll deficiency, are useful in physiological and genetic studies. Mutants were also used to develop new lettuce products including miniature and herbicide-tolerant cultivars. Mutant analysis was critical in lettuce genomic stu...

  17. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanoun-Boule, Myriam [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)], E-mail: mkb@ci.uc.pt; Vicente, Joaquim A.F.; Nabais, Cristina [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal); Prasad, M.N.V. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Freitas, Helena [Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Botany, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456 (Portugal)

    2009-01-18

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 {mu}M) to the highest (100 {mu}M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r{sup 2} = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r{sup 2} = 0.999 and r{sup 2} = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 {mu}M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 {mu}M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 {mu}M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 {mu}M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 {mu}M-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing concentrations of Cu, with a very similar trend between the three populations of duckweed. However, due to the facts that enzyme activity is expressed as units of activity per gram of protein and that protein content decreased with Cu exposure, the increase in SOD activity might partly result from a relative increase of this enzyme inside the pool of proteins. Consequently, the results obtained in our experimental conditions strongly suggest that duckweed species from the uranium-polluted area have developed mechanisms to cope with metal toxicity and that this tolerance is based on the existence of protective mechanism to limit the metal uptake rather than on an enhancement of the antioxidative metabolism.

  18. Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although essential for plants, copper can be toxic when present in supra-optimal concentrations. Metal polluted sites, due to their extreme conditions, can harbour tolerant species and/or ecotypes. In this work we aimed to compare the physiological responses to copper exposure and the uptake capacities of two species of duckweed, Lemna minor (Lm(EC1)) and Spirodela polyrrhiza (SP), from an abandoned uranium mine with an ecotype of L. minor (Lm(EC2)) from a non-contaminated pond. From the lowest Cu concentration exposure (25 ?M) to the highest (100 ?M), Lm(EC2) accumulated higher amounts of copper than Lm(EC1) and SP. Dose-response curves showed that Cu content accumulated by Lm(EC2) increases linearly with Cu treatment concentrations (r2 = 0.998) whereas quadratic models were more suitable for Lm(EC1) and SP (r2 = 0.999 and r2 = 0.998 for Lm(EC1) and SP, respectively). A significant concentration-dependent decline of chlorophyll a (chl a) and carotenoid occurred as a consequence of Cu exposure. These declines were significant for Lm(EC2) exposed to the lowest Cu concentration (25 ?M) whereas for Lm(EC1) and SP a significant decrease in chl a and carotenoids was observed only at 50 and 100 ?M-Cu. Electric conductivity (EC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased after Cu exposure, indicating oxidative stress. Significant increase of EC was observed in Lm(EC2) for all Cu concentrations whereas the increase for Lm(EC1) and SP became significant only after an exposure to 50 ?M-Cu. On the contrary, for Lm(EC1), SP, and Lm(EC2), MDA content significantly increased even at the lowest concentration. Protein content and catalase (CAT) activity showed a decrease with an increase in Cu concentration. For the species Lm(EC1) and SP, a significant effect of copper on CAT activity was observed only at the highest concentration (100 ?M-Cu) whereas, for Lm(EC2), this effect started to be significant after an exposure to 50 ?M-Cu. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased with increasing concentrations of Cu, with a very similar trend between the three populations of duckweed. However, due to the facts that enzyme activity is expressed as units of activity per gram of protein and that protein content decreased with Cu exposure, the increase in SOD activity might partly result from a relative increase of this enzyme inside the pool of proteins. Consequently, the results obtained in our experimental conditions strongly suggest that duckweed species from the uranium-polluted area have developed mechanisms to cope with metal toxicity and that this tolerance is based on the existence of protective mechanism to limit the metal uptake rather than on an enhancement of the antioxidative metabolism

  19. Effect of dim light irradiation on preservation of fresh lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to preserve fresh lettuce, the dim light irradiation storage was investigated. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) stored for about 120 hours at 5 or 20 deg C under continuous illumination at 0 (darkness), 1.6, 3.4, 6.5, 13 or 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 photosynthetic photon flux. The light compensation point was about 3.4 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 5 deg C, about 19.7 micro mol/m**-2/s**-1 at 20 deg C. Fresh weight of lettuce decreased by promotion of transpiration caused by the dim light. Accordingly the root of lettuce should not be removed, so as to up-take water. The optimum dim light irradiation preserved the chlorophyll content in lettuce leaf or increased it. Therefore it appeared that the dim light irradiation was effective for the fresh lettuce preservation

  20. Microbiological quality and safety assessment of lettuce production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuppens, Siele; Hessel, Claudia Titze; de Quadros Rodrigues, Rochele; Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo César; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality and safety of lettuce during primary production in Brazil were determined by enumeration of hygiene indicators Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci and detection of enteric pathogens Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, lettuce crops, harvest boxes and worker's hands taken from six different lettuce farms throughout the crop growth cycle. Generic E. coli was a suitable indicator for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, while coliforms and enterococci were not. Few pathogens were detected: 5 salmonellae and 2 E. coli O157:H7 from 260 samples, of which only one was lettuce and the others were manure, soil and water. Most (5/7) pathogens were isolated from the same farm and all were from organic production. Statistical analysis revealed the following environmental and agro-technical risk factors for increased microbial load and pathogen prevalence in lettuce production: high temperature, flooding of lettuce fields, application of contaminated organic fertilizer, irrigation with water of inferior quality and large distances between the field and toilets. Control of the composting process of organic fertilizers and the irrigation water quality appear most crucial to improve and/or maintain the microbiological quality and safety during the primary production of lettuce. PMID:24829142

  1. NITRATE AND SODIUM CONTAMINATION IN PERCOLATED WATER AND LEAF TISSUE IN LETTUCE CROP IRRIGATED WITH DOMESTIC SEWAGE WATER = CONTAMINAÇÃO POR NITRATO E SÓDIO DA ÁGUA PERCOLADA E DA PLANTA DE ALFACE IRRIGADA COM ÁGUA RESIDUÁRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antonio Galbiatti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of characterizing and simulating the contamination of the percolated water in the soil, were analyzed lettuce crops fertilized with organic and mineral compounds and irrigated along furrows with residual water contaminated by total and fecal coliforms that originated from the dilution of domestic sewers with treated water. The experiment was conducted using thirty 500L amianthus boxes with a surface area of 1 m2 per box filled with sifted soil with a bottom layer of broken stones, 10cm thick. Three lettuce crops were used. The incorporation of organic and mineral fertilizers occurred during the first and third crops. Four irrigation furrows were used, which resulted in five rows of planted lettuce. Collectors of percolated water were made using ½ inch plastic tubes, sawed length-wise and covered with a sieve, and were installed at depths of 15 and 30 cm. A water collector was placed at 60cm depth of at the bottom of the boxes, and remained closed except for when collecting the two water samples taken during each crop cycle: 15 days after plantingthe lettuce seedlings and right before harvesting the lettuce. Chemical, physical and bacteriological analyses of the water collected at depth were carried out. The average concentration of nitrate and sodium in the three crops is indicative that feathers ofcontamination move slowly at depth in agricultural soils and in areas of organic and inorganic residue deposition. The microbial analyses of the water collected from the lower layer at a depth of 60 cm did not show contamination from fecal coliforms. = O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Centro de Estudos Ambientais/UNESP (CEA, em ambiente protegido, com o objetivo de se estudar os efeitos da fertilizaçãoorgânica, da fertilização mineral e da irrigação por sulcos, com água tratada e servida, em cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L., observando-se a presença de nitrato (NO3- e sódio (Na+ no tecido foliar e bactérias coliformes totais (CT e coliformes fecais (CFna água percolada. As parcelas experimentais distribuídas em um delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, constituíram-se de 30 caixas de amianto com volume de 500 L e área superficial de 1 m2 , preenchidas com solo previamente peneirado. Os tratamentos caracterizaram-se pela associação entre fertilizantes e água contaminada e tratada. Três cultivos de alface foram realizados. Coletores de água foram instalados a 15, 30 e 60 cm de profundidade. Duas coletas de água foram realizadas em cada cultivo, 15 dias após o transplante e uma na colheita, para verificar a presença de NO3-, Na+, CT e CF. Ao término de cada cultivo realizaram-se amostragens de tecido vegetal das folhas para análises químicas. As concentrações médias de NO3- e Na+ na solução percolada foram indicadoras de que plumas de contaminação avançaram lentamente em profundidade nos solos estudados. As análises de CF da água realizadas a 60 cm de profundidade não apresentaram contaminação. O tratamento fertilizado com cama de frango apresentou os maiores valores de NO3-.

  2. Integrated analysis for a carbon- and water-constrained future: an assessment of drip irrigation in a lettuce production system in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraseni, T N; Mushtaq, S; Reardon-Smith, K

    2012-11-30

    The Australian Government is meeting the challenge of water scarcity and climate change through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to increase water use efficiency and productivity, and secure longer term water supplies. However, it is likely that on-farm infrastructure investment will alter energy consumption and therefore generate considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. In particular, the introduction of a price on carbon may influence the extent to which new irrigation technologies are adopted. This study evaluated trade-offs between water savings, GHG emissions and economic gain associated with the conversion of a sprinkler (hand shift) irrigation system to a drip (trickle) irrigation system for a lettuce production system in the Lockyer Valley, one of the major vegetable producing regions in Australia. Surprisingly, instead of trade-offs, this study found positive synergies - a win-win situation. The conversion of the old hand-shift sprinkler irrigation system to a drip irrigation system resulted in significant water savings of almost 2 ML/ha, as well as an overall reduction in GHG emissions. Economic modelling, at a carbon price of $ 30/t CO(2)e, indicated that there was a net benefit of adoption of the drip irrigation system of about $ 4620/ML/year. We suggest priority should be given, in the implementation of on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing older inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand shift and roll-line. The findings of the study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia. PMID:22935628

  3. Chemical characterisation and analysis of the cell wall polysaccharides of duckweed (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Moates, G K; Wellner, N; Collins, S R A; Coleman, M J; Waldron, K W

    2014-10-13

    Duckweed is potentially an ideal biofuel feedstock due to its high proportion of cellulose and starch and low lignin content. However, there is little detailed information on the composition and structure of duckweed cell walls relevant to optimising the conversion of duckweed biomass to ethanol and other biorefinery products. This study reports that, for the variety and batch evaluated, carbohydrates constitute 51.2% (w/w) of dry matter while starch accounts for 19.9%. This study, for the first time, analyses duckweed cell wall composition through a detailed sequential extraction. The cell wall is rich in cellulose and also contains 20.3% pectin comprising galacturonan, xylogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan; 3.5% hemicellulose comprising xyloglucan and xylan, and 0.03% phenolics. In addition, essential fatty acids (0.6%, ?-linolenic and linoleic/linoelaidic acid) and p-coumaric acid (0.015%) respectively are the most abundant fatty acids and phenolics in whole duckweed. PMID:25037369

  4. Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; BESHARAT, Mahsa; JABBARI, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Wild lettuce (Lactuca virosa) can cause toxic effects when eaten. Wild lettuce grows in the north of Iran and some natives consume it unaware of its adverse side effects. We describe eight patients with manifestations of wild lettuce toxicity, admitted to a general hospital affiliated to the Golestan University of Medical Sciences. All the patients recovered (although one had to spend 48 h in the intensive care unit) and no chronic complications were reported. A clinical suspicion of toxicity...

  5. Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia / Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Glauco E. P., Cortez; Jairo A. C. de, Araújo; Paulo A., Bellingieri; Alexandre B., Dalri.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de mane [...] ira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remoção dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas. Abstract in english Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through th [...] e fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of the majority of the mineral nutrients necessary for vegetable development. Their concentration was close to that found in nutrient solutions, used for lettuce hydroponic cultivation, except for potassium and magnesium. The low concentration of magnesium in the water did not prevent lettuce development, although the plants presented visual symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient. Differences were not found between the varieties produced, regarding productivity and the mean weight of fresh plants.

  6. Qualidade química da água residual da criação de peixes para cultivo de alface em hidroponia Chemical quality of residual water from fish breeding tanks for cultivation of hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco E. P. Cortez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a associação do cultivo de alface em hidroponia com utilização dos resíduos do sistema de criação intensiva de peixe, desenvolveu-se um trabalho no Centro de Aqüicultura, na FCAV-UNESP, Campus de Jaboticabal, SP. A integração foi projetada para que a água circulasse de maneira fechada entre os sistemas, passando pelos tanques de criação de peixes, por um decantador, para remo??ão dos resíduos por um reservatório para conversão biológica da amônia em nitrato e pelo sistema hidropônico, retornando aos tanques de criação dos peixes. Foram avaliadas três cultivares de alface, que constituíram os tratamentos com quatro repetições. Os resultados da análise química da água residual da criação indicaram a presença da maioria dos nutrientes minerais necessários ao desenvolvimento vegetal, em concentração próxima aos valores encontrados em soluções nutritivas utilizadas para o cultivo da alface em hidroponia, exceto potássio e magnésio. A baixa concentração de magnésio na água não impediu o desenvolvimento da alface; entretanto, as plantas indicaram sintomas visuais de deficiência deste nutriente. Não houve diferenças entre as cultivares quanto à produtividade e ao peso fresco de plantas.Aiming to evaluate the association of hydroponic lettuce cultivation with residues from a fish intensive breeding system, a project was carried out in the Aquaculture Center in the FCAV-UNESP at Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. A closed system was designed in order to allow the water to circulate through the fish tanks, a clarifier tank for removal of residues, a reservoir for biological conversion of ammonia into nitrate, and the hydroponic system. After this process, water returned back to the fish tanks. Three varieties of lettuce, constituting the treatments with four repetitions were evaluated. The results of the chemical analysis of the residual water from the fish tanks indicated the presence of the majority of the mineral nutrients necessary for vegetable development. Their concentration was close to that found in nutrient solutions, used for lettuce hydroponic cultivation, except for potassium and magnesium. The low concentration of magnesium in the water did not prevent lettuce development, although the plants presented visual symptoms of deficiency of this nutrient. Differences were not found between the varieties produced, regarding productivity and the mean weight of fresh plants.

  7. Produção e indicadores fisiológicos de alface sob hidroponia com água salina Production and physiologic indicators of lettuce grown in hydroponics with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na produção de hortaliças constitui no momento atividade essencial, tendo em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce, tanto pela atividade agrícola quanto pelo abastecimento urbano e industrial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção e os indicadores fisiológicos de alface cultivada em hidroponia com a utilização de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, em Piracicaba-SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl [Condutividade elétrica (Cea: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1] em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram determinadas massa fresca e seca de folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea; teor de nitrato, prolina e clorofila. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu linearmente as massas fresca e seca das folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea. As massas fresca e seca foram 36% e 57% superiores na cultivar Verônica, respectivamente. A cultivar Pira Roxa apresentou maior teor de nitrato 25% (3008 mg L-1, clorofila total 50% (1,46 mg g-1massa fresca e prolina, 71,43% (0,21 µM g-1massa fresca-1 em relação à Verônica, o que pode ser um mecanismo de adaptação daquela cultivar ao estresse salino. Com relação à produtividade comercial, obteve-se uma perda de 69 e 64% para as cultivares Pira Roxa e Verônica, quando se utilizou água mais salina (7,43 dS m-1. Em relação à produção de massa seca, a perda pelo uso dessa água foi de 53% e 44%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo hidropônico podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças para produtores que têm disponibilidade de água salina e restrita disponibilidade de água doce, embora com redução na produtividade.The use of saline water in the production of vegetables constitutes at the moment an essential activity, facing the rising demand of fresh water, as for the agricultural activity as for the urban and industrial supplying. This study aimed to evaluate production and physiologic indicators of lettuce in hydroponic system with the use of saline waters. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the period from December 2007 to January 2008, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme - five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl, which resulted in different water electrical conductivity levels (dS m-1: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55, 7,43 - and two cultivars of lettuce - Veronica and Pira Roxa. It was determined the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot and the content of nitrate, proline and chlorophyll. The increase of water salinity reduced lineally the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot. The cv Verônica produced 36% and 57% more shoot fresh and dry mass, respectively, than Pira Roxa. The cv. Pira Roxa accumulated 25% more nitrate (3008 mg L-1, presented 50% more total chlorophyll (1,46 mg g-1fresh mass and 71,43% more proline (0,21 µM g fresh mass- 1 than the cv Verônica, showing a mechanism of avoiding salinity stress. Cultivars Pira Roxa and Veronica presented loss of 69% and 64% of commercial productivity, respectively, when the most saline water (7,43 dS m-1 was used. In the other hand dry matter was reduced in 53% and 44%, respectively, for cv. Pira Roxa and Verônica in the most saline water. The results obtained in this study can indicate the possibility of using saline water as an alternative for the production of vegetables, specially for growers that have saline water available but restricted fresh water, even with reduction of productivity.

  8. Produção e indicadores fisiológicos de alface sob hidroponia com água salina / Production and physiologic indicators of lettuce grown in hydroponics with saline water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dalva, Paulus; Durval, Dourado Neto; José Antônio, Frizzone; Tales M, Soares.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso de água salina na produção de hortaliças constitui no momento atividade essencial, tendo em vista o aumento da demanda de água doce, tanto pela atividade agrícola quanto pelo abastecimento urbano e industrial. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a produção e os indicadores fisiológicos de alfac [...] e cultivada em hidroponia com a utilização de água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido, em Piracicaba-SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados os efeitos de cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl [Condutividade elétrica (Cea): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1] em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa), em esquema fatorial. Foram determinadas massa fresca e seca de folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea; teor de nitrato, prolina e clorofila. O aumento da salinidade da água reduziu linearmente as massas fresca e seca das folhas, caule, raízes e da parte aérea. As massas fresca e seca foram 36% e 57% superiores na cultivar Verônica, respectivamente. A cultivar Pira Roxa apresentou maior teor de nitrato 25% (3008 mg L-1), clorofila total 50% (1,46 mg g-1massa fresca) e prolina, 71,43% (0,21 µM g-1massa fresca-1) em relação à Verônica, o que pode ser um mecanismo de adaptação daquela cultivar ao estresse salino. Com relação à produtividade comercial, obteve-se uma perda de 69 e 64% para as cultivares Pira Roxa e Verônica, quando se utilizou água mais salina (7,43 dS m-1). Em relação à produção de massa seca, a perda pelo uso dessa água foi de 53% e 44%, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos em sistema de cultivo hidropônico podem indicar a possibilidade do uso da água salina como alternativa para produção de hortaliças para produtores que têm disponibilidade de água salina e restrita disponibilidade de água doce, embora com redução na produtividade. Abstract in english The use of saline water in the production of vegetables constitutes at the moment an essential activity, facing the rising demand of fresh water, as for the agricultural activity as for the urban and industrial supplying. This study aimed to evaluate production and physiologic indicators of lettuce [...] in hydroponic system with the use of saline waters. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in the period from December 2007 to January 2008, in Piracicaba, Brazil. The experimental design was randomized blocks in factorial scheme - five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl, which resulted in different water electrical conductivity levels (dS m-1): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55, 7,43 - and two cultivars of lettuce - Veronica and Pira Roxa. It was determined the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot and the content of nitrate, proline and chlorophyll. The increase of water salinity reduced lineally the fresh and dry mass of leaves, stem, roots and shoot. The cv Verônica produced 36% and 57% more shoot fresh and dry mass, respectively, than Pira Roxa. The cv. Pira Roxa accumulated 25% more nitrate (3008 mg L-1), presented 50% more total chlorophyll (1,46 mg g-1fresh mass) and 71,43% more proline (0,21 µM g fresh mass- 1) than the cv Verônica, showing a mechanism of avoiding salinity stress. Cultivars Pira Roxa and Veronica presented loss of 69% and 64% of commercial productivity, respectively, when the most saline water (7,43 dS m-1) was used. In the other hand dry matter was reduced in 53% and 44%, respectively, for cv. Pira Roxa and Verônica in the most saline water. The results obtained in this study can indicate the possibility of using saline water as an alternative for the production of vegetables, specially for growers that have saline water available but restricted fresh water, even with reduction of productivity.

  9. Efficacy of chlorine concentration and acidic electrolyzed water in decontaminating lettuce leaves artificially inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of lettuce has been linked to outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Reduction of this risk requires the development of effective and an easily implemented decontamination process. The purpose of this study was to compare the eff...

  10. Microflora of partially processed lettuce.

    OpenAIRE

    Magnuson, J A; King, A. D.; Török, T.

    1990-01-01

    Bacteria, yeasts, and molds isolated from partially processed iceberg lettuce were taxonomically classified. The majority of bacterial isolates were gram-negative rods. Pseudomonas, Erwinia, and Serratia species were commonly found. Yeasts most frequently isolated from lettuce included members of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Pichia, Torulaspora, and Trichosporon. Comparatively few molds were isolated; members of the genera Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Phoma, Aspergillus, and Penicillium were ...

  11. Toxicity and genotoxicity of water and sediment from streams on dotted duckweed (Landoltia punctata) / Toxicidade e genotoxicidade da água e sedimentos dos córregos em lentilha d'água (Landoltia punctata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Factori; SM, Leles; GC, Novakowski; CLSC, Rocha; SM, Thomaz.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Muitos rios são utilizados como fonte de abastecimento de cidades inteiras e a qualidade de suas águas está relacionada diretamente à qualidade de seus afluentes. Infelizmente córregos têm sua importância negligenciada pelo homem sendo alvo [...] de despejos domésticos e industriais e também do carreamento de nutrientes e pesticidas das áreas rurais. Diante da complexidade das misturas que atingem estes corpos d'água, o presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a qualidade da água e do sedimento de dez afluentes do rio Pirapó no município de Maringá, Estado do Paraná. Utilizou-se a macrófita aquática flutuante Landoltia punctata (G. Meyer) Les & D.J.Crawford como organismo teste em microcosmos, sendo que a toxicidade das amostras de água e sedimento foi avaliada pela taxa de crescimento relativo, pelo índice de biomassa seca por fresca, e pelos efeitos genotóxicos (ensaio de cometa). Amostras de água e sedimento de cada córrego foram dispostos em microcosmos com L. punctata. Após 7 dias as plantas foram coletadas para as análises. Os níveis de nutrientes foram maiores que o do local de referência indicando eutrofização; porém, os resultados indicaram efeito tóxico em apenas três dos córregos e genotóxico em todos os córregos. Abstract in english Most rivers are used as a source to supply entire cities; the quality of water is directly related to the quality of tributaries. Unfortunately men have neglected the importance of streams, which receive domestic and industrial effluents an [...] d transport nutrients and pesticides from rural areas. Given the complexity of the mixtures discharged into these water bodies, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of water and sediment of ten tributaries of Pirapó River, in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil. To this end, the free-floating macrophyte Landoltia punctata (G. Meyer) Les & D.J.Crawford was used as test organism in microcosm, and the toxicity of water and sediment samples was evaluated by the relative growth rate, dry/fresh biomass ratio, and genotoxic effects (comet assay). Samples of water and sediment of each stream were arranged in microcosms with L. punctata. Seven days later, plants were collected for analysis. Nutrient levels were higher than the reference location, indicating eutrophication, but the results indicated a toxic effect for only three streams, and a genotoxic effect for all streams.

  12. Feeding Diets Containing Different Forms of Duckweed on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Indarsih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was undertaken to study the feeding effect of diets containing different forms of duckweed for local ducks on their productive performance and egg quality or egg yolk pigmentation. A total of 90 birds of 24 wk old ducks were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 2.0 x 1.0 m2 of cages. The experiment was assigned in a completely randomized design (3 treatments with 6 replicates, 5 birds each. There were 3 dietary treatments, namely P1= ducks fed a complete diet containing 20 % of dried duckweed and given in the form of dry-mash; P2= a complete diet in P1 but it was offered in wet form (slurry; and P3= ducks were offered basal diet in the form of dry-mash and fresh duckweed was offered separately ad libitum. Diets were formulated to have similar nutritional contents. Feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, and egg yolk pigmentation were measured. The result of the study showed that these three parameters were affected by the feeding different forms of duckweed. Feeding diet with fresh duckweed brought about the best pigmentation than did the dry one. Fresh duckweed offers a promise as a potential feedstuff for ducks and has a good implication in reducing feed processing cost.

  13. Properties of soil and hydroponicaly grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Mlakar, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to examine the quality of the lettuce Lactuca sativa L., which was grown with two methods. Hydroponically grown lettuce was compared with lettuce grown in soil. The purpose of this research was to find out with which method the lettuce would look better and with which method the quality of the lettuce`s nutritiousness would be higher. We ascertained that plants grown with hydroponics did look better and were heavier. About quality results showed that the contents of ...

  14. Growth and photosynthesis of lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Holsteijn, H.M.C., van

    1981-01-01

    Butterhead lettuce is an important glass-house crop in the poor light period in The Netherlands. Fundamental data about the influence of temperature, light and CO 2 on growth and photosynthesis are important e.g. to facilitate selection criteria for new cultivars. In this study on lettuce emphasis has been given to light interception in the poor light period, the relationship of growth rate and relative growth rate with time, dry weight and soil cover, and to photosynthesis properties of the ...

  15. Evaluación de tratamientos para disminuir cadmio en lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.) regada con agua del río Bogotá / Evaluation of treatments to reduce cadmium concentration in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) irrigated with water from the Bogota River

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JULIANA, RUIZ.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Las aguas del río Bogotá presentan altos niveles de contaminación, incluyendo metales pesados, y sus aguas son utilizadas para el riego de importantes extensiones agrícolas. El presente estudio se realizó en el Centro Agropecuario Marengo (Mosquera, Cundinamarca) y su objetivo fue evaluar tratamient [...] os sencillos para disminuir la acumulación de cadmio en lechuga. Los tratamientos fueron: (1) crecimiento selectivo de arvenses en las parcelas; (2) aplicación de CaCO3 antes de trasplante; (3) incorporación de compost antes de trasplante, y (4) control. Se aplicó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones. Se realizaron mediciones de cadmio en agua, suelo y lechuga. Se tomaron medidas de crecimiento de la lechuga, y se midió el pH y la conductividad eléctrica del suelo. Se encontraron altas concentraciones iniciales de cadmio en suelo (3,97 mg kg-1). Estas concentraciones bajaron significativamente a los 46 días después del trasplante en el tratamiento con arvenses (3,38 mg kg-1). El tratamiento con compost disminuyó significativamente la concentración de cadmio en lechuga (0,26 mg kg-1) respecto a los otros tratamientos (0,45–0,60 mg kg-1) y en corto tiempo aumentó significativamente el peso fresco de las lechugas respecto a los demás tratamientos sin fertilizar; no se encontró relación de esta disminución con el aumento del pH. Abstract in english The water of the Bogota River has high levels of contamination including heavy metals and its waters are used to irrigate crops in important areas. The present study was conducted in the Marengo Agricultural Center (Mosquera, Cundinamarca) and its objective was to evaluate easy treatments to reduce [...] cadmium accumulation in lettuce. The treatments used were: (1) Selective weed growth in the plots, (2) CaCO3 application before plant transplanting, (3) Compost application before plant transplanting and (4) the Control. This study was performed with a randomized complete block design with three repetitions. Amounts of cadmium in the water, soil and lettuce were measured. Measurements of plant growth, pH and electrical conductivity of the soil were also taken. The results showed high initial concentrations of cadmium in the soil (3.97 mg kg-1). These concentrations were found to be significantly lower 46 days after transplanting in the weed treatment (3.38 mg kg-1). The compost treatment significantly lowered the concentration of cadmium in lettuce compared to the other treatments and quickly, significantly increased fresh weight compared to the other treatments without fertilizer; no relationship between the decrease of cadmium and increased pH was found.

  16. Biology and Genetics of Lettuce Dieback Disease and Lettuce Necrotic Stunt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce dieback, a new soil-borne disease of lettuce, emerged in the 1990s to cause severe losses for lettuce production in the western United States. The disease is caused by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the recently described tombusvirus, Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). The complete ge...

  17. Effect of Grape Seed Extract on Human Norovirus GII.4 and Murine Norovirus 1 in Viral Suspensions, on Stainless Steel Discs, and in Lettuce Wash Water

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dan; Baert, Leen; ZHANG, DONGSHENG; Xia, Ming; ZHONG, WEIMING; Van Coillie, Els; Jiang, Xi; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    The anti-norovirus (anti-NoV) effect of grape seed extract (GSE) was examined by plaque assay for murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), cell-binding reverse transcription-PCR for human NoV GII.4, and saliva-binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for human NoV GII.4 P particles, with or without the presence of interfering substances (dried milk and lettuce extract). GSE at 0.2 and 2 mg/ml was shown to reduce the infectivity of MNV-1 (>3-log PFU/ml) and the specific binding ability of NoV GII.4 to Cac...

  18. Gaseous nitrogen losses during glasshouse cultivation of lettuce on a sandbed

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, R.; Oenema, O.; Bussink, D.W.; M. Heinen; Moolenbroek, J., van

    1994-01-01

    Ammonia volatilization, denitrification and nitrous oxide emission from lettuce grown on a sandbed were measured. Nutrients and water were supplied by recirculated drip irrigation. Ammonia volatilization, and nitrous oxide emission, determined with f

  19. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur B Cecílio Filho; Bráulio L.A. Rezende; José C Barbosa; Leilson C Grangeiro

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT) tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The ...

  20. Replacement of Sesame Oil Cake by Duckweed (Lemna minor in Broiler Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.U. Ahammad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with 120, seven-day old Vencobb commercial broiler chick feeding ad libitum upto 42 days of age on 4 different iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diet formulated by replacing dietary sesame oil cake (SOC by duckweed (DW to have its effect on performance of broilers. Live weight, feed conversion and profitability increased when sesame oil cake was partially replaced by duck weed. Complete SOC replaced diet significantly reduced live weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and profitability, as compared with partial replacement of SOC by duckweed and SOC based control diet. Partial replacement of SOC by DW did not affect survivability of broiler. So it might be concluded that replacement of costly SOC partially by cheaper unconventional DW in broiler diet resulted in increased profitability. Therefore, cheaper duckweed could be practiced in formulating economic balanced diet for broiler.

  1. Evaluation of Lettuce Genotypes for Seed Thermotolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermoinhibition of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed germination is a common problem associated with lettuce production. Depending on lettuce cultivars, seed germination may be inhibited when temperatures exceed 28oC. The delay or inhibition of seed germination at high temperatures may reduce seedli...

  2. Microbial Profile of Soil-Free versus In-Soil Grown Lettuce and Intervention Methodologies to Combat Pathogen Surrogates and Spoilage Microorganisms on Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata A. Sirsat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is an effective method to practice sustainable agriculture and is gaining popularity in the US; however, the microbial safety of aquaponically grown produce needs to be ascertained. Aquaponics is a unique marriage of fish production and soil-free produce (e.g., leafy greens production. Fish are raised in fresh water tanks that are connected to water filled beds where fruits and vegetables are grown. The fish bi-products create nutrient-rich water that provides the key elements for the growth of plants and vegetables. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the microbial safety and quality of aquaponic lettuce and soil grown lettuce (conventional, bagged, certified organic, and field lettuce. Following this, an intervention study was performed to combat foodborne pathogen surrogates (Salmonella and E. coli, spoilage, and fecal microorganisms using 2.5% acetic acid. The results of the comparative analysis study showed that aquaponically grown lettuce had significantly lower concentration of spoilage and fecal microorganisms compared to in-soil grown lettuce. The intervention study showed that diluted vinegar (2.5% acetic acid significantly reduced Salmonella, E. coli, coliforms, and spoilage microorganisms on fresh lettuce by 2 to 3 log CFU/g. Irrespective of growing methods (in-soil or soilless, it is crucial to incorporate good agricultural practices to reduce microbial contamination on fresh produce. The intervention employed in this study can be proposed to small farmers and consumers to improve quality and safety of leafy greens.

  3. GROWTH RESPONSE OF THE DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR TO HEAVY METAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    N. Khellaf ? M. Zerdaoui

    2009-01-01

    To assess the tolerance and effect of heavy metals pollution on the duckweed Lemna minor, the aquatic plants were exposed to different concentrations of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in a quarter Coïc and Lessaint solution at pH = 6.1 (± 0.1) and under a daily regime of 16 h light (101 ?mol/m2.s1). Copper at 0.2 mg/L and nickel at 0.5 mg/L promoted the growth of Lemna fronds. At higher concentrations, Cu and Ni inhibited the growth of duckweed; the EC50 (concentration c...

  4. Experimental study and process parameters analysis on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce was described in this paper. Based on the energy and mass balance, a mathematical model was developed to analyze the performance of the vacuum cooler and the evaporation-boiling phenomena during vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce. The temporal trends of total system pressure, produce temperature such as surface temperature, center temperature, mass-average temperature, the weight loss of iceberg lettuce during vacuum cooling were predicted. Validation experimentation is achieved in the designed vacuum cooler. The experimental data were compared with the simulation results. It was found that the differences of the temperature between the simulation and the experiments were within 1 deg. C. The amount of water evaporated from the iceberg lettuce by simulation was 3.32% during the whole vacuum cooling, while the tested water loss rate was 2.97%, the maximal deviation of weight loss was within 0.59%. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental data

  5. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated. PMID:26193291

  6. Suitability of duckweed (Lemna minor as feed for fish in polyculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z.H. Talukdar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor as feed on fish production in polyculture. The experiment had 2 treatments where in treatment 1 (T1 ponds were supplied with duckweed as feed and in treatment 2 (T2 ponds were kept as control (without supply of duckweed. Average survival rates in T1 and T2 were 90 and 89%, respectively. The specific growth rates (SGR were higher in T1. Calculated net production in T1 was 6.25 tons ha.-1 yr.-1 and in T2 was 2.84 tons ha.-1 yr.-1. The ranges of physico-chemical parameters analyzed were within the productive limit and more or less similar in all the ponds under both treatments during the experimental period. There were 24 genera of phytoplankton under 5 major groups and 10 genera of zooplankton under 3 major groups found in the experimental ponds. The net production in T1 was significantly higher than that of T2 indicated the use of duckweed as feed for fishes is economically sustainable in polyculture.

  7. GROWTH RESPONSE OF THE DUCKWEED LEMNA MINOR TO HEAVY METAL POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khellaf ? M. Zerdaoui

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the tolerance and effect of heavy metals pollution on the duckweed Lemna minor, the aquatic plants were exposed to different concentrations of copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd and zinc (Zn in a quarter Coïc and Lessaint solution at pH = 6.1 (± 0.1 and under a daily regime of 16 h light (101 ?mol/m2.s1. Copper at 0.2 mg/L and nickel at 0.5 mg/L promoted the growth of Lemna fronds. At higher concentrations, Cu and Ni inhibited the growth of duckweed; the EC50 (concentration causing 50% inhibition were 0.47 mg/L for Cu and 1.29 mg/L for Ni. Cadmium and zinc decreased by 50% the growth of fronds when the medium contained respectively 0.64 and 5.64 mg/L (EC50. Duckweed tolerated Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn at concentrations of 0.4, 3.0, 0.4 and 15.0 mg/L respectively without showing any visible signs of toxicity (chlorosis, frond disconnection and necrosis. On the basis of visible symptoms and the EC50 values, the toxicity of the metals on Lemna. minor was in decreasing order of damage: Cu > Cd > Ni > Zn. It was concluded that the duckweed Lemna. minor is very sensitive to copper and cadmium pollution.

  8. Expression and Characterization of Acidothermus celluloyticus E1 Endoglucanase in Transgenic Duckweed Lemna minor 8627

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y.; Cheng, J. J.; Himmel, M. E.; Skory, C. D.; Adney, W. S.; Thomas, S. R.; Tisserat, B.; Nishimura, Y.; Yamamoto, Y. T.

    2007-01-01

    Endoglucanase E1 from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was expressed cytosolically under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic duckweed, Lemna minor 8627 without any obvious observable phenotypic effects on morphology or rate of growth. The recombinant enzyme co-migrated with the purified catalytic domain fraction of the native E1 protein on western blot analysis, revealing that the cellulose-binding domain was cleaved near or in the linker region. The duckweed-expressed enzyme was biologically active and the expression level was up to 0.24% of total soluble protein. The endoglucanase activity with carboxymethylcellulose averaged 0.2 units mg protein{sup -1} extracted from fresh duckweed. The optimal temperature and pH for E1 enzyme activity were about 80 C and pH 5, respectively. While extraction with HEPES (N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N{prime}-[2-ethanesulfonic acid]) buffer (pH 8) resulted in the highest recovery of total soluble proteins and E1 enzyme, extraction with citrate buffer (pH 4.8) at 65 C enriched relative amounts of E1 enzyme in the extract. This study demonstrates that duckweed may offer new options for the expression of cellulolytic enzymes in transgenic plants.

  9. Short-duration exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation alters the chlorophyll fluorescence of duckweeds (Lemna minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senavirathna, Mudalige Don Hiranya Jayasanka; Takashi, Asaeda; Kimura, Yuichi

    2014-12-01

    Plants growing in natural environments are exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted by various communication network base stations. The environmental concentration of this radiation is increasing rapidly with the congested deployment of base stations. Although numerous scientific studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of EMR on the physiology of humans and animals, there have been few attempts to investigate the effects of EMR on plants. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the effects of EMR on photosynthesis by investigating the chlorophyll fluorescence (ChF) parameters of duckweed fronds. During the experiment, the fronds were tested with 2, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 8?GHz EMR frequencies, which are not widely studied even though there is a potentially large concentration of these frequencies in the environment. The duckweed fronds were exposed to EMR for 30?min, 1?h and 24?h durations with electric field strength of 45-50?V/m for each frequency. The results indicated that exposure to EMR causes a change in the non-photochemical quenching of the duckweeds. The changes varied with the frequency of the EMR and were time-varying within a particular frequency. The temperature remained unchanged in the duckweed fronds upon exposure to EMR, which confirms that the effect is non-thermal. PMID:24131393

  10. Reducing microbial contamination on wastewater-irrigated lettuce by cessation of irrigation before harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay; Abaidoo, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of cessation of irrigation before harvesting in reducing microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with wastewater in urban vegetable farming in Ghana. METHODS: Assessment was done under actual field conditions with urban vegetable farmers in Ghana. Trials were arranged in completely randomized block design and done both in the dry and wet seasons. Seven hundred and twenty-six lettuce samples and 36 water samples were analysed for thermotolerant coliform...

  11. Selenium accumulation in lettuce germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for animals and humans. Increasing Se content in food crops offers an effective approach to reduce the widespread selenium deficiency problem in many parts of the world. In this study, we evaluated thirty diverse accessions of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) f...

  12. Effect of water availability on physiological performance and lettuce crop yield (Lactuca sativa) / Efecto de la disponibilidad hídrica sobre el desempeño fisiológico y productivo de un cultivo de lechuga (Lactuca sativa)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marco A, Molina-Montenegro; Andrés, Zurita-Silva; Rómulo, Oses.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El agua es un elemento esencial para las plantas, afectando la mayoría de los procesos fisiológicos implicados en el crecimiento y productividad. La sequía es uno de los factores de estrés más común que puede limitar la productividad agrícola a nivel mundial. Muchos cultivos poseen altas demandas hí [...] dricas, no obstante en muchos países y producto del cambio climático global, el agua disponible para riego se torna limitante. De hecho, los actuales modelos de cambio climático global señalan a Chile como una de las zonas donde la disminución en las precipitaciones sería más evidente. En el presente trabajo, se evaluó la variación en el intercambio gaseoso y producción de biomasa fresca en cultivos de lechugas sometidos a diferentes niveles de disponibilidad hídrica. Adicionalmente, se evaluó la concentración de azúcares solubles totales y la eficiencia en el uso del agua (EUA) como mecanismos implicados en la tolerancia al déficit hídrico. En general, aquellos individuos sometidos a menor disponibilidad hídrica presentaron menores valores de intercambio gaseoso y biomasa fresca, en comparación a sus con-específicos crecidos con el 75 y 100% de la disponibilidad hídrica. Por otro lado, aquellos individuos con la disponibilidad hídrica intermedia presentaron mayores contenidos de azúcares solubles totales y una mayor EUA. Los resultados de la presente investigación sugieren, que aquellos cultivos sometidos a eventos prolongados o intensos de sequía podrían verse afectados en su fisiología y productividad. No obstante, leves disminuciones en la disponibilidad hídrica permitirían a los cultivos de lechugas mantener una elevada EUA, manteniendo una elevada tasa fotosintética y una alta productividad. Abstract in english Water is essential for plants, affecting the majority of the physiological processes related to growth and productivity. Water shortage is one of the most common factors that limit crop productivity worldwide. Many cultivars have elevated water requirements, nevertheless in some countries due to glo [...] bal climate change effects, the availability of water for irrigation is becoming limited. In fact, current models of climate changes predict that central Chile will be a sensitive zone where precipitation will drastically decrease. In this study, the variation of gas exchange and production of fresh biomass in a lettuce cultivar, grown under different water availability regimes, was evaluated. Additionally, the concentration of total soluble sugar and water use efficiency (WUE) as mechanisms related to water shortage responses were also evaluated. Overall, individuals with the lowest water availability (50%) showed lower gas exchange and fresh biomass values than their conspecifics grown in optimal irrigated conditions. On the other hand, those individuals with moderate water shortage showed the highest concentration of total soluble sugars and WUE. Our results suggested that cultures exposed to extensive or intense drought events, could be negatively affected in both physiological performance and productivity. Nevertheless, slight decreases in water availability can enable lettuce plants to exhibit a high WUE, maintaining high levels of physiological performance and productivity.

  13. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Paulus

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água (CEa: 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1 em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa, em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca, da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano.This study aimed to evaluate the content of nutrients and nitrate and perform sensory analysis of lettuce in hydroponic system under saline water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from December, 2007 to January, 2008, in Piracicaba. The experimental design was randomized blocks and factorial scheme (five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl that resulted in different electrical conductivities of the water (dS m-1: 0.42, 1.53, 3.52, 5.55, 7.43 and two cultivas of lettuce (Veronica and Pira Roxa. The evaluations were: sensory analysis applying hedonic scale and through this, which sample presented the best and the least taste, the purchase intent and consumption, nitrate, absorption of nutrients by leaves and determination of nutrients in the nutrient solution. For the attribute of cultivars, Veronica received the highest marks in salt level 1.53 and 5.55 dS m-1. For cultivar Pira Roxa was awarded the best grade for lettuce grown in non-saline water. For other attributes there was no significant difference in levels of salinity. To purchase intention, it was found that cv. Verônica and Pira Roxa had good market acceptance. The lowest levels of nitrate (1960 mg kg-1 and 2620 mg kg-1 fresh weight of Verônica and Pira Roxa, respectively, were related to the electrical conductivity of 0.42 dS m-1, increasing water salinity to 7.43 dS m-1, the leaf content of nitrate increased to 2500 mg kg-1 and 3420 mg kg-1 for the cultivars Verônica and Pira Roxa. As the time of exposure to salt in a hydroponic system was short, around 25 days, there were no symptoms of nutrient deficiency and whole lettuce was classified as suitable for human consumption.

  14. Análise sensorial, teores de nitrato e de nutrientes de alface cultivada em hidroponia sob águas salinas / Sensory analysis, nitrate and nutrient concentration of lettuce grown in hydroponics under saline water

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dalva, Paulus; Durval, Dourado Neto; Eloi, Paulus.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivos determinar os teores de nutrientes e de nitrato e realizar análise sensorial de alface cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob água salina. O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido no período de dezembro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008, em Piracicaba (SP). O d [...] elineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, sendo estudados cinco níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação, utilizando-se NaCl (Condutividade elétrica da água (CEa): 0,42, 1,53, 3,52, 5,55 e 7,43 dS m-1) em duas cultivares de alface (Verônica e Pira Roxa), em esquema fatorial. Foram avaliados a análise sensorial aplicando escala hedônica e através dessa, o que os provadores mais apreciaram e o que menos gostaram de cada amostra, intenção de compra e consumo, teor de nitrato, absorção de nutrientes pela folhas e determinação dos nutrientes presentes na solução nutritiva. Para o atributo sabor a cultivar Verônica recebeu as melhores notas no nível de salinidade 1,53 e 5,55 dS m-1. Para a cultivar Pira Roxa a melhor nota foi atribuída para a alface produzida na água não salina. Para os demais atributos não houve diferença significativa nos diferentes níveis de salinidade. Com relação à intenção de compra, constatou-se que as alfaces cv. Verônica e Pira Roxa apresentaram boa aceitação de mercado. Os menores níveis de nitrato (1960 mg kg-1 e 2620 mg kg-1 de massa de matéria fresca), da Verônica e Pira Roxa, respectivamente, foram relacionados à condutividade elétrica de 0,42 dS m-1, aumentando a salinidade da água para 7,43 dS m-1, o teor foliar de nitrato aumentou para 2500 mg kg-1 e 3420 mg kg-1 para as cultivares Verônica e Pira Roxa. Como o tempo de exposição da alface à salinidade em sistema hidropônico foi curto, em torno de 25 dias, não se verificou sintomas de deficiência nutricional e toda alface foi classificada como apropriada para consumo humano. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the content of nutrients and nitrate and perform sensory analysis of lettuce in hydroponic system under saline water. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse from December, 2007 to January, 2008, in Piracicaba. The experimental design was randomized blocks and fac [...] torial scheme (five salinity levels obtained with the addition of NaCl that resulted in different electrical conductivities of the water (dS m-1): 0.42, 1.53, 3.52, 5.55, 7.43 and two cultivas of lettuce (Veronica and Pira Roxa). The evaluations were: sensory analysis applying hedonic scale and through this, which sample presented the best and the least taste, the purchase intent and consumption, nitrate, absorption of nutrients by leaves and determination of nutrients in the nutrient solution. For the attribute of cultivars, Veronica received the highest marks in salt level 1.53 and 5.55 dS m-1. For cultivar Pira Roxa was awarded the best grade for lettuce grown in non-saline water. For other attributes there was no significant difference in levels of salinity. To purchase intention, it was found that cv. Verônica and Pira Roxa had good market acceptance. The lowest levels of nitrate (1960 mg kg-1 and 2620 mg kg-1 fresh weight) of Verônica and Pira Roxa, respectively, were related to the electrical conductivity of 0.42 dS m-1, increasing water salinity to 7.43 dS m-1, the leaf content of nitrate increased to 2500 mg kg-1 and 3420 mg kg-1 for the cultivars Verônica and Pira Roxa. As the time of exposure to salt in a hydroponic system was short, around 25 days, there were no symptoms of nutrient deficiency and whole lettuce was classified as suitable for human consumption.

  15. Response of hydroponically grown head lettuce on residual monomer from polyacrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, E; Konieczny, P; Kleiber, T; Wa?kiewicz, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to assess acrylamide monomer (AMD) uptake by hydroponically grown lettuce. Lettuce was cultivated by applying plant tissue testing in a recycled system by the use of nutrient solutions prepared with two water-soluble flocculants F3 and F4 containing 176 and 763 mg kg(-1) of AMD, respectively. The effects on growth, fresh weight and plant leaf quality were evaluated by comparing these treatments and one control standard nutrient solution typically recommended for lettuce hydroponic cultivation. To assess the nutritional status of lettuce, samples were collected and lyophilised before determination of the selected micro- and macro-element contents. An HPLC with photodiode array detector method was applied to determine AMD in both selected flocculants and dried plant samples. Results show that lettuces cultivated under the conditions described above absorb AMD from nutrient solutions into their leaves. The AMD presence in recycled nutrient solutions has a negative influence on the growth of lettuce, reducing their average fresh weight and average number of leaves. The study confirmed that the problem of AMD mobility and its accumulation risk in plants should to be an important topic with respect to safe polyacrylamide (PAM) handling in the agro food area. PMID:24916210

  16. Relación porosidad-retención de humedad en mezclas de sustratos y su efecto sobre variables respuesta en plántulas de lechuga / Porosity-water retention relationship in substrate mixtures and its effect on response variables in lettuce seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ma. Del Carmen, Gutiérrez-Castorena; Jorge, Hernández Escobar; Carlos Alberto, Ortiz-Solorio; Rosa, Anicua Sánchez; Ma. Encarnación, Hernández Lara.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la relación entre la porosidad, el tamaño y distribución de partícula (1-2 mm y 2-3.36 mm) con la retención de humedad para diferentes mezclas de materiales: fibra de coco (Fc): piedra (P) o tezontle (T), combinados en proporciones variables (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 y 100:0 v/v). Ademá [...] s, se analizó el efecto de la combinación Fc:P con un tamaño de partícula (1-2 mm) sobre variables respuesta en plántulas de lechuga var. Summertime. Se determinó la curva de retención de humedad. Los tipos de poros y el patrón de distribución de las partículas de las mezclas, se analizaron a través de secciones delgadas y la porosidad se cuantificó con un analizador de imágenes. Los resultados mostraron que las mezclas Fc:T y Fc:P (75:25 v/v), presentaron la mayor capacidad de retención de humedad gravimétrica (230 %) y volumétrica (98 %). Además, un sistema de poros heterogéneo o anisotrópico (macro y micro), y una distribución en bandas, que permitieron percolación y retención de humedad óptima para el desarrollo de las plántulas de lechuga, expresada en las mejores variables respuesta y calidad del cepellón. En contraste, el resto de las mezclas con un sistema de poros homogéneo o isotrópico, ya sea de poros de empaquetamiento simple o compuesto, y una distribución básica aleatoria de partículas, generaron más percolación o más retención de humedad, que limitaron el crecimiento de las plántulas. La micromorfología puede ser útil para comprender las propiedades físicas de los sustratos al determinar directamente el tipo, tamaño y continuidad de los poros, características que afectan la disponibilidad de agua-aire. Abstract in english The relationship among porosity, size and particle distribution (1-2 mm and 2-3.36 mm) with water retention for different mixtures of materials: coir (Fc), stone (P) or volcanic stone (T), combined in variables proportions (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0 v/v) was studied. The effect of the com [...] bination Fc:P with a particle size (1-2 mm) on response variables in lettuce seedlings var. Summertime was analyzed. The water retention curve was determined. The types of pores and the particle distribution pattern of the mixtures was analyzed though thin sections. Porosity was quantified using an image analyzer. Results showed that Fc:T and Fc:P mixtures (75:25 v/v), showed the highest volumetric (98 %) and gravimetric (230 %) water retention capacity, as well as an anisotropic or heterogeneous pore system (macro and micro), and a band distribution, that allowed percolation and optimal water retention for the development of lettuce seedlings, represented in the best response variables and quality of root ball. In contrast, the rest of the mixture with an isotropic or homogeneous pore system, either simple or compound packing pores, and a basic random distribution of particles, generating more percolation or more water retention, that limited the growth of seedlings. Micromorphology can be useful for understanding the physical properties of the substrates by directly determining the type, size and continuity of pores, characteristics that affect water-air availability.

  17. VARIATION FOR TIPBURN RESISTANCE IN LETTUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipburn (TB) is a physiological disorder that results in necrosis along the margins of lettuce leaves. The disorder is objectionable to consumers and reduces the shelf life of whole and minimally processed lettuce. The objectives were to 1) determine the variation for tipburn resistance in iceberg, ...

  18. Uptake of cadmium by cress, lettuce and tomato in Cd-contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Abedi-Koupai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of water consumption and demand for irrigation water in agriculture has led to an increase in reuse of treated, or even raw, municipal and industrial wastewater in many countries. Heavy metals (HMs in these unconventional waters are one of the sources of pollution of water, soil and plant. HM toxicity in plants may eventually cause disturbances in plant growth. Accumulation of HMs in plants has health problems for human beings and animals which consume these plants. In this research, uptake of cadmium (Cd by three vegetables (cress (Lepidium sativum L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. from a contaminated soil was studied. The experimental design was completely randomized. For each plant, two soil treatments (control soil and contaminated soil by 100 mg/L Cd and five replications were considered. After planting, growing and harvesting, and preparation of the samples, Cd uptake in roots and shoots was measured. Results showed that mean Cd uptake by all three plants was significantly different from the control treatment. Maximum uptake of Cd belonged to tomato, whereas lettuce had the lowest uptake. Transfer coefficient of Cd from soil into cress, lettuce and tomato was 1.3, 0.33 and 0.65, respectively. Although transfer coefficient of Cd to lettuce is lower than the other two plants, but consumption of lettuce per person is much greater than cress. Hence, irrigation management of polluted wastewater is important.

  19. NEW BIOLOGICAL DIETARY FEED SUPPLEMENT FOR LAYING HENS WITH MICROELEMENTS BASED ON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Witkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the applicability of enriched duckweed (Lemna minor as a dietary supplement witch microelements is reported. In our previous studies, the technology of new feed additives with microelements based on duckweed biomass was elaborated. Here, we report the evaluation of the properties of a new product. The effect of duckweed enriched with microelements on the productivity parameters of laying hens was studied in zootechnical research. Birds feed was supplemented with duckweed enriched by biosorption process with microelements (Cu(II, Zn(II, Co(II, Cr(III. In the feeding experiment, laying hens were divided into four experimental groups and one control group. The feeding experiment was conducted for 41 days. Samples of egg yolk, albumen, eggshells, blood, feathers and droppings were collected and the content of metal ions was determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulizer. The amount of a given microelement transferred into the egg yolk and egg white was calculated. The eggshells thicknesses were measured with micrometer screw. The research showed that enriched Lemna minor improved the egg quality parameters. In all experimental groups, the increase of eggshell thickness was observed. In three of four experimental groups of hens, fed with diet containing biological form of microelements (Co(II, Zn(II, Cr(III, the quantity of given microelement in the egg content increased. Therefore, the biosorption process can be applied not only for the supplementation of microelements in hens feed, but also to produce eggs biofortified with microelements-new functional food for human.

  20. Efeito de pontas de pulverização e de arranjos populacionais de plantas de Eichhornia crassipes e Salvinia auriculata na deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de Pistia stratiotes / Effect of spray tips and water hyacinth and water lettuce plant population arrangements of watermoss plant spray mix deposition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R., Marchi; D., Martins; N.V., Costa; V.D., Domingos; L.A., Cardoso.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o depósito de calda pulverizada por dois tipos de pontas de pulverização sob plantas de alface-d'água (Pistia stratiotes) dispostas em diferentes arranjos populacionais com plantas de aguapé (Eichhornia crassipes) e salvínia (Salvinia auriculata). Para isso, f [...] oi conduzido um experimento em condições de caixas-d'água em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos estiveram dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, sendo dois tipos de pontas de pulverização (ConeJet TXVK-8 e TeeJet DG 11002 VS) e oito proporções entre as plantas aquáticas, a saber: dominância total da área correspondente a 100% de cobertura da caixa-d'água pelas plantas de alface-d'água; e as proporções entre plantas de alface-d'água e plantas de aguapé ou salvínia a 75%:25%, 50%:50% e 25%:75%. Também foi utilizada uma densidade tripla, na qual as três espécies estiveram igualmente dispostas na proporção de 33,33%. Soluções dos corantes Amarelo Tartrasina FDC-5 a 3.500 ppm e Azul Brilhante FDC-1 a 1.000 ppm foram utilizadas como traçadores para as pontas TXVK-8 e DG 11002VS, respectivamente. A pulverização de ambas as soluções foi efetuada na mesma unidade experimental, com um intervalo de 30 minutos entre si, utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, calibrado de modo a proporcionar um volume de aplicação aproximado de 200 L ha. Após a pulverização, as plantas presentes nos reservatórios foram lavadas com água destilada, até remoção total dos corantes. Os depósitos totais de calda foram estimados em ?L por planta, e os depósitos unitários, em ?L cm-2 de superfície foliar. O aumento na proporção de plantas de aguapé na associação proporcionou menores depósitos de calda de pulverização sobre as plantas de alface-d'água. Em contrapartida, o aumento na proporção de salvínia na associação propiciou maiores depósitos de calda de pulverização, independentemente do tipo de ponta de pulverização. A ponta TXVK-8 proporcionou depósitos unitários e totais de calda de pulverização superiores aos da ponta DG 11002VS. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate two types of nozzles (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS) and the amount of spray mix deposited on water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) plants organized under different population arrangements with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and eared watermoss (Salvinia auric [...] ulata) plants. In addition to a full-dominance proportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared watermoss plants, arrangements were used with either water hyacinth or water lettuce at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. Triple density was also used, with the three species being equally displayed at a 33.33% proportion. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no. 1 at 1,000 ppm were used as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within 30 minute interval each through a CO2 pressured backpack knapsack calibrated to deliver a spray volume around 200 L ha-1 . Plants at reservoirs were flushed with distilled water until total removal of the dyes deposited on them. The total spray deposits were estimated in ?L per plant and the unitary deposits where estimated in ?L cm-2 of foliar surface. Increase in water hyacinth plant proportion in the arrangement resulted in lower spray deposition over water lettuce. Increase in water moss plant proportion in the arrangement provided higher spray depositions over water lettuce, independently of the nozzle type used. The TXVK-8 nozzles provided higher unitary and total spray depositions compared to the DG 11002 VS nozzle.

  1. The influence of barley straw extract addition on the growth of duckweed (Lemna valdiviana Phil. under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?czu?a W.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its ability to forming dense mats in small waterbodies, duckweeds are often considered as nuisance plants in some freshwaters. Up to now, few techniques had been tested aiming towards managing duckweeds, but all of them had appeared to have some disadvantages. As an attempt to find a new effective management tool, a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of barley straw (BS extract addition – a substance used in algal bloom control, upon the growth of the duckweed Lemna valdiviana, was performed. Reaction on two various concentrations of BS extract were quantified by measurements of changes in duckweed biomass and root length. The results showed that plants which have received the extract increased their biomass slower than that of the control, however only those with the addition of smaller amounts of BS differed significantly from the controls. Furthermore, BS addition stimulated the root growth in both experimental tanks. This implies that the mean roots length was higher, although the statistical differences were insignificant. As possible explanation for the observed changes we suggest that: (1 the growth inhibition of Lemna valvidiana under exposition to BS extract might be induced by an uptake of organic compounds from which some (phenolic substances are (probably toxic; (2 competitive interactions with the microbial communities developed upon the duckweed roots might play a role as well.

  2. Occurrence and Partial Characterization of Lettuce big vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus in Lettuce in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alemzadeh, E.; Izadpanah, K.

    2012-01-01

    Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MiLBVV) and lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) were found in association with big vein disease of lettuce in Iran. Analysis of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of Iranian isolates of LBVaV showed 97.1–100 % nucleotide sequence identity with other LBVaV isolates. Iranian isolates of MiLBVV belonged to subgroup A and showed 88.6–98.8 % nucleotide sequence identity with other isolates of this virus when amplified by PCR primer pair MiLV VP. The occurren...

  3. Effect of pressure on the vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Hande Mutlu [Pamukkale University, Food Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Denizli (Turkey); Ozturk, Harun Kemal [Pamukkale University, Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Vacuum cooling is known as a rapid evaporative cooling technique for any porous product which has free water. The aim of this paper is to apply vacuum cooling technique to the cooling of the iceberg lettuce and show the pressure effect on the cooling time and temperature decrease. The results of vacuum cooling are also compared with conventional cooling (cooling in refrigerator) for different temperatures. Vacuum cooling of iceberg lettuce at 0.7 kPa is about 13 times faster than conventional cooling of iceberg lettuce at 6 C. It has been also found that it is not possible to decrease the iceberg lettuce temperature below 10 C if vacuum cooling method is used and vacuum pressure is set to 1.5 kPa. (author) [French] Le refroidissement sous vide est connu comme une technique evaporative rapide refroidissant pour n'importe quel produit poreux qui a de l'eau libre. Le but de ce papier est d'appliquer le refroidissement sous vide pour le refroidissement de la laitue et examiner l'effet de la pression sur le temps de refroidissement et la diminution de temperature. Les resultats de refroidissement sous vide sont aussi compares avec le refroidissement conventionnel (refroidissement dans le refrigerateur) pour les differentes temperatures. Le refroidissement a vide de laitue a 0.7 kPa est environ 13 fois plus vite que le refroidissement conventionnel de laitue croquante a 6 C. Il a ete aussi constate qu'il n'est pas possible de diminuer la temperature de laitue ci-dessous 10 C si le refroidissement sous vide est utilise comme methode et la pression a vide est montree a 1.5 kPa. (orig.)

  4. Occurrence of macrophyte monocultures in drainage ditches relates to phosphorus in both sediment and water

    OpenAIRE

    Zuidam, J.P., van; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Monocultures of functional equivalent species often negatively affect nutrient cycling and overall biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems. The importance of water and sediment nutrients for the occurrence of monocultures was analysed using field data from drainage ditches. Ranges of nutrients were identified that best explained the occurrence of monocultures of Elodea nuttallii (Planch.) St. John (Waterweed type), monocultures of duckweed (Duckweed type) and the occurrence of a diverse submerged ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Youn; Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Ki; Ha, Yong-Geun; Hwang, Ju Young; Kim, Taewan; Lee, Seon-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Plant extracts have been found to be effective in reducing microorganisms. This study evaluated antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes by using a disk diffusion assay, and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) showed the highest inhibitory effect. To investigate the efficacy of clove extract that inactivates pathogens on lettuce, inoculated lettuce with S. Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes was treated with diluted clove extracts or distilled water for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 10 min. Clove extract treatment significantly reduced populations of the 3 tested pathogens from the surface of lettuce. Practical Application: This result indicated that clove extract is a useful antimicrobial agent to reduce the microbial level of foodborne pathogens on fresh lettuce. It also might be a natural antimicrobial for reducing or replacing chemical sanitizers in food preservation. PMID:21535692

  6. ROMAINE LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) BREEDING LINES WITH RESISTANCE TO LETTUCE DIEBACK CAUSED BY TOMBUSVIRUSES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soilborne disease lettuce dieback is caused by at least two members of the virus family Tombusviridae, lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) and tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). Dieback causes severe stunting and chlorosis, mottling, and necrosis in o older leaves, and can cause complete crop loss...

  7. Potential sources of genetic resistance in lettuce to the lettuce aphid, Nasanovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce aphid, Nasanovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Homoptera:Aphididae), is an economically important pest of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). High-level resistance was found in a wild relative, Lactuca virosa L. accession PIVT-280, and transferred to European cultivars. This resistance is conditioned by the...

  8. Evaluación de la biomasa y manejo de Lemna gibba (lenteja de agua) en la bahía interior del Lago Titicaca, Puno / Evaluation of biomass and management Lemna gibba (duckweed) in the inner bay of Lake Titicaca, Puno

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ángel, Canales-Gutiérrez.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los mayores problemas que enfrenta la ciudad de Puno es la presencia de la lenteja de agua (Lemna gibba) en la bahía interior del Lago Titicaca, debido al proceso de eutrofización que sufre a causa del mal tratamiento de las aguas residuales de la ciudad de Puno. Muchas de las estrategias pla [...] nteadas hasta ahora no han dado resultados positivos en la reducción de la biomasa de Lemna gibba, debido a que estos planes están direccionados a la exterminación de este organismo. En lugar de ello se debe pensar en la forma más sostenible de hacer uso de la lenteja. Es por eso que los objetivos fueron: (a) estimar la biomasa (kg/m²) de lenteja de agua de la bahía interior del lago Titicaca y, (b) plantear una estrategia de manejo de la lenteja de agua de la bahía interior del lago Titicaca. El promedio de la biomasa de la lenteja de agua en la bahía interior fue de 6.94 kg/m², mientras que los promedios de pH y temperatura del agua fueron de 6.3 y 13.8°C, respectivamente. Esto prueba la eficacia de este organismo para crecer en condiciones difíciles (además hay altos niveles de N, P y metales pesados), por lo que su manejo puede ser una alternativa para disminuir el proceso de eutrofización del lago. Las estrategias de manejo de lenteja estuvieron enmarcadas dentro de un plano social, económico y ambiental, lo que permite su sostenibilidad en beneficio de la población de Puno y del ecosistema del lago Titicaca. Abstract in english One of the biggest problems Puno city is currently facing is the presence of duckweed (Lemna gibba) in the inner bay of Lake Titicaca, caused by eutrophication due to bad wastewater treatment. Many of the strategies proposed so far have not yielded positive results, because these plans were directed [...] to the extermination of this organism. Instead, the most sustainable duckweed use should be considered. That is why the objectives of this study were: (a) To estimate duckweed biomass (kg/m²) in the inner bay of Lake Titicaca, (b) To propose a management strategy for the duckweed from the inner bay of Lake Titicaca. The average biomass of the duckweed in the inner bay was 6.94 kg/m²; the average pH and temperature of the water were 6.3 and 13.8°C, respectively. This proves the effectiveness of this organism to grow in difficult conditions (in addition there are high levels of N, P and heavy metals), so that its management can be used as an alternative to reduce the eutrophication of the lake. Moreover, duckweed management strategies were framed within social, economical and environmental plans. Therefore, this macrophyte management is sustainable and beneficial for the people of Puno and the ecosystem of Lake Titicaca.

  9. BIOSORPTIVE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM WASTEWATER USING DUCKWEED

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Suhag; Richa Gupta; Archana Tiwari

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution has been recognized as a problem for decades. The use of heavy metals in industries and their regular mining increases their concentration in water bodies. Unlike organic compounds, metals cannot degrade, and therefore effective cleanup requires their immobilization to reduce or remove toxicity. A few conventional methods employed to remove heavy metals from wastewater are expensive, require skilled labors and maintenance. Therefore, the use of aquatic plants has come up since...

  10. Stimulating productivity of hydroponic lettuce in controlled environments with triacontanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, S. L.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1987-01-01

    Triacontanol (1-triacontanol) applied as a foliar spray at 10(-7) M to 4-day-old, hydroponically grown leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings in a controlled environment increased leaf fresh and dry weight 13% to 20% and root fresh and dry weight 13% to 24% 6 days after application, relative to plants sprayed with water. When applied at 8 as well as 4 days after seeding, triacontanol increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and mean relative growth rate 12% to 37%. There was no benefit of repeating application of triacontanol in terms of leaf dry weight gain.

  11. Oxidative stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) caused by short-term cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razinger, Jaka [Department for Environmental Technologies and Biomonitoring, Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)], E-mail: jaka@ifb.si; Dermastia, Marina [National Institute of Biology, Vecna pot 111, p.p. 141, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koce, Jasna Dolenc [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zrimec, Alexis [Department for Environmental Technologies and Biomonitoring, Institute of Physical Biology, Veliko Mlacevo 59, SI-1290 Grosuplje (Slovenia)

    2008-06-15

    The mechanisms of plant defence against cadmium toxicity have been studied by short-term exposure of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) to concentrations of CdCl{sub 2} ranging from 0 to 500 {mu}M. High accumulation of cadmium was observed (12,320 {+-} 2155 {mu}g g{sup -1} at 500 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2}), which caused a gradual decrease of plant growth, increased lipid peroxidation, and weakened the entire antioxidative defence. Total glutathione concentration decreased significantly; however, the concentration of oxidized glutathione remained stable. The responses of four antioxidant enzymes showed that catalase was the most inhibited after CdCl{sub 2} exposure, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase moderately, and glutathione reductase least. The total antioxidative potential revealed an induced antioxidative network at 0.1 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} (137 {+-} 13.2% of the control) and its reduction to only 47.4 {+-} 4.0% of the control at higher cadmium concentrations. The possible application of the examined biomarkers in ecotoxicological research is discussed. - The increase of total antioxidative potential at low cadmium concentration is one of the mechanisms that helps duckweed to cope with cadmium-induced oxidative stress.

  12. Increase of starch accumulation in the duckweed Lemna minor under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SOWJANYA SREE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abiotic stresses often result in suppression of photosynthesis and plant growth. Using the duckweed species Lemna minor and subjecting these plants to abiotic stress viz., (1 application of heavy metals, (2 application of salt (NaCl, and (3 lack of phosphate, we showed that photosynthesis was inhibited to a lesser degree than plant growth. This became evident by detecting the accumulation of starch under these conditions: (1 Cadmium ions and other heavy metals induced the accumulation of starch after 4 days of treatment at concentrations when growth was almost completely suppressed (e. g. 80 %. (2 Application of NaCl at a concentration of 150 mM also resulted in accumulation of starch but the highest level could be observed only after 7 days. (3 Depletion of phosphate in the growth medium had similar effects leading to starch accumulation after 14 days of treatment. Starch can accumulate to approximately 50% of dry mass under the three different conditions. We suggest the following common molecular mechanism: The stress factor suppresses growth more effectively than photosynthesis. The resulting surplus of carbohydrates is then stored as starch. This hypothesis has biotechnological relevance since stressors may be applied for increasing starch accumulation in duckweed and thus could be used to optimize bioethanol production from this aquatic crop.

  13. Effect of electromagnetic fields on duckweed (lemna minor) and alga (chlorella kessleri)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity produces extremely low frequency fields (50-60 Hz) while various kinds of radiofrequency fields (10 MHz-300 GHz) are used to transmit information (TV, radio, mobile phones and satellite communications). Duckweed (Lemna minor) and green algae (Chlorella kessleri) were exposed to the magnetic field of 50 Hz in a Helmholtz coil, to an electric field of 50 Hz between two parallel circle electrodes, and to electromagnetic fields of 400 and 900 MHz in a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell. The relative growth of Lemna minor exposed to extremely low frequency alternating magnetic field of 50 Hz (1 mT) for 24 hours was slightly reduced at the beginning of the experiment while a 50 Hz electric field (25 kV/m) slightly reduced its growth during the second week of the experiment. Radio frequencies of 400 and 900 MHz (23 V/m) applied for two hours decreased the duckweed growth after the third day, but only 900 MHz affected it significantly. The rate of photosynthesis in green algae increased after exposure to the magnetic field of 50 Hz, but decreased after exposure to the electric field of 50 Hz. Radio frequencies of 400 and 900 MHz generally increased its rate of photosynthesis.(author)

  14. Oxidative stress in duckweed (Lemna minor L.) caused by short-term cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanisms of plant defence against cadmium toxicity have been studied by short-term exposure of Lemna minor L. (common duckweed) to concentrations of CdCl2 ranging from 0 to 500 ?M. High accumulation of cadmium was observed (12,320 ± 2155 ?g g-1 at 500 ?M CdCl2), which caused a gradual decrease of plant growth, increased lipid peroxidation, and weakened the entire antioxidative defence. Total glutathione concentration decreased significantly; however, the concentration of oxidized glutathione remained stable. The responses of four antioxidant enzymes showed that catalase was the most inhibited after CdCl2 exposure, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase moderately, and glutathione reductase least. The total antioxidative potential revealed an induced antioxidative network at 0.1 ?M CdCl2 (137 ± 13.2% of the control) and its reduction to only 47.4 ± 4.0% of the control at higher cadmium concentrations. The possible application of the examined biomarkers in ecotoxicological research is discussed. - The increase of total antioxidative potential at low cadmium concentration is one of the mechanisms that helps duckweed to cope with cadmium-induced oxidative stress

  15. Lettuce and chicory byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2004-08-11

    A process to obtain enriched antioxidant phenolic extracts from lettuce (baby, romaine, and iceberg cultivars) and chichory byproducts as a way to valorize these byproducts was developed. Two extraction protocols using water and methanol as solvent were used. Amberlite XAD-2 nonionic polymeric resin was used to purify the extracts. The extraction yield, phenolic content, and phenolic yield were evaluated as well as the antioxidant capacity of the extracts (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). Baby and romaine lettuce byproducts showed the highest water extract yields [27 and 26 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fresh weight (fw), respectively], whereas baby and iceberg lettuce showed highest methanol extract yields (31 and 23 g of freeze-dried extracts/kg of byproduct fw, respectively). Methanol extraction yielded a raw extract with a high phenolic content, the baby and chicory extracts being the richest with approximately 50 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract. Regarding the purified extracts, water extraction yielded a higher phenolic content, baby and chicory being also the highest with mean values of approximately 190 and 300 mg of phenolics/g of freeze-dried extract, respectively. Both raw and purified extracts from baby and chicory showed the higher antioxidant contents (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). The antioxidant capacity was linearly correlated with the phenolic content. The results obtained indicate that lettuce byproducts could be, from the industrial point of view, an interesting and cheap source of antioxidant phenolic extracts to funcionalize foodstuffs. PMID:15291483

  16. Impact of biosolids and wastewater effluent application to agricultural land on corticosterone content in lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargil, Dorit; Fine, Pinchas; Gerstl, Zev; Nitsan, Ido; Kurtzman, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    We studied corticosterone occurrence in lettuce plants grown on three biosolids amended soils under irrigation with either tap water or secondary wastewater effluent. Corticosterone was examined as it has possible implications for human health. It is a major glucocorticoid, and as such has an effect on regulation of metabolism, immune functions and stress response. The plants were grown in 220-L lysimeters packed with 3 soils which represent a wide range of physicochemical properties. Lettuce was grown in cycles (two in summer and two in winter) during 3years, and in every spring season the sludges were re-applied. Corticosterone was quantified using ELISA and LCMS, and was found in the biosolids, tap water, wastewater effluent and lettuce plants. The respective ranges of concentrations were: 11-92ngg(-1), 0.5-1.6ngL(-1), 4.2-4.7ngL(-1); and 1-900ngg(-1) dry weight. A positive relationship was found between corticosterone concentrations in winter-grown lettuces and the plants fresh weight. The corticosterone content of the plants did not correspond with either the type of irrigation water or the biosolids type and rate of application or the soil properties. PMID:26437348

  17. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em consórcio. Quanto mais atrasado o transplante da alface menor foi a sua produtividade. Houve efeito de época de cultivo sobre a dimensão da vantagem agronômica do consórcio sobre a monocultura. Na primeira época de cultivo, os consórcios estabelecidos com o transplante da alface de 30 dias antes e até 20 dias após o transplante do tomate proporcionaram índices de eficiência do uso da área (EUA de 1,63 a 2,22. Na segunda época, os consórcios estabelecidos com o transplante da alface antes do tomate, em até 30 dias, proporcionaram índices EUA de 1,57 a 2,05.

  18. Clonal expansion of Verticillium dahliae in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, S; Short, D P G; Atallah, Z K; Subbarao, K V

    2014-06-01

    Few studies in population biology have documented how structure and diversity of pathogens evolve over time at local scales. With the historical samples of Verticillium dahliae available from lettuce, we investigated the structure and diversity of this pathogen in time and space. Three hundred twenty-nine V. dahliae isolates from lettuce fields collected over 18 years were characterized with polymorphic microsatellite markers and polymerase chain reaction tests for race and mating type. Genetic variation within and among commercial lettuce fields in a single season was also investigated using an additional 146 isolates. Sixty-two haplotypes (HTs) were observed among the 329 isolates. A single HT was frequently observed over multiple years and locations (61.40%). Genetic diversity, allelic richness, and private allelic richness suggested a relatively recent clonal expansion. Race 1 (93.63%) and MAT1-2-1 (99.69%) were overwhelmingly represented among the isolates. Linkage disequilibrium was significant (P < 0.001) for all populations, suggesting limited sexual recombination in the sampled populations from lettuce. Populations from 2006, 2009, and 2010 had higher numbers of unique HTs, implying a recent introduction of novel HTs. We conclude that V. dahliae population from lettuce evaluated in this study is expanding clonally, consistent with an asexually reproducing pathogen, and the movement of clonal genotypes locally occurs over time. PMID:24476528

  19. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.; Abaidoo, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and...

  20. Water use and crop coefficient of subsurface drip-irrigated lettuce in Central Arizona / Demanda hídrica e coeficiente de cultura da alface irrigada por gotejamento sub-superficial na região central do Arizona

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aureo S. de, Oliveira; Edward C., Martin; Donald C., Slack; Edward J., Pegelow; Allen D., Folta.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Maricopa (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W), pertencente à Universidade do Arizona, USA, nos anos agrícolas de 1996/97 e 1997/98, objetivou determinar o uso de água e derivar coeficientes de cultura (Kc) da alface de cabeça irrigada por gotejamento subsuperficial [...] e cultivada em lisímetros de pesagem intermitente. O período de medições, expresso em graus-dia acumulados, variou de 480 a 1100 ºC-dia em 96/97 e de 439 a 1098 ºC-dia em 97/98. Esses intervalos corresponderam à segunda metade do ciclo da cultura, sendo que até a colheita somou-se uma média de 1100 ºC-dia. Os lisímetros eram pesados periodicamente e o balanço hídrico revelou um consumo médio de 117 mm, naqueles períodos. O Kc basal foi relacionado com o acúmulo de graus-dia através de regressão múltipla, seguindo um modelo dado por uma série seno de Fourier, com até seis coeficientes. As curvas de Kc foram determinadas com base nos métodos de Hargreaves, FAO Penman e FAO Penman-Monteith, para cálculo da ETo e comparadas por aquela gerada pelo programa AZSCHED (AriZona SCHEDuling) de manejo da irrigação. Valores máximos de Kc estimados foram 0,88 (método de Hargreaves), 0,80 (FAO Penman) e 0,81 (FAO Penman-Monteith) no intervalo de 1000 a 1050 ºC dia, inferiores a 1,01 em 1150 ºC dia, que é o máximo Kc previsto pelo programa AZSCHED. Abstract in english A two year field study (1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons) was carried out at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W) of the University of Arizona, USA, to investigate the water use and to derive Kc's for subsurface drip-irrigated head lettuce grown in small weighable lysimete [...] rs. Measurement periods ranged from 480 to 1100 ºC-day (96/97) and from 439 to 1098 ºC-day (97/98). These intervals corresponded essentially to the second half of the crop cycle which amounted to a 1100 ºC-day, on average. The lysimeters were weighed periodically and the computation of the water balance revealed an average water use of 117 mm. Basal crop Kc was expressed as a function of cumulative growing degree days following a multiple linear regression procedure in which the data were fitted with a Fourier sine series model with up to six coefficients. Two-year Kc curves were obtained based on the Hargreaves, FAO Penman and FAO Penman-Monteith equations and compared to the AZSCHED (AriZona SCHEDuling) irrigation package. Predicted Kc peaked 0.88, 0.80 and 0.81 with the Hargreaves, FAO Penman, FAO Penman-Monteith equations, respectively, in the range of 1000 to 1050 ºC-day, in contrast to AZSCHED which predicted the peak Kc to be 1.01 at 1150 ºC-day.

  1. Water use and crop coefficient of subsurface drip-irrigated lettuce in Central Arizona Demanda hídrica e coeficiente de cultura da alface irrigada por gotejamento sub-superficial na região central do Arizona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S. de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A two year field study (1996/97 and 1997/98 growing seasons was carried out at the Maricopa Agricultural Center (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W of the University of Arizona, USA, to investigate the water use and to derive Kc's for subsurface drip-irrigated head lettuce grown in small weighable lysimeters. Measurement periods ranged from 480 to 1100 ºC-day (96/97 and from 439 to 1098 ºC-day (97/98. These intervals corresponded essentially to the second half of the crop cycle which amounted to a 1100 ºC-day, on average. The lysimeters were weighed periodically and the computation of the water balance revealed an average water use of 117 mm. Basal crop Kc was expressed as a function of cumulative growing degree days following a multiple linear regression procedure in which the data were fitted with a Fourier sine series model with up to six coefficients. Two-year Kc curves were obtained based on the Hargreaves, FAO Penman and FAO Penman-Monteith equations and compared to the AZSCHED (AriZona SCHEDuling irrigation package. Predicted Kc peaked 0.88, 0.80 and 0.81 with the Hargreaves, FAO Penman, FAO Penman-Monteith equations, respectively, in the range of 1000 to 1050 ºC-day, in contrast to AZSCHED which predicted the peak Kc to be 1.01 at 1150 ºC-day.Um estudo conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Maricopa (33º04'07" N; 111º57'18" W, pertencente à Universidade do Arizona, USA, nos anos agrícolas de 1996/97 e 1997/98, objetivou determinar o uso de água e derivar coeficientes de cultura (Kc da alface de cabeça irrigada por gotejamento subsuperficial e cultivada em lisímetros de pesagem intermitente. O período de medições, expresso em graus-dia acumulados, variou de 480 a 1100 ºC-dia em 96/97 e de 439 a 1098 ºC-dia em 97/98. Esses intervalos corresponderam à segunda metade do ciclo da cultura, sendo que até a colheita somou-se uma média de 1100 ºC-dia. Os lisímetros eram pesados periodicamente e o balanço hídrico revelou um consumo médio de 117 mm, naqueles períodos. O Kc basal foi relacionado com o acúmulo de graus-dia através de regressão múltipla, seguindo um modelo dado por uma série seno de Fourier, com até seis coeficientes. As curvas de Kc foram determinadas com base nos métodos de Hargreaves, FAO Penman e FAO Penman-Monteith, para cálculo da ETo e comparadas por aquela gerada pelo programa AZSCHED (AriZona SCHEDuling de manejo da irrigação. Valores máximos de Kc estimados foram 0,88 (método de Hargreaves, 0,80 (FAO Penman e 0,81 (FAO Penman-Monteith no intervalo de 1000 a 1050 ºC dia, inferiores a 1,01 em 1150 ºC dia, que é o máximo Kc previsto pelo programa AZSCHED.

  2. Internalisation potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce seedlings and mature plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Taryn-Ann; du Plessis, Erika; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-06-01

    The internalisation potential of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium in lettuce was evaluated using seedlings grown in vermiculite in seedling trays as well as hydroponically grown lettuce. Sterile distilled water was spiked with one of the four human pathogenic bacteria (10(5) CFU/mL) and used to irrigate the plants. The potential for pathogen internalisation was investigated over time using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and viable plate counts. Additionally, the identities of the pathogens isolated from internal lettuce plant tissues were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction with pathogen-specific oligonucleotides. Internalisation of each of the human pathogens was evident in both lettuce seedlings and hydroponically grown mature lettuce plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of S. aureus internalisation in lettuce plants. In addition, the levels of background microflora in the lettuce plants were determined by plate counting and the isolates identified using matrix-assisted laser ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Background microflora assessments confirmed the absence of the four pathogens evaluated in this study. A low titre of previously described endophytes and soil inhabitants, i.e., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecalis, Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Rhodococcus rhodochrous, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis were identified. PMID:23708570

  3. Deposição de calda de pulverização sobre plantas de salvínia em função de pontas de pulverização e arranjos populacionais entre plantas de Aguapé e Alface-D'Água / Spray deposition on water fern plants in function of nozzle tips and population arrangements with water Hyacinth and Water Lettuce plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.R., Marchi; D., Martins; N.V., Costa; C.A., Carbonari; J.R.V., Silva.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o depósito de calda pulverizada por dois tipos de pontas de pulverização sobre plantas de Salvinia auriculata dispostas em diferentes arranjos populacionais com plantas de Eichhornia crassipes e Pistia stratiotes. Um experimento foi conduzido em condições de [...] caixas-d'água em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 2 x 8, sendo dois tipos de pontas de pulverização (ConeJet TXVK-8 e TeeJet DG 11002 VS) e oito proporções entre as plantas aquáticas, a saber: dominância total da área de cobertura da caixa-d'água pelas plantas de salvínia (100%); e as proporções entre plantas de salvínia e de aguapé ou alface-d'água a 75%:25%, 50%:50% e 25%:75%. Também foi utilizada uma densidade tripla, na qual as três espécies estiveram igualmente dispostas na proporção de 33%. Soluções dos corantes Amarelo Tartrasina FDC-5 a 3.500 ppm e Azul Brilhante FDC-1 a 1.000 ppm foram utilizadas como traçadores para as pontas TXVK-8 e DG 11002VS, respectivamente. A pulverização das soluções foi efetuada na mesma unidade experimental, com intervalo de 30 minutos entre si, com auxílio de um pulverizador costal pressurizado com CO2, calibrado de modo que proporcionasse volume de aplicação aproximado de 200 L ha-1. Não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas entre os tipos de pontas de pulverização nas diferentes proporções estudadas, exceto para depósitos totais de calda de pulverização nas plantas na condição de dominância total da salvínia, uma vez que a ponta ConeJet TXVK-8 foi superior à TeeJet DG 11002 VS. Os valores dos depósitos diminuíram com o aumento da proporção de plantas de aguapé na associação e foram na condição em que 25% de plantas de salvínia estiveram associadas a 75% de plantas de aguapé. A presença da espécie alface-d'água não influenciou a deposição de gotas sobre as folhas de salvínia. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate two types of spray tips (ConeJet TXVK-8 and TeeJet DG 11002 VS) and the amount of spray mix deposited on Salvinia auriculata plants organized under different population arrangements with Eichhornia crassipes and Pistia stratiotes plants. In addition to a full-dominance p [...] roportion over the area, corresponding to 100% cover of the water tank by eared water moss plants, arrangements with either water hyacinth or water lettuce were made at 75%:25%, 50%:50%, and 25%:75%. A triple density, in which the three species were equally disposed at a 33.33% proportion, was also used. Dye solutions of FD&C Yellow no. 5 at 3,500 ppm and FD&C Blue no.1 at 1,000 ppm were used, as spraying tracers for TXVK-8 and DG 11002 VS nozzles, respectively. Both solutions were sprayed at the same plot within a 30-minute interval each, through a CO2 pressured backpack, calibrated to deliver a spray volume of around 200 L ha-1. The total spray deposits were estimated in mL per plant and the unit deposits in mL cm² of foliar surface. No significant differences were observed between the nozzle tips used at different population arrangements, except total spray mix deposited on plants at 100% of eared water moss dominance proportion, with ConeJet TXVK-8, providing superior spray mix deposition, compared with TeeJet DG 11002 VS. The highest spray mix deposition was obtained under 100% of salvínia dominance. However, the spray mix quantity decreased with increase of water hyacinth in the proportion and reached the lowest value when 25% of eared water moss plants were associated with 75% of water hyacinth plants. The presence of water lettuce did not influence spray mix deposition over eared water moss plants.

  4. Are Radishes Really Allelopathic to Lettuce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Catherine M.; Koning, Ross E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an experiment that challenges the claim that sprouting radish seedlings release chemicals into the environment that inhibit germination of lettuce seeds. Reports that although no simple allelopathic demonstration was observed, the experiment provides fertile ground for further experimentation in inquiry-based laboratory experiences. (JRH)

  5. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  6. Contamination of lettuce with antibiotic resistant E. coli after slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Due to disease outbreaks associated with contaminated vegetables it has been speculated to what extent this may be linked with application of animal manure as fertilizer, which is particularly practiced in organic vegetable production where conventional fertilizers are prohibited. A field survey was therefore performed to assess the survival and transfer of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animal manure to lettuces, with E. coli serving as an indicator of bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied to 3 Danish fields prior to planting of lettuce seedlings, then 5-8 weeks later at the normal time of harvest, inner and outer leafs of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit with a total of 50 pools per field. Additionally, in one field, 15 soil samples were collected weekly until the harvest time. E. coli was enumerated by plating 1 mL of 10-fold serial dilutions of 5 g of homogenized sample material, i.e. manure, soil and lettuce onto PetrifilmTM Select E. coli count plates (3M) containing16 mg/L streptomycin or 16 mg/L ampicilin or no antibiotics. Plates were then incubated 24 h at 44°C. Selected isolates of E. coli (n=83) from slurry, soil and lettuce were analysed by PFGE DNA typing for further discrimination. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0-4.5 Log10 E. coli CFU/g and resistant E. coli ranged from 1.0 to 4.4 Log10 E. coli CFU/g with particular high numbers of streptomycin resistant E. coli in conventional pig slurry (field 1) opposed to organic cow slurry (field 2 and 3). E. coli was found in 36-54% of the pooled lettuce samples at the three fields with a detection limit of 10 CFU/g and 10-18% and 0-2% of pools had streptomycin and ampicilin resistant E. coli, respectively. Unexpectedly, the highest percentage of lettuce pools with antibiotic resistant E. coli were found on fields fertilized with organic cow slurry where 0.1-5% of E. coli was resistant opposed to 5-50% resistant E. coli in conventional slurry. Numbers of E. coli in 14-20% of pooled lettuce samples exceeded a satisfactory microbiological hygiene criteria level of 100 CFU/g. The numbers of resistant E. coli for both antibiotics were approximately 10-fold lower than the sensitive E. coli. At the time of harvest, the numbers of E. coli in 5 of 15 soil samples were reduced below the detection limit and no samples exceeded 100 CFU/g, which was in contrast to the lettuce samples, where 20% of faecally contaminated samples contained >100 E. coli/g. This indicates that fecal contamination of crops originated from alternative sources such as contaminated water or wildlife. This was supported by genotyping of E. coli, where half of the 21 PFGE types were found on single occasions in either soil or lettuce, whereas the other half was found both in slurry and lettuce indicating a possible transfer.

  7. Feline Calicivirus, Murine Norovirus, Porcine Sapovirus, and Tulane Virus Survival on Postharvest Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseili, Malak A; Saif, Linda J; Farkas, Tibor; Wang, Qiuhong

    2015-08-01

    Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses, with an increasing number of outbreaks associated with leafy greens. Because HuNoV cannot be routinely cultured, culturable feline calicivirus (FCV), murine norovirus (MNV), porcine sapovirus (SaV), and Tulane virus (TV) have been used as surrogates. These viruses are generated in different cell lines as infected cell lysates, which may differentially affect their stability. Our objective was to uniformly compare the survival of these viruses on postharvest lettuce while evaluating the effects of cell lysates on their survival. Viruses were semipurified from cell lysates by ultrafiltration or ultracentrifugation followed by resuspension in sterile water. Virus survival was examined before and after semipurification: in suspension at room temperature (RT) until day 28 and on lettuce leaves stored at RT for 3 days or at 4°C for 7 and 14 days. In suspension, both methods significantly enhanced the survival of all viruses. On lettuce, the survival of MNV in cell lysates was similar to that in water, under all storage conditions. In contrast, the survival of FCV, SaV, and TV was differentially enhanced, under different storage conditions, by removing cell lysates. Following semipurification, viruses showed similar persistence to each other on lettuce stored under all conditions, with the exception of ultracentrifugation-purified FCV, which showed a higher inactivation rate than MNV at 4°C for 14 days. In conclusion, the presence of cell lysates in viral suspensions underestimated the survivability of these surrogate viruses, while viral semipurification revealed similar survivabilities on postharvest lettuce leaves. PMID:26002891

  8. Simulation of gamma-ray irradiation of lettuce leaves in a 137Cs irradiator using MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation effectively reduces the number of common microbial pathogens in fresh produce. However, the efficacy of the process for pathogens internalized into produce tissue is unknown. The objective of this study was to understand gamma irradiation of lettuce leaf structure exposed in a 137Cs irradiator using MCNP. The simulated 137Cs irradiator is a self-shielded device, and its geometry and sources are described in the MCNP input file. When the irradiation chamber is filled with water, lower doses are found at the center of the irradiation volume and the dose uniformity ratio (maximum dose/minimum dose) is 1.76. For randomly oriented rectangular lettuce leaf segments in the irradiation chamber, the dose uniformity ratio is 1.25. It shows that dose uniformity in the Cs irradiator is strongly dependent of the density of the sample. To understand dose distribution inside the leaf, we divided a lettuce leaf into a low density (flat) region (0.72 g/cm3) and high density (rib) region (0.86 g/cm3). Calculated doses to the rib are 61% higher than doses to the flat region of the leaf. This indicates that internalized microorganisms can be inactivated more easily than organisms on the surface. This study shows that irradiation can effectively reduce viable microorganism internalized in lettuce. (author)

  9. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  10. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  11. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorus sources on mycorrhizal lettuces under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Seguel, Alex; Cornejo, Pablo; Rao, Maria A.; Borie, Fernando

    2010-05-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) develop symbiotic associations with plants roots. These associations are very common in the natural environment and can provide a range of benefits to the host plant. AMF improve nutrition, enhance resistance to soil-borne pests and disease, increase resistance to drought and tolerance to heavy metals, and contribute to a better soil structure. However, agricultural intensive managements, such as the use of mineral fertilizes, pesticides, mouldboard tillage, monocultures and use of non-mycorrhizal crops, are detrimental to AMF. As a consequence, agroecosystems are impoverished in AMF and may not provide the full range of benefits to the crop. Organic farming systems may be less unfavourable to AMF because they exclude the use of water-soluble fertilisers and most pesticides, and generally they plan diverse crop rotations. The AMF develop the most common type of symbiosis in nature: about 90% of the plants are mycorrhizal and many agricultural crops are mycorrhizal. One of more mycorrhizal crops is lettuce, that is very widespread in intensive agricultural under greenhouse. Therefore, cultivated lettuce is know to be responsive to mycorrhizal colonization which can reach 80% of root length and contribute to phosphorus and nitrogen absorption by this plant specie. For this work four different lettuce cultivars (Romana, Milanesa, Grande Lagos and Escarola) were used to study mycorrhization under organic agricultural system, supplying compost from agricultural waste (1 kg m-2) as background fertilization for all plots, red guano as phosphorus source (75 U ha-1 and 150 U ha-1 of P2O5), lupine flour as nitrogen source (75 and 150 U/ha of N) and a combination of both. Lettuce plants were cultivated under greenhouse and after two months of growing, plants were harvested and dried and fresh weight of lettuce roots and shoots were evaluated. The number of spores, percentage of colonization, total mycelium and glomalin content were also evaluated as mycorrhizal parameters. The results showed a different response to mycorrhization of the four lettuce Cvs. In general, mycorrhized lettuce plants had a better response to lower level of nitrogen and phosphorus sources.

  12. Internal distribution of Cd in lettuce and resulting effects on Cd trophic transfer to the snail: Achatina fulica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Cheng; Dang, Fei; Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying Cd trophic transfer along the soil-lettuce-snail food chain were investigated. The fate of Cd within cells, revealed by assessment of Cd chemical forms and of subcellular partitioning, differed between the two examined lettuce species that we examined (L. longifolia and L. crispa). The species-specific internal Cd fate not only influenced Cd burdens in lettuce, with higher Cd levels in L. crispa, but also affected Cd transfer efficiency to the consumer snail (Achatina fulica). Especially, the incorporation of Cd chemical forms (Cd in the inorganic, water-soluble and pectates and protein-integrated forms) in lettuce could best explain Cd trophic transfer, when compared to dietary Cd levels alone and/or subcellular Cd partitioning. Trophically available metal on the subcellular partitioning base failed to shed light on Cd transfer in this study. After 28-d of exposure, most Cd was trapped in the viscera of Achatina fulica, and cadmium bio-magnification was noted in the snails, as the transfer factor of lettuce-to-snail soft tissue was larger than one. This study provides a first step to apply a chemical speciation approach to dictate the trophic bioavailability of Cd through the soil-plant-snail system, which might be an important pre-requisite for mechanistic understanding of metal trophic transfer. PMID:25930053

  13. Effect of abscisic acid on biochemical constituents, enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant status of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. under varied irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Al Muhairi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economically important vegetable crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. of family Asteraceae was selected for the present investigation. It is being cultivated in UAE due to its commercial importance. In lettuce cultivation, the major problem is the requirement of large quantities of irrigation water. The present study was aimed to reduce the water consumption of lettuce cultivation; for that, a varied irrigation regime was used with the application of abscisic acid (ABA. The parameters studied were biochemical constituents, antioxidant potential and antioxidant enzymes’ activities in lettuce plants under drought stress and its response to ABA under stress. Drought stress caused an increase in the biochemical constituents like proline and amino acid contents when compared with control and also increased under individual ABA treatments and treatments under drought stress. The non-enzymatic antioxidant molecules like ascorbate and ?-tocopherol showed significant increase under drought condition in lettuce. ABA slightly reduced these contents. The antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase showed significant increase under drought condition and ABA caused significant enhancement in these antioxidant enzymes under drought stress and also in unstressed conditions, thereby protecting the plants from the deleterious effects of drought stress. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that ABA in 10 mg g?1 can be used as a potential tool to minimise the drought stress effects in lettuce cultivation.

  14. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Salmonella-lettuce interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yuping ZHANG; Nandakumar, Renu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Snow, Daniel D.; Hodges, Laurie; Li, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Human pathogens can internalize food crops through root and surface uptake and persist inside crop plants. The goal of the study was to elucidate the global modulation of bacteria and plant protein expression after Salmonella internalizes lettuce. A quantitative proteomic approach was used to analyse the protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and lettuce cultivar Green Salad Bowl 24 h after infiltrating S. Infantis into lettuce leaves. Among the 50 differentially expressed...

  15. Evidence for Lettuce big-vein associated virus as the causal agent of a syndrome of necrotic rings and spots in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Verbeek, M; Dullemans, A.M.; van Bekkum, P. J.; van der Vlugt, R. A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV, genus Varicosavirus) was shown to be responsible for characteristic necrotic symptoms observed in combination with big-vein symptoms in lettuce breeding lines when tested for their susceptibility to lettuce big-vein disease (BVD) using viruliferous Olpidium virulentus spores in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system. Lettuce plants showing BVD are generally infected by two viruses: Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MiLBVV, genus Ophiovirus) and LBVaV....

  16. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way. PMID:25345876

  17. Potential use of duckweed based anaerobic digester effluent as a feed source for heterotrophic growth of micro-algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, L.; Dupont, R.

    2013-12-01

    Finding an alternative source of energy for the growing world's demand is a challenging task being considered by many scientists. Various types of renewable energy alternatives are being investigated by researchers around the world. The abundance of duckweed (i.e., Lemna and Wolfia sp.) in wetlands and wastewater lagoons, their rapid growth, and their capacity for nutrient, metal and other contaminant removal from wastewater suggests their potential as an inexpensive source of biomass for biofuel production. Another source of biomass for biofuel and energy production is micro-algae. The large-scale growth of micro-algae can potentially be achieved in a smaller footprint and at a higher rate and lower cost via heterotrophic growth compared to autotrophic growth for specific species that can grow under both conditions. Here we describe two types of research. First, two lab-scale, 5 L anaerobic digesters containing municipal raw wastewater that were set up, maintained and monitored over the course of 6 months using duckweed as the feed source. The pH, salinity, amount of gas production and gas composition were measured on a daily basis. The results from these measurements show that duckweed can be used as a good source of biofuel production in the form of methane gas. The second set of reactors consisted of two 1 L batch fed reactors containing algae (Chlorella vulgaris) grown in the lab environment heterotrophically. The pH and DO were monitored on a daily basis in order to investigate their effect on algae growth. Lipid analysis of the harvested algal biomass was done to investigate the efficiency of harvestable biofuel products. A nutrient solution containing glucose as an energy source was used as the initial feed solution, and the potential substitution of the glucose solution with the organic carbon residue from the duckweed digester effluent was investigated. Methane production, carbon stabilization, and gas composition results from the duckweed fed anaerobic digesters, and the growth and biolipid production of heterotrophic micro-algae fed pure substrate versus residual digester effluent carbon are discussed in detail in this study.

  18. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkalec, Mirta [Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: mtkalec@zg.biol.pmf.hr; Malaric, Kresimir [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, Unska 3, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka [Department of Botany, Division of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-12-15

    Widespread use of radiofrequency radiation emitting devices increased the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. Various biological effects of exposure to these fields have been documented so far, but very little work has been carried out on plants. The aim of the present work was to investigate the physiological responses of the plant Lemna minor after exposure to radiofrequency EMFs, and in particular, to clarify the possible role of oxidative stress in the observed effects. Duckweed was exposed for 2 h to EMFs of 400 and 900 MHz at field strengths of 10, 23, 41 and 120 V m{sup -1}. The effect of a longer exposure time (4 h) and modulation was also investigated. After exposure, parameters of oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content, activities and isoenzyme pattern of antioxidative enzymes as well as HSP70 expression were evaluated. At 400 MHz, lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content were significantly enhanced in duckweed exposed to EMFs of 23 and 120 V m{sup -1} while other exposure treatments did not have an effect. Compared to the controls, the activities of antioxidative enzymes showed different behaviour: catalase (CAT) activity increased after most exposure treatments while pyrogallol (PPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities were not changed. Exceptions were reduced PPX and APX activity after longer exposure at 23 V m{sup -1} and increased PPX activity after exposures at 10 and 120 V m{sup -1}. By contrast, at 900 MHz almost all exposure treatments significantly increased level of lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content but mostly decreased PPX activity and did not affect CAT activity. Exceptions were exposures to a modulated field and to the field of 120 V m{sup -1} which increased PPX and CAT activity. At this frequency APX activity was significantly decreased after exposure at 10 V m{sup -1} and longer exposure at 23 V m{sup -1} but it increased after a shorter exposure at 23 V m{sup -1}. At both frequencies no differences in isoenzyme patterns of antioxidative enzymes or HSP70 level were found between control and exposed plants. Our results showed that non-thermal exposure to investigated radiofrequency fields induced oxidative stress in duckweed as well as unspecific stress responses, especially of antioxidative enzymes. However, the observed effects markedly depended on the field frequencies applied as well as on other exposure parameters (strength, modulation and exposure time). Enhanced lipid peroxidation and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} content accompanied by diminished antioxidative enzymes activity caused by exposure to investigated EMFs, especially at 900 MHz, indicate that oxidative stress could partly be due to changed activities of antioxidative enzymes.

  19. Use of Propolis in the Sanitization of Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xesús Feás

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of propolis in reducing the microbial load in ready-to-eat (RTE and fresh whole head (FWH lettuces (Lactuca sativa L. type Batavia. Two sanitizing solutions were employed: sodium hypochlorite (SH and propolis (PS, during 15 and 30 min. Tap water (TW was used as a control. Regarding the mean reduction on aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic and fecal coliforms, the SH and PS treatments showed the same pattern of variation. In all cases, PS was slightly more effective in the microbiological reduction in comparison with commercial SH. Reductions between two and three log cycles were obtained with PS on aerobic mesophiles and psychrotrophic counts. The information obtained in the present study can be used to evaluate the potential use of propolis as product for sanitizing other vegetables and for developing other food preservation technologies, with impact on human health.

  20. Effects of compost tea treatments on productivity of lettuce and kohlrabi systems under organic cropping management

    OpenAIRE

    Catello Pane; Assunta Maria Palese; Giuseppe Celano; Massimo Zaccardelli

    2014-01-01

    The use of compost tea (CT) is becoming interesting for applications in organic agriculture. CTs are oxygenated extracts of compost that give positive effects on the crops because contain bioactive molecules and microorganisms that improve plant growth and health. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of CTs applied as foliar spray and drenching, respectively, on kohlrabi and lettuce cultivation. The CT tested here was originated by an aerated water-extraction of two artichoke an...

  1. Bovine biofertilizer and irrigation layers on lettuce development and leaf chlorophyll

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Aparecida Chiconato; João Antonio Galbiatti; Walter Maldonado Junior; Claudenir Facincani Franco; Anaira Denise Caramelo

    2014-01-01

    It is necessary and urgent the search by sources of organic fertilizer and decrease the consumption of water for irrigation. In the context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the use of bovine biofertilizers incorporated into the soil and of the irrigation in the development of lettuce. The research was developed, using an experimental design in randomized blocks, factorial scheme 6x2, with six levels of fertilization (4 doses of bovine biofertilizer and two wit...

  2. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mara Lígia Biazotto, Bachelli; Rívia Darla Álvares, Amaral; Benedito Carlos, Benedetti.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethane [...] s from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L-1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L-1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L-1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L-1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 ºC with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 µm. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days.

  3. Alternative sanitization methods for minimally processed lettuce in comparison to sodium hypochlorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelli, Mara Lígia Biazotto; Amaral, Rívia Darla Álvares; Benedetti, Benedito Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce is a leafy vegetable widely used in industry for minimally processed products, in which the step of sanitization is the crucial moment for ensuring a safe food for consumption. Chlorinated compounds, mainly sodium hypochlorite, are the most used in Brazil, but the formation of trihalomethanes from this sanitizer is a drawback. Then, the search for alternative methods to sodium hypochlorite has been emerging as a matter of great interest. The suitability of chlorine dioxide (60 mg L?1/10 min), peracetic acid (100 mg L?1/15 min) and ozonated water (1.2 mg L?1 /1 min) as alternative sanitizers to sodium hypochlorite (150 mg L?1 free chlorine/15 min) were evaluated. Minimally processed lettuce washed with tap water for 1 min was used as a control. Microbiological analyses were performed in triplicate, before and after sanitization, and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 days of storage at 2 ± 1 °C with the product packaged on LDPE bags of 60 ?m. It was evaluated total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., psicrotrophic and mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds. All samples of minimally processed lettuce showed absence of E. coli and Salmonella spp. The treatments of chlorine dioxide, peracetic acid and ozonated water promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1 and 0.7 log cycle, respectively, on count of microbial load of minimally processed product and can be used as substitutes for sodium hypochlorite. These alternative compounds promoted a shelf-life of six days to minimally processed lettuce, while the shelf-life with sodium hypochlorite was 12 days. PMID:24516433

  4. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOAVAILABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  5. Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the most popular leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly in moderate climate. Consumers demand lettuce with good visual appearance and free of disease. Improved disease resistance of new cultivars is achieved by combining desirable genes (or alleles) from existing cu...

  6. USE OF PELLETED LETTUCE SEEDS IN BIOABAILABILITY STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Latuca sativa L., cv. Buttercrunch) is one of the most common and sensitive test organisms, among plants, used in toxicology and bioavailability studies. Much of the available lettuce seeds in commercial channels are pelleted to allow for precision machine planting. Th...

  7. Effect of nitrogen nutrition on growth and nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), under various conditions of radiation and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A better understanding of the effect of environmental factors on growth and nitrate accumulation in plants is necessary to develop cultivation practices, and in particular for providing lettuces with a low nitrate content. This study was conducted to analyse the effect of nitrogen supply on the interception and conversion of the PAR in dry matter, and on the nitrate and water accumulations in fresh tissues of the lettuce, for various conditions of temperature and radiation. The growth, and water and nitrate concentrations of two soilless cultures of lettuce (summer and autumn) were measured for two levels of radiation and two levels of nitrogen supply. RUE ranged from 2.12 to 3.50 gMJ-1, being higher for a low radiation level and for a high nitrogen supply. There was a positive correlation between the lettuce nitrate and water contents. The slope of this relationship was not affected by environmental conditions, indicating a strong interdependance between nitrate and water accumulation in lettuce. (author)

  8. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical. PMID:25719871

  9. Effects of compost tea treatments on productivity of lettuce and kohlrabi systems under organic cropping management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catello Pane

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of compost tea (CT is becoming interesting for applications in organic agriculture. CTs are oxygenated extracts of compost that give positive effects on the crops because contain bioactive molecules and microorganisms that improve plant growth and health. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of CTs applied as foliar spray and drenching, respectively, on kohlrabi and lettuce cultivation. The CT tested here was originated by an aerated water-extraction of two artichoke and fennel composts. CT treatments considerably improved crop yields. CT, in fact, increased lettuce and kohlrabi commercial yields higher 24% and 32%, respectively. Due to CT, the physiological and nutritional status of the plants increased, as noticed by foliar chlorophyll content assessment measured during crop cycles. The results provided encouraging indications about the practical application of CT in horticultural organic farming system.

  10. The morphology, physiology and nutritional quality of lettuce grown under hypobaria and hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Gao, Feng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Li, Fang

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this research were to investigate the morphological, physiological and nutritional characteristics of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Rome) under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions. Plants were grown under two levels of total pressures (101 and 30 kPa) and three levels of oxygen partial pressures (21, 6 and 2 kPa) for 20 days. Hypoxia (6 or 2 kPa) not only significantly inhibited the growth of lettuce plants by decreasing biomass, leaf area, root/shoot ratio, water content, the contents of minerals and organic compounds (vitamin C, crude protein and crude fat), but also destroyed the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast. The activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of glutathione and the total antioxidant capacity significantly decreased due to hypoxia. Hypobaria (30 kPa) did not markedly enhance the biomass, but it increased leaf area, root/shoot ratio and relative water content. Hypobaria also decreased the contents of total phenols, malondialdehyde and total carbohydrate and protected the ultrastructure of mitochondria and chloroplast under hypoxia. Furthermore, the activities of catalase and total superoxide dismutase, the contents of minerals and organic compounds markedly increased under hypobaria. This study demonstrates that hypobaria (30 kPa) does not increase the growth of lettuce plants, but it enhances plant's stress resistance and nutritional quality under hypoxia.

  11. Sanitation and design of lettuce coring knives for minimizing Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Millner, Patricia; Feng, Hao

    2012-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of ultrasound in combination with chlorine on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations on lettuce coring knives. Two new coring devices designed to mitigate pathogen attachment were fabricated and evaluated. The coring rings of the knives were dip inoculated with soil slurry containing 10? E. coli cells and treated with chlorinated water with and without ultrasonication for 30, 60, and 120 s. The rough welding joints on currently used in-field lettuce coring knives provided a site conducive to bacterial attachment and resistant to cell removal during sanitation treatment. The two modified coring knives harbored significantly fewer E. coli cells than did the currently used commercial model, and the efficacy of the disinfection treatment was high (P welding joint within 30 s in 1 ppm of chlorinated water. The redesigned coring knives and an ultrasound plus chlorine combination treatment may provide practical options for minimizing the microbial safety hazards of lettuce processed by core-in-field operations. PMID:22410232

  12. Response of Listeria monocytogenes-inoculated leafy salad vegetables following irradiation and refrigerated storage under modified atmosphere. Section 3. Studies on the irradiation destruct values for Shigella Sonnie in liquids or on fresh produce, Salmonella and Escherichia Coli O157:H7 on sprouts and post irradiation survival and growth of indigenous microflora on vegetable sprouts and on warm or cold water-washed cut Iceberg Lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consumption of contaminated fresh produce with Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Shigella sonnie resulted in confirmed food-borne outbreaks in the United States and elsewhere. Irradiation destruct values of the produce related isolates are not known and were determined after being inoculated on fresh lettuce or sprouts using a gamma source. The resulting destruct values for Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella sonnie were 0.46 ± 0.02, 0.30 ± 0.02, and 0.24 ± 0.03 kGy, respectively. These values are comparable with the published values for the meat-related food-borne isolates. Ionizing irradiation was used as an intervention to reduce the indigenous microbial populations on fresh sprouts and cut lettuce washed in 5 and 47 deg. C water. Microbiological profiles were monitored during refrigerated (4 deg. C) storage and analysed each week for up to three weeks to determine the keeping quality. Regardless of the initial background, after irradiating to 2 kGy, a two log reduction was observed for the total aerobic and coliform counts on the sprouts or lettuce samples. During storage the bacterial counts of the irradiated samples increased but not to the level of the non-irradiated samples. The results indicate that a 2 kGy dose improved the microbial keeping quality of the fresh produce, inhibited microbial spoilage and achieved a 5 log reduction for both the E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella sonnie. The reduced bacterial counts would also provide a margin of safety by also reducing food-borne pathogen levels. (author)

  13. MU06-857, a Green Leaf Lettuce Breeding Line with Resistance to Leafminer and Lettuce Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture announces the release of a breeding line of green leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with resistance to leafminers (Liriomyza langei Frick) and lettuce mosaic. The line MU06-857 is similar to cultivar ‘Lolla Rossa’ (‘Lollo Ros...

  14. Media Effects on Lettuce Growth in "Pillows" Designed for the VEGGIE Spaceflight Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Newsham, Gerard; McCoy, LaShelle; Stutte, Gary; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    VEGGIE is a prototype vegetable production unit for space designed by Orbital Technologies Corporation that is being developed to fly on the International Space Station. A modular plant rooting system "pillow" is being designed to support plant growth in VEGGIE under microgravity conditions. VEGGIE pillows are small self-contained packets of media with time-release fertilizer that can wick water passively from a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in pillows and the entire root system of a plant is contained as the crop develops, preventing loss into the spacecraft cabin. This study compared five media types and three lettuce cultivars in pillows growing in a VEGGIE analog environment.. Media consisted of a peat-based potting mix (Fafard #2,Conrad Fafard Inc., Agawam, MA), and a calcined clay, (arcillite, 1-2 mm sifted, Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove IL) as well as three different blends of the two, 70:30, 50:50, and 30:70. Lettuce cultivars tested were 'Sierra', a bi-colored French crisp Batavia lettuce, 'Outredgeous', a red romaine lettuce and 'Flandria', a green butter head variety. Plants were grown for 28 days, harvested, biometric data was obtained, and tissue mineral analysis was performed. For all cultivars, lettuce plants grown in the media blends were more productive than those in the individual media types. All cultivars showed bell-shaped curves in response to increases in arcillite / decreases in Fafard #2 for leaf area, fresh, and dry mass. Plants in 100% Fafard #2 and in 100% arcillite were stunted, but only those in higher levels of Fafard #2 (70% and 100%) had reduced shoot percent moisture, possibly indicating that mechanisms causing stunting differed. Variation in tissue nutrient content are consistent with this, with Mg and Mn highest in plants grown in 100% Fafard and decreasing as the concentration of arcillite increased. Color also varied with media, especially in the 'Sierra' lettuce, with plants grown in increasing levels of Fafard #2 being much more red and those in 100% arcillite almost completely green. The red-leaf cultivar 'Outredgeous' showed increasing chlorophyll (SPAD values) with increasing percentage of arcillite. In all cultivars tested it appears that a mixture of media types, usually 50:50 or 30:70 Fafard #2: arcillite, sustained healthier, more productive plants. Smaller, less productive plants in either of the individual media may indicate stress issues, however more work is needed to understand the reasons for this sub-optimal growth. This work was supported by NASA

  15. Growth of Three Lettuce Cultivars in NASA's HDU PEM During the 2010 DRATS Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Wheeler, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    NASA's 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. Rooting media and slow release fertilizers were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that had shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. These tests involved comparing growth, color and quality of the lettuce cultivars grown under VEGGIE LED array (Orbitec, Madison, WI) or Biomass Production System for Education ((BSEe), Orbitec, Madison, WI) compact fluorescent lamps using a gravity feed water delivery system. Mission relevant conditions of CO2, temperature and RH were maintained using controlled environment chambers (EGC, Chagrin Falls, OH). Growth data was obtained for the two red leaf lettuce cultivars, Outredgeous and Firecracker, and the green Bibb lettuce cultivar, Flandria. Growth and quality was evaluated using different concentrations (7.5 g/L and 15 g/L) of commercial slow release fertilizer (Osmocote Plus 15-9-12, Scotts, Maryville, OH) and Nutricote 18-6-8 (Florikan, Sarasota, FL) in either a peat/vermiculite media (sunshine LP5 MiX, Sungro, Bellview, WA) or calcined montmorillonite clay [(arcillite,)Turface Proleague, Profile LLC, Buffalo Grove, IL]. The commercial peat/vermiculite mix generally resulted in larger plants than those grown in arcillite. Increasing the concentration of Osmocote from 7.5 to 15 g/L increased the height, dry mass, and leaf area of lettuce cultivars. In contrast, there was a decrease in growth parameters when concentration of Nutricote was increased from 7.5 to 15 g/L. The best growth was obtained with the 7.5 g/L Nutricote using a commercial peat/vermiculite mixture. This media was used for field testing VEGGIE plant system in the 2010 DRAT test. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the 14-day test. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the pressurized excursion module. Data are being used to design a plant atrium with LED lighting to evaluate salad crop growth during NASA's 2011 DRATS test.

  16. Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams for the management of lettuce infected with Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Viggiano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams during seedling production of vegetable crops can be an efficient approach to control root-knot nematode. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating seedlings and/or soil with bionematicide (wettable powder formulation based on chlamydospores from isolate Pc-10 on the Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 control in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Isolate Pc-10 was diluted in water and applied when watering the seedlings (0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0 g L-1 and/or to the potted soil (5000 chlamydospores g-1 used for growing lettuce. The soil in each pot was infested with 3000 M. javanica eggs. The number of M. javanica eggs was reduced in lettuce roots when isolate Pc-10 was applied either to seedlings or soil; there was no interaction between application methods. The decrease in the number of eggs was proportional to the increase of isolate Pc-10 applied to seedlings with maximum reduction of 43.5% at the 18 g L-1 dose. When the fungus was applied to the soil, the number of eggs was reduced by 12.3%. Increasing doses of isolate Pc-10 reduced the number of galls up to 21% with the 18 g L-1 dose. Applying bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 at 18 g L-1 on seedlings controls M. javanica in lettuce.

  17. To duckweeds (Landoltia punctata), nanoparticulate copper oxide is more inhibitory than the soluble copper in the bulk solution

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jiyan; Abid, Aamir D.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Hristova, Krassimira R.; Silk, Wendy K.

    2011-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NP) were synthesized in a hydrogen diffusion flame. Particle size and morphology were characterized using scanning mobility particle sizing, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The solubility of CuO-NP varied with both pH and presence of other ions. CuO-NP and comparable doses of soluble Cu were applied to duckweeds, Landoltia punctata. Growth was inhibited 50% by either 0.6 mg L?1 soluble copper or by 1.0 mg ...

  18. Study of Water Quality of Recirculated Water in Aquaponic Systems : Study of speciation of selected metals and characterization of the properties of natural organic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gjesteland, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes an extensive study on how water quality changes over time in a small scale recirculating system where waste water from smolt production was used to grow lettuce for commercial use. The treatment effect of lettuce on different solutions was tested and corresponding lettuce yield was evaluated. In order to enhance the treatment effect a rock wool filter was used on certain solutions. Important water quality parameters were measured every day, and the element concentration ...

  19. Ethylene evolution and endo-b-mannanase activity during lettuce seed germination at high temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures during lettuce seed imbibition can delay or completely inhibit germination and the endosperm layer appears to restrict the radicle protrusion. The role of endo-beta-mannanase during lettuce seed germination at 35°C and the influence of ethylene in endo-beta-mannanase regulation were investigated. Seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB and 'Everglades' (EVE were germinated in water, or 10 mmol L-1 of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, or 10 mmol L-1 of aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, or 20 mmol L-1 of silver thiosulphate (STS. Seeds were also primed in polyethylene glycol (PEG, or PEG + ACC, PEG + AVG, or PEG + STS. Untreated seeds germinated 100% at 20°C. At 35°C, EVE seeds germinated 100%, whereas DGB seeds germinated only 33%. Seed priming or adding ACC during incubation increased germination at 35°C. Higher ethylene evolution was detected in EVE than in DGB during germination at 35°C. AVG did not inhibit seed germination of DGB at 35°C, but STS did. Higher endo-beta-mannanase activity was observed in EVE compared with DGB seeds. Providing ACC either during priming or during germination increased endo-beta-mannanase activity, whereas AVG and STS led to decreased or no activity. Ethylene may overcome the inhibitory effect of high temperature in thermosensitive lettuce seeds due to increased endo-beta-mannanase, possibly leading to weakening of the endosperm.

  20. Use of polishing pond effluents to cultivate lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, R; Perin, K; Souza, W G; Cruz, L S; Zandonade, E; Cassini, S T A; Goncalves, R F

    2008-01-01

    The sanitary quality and productivity of hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions and treated with effluent from anaerobic reactor + polishing pond followed by physical-chemical treatment was evaluated. Two hydroponic cultivations were performed at summer and winter time at Vitoria-ES, Brazil. The treatments for both cultivations were: T1) conventional nutrient solution, T2) effluent from physical-chemical treatment, T3) effluent from polishing pond, and T4) effluent from polishing pond with 50% dilution. The plants were evaluated for microbial contamination, productivity and nutrient content. In all cases, no significant microbial contamination of lettuce was detected and the levels of macronutrients in the shoot system were similar to those in published reports. In the experiments from summer season, the treatments T1 and T2 resulted in higher production than the T3 and T4 treatments. Plants from T3 and T4 had a less developed root system as a result of reduced oxygenation from competition with the higher algae biomass content from the polishing pond effluent. In the winter season, the effect of the algal biomass was pronounced only in the T3 treatment (undiluted effluent from polishing pond). In conclusion, hydroponic cultivation of lettuce with pond effluent is suitable as a complement to water and nutrients for plants. PMID:19039187

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on lettuce growth in floating hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, E; Both, A J; Albright, L D; Langhans, R W; Leed, A R

    1996-12-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv. Ostinata) growth experiments were carried out to study the effect of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on plant growth in a floating hydroponic system. Pure O2 and N2 gas were supplied to the hydroponic system for precise DO control. This system made it easy to increase the DO concentration beyond the maximum (or saturation) concentration possible when bubbling air into water. Eleven day old lettuce seedlings were grown for 24 days under various DO concentrations: sub-saturated, saturated, and super-saturated. There was no significant difference in fresh weight, shoot and root dry weights among the DO concentrations: 2.1 (25% of saturated at 24 degrees C), 4.2 (50%), 8.4 (saturated), and 16.8 (200%) mg/L. The critical DO concentration for vigorous lettuce growth was considered to be lower than 2.1 mg/L. Neither root damage nor delay of shoot growth was observed at any of the studied DO concentrations. PMID:11541573

  2. De novo assembly and characterization of germinating lettuce seed transcriptome using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Jun; Song, Shun-Hua; Wang, Wei-Qing; Song, Song-Quan

    2015-11-01

    At supraoptimal temperature, germination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds exhibits a typical germination thermoinhibition, which can be alleviated by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in a nitric oxide-dependent manner. However, the molecular mechanism of seed germination thermoinhibition and its alleviation by SNP are poorly understood. In the present study, the lettuce seeds imbibed at optimal temperature in water or at supraoptimal temperature with or without 100 ?M SNP for different periods of time were used as experimental materials, the total RNA was extracted and sequenced, we gained 147,271,347 raw reads using Illumina paired-end sequencing technique and assembled the transcriptome of germinating lettuce seeds. A total of 51,792 unigenes with a mean length of 849 nucleotides were obtained. Of these unigenes, a total of 29,542 unigenes were annotated by sequence similarity searching in four databases, NCBI non-redundant protein database, SwissProt protein database, euKaryotic Ortholog Groups database, and NCBI nucleotide database. Among the annotated unigenes, 22,276 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology database. When all the annotated unigenes were searched against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database, a total of 8,810 unigenes were mapped to 5 main categories including 260 pathways. We first obtained a lot of unigenes encoding proteins involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in lettuce, including 11 ABA receptors, 94 protein phosphatase 2Cs and 16 sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases. These results will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism of seed germination, thermoinhibition of seed germination and its alleviation by SNP. PMID:26263518

  3. Tobacco streak virus Isolated from Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Abtahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco streak virus (TSV is an ilarvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus infects many plants and causes significant yield losses. In this study, 300 samples of lettuce were collected from lettuce fields in Tehran Province. Infected plants show symptoms such as: mosaic, vein clearing, vein necrosis, yellowing and leaf distortion. DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich-ELISA was used with a polyclonal antiserum against TSV. Five isolates (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, which are collected, respectively from Mohammad Abad (Karaj, Malek Abad (Karaj, Hashtgerd (Karaj, Tarand Balla (Varamin and Deh mah sin (Pishva were inoculated on 29 species of Cucurbitaceae, Amaranthaceae, Solanacea, Compositae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiacea. Chenopodium quinoa 6 days after inoculation showed necrotic local lesions. Gomphrena globosa 10 days after inoculation developed chlorotic local lesions. Systemic symptoms were produced in Datura stramonium. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney 5 days after inoculation developed necrotic local lesions. Nicotiana tabacum 7 days after inoculation showed necrotic and chlorotic local lesions. Nicotiana clevelandii 15 days after inoculation developed leaf distortion and vein necrosis. Lactuca sativa 10-15 days after inoculation developed leaf istortion and mosaic. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR was performed using one primer pairs designed by DSMZ. An approximately 710 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer.

  4. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental United...continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of...via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. DATES: Effective...

  5. Effects of nickel on the chloroplasts of the duckweeds Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna minor and their possible use in biomonitoring and phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, K-J; Krech, K; Keresztes, A; Fischer, W; Koloczek, H

    2010-01-01

    Toxic effects of Ni(2+) on the chloroplasts of the two duckweed species Spirodela polyrhiza, clone SJ and Lemna minor, clone St were investigated according to the ISO 20079 protocol. Ni(2+) induced a transition from chloroplasts to chloro-amyloplasts and amylo-chloroplasts, but not to gerontoplasts, as shown by electron microscopy. The contents of the chlorophylls a and b decreased strongly, whereas that of carotenoids remained approximately constant. Most striking was, however, the accumulation of transitory starch. Bell-shaped dose-response curves showed that Spirodela and Lemna amassed maximum starch contents of approximately 10% and 7%, respectively, on a fresh weight basis. Because Ni(2+) in the concentrations applied does not stimulate photosynthesis, the Ni(2+)-induced starch accumulation indicates that the export of carbohydrates out of the plastids decreased, most probably due to the lower demand of the rest of the cells as a result of the Ni(2+)-dependent inhibition of growth. The half-maximal concentrations for inhibition of the fresh weight increase over the 7-day test period were 3.7 microM and 6.6 microM for Spirodela and Lemna, respectively: Spirodela was thus somewhat more sensitive to the heavy metal. Both species accumulated approximately 3g of Ni(2+) per kg of dry weight after application of 100 microM NiCl(2). Because of their high sensitivity to phytotoxic effects, however, Spirodela and Lemna do not appear to be particularly suitable for phytoremediation of Ni(2+)-contaminated waste water. The high sensitivity to Ni(2+) makes them instead a suitable system for ecotoxicological testing in accordance with the ISO 20079 protocol. PMID:19945735

  6. Preliminary investigations of the rhizosphere nature of hydroponically grown lettuces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Inês; Paille, Christel; Lasseur, Christophe

    Due to capabilities of current launchers, future manned exploration beyond the Earth orbit will imply long journeys and extended stays on planet surfaces. For this reason, it is of a great importance to develop a Regenerative Life Support System that enables the crew to be, to a very large extent, metabolic consumables self-sufficient. In this context, the European Space Agency, associated with a scientific and engineering con-sortium, initiated in 1989 the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project. This concept, inspired on a terrestrial ecosystem (i.e. a lake), comprises five intercon-nected compartments inhabited by micro-organisms and higher-plants aiming to produce food, fresh water, and oxygen from organic waste, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Given the important role of the higher-plant compartment for the consumption of carbon dioxide and the production of oxygen, potable water, and food, it was decided to study the microbial communities present in the root zone of the plants (i.e. the rhizosphere), and their synergistic and antagonistic influences in the plant growth. This understanding is important for later investigations concerning the technology involved in the higher plant compartment, since the final goal is to integrate this compartment inside the MELiSSA loop and to guarantee a healthy and controlled environment for the plants to grow under reduced-gravity conditions. To perform a preliminary assessment of the microbial populations of the root zone, lettuces were grown in a hydroponic system and their growth was characterized in terms of nutrient uptake, plant diameter, and plant wet and dry weights. In parallel, the microbial population, bacteria and fungi, present in the hydroponic medium and also inside and outside the roots were analyzed in terms of quantity and nature. The goal of this presentation is to give a preliminary review in the plant root zone of the micro-organisms communities and as well their proportions. The collected information will then be correlated to each phase of the growth of the lettuces and to the results for the corresponding growth parameters. This will enable characterization of the microbial communities in the rhizosphere and the understanding of how these populations influence each phase of the plant growth. Conclusions are proposed for further investigations.

  7. Lettuce achene invigoration through osmopriming at supraoptimal temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of osmopriming on lettuce achene invigoration at supra optimal temperature (35degreeC) was investigated in the present study. Osmopriming of lettuce achene with KNO/sub 3/ (0.25%, 0.5% and 1%), CaCl/sub 2/ (15 mM, 25 mM, 50 mM) and PEG 8000 (0.1 g/ml H/sub 2/O, 0.2 g/ml H/sub 2/O, 0.3g/ml H/sub 2/O) alleviated thermodormancy and improved lettuce achene's vigor. Moreover, priming significantly improved final germination % age, energy of germination, germination index, shoot length, root length, vigor index and reduced mean germination time and time taken to 50% germination, as compared to control, when seeds were subjected to supra-optimal germination environments. It can be concluded that osmopriming can act as effective tool to invigorate lettuce seeds at supra optimal temperature. (author)

  8. Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) for Miniature Hydroponic Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Lazaro; Teresita Amore; Kent Kobayashi

    2013-01-01

    There is growing concern about food safety, environmental impact, and efficient energy usage in agricultural production systems. Producing lettuce under artificial lighting could be a solution addressing these concerns. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) offer the advantages of a narrow light spectrum, low power consumption, and little heat production. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different light sources on the growth of miniature “Tom Thumb” butterhead lettuce in a ...

  9. First report of Meloidogyne arenaria parasitizing lettuce in southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo, Pablo; Landa, Blanca B.; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Vovlas, Nicola; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.

    2006-01-01

    During the 2005-2006 autumn to winter lettuce-growing (Lactuca sativa cv. Iceberg) season, severely stunted and yellowing lettuce plants with disease incidence ranging from 80 to 100% were observed in four commercial, fall-sown fields at Almodóvar del Río (Córdoba Province) in southern Spain. Early symptoms consisted of severely reduced growth of the plants that continued with extensive leaf yellowing and the absence of tight-head formation. Attacks by the disease were estimated to cause near...

  10. Silencing the lettuce homologs of small rubber particle protein does not influence natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Romit; Qu, Yang; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2015-05-01

    Natural rubber, cis-1,4-polyisoprene, is an important raw material in chemical industries, but its biosynthetic mechanism remains elusive. Natural rubber is known to be synthesized in rubber particles suspended in laticifer cells in the Brazilian rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis). In the rubber tree, rubber elongation factor (REF) and its homolog, small rubber particle protein (SRPP), were found to be the most abundant proteins in rubber particles, and they have been implicated in natural rubber biosynthesis. As lettuce (Lactuca sativa) can synthesize natural rubber, we utilized this annual, transformable plant to examine in planta roles of the lettuce REF/SRPP homologs by RNA interference. Among eight lettuce REF/SRPP homologs identified, transcripts of two genes (LsSRPP4 and LsSRPP8) accounted for more than 90% of total transcripts of REF/SRPP homologs in lettuce latex. LsSRPP4 displays a typical primary protein sequence as other REF/SRPP, while LsSRPP8 is twice as long as LsSRPP4. These two major LsSRPP transcripts were individually and simultaneously silenced by RNA interference, and relative abundance, polymer molecular weight, and polydispersity of natural rubber were analyzed from the LsSRPP4- and LsSRPP8-silenced transgenic lettuce. Despite previous data suggesting the implications of REF/SRPP in natural rubber biosynthesis, qualitative and quantitative alterations of natural rubber could not be observed in transgenic lettuce lines. It is concluded that lettuce REF/SRPP homologs are not critically important proteins in natural rubber biosynthesis in lettuce. PMID:25553584

  11. Lead and Cadmium Concentration in Agricultural Crops (Lettuce, Cabbage, Beetroot, and Onion of Isfahan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mohajer

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that although most of the sampling plants were contaminated with lead and cadmium, the estimated daily intake of each metal (EDI showed that except lead in lettuce, other crops have EDI below the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI recommended by the Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. In order to better management, preventing pollution and also finding the origin of elements, analyzing heavy metals content in soil, water, and dust of this region is recommended.

  12. Irradiation of lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L.): microbiological and sensory aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing demand for fresh foods have stimulated the marketing of minimally processed vegetables. However, these products maintain most of their natural microbiota even after being sanitized, including pathogenic microorganisms. Refrigerated storage allows the growth of psychotropic microorganisms and among them the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. The ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes may represent a risk to pregnant women and their fetuses and to immunocompromised people. Non-thermal alternative processes for food preservation, such as irradiation, can reduce pathogenic and spoilage microorganism populations without impairing substantial changes in sensory, physical or chemical attributes. The aims of this research were to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on L. monocytogenes artificially inoculated on minimally processed lettuce, to evaluate its effect on lettuce leaves through acceptance sensory test and to determine the irradiated vegetable shelf life through sensory and microbiological tests. A mixture of 4 types of lettuce (Iceberg, Boston, Loose-leaf and Red loose-leaf) were artificially inoculated with L. monocytogenes (7 log UFC/g lettuce) and then exposed to 0.3; 0.6; 0.9 and 1.2 kGy, under refrigeration. The DlO values for L. monocytogenes varied fram 0.18 to 0.21 kGy. Sensory and microbiological tests indicated that the shelf life of Iceberg lettuce stored at 7 deg C was 5 and 7 days for the irradiated and non-irradiated samples, respectively, and for the irradiated and non-irradiated Loose-leaf lettuce samples were 10 days. For the non-irradiated Boston sample, the shelf life was 3 days and for the Irradiated 7 days. Red loose-leaf showed 5 and 4 days of shelf lives for the irradiated and non-irradiated, respectively. Irradiated samples presented better microbiological quality than non-irradiated ones. The irradiation is feasible process to improve quality and safety of lettuce leaves. (author)

  13. Evaluating the Efficiency of Lettuce Disinfection According to the Official Protocol in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    B Nomanpour; Mubedi, I; A Shahsavani; Pourmand, MR. (PhD); M Yunesian; M Yarahmadi; K. Naddafi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Sanitization of Lettuce according to the protocols set forth by Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education for reducing populations of total coliform, fecal coliform, and helminth eggs present on lettuce.Methods: In the present study, we determined the load of total coliform, fecal coliform, and parasites of lettuce. The lettuce was sanitized by protocol of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The proto...

  14. Effects of Biogas byproducts “three-dimensional” Fertilization on Yield and Quality of Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Hairong Yuan; Xin Huang; Xiujin Li; Libin Tian; Chao Zhu; Dexun Zou

    2014-01-01

    Effect of three-dimension fertilizing mode (3-DFM) using CO2 and liquid/solid fractions of the digesate from anaerobic digester was investigated in quality and yield of lettuce. CO2, solid fraction of digestate (SFD), and liquid fraction of digestate (LFD) were used as fertilizer for gaseous fertilizer, the base fertilizer, and foliar fertilizer, respectively. The result showed that the 3-DFM was appropriate for lettuce. Lettuce’s plant height, width and number of leaves growth amount were 29...

  15. INFLUENCE OF A PERIOD OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING ON FORMATION OF LETTUCE SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abyan M. V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a research of reaction of seedlings of lettuce on light duration with sodium lamps when grown in a greenhouse. It was shown that in winter conditions of the Krasnodar Region the intensity of natural light to produce quality seedlings of lettuce is insufficient and additional lighting has a significant influence on the morphology of lettuce seedlings

  16. Antimicrobial activity of oregano oil on iceberg lettuce with different attachment conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the antimicrobial activity of oregano oil was investigated under different attachment conditions of Salmonella spp. to iceberg lettuce. Inoculated lettuce was either not dried or dried for 30 min, 60 min or 120 min, under either static air or moving air. Washing iceberg lettuce with 5...

  17. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic / Avaliação do potencial de Pistia stratiotes L. (alface d'água) para a bioindicação e fitorremediação de ambientes aquáticos contaminados com arsênio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FS, Farnese; JA, Oliveira; FS, Lima; GA, Leão; GS, Gusman; LC, Silva.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Espécimes de Pistia stratiotes foram submetidos a cinco concentrações de arsênio (As), durante sete dias. Crescimento, absorção de As, concentração de malondialdeído (MDA), pigmentos fotossintéticos, atividades enzimáticas, concentração de aminoácidos e alterações anatômicas foram avaliadas. O acúmu [...] lo de As pelas plantas aumentou com o incremento do metaloide na solução, enquanto que a taxa de crescimento e o teor de pigmentos fotossintéticos diminuiu. O conteúdo MDA aumentou, indicando estresse oxidativo. A atividade de enzimas antioxidantes e os teores de aminoácidos aumentaram nas doses mais baixas de As, declinando nas concentrações mais elevadas. Nas folhas foram observados clorose e necrose. As folhas apresentaram acumulação de amido e aumento da espessura do mesofilo. No sistema radicular houve perda e escurecimento das raízes. Camadas de células formadas nos pontos de inserção da raiz podem ter sido responsáveis pela queda das raízes. Estes resultados indicam que a alface da água apresenta potencial para bioindicação e fitorremediação de ambientes aquáticos contaminados com As. Abstract in english Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As) for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical changes were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased wit [...] h increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  18. Evaluation of the potential of Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) for bioindication and phytoremediation of aquatic environments contaminated with arsenic / Avaliação do potencial de Pistia stratiotes L. (alface d'água) para a bioindicação e fitorremediação de ambientes aquáticos contaminados com arsênio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    FS, Farnese; JA, Oliveira; FS, Lima; GA, Leão; GS, Gusman; LC, Silva.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Espécimes de Pistia stratiotes foram submetidos a cinco concentrações de arsênio (As), durante sete dias. Crescimento, absorção de As, concentração de malondialdeído (MDA), pigmentos fotossintéticos, atividades enzimátic [...] as, concentração de aminoácidos e alterações anatômicas foram avaliadas. O acúmulo de As pelas plantas aumentou com o incremento do metaloide na solução, enquanto que a taxa de crescimento e o teor de pigmentos fotossintéticos diminuiu. O conteúdo MDA aumentou, indicando estresse oxidativo. A atividade de enzimas antioxidantes e os teores de aminoácidos aumentaram nas doses mais baixas de As, declinando nas concentrações mais elevadas. Nas folhas foram observados clorose e necrose. As folhas apresentaram acumulação de amido e aumento da espessura do mesofilo. No sistema radicular houve perda e escurecimento das raízes. Camadas de células formadas nos pontos de inserção da raiz podem ter sido responsáveis pela queda das raízes. Estes resultados indicam que a alface da água apresenta potencial para bioindicação e fitorremediação de ambientes aquáticos contaminados com As. Abstract in english Specimens of Pistia stratiotes were subjected to five concentrations of arsenic (As) for seven days. Growth, As absorption, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic activities, amino acids content and anatomical cha [...] nges were assessed. Plant arsenic accumulation increased with increasing metalloid in the solution, while growth rate and photosynthetic pigment content decreased. The MDA content increased, indicating oxidative stress. Enzymatic activity and amino acids content increased at the lower doses of As, subsequently declining in the higher concentrations. Chlorosis and necrosis were observed in the leaves. Leaves showed starch accumulation and increased thickness of the mesophyll. In the root system, there was a loss and darkening of roots. Cell layers formed at the insertion points on the root stems may have been responsible for the loss of roots. These results indicate that water lettuce shows potential for bioindication and phytoremediation of As-contaminated aquatic environments.

  19. Improvement of nutritional quality of greenhouse-grown lettuce by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is conditioned by the source of phosphorus nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslam, Marouane; Pascual, Inmaculada; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Erro, Javier; García-Mina, José María; Goicoechea, Nieves

    2011-10-26

    The improvement of the nutritional quality of lettuce by its association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been recently reported in a previous study. The aim of this research was to evaluate if the fertilization with three P sources differing in water solubility affects the effectiveness of AMF for improving lettuce growth and nutritional quality. The application of either water-soluble P sources (Hewitt's solution and single superphosphate) or the water-insoluble (WI) fraction of a "rhizosphere-controlled fertilizer" did not exert negative effects on the establishment of the mycorrhizal symbiosis. AMF improved lettuce growth and nutritional quality. Nevertheless, the effect was dependent on the source of P and cultivar. Batavia Rubia Munguía (green cultivar) benefited more than Maravilla de Verano (red cultivar) in terms of mineral nutrients, total soluble sugars, and ascorbate contents. The association of lettuce with AMF resulted in greater quantities of anthocyanins in plants fertilized with WI, carotenoids when plants received either Hewitt's solution or WI, and phenolics regardless of the P fertilizer applied. PMID:21913649

  20. Mudanças nas características físico-químicas de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo distrófico após a irrigação com água de reúso na cultura da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L. Physical and chemical characteristics changes of a red-yellow latosol after implementation of water reuse in the culture of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio C. T. Varallo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do efluente de esgoto tratado para poupar os corpos d'água utilizados para irrigação tem sido de grande interesse na agricultura, e o uso não regulamentado desta prática pode acarretar mudanças no comportamento físico-químico do solo. Sua prática tem sido de grande interesse em vista da redução da quantidade de água retirada dos mananciais, preservando-os. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a avaliação dos atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo após aplicação de água de reúso. O experimento foi realizado em uma condição de casa de vegetação onde foram cultivados dois ciclos da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L com dois tratamentos, com três repetições cada: testemunhas (água de abastecimento proveniente de poço e reúso (proveniente de esgoto local. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram aumentos em alguns atributos químicos de fertilidade, como ferro, magnésio, zinco, boro, potássio, nitrato, sódio e cálcio; decréscimo nos valores de matéria orgânica e manganês, além de diminuição da condutividade hidráulica e aumento na condutividade elétrica do solo. Observou-se, ainda, redução do pH no solo, além do aumento da RAS e PST. Desta forma, concluiu-se que a utilização de água de reúso para fins agronômicos deve ser de forma racional, monitorando-se, principalmente, a elevação do teor de sais no solo.The use of treated sewage effluent to save the ponds used for irrigation has been of great interest in agriculture, and the unregulated use of this practice can cause changes in physical and chemical behavior of the soil. This practice has been of great interest in view of reducing the quantity of water withdrawal from the springs and its preservation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physical and chemical attributes of a Red-yellow Dystrophic Latosol after the implementation of water reuse. The experiment was conducted in a condition of greenhouse where were grown two rounds of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. with two treatments with three repetitions each: witness (provisioning water and reuse. The results did not show increases in some chemical attributes of fertility as iron, magnesium, zinc, boron, potassium, nitrate, sodium and calcium; decrease in organic matter and manganese, besides increase of hydraulic conductivity and the electrical conductivity of the soil. It was also observed a reduction of the soil pH, besides the increase of SAR and ESP. Thus it must be concluded the application of water reuse for agricultural purposes should be in a rational way, and the elevation of salts in the soil must be monitored.

  1. Selectivity of thiobencarb between two lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiobencarb [S-(4-chlorobenzyl)N,N-diethylthiocarbamate] was examined for weed control on muck grown lettuce. Weed control results were erratic though differential lettuce tolerance was observed in the field. This led to the testing of five lettuce cultivars for tolerance to the herbicide. Of the five lettuce cultivars evaluated, two were selected with the widest tolerance differences: Great Lakes 366 (GLA) (tolerant) and Dark Green Boston (BOS) (susceptible). Studies examining the mechanism of thiobencarb tolerance were conducted with these two cultivars. Within four days after the addition of thiobencarb to the nutrient solution, BOS had significant reductions in the foliar dry weight. In addition, growth abnormalities including fused leaves were observed, indicating inhibition early in leaf development. Greater amounts of 14C-thiobencarb were absorbed from nutrient solution by BOS, likely due to a significantly greater root system at the time of treatment. The greater uptake and accumulation of 14C-label in the leaves, as well as significantly greater amounts of unmetabolized 14C-thiobencarb in the foliage of BOS may account for the selectivity observed. A thiobencarb sulfoxide was not identified in these studies. This indicates that the metabolism of thiobencarb in lettuce differs from other members of the thiocarbamate family of herbicides

  2. Comparison of Different Washing and Disinfection Protocols Used by Food Services in Southern Brazil for Lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Beatriz Almeida de Oliveira; Ana Carolina Ritter; Eduardo Cesar Tondo; Marisa de Itapema Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    Different protocols have been used for washing and disinfecting leafy vegetables in Brazilian food services, however its effect on microbial reduction was barely studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lettuce washing and disinfecting protocols used by food services. The treatments evaluated were: washing in potable tap water (T1); washing and dipping in potable tap water (T2); washing with potable tap water and dipping in a solution of sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm...

  3. Phytotoxic mechanisms of bur cucumber seed extracts on lettuce with special reference to analysis of chloroplast proteins, phytohormones, and nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok-Min; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; Kim, Jin-Hyo; Lee, In-Yong; Moon, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Byung-Wook; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Bioherbicides from plant extracts are an effective and environmentally friendly method to prevent weed growth. The present investigation was aimed at determining the inhibitory effect of bur cucumber seed extracts (BSE) on lettuce plant growth. Bur cucumber seeds were ground with water, and two different concentrations of seed extracts (10% and 20%) were prepared and applied to lettuce plants. Decreased plant height, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, anProd. Type: FTPd leaf area were found in lettuce exposed to BSE as compared with controls. A significant reduction in lettuce biomass was observed in 20% BSE-treated plants due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic content in the extracts. Moreover, a significant inhibitory chemical, 2-linoleoyl glycerol, was identified in BSE extracts. The mechanism of plant growth inhibition was assayed in lettuce proteins by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and the LC-MS/MS method. In total, 57 protein spots were detected in plants treated with 20% BSE and control plants. Among these, 39 proteins were down-regulated and 18 proteins were up-regulated in plants exposed to 20% BSE as compared with controls. The presence of low levels of chlorophyll a/b binding protein and oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 1 in BSE-exposed plants reduced photosynthetic pigment synthesis and might be a reason for stunted plant growth. Indeed, the plant-growth stimulating hormone gibberellin was inhibited, and synthesis of stress hormones such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid were triggered in lettuce by the effects of BSE. Uptake of essential nutrients, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, S, and Mo, was deficient and accumulation of the toxic ions Cu, Zn, and Na was higher in BSE-treated plants. The results of this study suggest that extracts of bur cucumber seeds can be an effective eco-friendly bioherbicide for weed control that work by inhibiting mechanisms of photosynthesis and regulating phytohormones and nutritional elements. PMID:26277540

  4. Accumulation of {sup 99}Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and {sup 99}Tc concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, J. E-mail: jhattink@hotmail.com; Wolterbeek, H.Th

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the {sup 99}Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, characterised by a concentration factor, K{sub d}, and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc{sup VII}, characterised by k{sub red}. At various {sup 99}Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO{sub 4}{sup -} accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K{sub d} and k{sub red} turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10{sup -6} mol l{sup -1} {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments.

  5. Mudanças nas características físico-químicas de um latossolo vermelho-amarelo distrófico após a irrigação com água de reúso na cultura da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L.) / Physical and chemical characteristics changes of a red-yellow latosol after implementation of water reuse in the culture of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio C. T., Varallo; Claudinei F., Souza; Bruno de L., Santoro.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do efluente de esgoto tratado para poupar os corpos d'água utilizados para irrigação tem sido de grande interesse na agricultura, e o uso não regulamentado desta prática pode acarretar mudanças no comportamento físico-químico do solo. Sua prática tem sido de grande interesse em vista da [...] redução da quantidade de água retirada dos mananciais, preservando-os. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a avaliação dos atributos físico-químicos de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo após aplicação de água de reúso. O experimento foi realizado em uma condição de casa de vegetação onde foram cultivados dois ciclos da alface-crespa (Lactuca sativa, L) com dois tratamentos, com três repetições cada: testemunhas (água de abastecimento proveniente de poço) e reúso (proveniente de esgoto local). Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram aumentos em alguns atributos químicos de fertilidade, como ferro, magnésio, zinco, boro, potássio, nitrato, sódio e cálcio; decréscimo nos valores de matéria orgânica e manganês, além de diminuição da condutividade hidráulica e aumento na condutividade elétrica do solo. Observou-se, ainda, redução do pH no solo, além do aumento da RAS e PST. Desta forma, concluiu-se que a utilização de água de reúso para fins agronômicos deve ser de forma racional, monitorando-se, principalmente, a elevação do teor de sais no solo. Abstract in english The use of treated sewage effluent to save the ponds used for irrigation has been of great interest in agriculture, and the unregulated use of this practice can cause changes in physical and chemical behavior of the soil. This practice has been of great interest in view of reducing the quantity of w [...] ater withdrawal from the springs and its preservation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the physical and chemical attributes of a Red-yellow Dystrophic Latosol after the implementation of water reuse. The experiment was conducted in a condition of greenhouse where were grown two rounds of curly lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L. ) with two treatments with three repetitions each: witness (provisioning water) and reuse. The results did not show increases in some chemical attributes of fertility as iron, magnesium, zinc, boron, potassium, nitrate, sodium and calcium; decrease in organic matter and manganese, besides increase of hydraulic conductivity and the electrical conductivity of the soil. It was also observed a reduction of the soil pH, besides the increase of SAR and ESP. Thus it must be concluded the application of water reuse for agricultural purposes should be in a rational way, and the elevation of salts in the soil must be monitored.

  6. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Chen, Guang

    2013-02-01

    Growing plants can be used to clean waste water in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, NaCl contained in the human urine always restricts plant growth and further reduces the degree of mass cycle closure of the system (i.e. salt stress). This work determined the effect of NaCl stress on physiological characteristics of plants for the life support system. Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Huahong) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Luoma) were cultivated at nutrient solutions with different NaCl contents (0, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm, respectively) for 10 to 18 days after planted in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System Experimental Facility in China. Results showed that the two plants have different responses to the salt stress. The amaranth showed higher salt-tolerance with NaCl stress. If NaCl content in the solution is below 5000 ppm, the salt stress effect is insignificant on above-ground biomass output, leaf photosynthesis rate, Fv/Fm, photosynthesis pigment contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and inducing lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the lettuce is sensitive to NaCl which significantly decreases those indices of growth and physiology. Notably, the lettuce remains high productivity of edible biomass in low NaCl stress, although its salt-tolerant limitation is lower than amaranth. Therefore, we recommended that amaranth could be cultivated under a higher NaCl stress condition (<5000 ppm) for NaCl recycle while lettuce should be under a lower NaCl stress (<1000 ppm) for water cleaning in future BLSS.

  7. Potential Uptake of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from Organic Manure into Crisphead Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Gro S.; Bengtsson, Gunnar B.; Heier, Berit T.; Bredholt, Sylvia; Wasteson, Yngvild; Rørvik, Liv Marit

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the potential transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure to fresh produce, lettuce seedlings were transplanted into soil fertilized with bovine manure which had been inoculated with approximately 104 CFU g?1 E. coli O157:H7. The lettuce was grown for approximately 50 days in beds in climate-controlled rooms in a greenhouse. As the bacterium was not detected in the edible parts of the lettuce, the outer leaves of the lettuce, or the lettuce roots at harvest it...

  8. Tobacco streak virus Isolated from Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    F.S. Abtahi; M. Khodai Motlagh

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus infects many plants and causes significant yield losses. In this study, 300 samples of lettuce were collected from lettuce fields in Tehran Province. Infected plants show symptoms such as: mosaic, vein clearing, vein necrosis, yellowing and leaf distortion. DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich-ELISA) was used with a polyclonal antiserum against TSV. Five isolates (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), which are collected, r...

  9. Comparison between Hydroponically and Conventionally and Organically Grown Lettuces for Taste, Odor, Visual Quality and Texture: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yukiko K; Fannie Zhang; Matthew T. Murphy; Omaye, Stanley T.

    2011-01-01

    Hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common. In this study hydroponic lettuce, grown by a local distributor, and conventionally and organically field-grown lettuce, purchased at local retail stores were compared by descriptive analysis for taste, odor, visual quality and texture. Five lettuce varieties were compared; Romaine, Green Leaf, Red Leaf, Butter, and Common lettuce. A twenty-three member sensory panel randomly rated the lettuce using a 5 point scale or a 3 point scale...

  10. Simulación computacional del crecimiento de la población de Lemna sp en el Lago de Maracaibo / Computational simulation of duckweed population growth rate in Lake Maracaibo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo, Badell; Janett, Flores; José, Rincón; María, Rubio.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como finalidad determinar las áreas de mayor reproducción de Lemna sp en el Lago de Maracaibo, incorporando en el modelo hidrodinámico MIKE 3 un modelo matemático que estima la tasa de crecimiento de Lemna sp considerando los parámetros que influyen en la misma. El modelo m [...] atemático propuesto es desarrollado a partir de un estudio previo sobre modelaje de crecimiento de Lemna en función del nitrógeno, realizado por Landesman, afectado adicionalmente por los parámetros fósforo, salinidad y temperatura. Luego de ajustar el modelo matemático a las condiciones del Lago es introducido al modelo computacional hidrodinámico para simular el crecimiento de Lemna sp en los meses de enero a noviembre; etapa que abarca los períodos seco y lluvioso característicos de la zona. Los resultados de las simulaciones son comparados con imágenes del satélite MODIS, obteniéndose coincidencias en las zonas de mayor crecimiento de Lemna sp. También se realiza un análisis mes a mes de los resultados, encontrando diferencias entre los períodos seco y lluvioso; con un aumento del potencial de crecimiento de Lemna sp en el período lluvioso tanto en la bolsa del Lago como en el estrecho de Maracaibo. Abstract in english The present work has the purpose of determining the zones of highest growth rate of Lemna sp (duckweed) in Lake Maracaibo using a hydrodynamic circulation model (MIKE 3), and a mathematical model to estimate the rate of growth of this aquatic plant. The proposed mathematical model is developed start [...] ing from a study on modeling duckweed growth as a function of nitrogen carried out by Landesman, affected additionally by phosphorus, salinity and temperature parameters. After fitting the mathematical model to lake conditions, it is introduced to the computational hydrodynamic model to simulate growth of duckweed from january to november, which comprises a dry and a rainy season, characteristic of the area. The results of the simulations are compared with images of the lake from the MODIS the satellite, showing similarities in the areas of higher growth of duckweed. Also an analysis month by month of the results is carried out, finding differences among the dry and rainy seasons; with an increase of the potential of growth of duckweed towards the rainy season in the Lake as well as in the strait of Maracaibo.

  11. Yield and Chemical Composition of Lettuce and Some Soil Characteristics as Affected by Irrigation with Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizadeh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, to investigate the effect of irrigation with treated municipal wastewater on the yield and quality of lettuce and some soil characteristics. Five irrigation treatments were applied to a clay loam soil, classified as fine loamy mixed mesic Calcixerollic Xerochrepts, in a randomized block design with 5 replications. The treatments consisted of T1 (Irrigation with treated wastewater over all growing season, T2 (Alternate irrigation with treated wastewater and well water, T3 (Irrigation with well water and application of cattle manure, T4 (Irrigation with well water plus fertilizer N and P, and T5 (Irrigation with well water only as control. Chemical analysis of well water proved to be a suitable source for agriculture. The results showed that the yield was higher in T1, T2, T3 and T4 as compared to the control treatment. Maximum fresh and dry yields were obtained from T3 & T1 and T1 & T3, respectively. Plant tissue analysis showed an increase in macronutrients (N, P, K and heavy metal concentrations in shoots and roots of lettuce in the first four treatments as compared to the control. In T1, iron concentration was maximum while that of cadmium was minimum. Furthermore, microbial contamination was considerably higher in T1 and T2. Soil analysis indicated that in plots treated with wastewater, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, soluble boron and heavy metal concentration increased. However, their values were all below international standards. More experiments seem to be necessary in this regard.

  12. Efeitos da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface cultivada em estufa / Effects of the soil covering with blue colored polyethylene film on lettuce crop consumptive water-use in a gree

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre O., Gonçalves; Maria A., Fagnani; José G., Peres.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura do solo é uma prática agrícola que visa, principalmente, a controlar as plantas invasoras, a diminuir as perdas de água por evaporação do solo e a facilitar a colheita e a comercialização, uma vez que o produto se torna mais limpo e sadio. Porém, ao se cobrir o solo, também são alterados [...] parâmetros importantes do microclima e, conseqüentemente, a germinação das sementes, o crescimento das raízes, a absorção de água e nutrientes, a atividade metabólica das plantas e o armazenamento de carboidratos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da cobertura do solo com filme de polietileno azul no consumo de água da cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa L.). O experimento foi instalado em uma estufa convencional, no município de Araras - SP, e conduzido durante o período de 22-3-2001 a 1º-5-2001. O consumo de água foi medido em dois lisímetros de pesagem instalados no interior da estufa. O espaçamento da cultura foi de 0,25 m x 0,25 m. Também foi avaliado o índice de área foliar (IAF) em seis épocas distintas e determinada a eficiência do uso de água (EU) ao final do ciclo da cultura. O delineamento estatístico foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com dois tratamentos, "solo descoberto" e "solo coberto". O consumo médio de água foi de 4,17 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo descoberto" e de 3,11 mm dia-1 para o tratamento "solo coberto". O índice médio de área foliar não diferiu estatisticamente entre os tratamentos. Abstract in english The covering of the soil is an agricultural practice that intends to control the harmful herbs, to reduce the losses of water by evaporation of the soil, and to facilitate the harvest and the commercialization, once the product is cleaner and healthier. However, when the soil is covered important mi [...] croclimatic parameters are also altered, and consequently the germination of seeds, the growth of roots, the absorption of water and nutrients, the metabolic activity of the plants and the carbohydrates storage. The current trial intended to evaluate the effect of soil covering with blue colored film on consumptive water-use in a lettuce crop (Lactuca sativa, L.). The experiment was carried out in a plastic greenhouse in Araras - São Paulo State, Brazil from March 3rd, 2001 to May 5th, 2001. The consumptive water-use was measured through two weighing lysimeter installed inside the greenhouse. Crop spacing was 0.25 m x 0.25 m and the color of the film above soil was blue. Leaf area index (IAF), was measured six times (7; 14; 21; 28; 35; 40 days after transplant) and the water-use efficiency (EU) was measured at the end. The experimental design was subdivided portions with two treatments, "bare soil" and "covered soil". The average consumptive water-use was 4.17 mm day-1 to the "bare soil" treatment and 3.11 mm day-1 to the "covered soil" treatment. The final leaf area index was 25.23 to the "bare soil" treatment and 24.39 to the "covered soil" treatment, and there was no statistical difference between then.

  13. Cold plasma treatment for the microbiological safety of cabbage, lettuce, and dried figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Chung, Myong-Soo; Min, Sea C

    2015-10-01

    Microwave-powered cold plasma treatment (CPT) was evaluated as a means to improve the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables and dried fruits. The CPT at 900 W, conducted for 10 min using nitrogen as a plasma-forming gas, inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on cabbage and lettuce by approximately 1.5 log CFU/g. The CPT at 400-900 W and 667 Pa, conducted for 1-10 min using a helium-oxygen gas mixture, inactivated Listeria monocytogenes on cabbage by 0.3-2.1 log CFU/g in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The Weibull model adequately described the inactivation of L. monocytogenes on cabbage by CPT. The CPT at the optimum conditions of treatment power (400 W) and time (10 min) inactivated L. monocytogenes on lettuce by 1.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g. As the water activity of the dried figs increased from 0.70 to 0.93, the reductions in numbers of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes on figs increased from 0.5 to 1.3 log CFU/g and from 1.0 to 1.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The microbial inactivation by CPT increased synergistically when the pH of the figs was reduced from 6 to 4. CTPs have potential application to increase the microbiological safety of vegetables and dried fruits. PMID:26187830

  14. Stable plastid transformation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelivelt, Cilia L C; McCabe, Matthew S; Newell, Christine A; Desnoo, C Bastiaan; van Dun, Kees M P; Birch-Machin, Ian; Gray, John C; Mills, Kingston H G; Nugent, Jacqueline M

    2005-08-01

    Although plastid transformation in higher plants was first demonstrated in the early 1990s it is only recently that the technology is being extended to a broader range of species. To date, the production of fertile transplastomic plants has been reported for tobacco, tomato, petunia, soybean, cotton and Lesquerella fendleri (Brassicaceae). In this study we demonstrate a polyethylene glycol-mediated plastid transformation system for lettuce that generates fertile, homoplasmic, plastid-transformed lines. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the trnA/trnI intergenic region of the lettuce plastid genome employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin. Spectinomycin resistance and heterologous gene transcription were shown in T(1) plants derived from self-pollinated primary regenerants demonstrating transmission of the plastid-encoded transgene to the first seed generation. Crossing with male sterile wild-type lettuce showed that spectinomycin resistance was not transmitted via pollen. Constructs containing the gfp gene showed plastid-based expression of green fluorescent protein. The lettuce plastid could have potential both as a production and a delivery system for edible human therapeutic proteins. PMID:16240172

  15. YIELD RESPONSE OF HEAD LETTUCE ('LACTUCA SATIVA' L.) TO OZONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv 'Empire') was grown in the field and exposed in open-top chambers to proportional increments of ozone (O3) from full charcoal filtration (CF) to twice ambient O3 concentrations(NF x 2.0). Severe foliar injury developed on young plants exposed to...

  16. Outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to lettuce, Denmark, January 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Lisby, M.

    2010-01-01

    At least 11 linked outbreaks of gastroenteritis with a total of 260 cases have occurred in Denmark in mid January 2010. Investigations showed that the outbreaks were caused by norovirus of several genotypes and by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Lettuce of the lollo bionda type grown in France was found to be the vehicle.

  17. Lettuce cultivar influences Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians population levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial Leaf Spot, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv), is a widespread and economically important disease of lettuce. Cultivars with resistance to Xcv have been identified, but mechanisms for resistance in this pathosystem have not been investigated. We hypothesized that susceptibl...

  18. "Lettuce" Learn Math: Teaching Mathematics with Seeds and Centimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Laura N.; Wilson, Colette

    2006-01-01

    "Lettuce Learn Math" is an interdisciplinary program that has effectively linked a small-scale agricultural production system to a sixth-grade mathematics and science curriculum. The mathematical concepts and skills, including measurement and geometry, taught in this project met and often exceeded the standards set by New York state for…

  19. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  20. An Ophiovirus isolated from lettuce with big-vein symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggero, P; Ciuffo, M; Vaira, A M; Accotto, G P; Masenga, V; Milne, R G

    2000-01-01

    Big-vein is a widespread and damaging disease of lettuce, transmitted through soil by the chytrid fungus Olpidium brassicae, and generally supposed to be caused by Lettuce big-vein virus (LBVV; genus Varicosavirus). This virus is reported to have rigid rod-shaped particles, a divided double-stranded RNA genome, and one capsid protein of 48 kD, but has not been isolated or rigorously shown to cause the disease. We provide evidence that a totally different virus, here named Mirafiori lettuce virus (MiLV), is also very frequently associated with lettuce showing big-vein symptoms. MiLV was mechanically transmissible from lettuce to Chenopodium quinoa and to several other herbaceous test plants. The virus was partially purified, and an antiserum prepared, which did not react with LBVV particles in decoration tests. As reported for LBVV, MiLV was labile, soil-transmitted and had a single capsid protein of 48 kD, but the particles morphologically resembled those of ophioviruses, and like these, MiLV had a genome of three RNA segments approximately 8.5, 1.9 and 1.7 kb in size. MiLV preparations reacted strongly in Western blots and in ISEM with antiserum to Tulip mild mottle mosaic virus, an ophiovirus from Japan also apparently Olpidium-transmitted. They reacted weakly but clearly in Western blots with antiserum to Ranunculus white mottle virus, another ophiovirus. When lettuce seedlings were mechanically inoculated with crude or partially purified extracts from MiLV-infected test plants, many became systemically infected with MiLV and some developed big-vein symptoms. Such plants did not react in ELISA using an LBVV antiserum or an antiserum to tobacco stunt virus, and varicosavirus-like particles were never seen in them in the EM after negative staining. We conclude that MiLV is a hitherto undescribed virus assignable to the genus Ophiovirus. The cause or causes of lettuce big-vein disease and the properties of LBVV may need to be re-evaluated in light of our results. PMID:11205109

  1. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  2. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  3. Effect of temperature and type of packages on nitrates and nitrites content in lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef B?kowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce wrapped in unperforated PE film, perforated PE film, stretch film and without wrapping was stored at 1, 6, 20 and 28°C. Freshly harvested lettuce and after one day of storage, independently on storage conditions, did not contains nitrites„ During storage of lettuce at 1°C only one time small quantities of nitrites (4.3 mg NO2/kg fresh matter were found - after twelve days storage in perforated PE film. Storage of lettuce longer than 7 days at 6°C caused formation of nitrites. Lettuce stored at 20 and 28°C in unperforated PE film contained nitrites already after 2 or 3 days of storage. Decline of nitrates during storage of lettuce was independent from film used to wrapping.

  4. Comparative Study of Ascorbic Acid and Tocopherol Concentrations in Hydroponic- and Soil-Grown Lettuces

    OpenAIRE

    Drew N. Buchanan; Omaye, Stanley T.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroponically-grown produce may be a way of helping to feed the world a variety of fruits and vegetables, regardless of soil quality, space availability or climate. The objective of this study was to determine whether hydroponicallygrown lettuce contains as much ascorbic acid and tocopherol as soil-grown lettuce. We analyzed four varieties of lettuce, including: Waldmann’s Dark Green, Red Lollo Antago, Red Romaine Annapolis, and Butterleaf. The tocopherol content of hydroponically-grown Wald...

  5. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Forslund, A.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Dalsgaard, A.

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field bef...

  6. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar V, Bautista; Gerhard, Fischer; Julián F, Cárdenas.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La producción hortícola en la Sabana de Bogotá tiene como principales fuentes hídricas al distrito de riego La Ramada y al rio Bogotá, el cual lleva en su cauce materiales contaminantes como metales pesados, provenientes de las diferentes actividades industriales y domésticas de la Sabana. Estos con [...] taminantes afectan la producción de cultivos en esta zona. En el presente estudio, bajo condiciones de laboratorio, se evaluó el efecto del cadmio (Cd) y cromo (Cr) en tres concentraciones (25, 35 y 50 µM L-1), sobre la imbibición, germinación y elongación radical de lechuga (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia), acelga (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed") y espinaca (Spinacia oleracea híbrida 424), tres especies que son ampliamente cultivadas en la zona. Se encontró una susceptibilidad diferente a los dos compuestos metálicos en cada especie. En lechuga, en el último día de la observación, las tres soluciones de Cd disminuyeron el aumento del peso fresco de las semillas (imbibición), mientras este ocurrió en acelga solamente a 25 µM L-1 de Cd. Cadmio afectó la germinación en 46%, 97% y 8% en acelga, lechuga y espinaca, respectivamente; también, este metal redujo la elongación radical hasta un 57%, 89% y 56% en las tres especies, respectivamente. El Cr no mostró efectos tan negativos, pero redujo la germinación de acelga (29%), lechuga (6%) y espinaca (34%), comparado al control Abstract in english The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop [...] production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1) of cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia), Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed"), and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424), three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition) was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  7. Dynamic Model as Attainment Effort of Nitrogen Synchronization at Lettuce Cultivation with Green Manure Paitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Agung Nugroho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa is vegetable crop that consumed part of the leaf and harvested at a phase of vegetative. Nitrogen play important role in growth at phase of vegetative. Nitrogen in spacious have the character of easy to lose because of leaching. Increasing yield of lettuce can be done by improving Nitrogen synchronization, that is precisely usage moment with ready moment of N during and amount of its. The research was aimed to study of the pattern nitrogen requirement for lettuce crop, ready pattern of nitrogen by Tithonia diversifolia and design nitrogen synchronization model between lettuce crop with green manure of T. diversifolia. The research were divided in two phases that are phase research 1: Dynamic modeling for nitrogen synchronization on lettuce cultivation by green manure of T. diversifolia, and phase research 2: Fertilizer technology of high nitrogen synchronization on lettuce cultivation by green manure of T. diversifolia. The result of phase research 1 (first year research shows that dynamic model of N requirement by lettuce crop, release and availability model of N by T. diversifolia and synchronization model of N between requirement of N lettuce with release and availability of N by T. diversifolia. The dynamic model indicate that giving 10 t ha-1 of T. diversifolia which given 2 weeks before transplanting at lettuce crop can support high result and growth because happened good synchronization of N.

  8. Aceptabilidad de lechuga de hoja fresca troceada, tratada con ácido ascórbico mediante hidroenfriamiento / Acceptability of fresh cut leaf lettuce treated with ascorbic acid applied by hydrocooling

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Ramón, Esparza-Rivera; Agustín, Navarro Bravo; Patricia, Kendall; Manuel, Fortis Hernández; Pablo, Preciado Rangel; Jorge Armando, Meza Velázquez.

    2013-08-13

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del ácido ascórbico aplicado mediante dos métodos de hidroenfriamiento sobre la aceptabilidad general, sabor y apariencia de lechuga verde de hoja troceada, así como la relación entre el sabor y la apariencia de la lechuga de hoja procesada sobre la aceptabilidad general de este [...] producto. La lechuga de hoja fue hidroenfriada con una solución de ácido ascórbico al 1% mediante inmersión y aspersión, o con agua por inmersión. Se uso como control a lechuga no hidroenfriada. Las soluciones para tratamientos fueron aplicadas a 5 ºC por 2 min, y la lechuga fue luego empacada en bolsas de polietileno impermeables a la humedad, almacenada a 5 ºC por 14 días, y evaluada en los días 1, 7 y 14 de almacenamiento. La aceptabilidad general de la lechuga de hoja procesada (troceada y empacada) estuvo altamente correlacionada con su sabor (R²= 0.85), pero no con su apariencia (R²= 0.39). Todos los tratamientos mantuvieron sus valores de aceptabilidad general y sabor durante el almacenamiento de 14 días (p>0.05). Sin embargo, la lechuga hidroenfriada mediante aspersión con ácido ascórbico y la no hidroenfriada (control) fueron los únicos tratamientos que mantuvieron su apariencia durante el estudio. Es requerida más experimentación con la aplicación de ácido ascórbico mediante hidroenfriamiento para garantizar su utilidad para la conservación de la calidad sensorial de la lechuga de hoja procesada durante su almacenamiento. Abstract in english We assessed the effect of ascorbic acid, applied by two hydrocooling methods, on the overall acceptability, taste and appearance of cut green leaf lettuce, and the relationship between the taste and appearance of processed leaf lettuce regarding the overall acceptability of this product. Leaf lettuc [...] e was hydrocooled with a solution of 1% ascorbic acid by immersion and spraying, or by immersion in water. Non-hydrocooled lettuce was used as control. The treatment solutions were applied at 5 °C for 2 min, and the lettuce was then packed in polyethylene bags, impervious to moisture, stored at 5 °C for 14 days, and evaluated after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. The overall acceptability of processed leaf lettuce (cut and packed) was highly correlated with its taste (R²= 0.85), but not with its appearance (R²= 0.39). All treatments maintained the overall acceptability values and taste of the lettuce during the 14 days of storage (p> 0.05). However, the lettuce that was hydrocooled by spraying with ascorbic acid, and the non-hydrocooled lettuce (control) were the only treatments that maintained appearance during the study. Further experimentation with the application of ascorbic acid by hydrocooling is required to ensure its usefulness for maintaining the sensory quality of processed leaf lettuce during storage.

  9. Screening for resistance to lettuce downy mildew (Bremia lactucae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening methods of Lactuca spp. for resistance to Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew) are described in this chapter. Procedures of isolation, cultivation and maintenance of B. lactucae isolates are summarised. Resistance screening can be carried out either on lettuce seedlings, detached cotyledon leaves, leaf disks or parts of true leaves from adult plants. Methodology of inoculum preparation, inoculation and incubation conditions is described. For the assessment infection degree, a qualitative or quantitative approach is used. A basic differential set of Lactuca spp: used for testing B. lactucae isolates and virulence phenotypes of the most important B. lactucae races was established, including the denomination of races by the sextet code. The methods described have a broad application both in practice and research. They are useful for resistance screening of new breeding material, for searching for new sources of resistance in Lactuca spp. germplasm, for investigating plant resistance mechanisms and also for the study of virulence variation in B. lactucae isolates and populations. (author)

  10. Agricultural recycling of biodigested vinasse for lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Roberta Javorski Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural use of waste products represents an interesting alternative for nutrient cycling. Biodigested vinasse, the final waste product of vinasse biodigestion and biogas production, can be reused for agricultural purposes. The present work sought to quantify the shoot dry mass production of lettuce plants, as well as foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content following the application of biodigested vinasse on soil. Biodigested vinasse was produced from anaerobic vinasse digestion, using anaerobic sludge as a source of microorganisms. The treatments, with four replications in entirely randomized design, consisted of anaerobic sludge from a gelatin factory, vinasse in natura, biodigested vinasse and a control treatment. The experiment was conducted over 45 days using 5 L vases and applying a dose equivalent to 150 m3 ha-1 . Lettuce treated with biodigested vinasse showed higher shoot dry mass production and higher accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in its leaves than that treated with vinasse in natura.

  11. Fate of [14C]-zineb on lettuce plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [1,2-14C]-zinc ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (zineb) was prepared and applied in droplets to leaves of lettuce plants. In aqueous suspension zineb decomposes mainly into ethylenethiourea (ETU) and 5,6-dihydro-3H-imidazo[2,1-C]-1,2,4-dithiazole-3-thione (DIDT). Lettuce plants were harvested 0,1,3,7,14 and 21 days after treatment and analysed. A high proportion of radioactivity remained on the surface of the plant and could be washed off. The following identified products were present: unchanged zineb, ETU, DIDT, 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea. The ETU residue disappeared within 7 days, while 2-imidazoline and ethyleneurea were formed gradually. Radioactivity inside the plant consisted mostly of ethyleneurea: no ETU was present. (author)

  12. Uptake of uranium by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in natural uranium contaminated soils in order to assess chemical risk for consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, O.; Abreu, M. M.; Vicente, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium mining activity in Cunha Baixa (Portugal) village has left a legacy of polluted soils and irrigation water. A controlled field experiment was conducted with lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in an agricultural area nearby the abandoned mine in order to evaluate uranium uptake and distribution in roots and leaves as well as ascertain levels of uranium intake by the local inhabitants from plant consuming. Two soils with different average uranium content (38 and 106 ...

  13. Organic Crop Management Enhances Chicoric Acid Content in Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Channa B. Rajashekar; Myung-Min Oh; Edward E. Carey

    2012-01-01

    L- chicoric acid is a dominant phenolic compound in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and has been shown to accumulate in response to many abiotic stresses and crop management practices. It is a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) integrase needed for the replication of this virus and for the productive infection of the host cell. L- chicoric acid has been found to act synergistically in combination with anti-HIV drugs used for treating acquired immuno-deficiency disorder (AIDS...

  14. Outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection traced to imported iceberg lettuce.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapperud, G; Rørvik, L M; Hasseltvedt, V; Høiby, E A; Iversen, B G; Staveland, K; Johnsen, G; Leitao, J.; Herikstad, H.; Andersson, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In the period from May through June 1994, an increase in the number of domestic cases of Shigella sonnei infection was detected in several European countries, including Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. In all three countries epidemiological evidence incriminated imported iceberg lettuce of Spanish origin as the vehicle of transmission. The outbreaks shared a number of common features: a predominance of adults among the case patients, the presence of double infections with other enterop...

  15. ROLE OF PH IN THE ACCUMULATION OF LEAD AND NICKEL BY COMMON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the most common non-biodegradable pollutants. Various remediation methods have been used for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated water. However, phytoremediation technology is currently being used due to its economically feasible and ecologically viable advantages. The aim of this study was to examine the role of pH in the accumulation capacity of Lemna minor in Pb and Ni contaminated water. The removal rate of Pb and Ni from L. minor was 99.99% and 99.30% respectively, after 28 days of exposure to the 10 mgl-1 Pb and Ni contaminated water at pH 5-6 and pH 6 respectively. // //

  16. ROLE OF PH IN THE ACCUMULATION OF LEAD AND NICKEL BY COMMON DUCKWEED (LEMNA MINOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Kaur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are the most common non-biodegradable pollutants. Various remediation methods have been used for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated water. However, phytoremediation technology is currently being used due to its economically feasible and ecologically viable advantages. The aim of this study was to examine the role of pH in the accumulation capacity of Lemna minor in Pb and Ni contaminated water. The removal rate of Pb and Ni from L. minor was 99.99% and 99.30% respectively, after 28 days of exposure to the 10 mgl-1 Pb and Ni contaminated water at pH 5-6 and pH 6 respectively. // //

  17. Toxicological effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on the growth rate, photosynthetic pigment content, and cell morphology of the duckweed Landoltia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalau, Cristina Moreira; Mohedano, Rodrigo de Almeida; Schmidt, Éder C; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Ouriques, Luciane C; dos Santos, Rodrigo W; da Costa, Cristina H; Vicentini, Denice S; Matias, William Gerson

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the application of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) has increased considerably, primarily in scientific and industrial fields. However, studies to assess their health risks and environmental impacts are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the toxicological effects of CuO-NPs on the duckweed species Landoltia punctata, which was used as a test organism. To accomplish this, duckweed was grown under standard procedures according to ISO DIS 20079 and exposed to three different concentrations of CuO-NPs (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0?g L(-1)), with one control group (without CuO-NPs). The toxicological effects were measured based on growth rate inhibition, changes in the plant's morphology, effects on ultrastructure, and alterations in photosynthetic pigments. The morphological and ultrastructural effects were evaluated by electronic, scanning and light microscopic analysis, and CuO-NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), zeta potential, and superficial area methods of analysis. This analysis was performed to evaluate nanoparticle size and form in solution and sample stability. The results showed that CuO-NPs affected morphology more significantly than growth rate. L. punctata also showed the ability to remove copper ions. However, for this plant to be representative within the trophic chain, the biomagnification of effects must be assessed. PMID:25005714

  18. 76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on this analysis...via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. We are making the pest...

  19. Antimicrobial activity of cinnamaldehyde and sporan against enteric pathogens on iceberg lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamaldehyde and sporan alone or in combination with acetic acid (20%) were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on lettuce. Iceberg lettuce leaves were cut into pieces (2 x 3 cm) and inoculated with 50 µL (5 droplets of 10µl) cocktail of five strains o...

  20. Characterization and epidemiology of outbreaks of Impatiens necrotic spot virus on lettuce in coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning in 2006, outbreaks of diseases caused by tospoviruses in lettuce have occurred in California with greater frequency. Lettuce in the coastal region has been affected primarily by Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), though Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was also present. In contrast, TSW...

  1. SENSORIAL AND CHEMICAL QUALITY OF GAMMA IRRADIATED FRESH-CUT ICEBERG LETTUCE IN MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to investigate the upper dose limit of irradiation on quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce. Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce packaged in breathable film bags was exposed to 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4 kGy gamma radiation and stored at 3 degree C for 14 days. Carbon dioxide levels were higher and...

  2. Quality of Iceberg and Romaine lettuce treated by combinations of sanitizer, surfactant, and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report an investigation of the individual and combined effects of sonication, two sanitizers (chlorine and Tsunami 100®) and a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the quality of fresh-cut Iceberg and Romaine lettuce. Lettuce samples were treated for 1 minute with and without ultrasound in...

  3. Quality of gamma ray-irradiated iceberg lettuce and treatments to minimize irradiation-induced disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irradiation of Iceberg lettuce was recently approved by the FDA to enhance microbial safety and to extend shelf-life at doses up to 4 kGy. However, the radiation tolerance of whole head lettuce is unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of irradiation on the quality of he...

  4. Production system and harvesting stage influence on nitrate content and quality of butterhead lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fairuz Yosoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leafy vegetables such as lettuce grown under different production systems may accumulate different concentrations of nitrate which may reach to the levels potentially toxic to humans. Moreover, nitrate accumulation varies in various plant parts and physiological age of the plant. Therefore, to determine the effect of production system and harvesting stage on nitrate accumulation and quality of butterhead lettuce, a study was conducted considering two lettuce production systems namely hydroponic and organic, and four different harvesting stages such as 35, 38, 41 and 44 days after transplanting (DAT. The experimental design was complete randomized design (CRD with four replications. Hydroponic and organic systems performed similar in terms of yield, quality and nitrate content of butterhead lettuce. Delaying harvesting can not only increase yield but also can minimize nitrate accumulation and health hazard risk as well. Delay in harvesting stage may result in quality deterioration of lettuce and increased production cost. Thus, a compromise is necessary to consider 41 DAT as the optimum stage to harvest butterhead lettuce with significantly higher reduction of nitrate content in both outer adult leaf blades and young leaves of hydroponic lettuce. Fresh weight, firmness and color of butterhead lettuce at this stage were still acceptable.

  5. Growth and gas exchange by lettuce stands in a closed, controlled environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R M; Mackowiak, C L; Sager, J C; Yorio, N C; Knott, W M; Berry, W L

    1994-05-01

    Two studies were conducted in which 'Waldmann's Green' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was grown hydroponically from seed to harvest in a large (20-m2), atmospherically closed growth chamber for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) program. The first study used metal-halide (MH) lamps [280 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF)], whereas the second used high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps (293 micromoles m-2 s-1). Both studies used a 16-hour photoperiod, a constant air temperature (22 to 23C), and 1000 micromoles mol-1 CO2 during the light period. In each study, canopy photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) rates were highly correlated to canopy cover, with absolute rates peaking at harvest (28 days after planting ) at 17 micromoles CO2/m2 per sec and 4 liters m-2 day-1, respectively. When normalized for actual canopy cover, photosynthesis and ET rates per unit canopy area decreased with age (between 15 and 28 days after planting). Canopy cover increased earlier during the study with HPS lamps, and final shoot yields averaged 183 g fresh mass (FM)/plant 8.8 g dry mass (DM)/plant. Shoot yields in the first study with MH lamps averaged 129 g FM/plant and 6.8 g DM/plant. Analysis of leaf tissue showed that ash levels from both studies averaged 22% and K levels ranged from 15% to 17% of tissue DM. Results suggest that lettuce should be easily adaptable to a CELSS with moderate lighting and that plant spacing or transplant schemes are needed to maximize canopy light interception and sustained efficient CO2 removal and water production. PMID:11538197

  6. Effect of temperature and type of packages on quality of stored lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef B?kowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce head cv. Sanora non-wrapped, wrapped with perforated PE film, unperforated PE film, and in stretch film was stored at different temperatures: 1, 6, 20 and 28°C. The lettuce can be stored at 1°C up to 10 days, and at 6°C during 8 days period. Longer storage time caused clear loses of lettuce quality. During first two - three days of storage in both temperatures 1 and 6°C loses of ascorbic acid, dry matter, colour and organoleptic value were not observed. Faster decrease of ascorbic acid content was noted in leuuce stored in unperforated PE film and stretch film, in comparison to perforated PE film. The highest lettuce quality were found in case where lettuce were stored in perforated PE bags at 1°C.

  7. Comparison of chlorine and peroxyacetic-based disinfectant to inactivate Feline calicivirus, Murine norovirus and Hepatitis A virus on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraisse, Audrey; Temmam, Sarah; Deboosere, Nathalie; Guillier, Laurent; Delobel, Alexandre; Maris, Pierre; Vialette, Michèle; Morin, Thierry; Perelle, Sylvie

    2011-11-15

    In recent years, raw fruits and vegetables have frequently been involved in foodborne transmission to humans of enteric viruses, particularly noroviruses and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Although viral contamination can occur during all steps of food processing, primary production is a critical stage on which prevention measures must be focused to minimize the risk of infection to consumers. Postharvest sanitation may be a valid technological solution for decreasing the bacterial load on fresh raw material, but there is a lack of data concerning the effectiveness of this process on enteric viruses. In this study, we compared the survival of two human norovirus surrogates, the feline calicivirus (FCV), and the murine norovirus (MNV-1), and of HAV on lettuce after water washing with bubbles and with or without ultrasound, and washing with bubbles in the presence of active chlorine (15 ppm) or peroxyacetic acid-based disinfectant (100 ppm). Cell culture and quantitative RT-PCR assays were used to detect and quantify the viruses on the surface of the lettuce after the sanitizing treatments. Levels of viral inactivation on the lettuce leaves were not significantly different between washing with bubbles and washing with bubbles plus ultrasound and were not dependant on the quantification method. A simple washing without disinfectant resulted in a decrease of approximately 0.7 log units in the quantity of virus detected for HAV and FCV and of 1.0 log unit for MNV-1. In the experimental set-up including a washing step (with or without ultrasound) followed by washing for 2 min in the presence of disinfectants, 15 ppm of active chlorine was found more effective for inactivating FCV (2.9 log units) than HAV and MNV-1 (1.9 log units and 1.4 log units, respectively) whereas 100 ppm of peroxyacetic-based biocide was found effective for inactivating FCV (3.2 log units) and MNV-1 (2.3 log units), but not HAV (0.7 log units). Quantitative RT-PCR results indicated that the presence of viral RNA did not correlate with the presence of infectious viruses on disinfected lettuce, except for MNV-1 processed with chlorine (15 ppm). In comparison with water washing, a substantial additional decrease of genomic FCV titer (1.1 log units) but no significant reduction of the genomic titers of HAV and MNV-1 were found on lettuce treated with chlorine (15 ppm). No significant effect of the disinfection step of lettuce with peroxyacetic-based biocide (100 ppm peracetic acid) was found by qRT-PCR on all genomic viral titers tested. This study illustrates the necessity of determining the effectiveness of technological processes against enteric viruses, using a relevant reference such as HAV, in order to reduce the risk of hepatitis and gastroenteritis by exposure to vegetables. PMID:21924791

  8. Analysis of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase expression during turion formation induced by abscisic acid in Spirodela polyrhiza (greater duckweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wenqin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aquatic plants differ in their development from terrestrial plants in their morphology and physiology, but little is known about the molecular basis of the major phases of their life cycle. Interestingly, in place of seeds of terrestrial plants their dormant phase is represented by turions, which circumvents sexual reproduction. However, like seeds turions provide energy storage for starting the next growing season. Results To begin a characterization of the transition from the growth to the dormant phase we used abscisic acid (ABA, a plant hormone, to induce controlled turion formation in Spirodela polyrhiza and investigated their differentiation from fronds, representing their growth phase, into turions with respect to morphological, ultra-structural characteristics, and starch content. Turions were rich in anthocyanin pigmentation and had a density that submerged them to the bottom of liquid medium. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM of turions showed in comparison to fronds shrunken vacuoles, smaller intercellular space, and abundant starch granules surrounded by thylakoid membranes. Turions accumulated more than 60% starch in dry mass after two weeks of ABA treatment. To further understand the mechanism of the developmental switch from fronds to turions, we cloned and sequenced the genes of three large-subunit ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases (APLs. All three putative protein and exon sequences were conserved, but the corresponding genomic sequences were extremely variable mainly due to the invasion of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs into introns. A molecular three-dimensional model of the SpAPLs was consistent with their regulatory mechanism in the interaction with the substrate (ATP and allosteric activator (3-PGA to permit conformational changes of its structure. Gene expression analysis revealed that each gene was associated with distinct temporal expression during turion formation. APL2 and APL3 were highly expressed in earlier stages of turion development, while APL1 expression was reduced throughout turion development. Conclusions These results suggest that the differential expression of APLs could be used to enhance energy flow from photosynthesis to storage of carbon in aquatic plants, making duckweeds a useful alternative biofuel feedstock.

  9. Exposure studies of core-shell Fe/Fe(3)O(4) and Cu/CuO NPs to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants: Are they a potential physiological and nutritional hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Reyes, J; Majumdar, S; Botez, C E; Peralta-Videa, J R; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2014-02-28

    Iron and copper nanomaterials are widely used in environmental remediation and agriculture. However, their effects on physiological parameters and nutritional quality of terrestrial plants such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa) are still unknown. In this research, 18-day-old hydroponically grown lettuce seedlings were treated for 15 days with core-shell nanoscale materials (Fe/Fe(3)O(4), Cu/CuO) at 10 and 20mg/L, and FeSO(4)·7H(2)O and CuSO(4)·5H(2)O at 10mg/L. At harvest, Fe, Cu, micro and macronutrients were determined by ICP-OES. Also, we evaluated chlorophyll content, plant growth, and catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Our results showed that iron ions/NPs did not affect the physiological parameters with respect to water control. Conversely, Cu ions/NPs reduced water content, root length, and dry biomass of the lettuce plants. ICP-OES results showed that nano-Cu/CuO treatments produced significant accumulation of Cu in roots compared to the CuSO(4)·5H(2)O treatment. In roots, all Cu treatments increased CAT activity but decreased APX activity. In addition, relative to the control, nano-Cu/CuO altered the nutritional quality of lettuce, since the treated plants had significantly more Cu, Al and S but less Mn, P, Ca, and Mg. PMID:24462971

  10. Identification of new Bremia lactucae races in lettuce in São Paulo state Identificação de novas raças de Bremia lactucae em alface no estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Castoldi; Hamilton César de O Charlo; Tagli Dalpian; Danilo M Melo; Adelita P Botelho; Leila T. Braz

    2012-01-01

    Lettuce is the most consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil. However, its production has faced increasing difficulties mainly due to the infestation of producing areas with Bremia lactucae, the causing agent of downy mildew, the worst disease in lettuce. The aim of this study was to identify B. lactucae races occurring in lettuce producing areas of São Paulo state, during 2008 and 2009. Lettuce leaf samples containing B. lactucae sporangia were collected in the major lettuce producing areas of São...

  11. Phytotoxic action of naphthoquinone juglone demonstrated on lettuce seedling roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babula, Petr; Vaverkova, Veronika; Poborilova, Zuzana; Ballova, Ludmila; Masarik, Michal; Provaznik, Ivo

    2014-11-01

    Juglone, 5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, is the plant secondary metabolite with allelopathic properties, which was isolated especially from the plant species belonging to family Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth (walnut family). The mechanism of phytotoxic action of juglone was investigated on lettuce seedlings Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. cv. Merkurion by determining its effect at different levels. We have found that juglone inhibits mitosis (mitotic index 8.5 ± 0.6% for control versus 2.2 ± 0.9% for 250 ?M juglone), changes mitotic phase index with accumulation of the cells in prophase (56.5 ± 2.6% for control versus 85.3 ± 5.0% for 250 ?M juglone), and decreases meristematic activity in lettuce root tips (51.07 ± 3.62% for control versus 5.27 ± 2.29% for 250 ?M juglone). In addition, juglone induced creation of reactive oxygen species and changed levels of reactive nitrogen species. Amount of malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, increased from 24.0 ± 4.0 ng g(-1) FW for control to 55.5 ± 5.4 ng g(-1) FW for 250 ?M juglone. We observed also changes in cellular structure, especially changes in the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum. Reactive oxygen species induced damage of plasma membrane. All these changes resulted in the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, increase in free intracellular calcium ions, and DNA fragmentation and programmed cell death that was revealed by two methods, TUNEL test and DNA electrophoresis. The portion of TUNEL-positive cells increase from 0.96 ± 0.5% for control to 7.66 ± 1.5% for 250 ?M juglone. Results of the study indicate complex mechanism of phytotoxic effect of juglone in lettuce root tips and may indicate mechanism of allelopathic activity of this compound. PMID:25240266

  12. Sequence diversity in the coat protein gene of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus infecting lettuce in Brazil / Variabilidade genética na porção codificadora para a proteína capsidial do Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus provenientes de alface no Brasil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Martinello, Sanches; Renate, Krause-Sakate; Marcelo Agenor, Pavan.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) e Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MLBVV) têm sido encontrados em infecções mistas no Brasil, causando a doença conhecida como engrossamento das nervuras da alface. Análise de parte do gene da proteína capsidial (CP) de isolados brasileiros de LBVaV coletad [...] os em alface, indicou que estes possuem identidade superior a 93% com isolados coletados em diferentes regiões geográficas. A diversidade genética entre a CP de isolados de MLBVV de alface foi maior comparada às sequências da CP de LBVaV, com a identidade de aminoácidos variando entre 91 a 100%. Os isolados brasileiros de MLBVV pertencem ao subgrupo A, com um único sítio de restrição RsaI no gene da proteína capsidial. Não há indicação para uma provável origem geográfica dos isolados brasileiros de MLBVV e LBVaV. Abstract in english Lettuce big vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big vein virus (MLBVV) have been found in mixed infection in Brazil causing the lettuce big vein disease. Analysis of part of the coat protein (CP) gene of Brazilian isolates of LBVaV collected from lettuce, showed at least 93% amino ac [...] id sequence identity with other LBVaV isolates. Genetic diversity among MLBVV CP sequences was higher when compared to LBVaV CP sequences, with amino acid sequence identity ranging between 91% to 100%. Brazilian isolates of MLBVV belong to subgroup A, with one RsaI restriction site on the coat protein gene. There is no indication for a possible geografical origin for the Brazilian isolates of LBVaV and MLBVV.

  13. Effect of the Municipal Garbage on the Growth of Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Al-Redhaiman; I.N. Nassar; I.S. Al-Salamah

    2003-01-01

    Municipal Garbage (MG) as a plant nutrient supply was evaluated. Some of the garbage was collected from Hail city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The garbage was fermented partially after removing its contents of stones and metals. Lettuce plants were transplanted in five greenhouse pot experiments. In the first, a portion of the MG was mixed with a sandy soil at either 1, 2 or 3% before the transplanting. In the second, a portion of the MG was mixed with hydrochloric acid 0.1 Nat ratio of 1:2 for ...

  14. Effect of Different Calcium Concentration in Contaminate Soil on 90S Accumulation by the Seasonal Vegetative Growth of Lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pot experiment was conducted in greenhouse at National Center for Agriculture Research and Technology Transfer (NCARTT) farm in Baqa. To establish the effect of different calcium concentration in the contaminated soil on the 90S accumulation by the seasonal vegetative growth of lettuce. The pots were distributed in split plot in RCBD design with four replicates. The main plots of experiment were four concentration of calcium (Ca++) in the soil. The calcium soluble solution was applied and mixed with the soil. Four concentrations of calcium were 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg Ca /Kg. The sub main plots of experiment were four specific activities of Strontium-90. The contamination has been done with 90S to the surface area of the soil after one week of planting. The specific activities of 90S were: 40, 57, 73 and 89 Bq/Kg soil . The results indicate after 70 days of planting (duration of season), that the specific active of 90Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) and in leached irrigation water at the end of season was nonsignificant increased with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil . The specific active of 90Sr reached to 1.12 Bq/Kg in plant and to 1.13 Bq/ l in irrigation water. There was strong linear correlation between specific active of 90Sr in vegetative mass of plant (Lettuce) with the increment of Ca concentration in the soil (r2= 94) , the similar results was observed for irrigation water (r2=88) . The distribution of specific active of 90Sr in the soil, plant and irrigation water was not significant effected by the increasing of specific active of 90Sr in contaminated soil and / or by increasing of Ca concentration in the soil. It was found that most of specific active of 90Sr in all treatments were remained at the end of season in the soil (96.6-97.9%). The values of Stander Transfer Factor (TFs) for 90Sr by plant or irrigation water weren't effected with increasing of specific active of 90Sr in the soil .On contrary the increasing of Ca concentration in the soil effectuate nonsignificant decreased of TFs by plant and irrigation water. The decreased in values of TFs were ranged from 0.010 to 0.018. (authors)

  15. Assessing nitrogen supply potential and influence on growth of lettuce and amaranthus of different aged composts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the potential of different composts at different maturity stages to supply N and their effect on the vegetative growth of lettuce and Amaranthus. Five composts aged 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, were mixed with soil at the rate of 5%, 10% and 15% then seeded with lettuce and Amaranthus. Results showed that 1, 3 and 6 month aged composts had a negative effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus as 1-15.78% and 4.78 to 29.45% decrease in plant height over control was recorded respectively. On the other hand 9 and 12 month aged composts had a significant positive effect on plant height of lettuce and Amaranthus where 43.48% and 34.8% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. A similar effect was observed on fresh biomass of both lettuce and Amaranthus where a 386% and 59.43% increase over control was recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost respectively. One and three month aged composts revealed a negative effect on N absorption by lettuce whereas 1, 3, 6 and 9 month aged composts had a negative effect on N absorption by Amaranthus. 30.39% and 21.48% increases over control in N absorption by lettuce and Amaranthus respectively were recorded with the application of 15% of 12 month aged compost. (author)

  16. Effect of nutrient solution on growth and some physiological characters of hydroponically grown lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Lettuce is one of the major leafy vegetables that is consumed as fresh and salads crops. Although, today, the tendency is to grow lettuce as hydroponic crop, there is not an optimal nutrient solution and growers use different nutrient solutions for growing lettuce. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to find an optimal nutrient solution to grow lettuce. In this experiment, the effect of various important nutrient solutions including, NSHog, NSKnop, NSUK, and NSU.T on two cultivars of lettuce (Siahoo and Conquistador was investigated. The experiment was arranged in the randomized completely block design with four replicates and traits i.e., chlorophyll index, photosynthetic efficiency, tip burn, fresh and dry weight, leaf area, and number of edible leaves were assessed. Plants were sown in the media containing perlite and then irrigated with nutrient solution manually. The results showed that nutrient solution had significant effect on the yield and some of the growth characteristic of lettuce. Plants grown in the UK solution had the highest fresh and dry mass, leaf area, and the number of edible leaves. The lowest fresh and dry weight, leaf area and the number of edible leaves was obtained in plants supplied with UT solution. Results also showed significant variation between two cultivars. Siahoo had higher fresh weight, leaf area, and the number of edible leaves than conquistador. Interaction between cultivar and nutrient solution had significant effect on chlorophyll index. According to the results obtained, UK nutrient solution was the best nutrient solution for lettuce production.

  17. Determination of low levels of perchlorate in lettuce and spinach using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Parker, David R

    2006-03-22

    A sample preparation method was developed to quantify environmentally relevant (low micrograms per liter) concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in leafy vegetables using IC-ESI-MS. Lettuce and spinach were macerated, centrifuged, and filtered, and the aqueous extracts were rendered water-clear using a one-step solid-phase extraction method. Total time for extraction and sample preparation was 6 h. Ion suppression was demonstrated and was likely due to unknown organics still present in the extract solution after cleanup. However, this interference was readily eliminated using a Cl(18)O4(-) internal standard at 1 microg/L in all standards and samples. Hydroponically grown perchlorate-free butterhead lettuce was spiked to either 10.3 or 37.7 microg/kg of fresh weight (FW), and recoveries were between 91 and 98% and between 93 and 101%, respectively. Five types of lettuce and spinach from a local grocery store were then analyzed; they contained from 0.6 to 6.4 microg/kg of FW. Spike recoveries using the store-bought samples ranged from 89 to 100%. The method detection limit for perchlorate in plant extracts is 40 ng/L, and the corresponding minimum reporting limit is 200 ng/L or 0.8 microg/kg of FW. PMID:16536569

  18. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables irrigated with low quality water in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tobias Boel; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contamination level of river water, irrigation water and lettuce, 10L of water and 16 lettuce samples were collected four times in the period September – October 2013, with weekly intervals from six sample sites in and around Kumasi, Ghana. Oocysts were purified from water by sedimentation for 2 x 48 hours or pulsifying of lettuce followed by immunomagnetic separation and quantification by immunofluorescence microscopy, with sensitivities of 2 and 9%, respectively. Oocysts were stored approx. six weeks at 4C° before enumeration and approx. two weeks on slides at room temperature. Oocysts were subsequently washed off the slides and attempts to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. positive samples were done by PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU rRNA, the HSP70 and the GP60 genes. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 75% of the water samples and on 43% of the lettuce with concentrations of 53 – 3,268 per 10L water and 11 – 118 oocysts per 15 g of lettuce. Positive water samples on one or more occasions were demonstrated in all water samples from both rivers and farm sites while all farms had positive lettuce samples on all occasions. Rainfall seemingly lowered the concentration of oocysts in water but not on lettuce. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium positive samples was unsuccessful, thus no conclusions can be drawn concerning sources of contamination. Nevertheless, the detection of high prevalence and concentration levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts on vegetables consumed raw and in water with direct contact to humans entails a potential risk of infection in humans. Implementation of preventive measures based on this study should be considered and actions taken accordingly.

  19. Fiscalização de hortas produtoras de verduras do município de Ribeirão Preto, SP Monitoring of lettuce crops of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo M. Takayanagui

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de verduras cruas desempenha importante papel na transmissão de várias doenças infecciosas pela freqüente prática de irrigação de hortas com água contaminada. O objetivo deste estudo é a avaliação das condições higiênico-sanitárias de todas as hortas produtoras de verduras de Ribeirão Preto, SP com implantação de um sistema de fiscalização. A análise laboratorial de 129 hortas revelou irregularidades em 20,1% delas, destacando-se elevada concentração de coliformes fecais em 17%, presença de Salmonella em 3,1% e de vários enteroparasitas (Ascaris sp, Ancylostomidae, Strongyloides sp, Hymenolepis nana e Giardia sp em 13,1%. A repetição da análise das hortas irregulares determinou a interdição definitiva de uma delas; todas as demais foram aprovadas, comprovando a eficácia do sistema de fiscalização, particularmente com a implantação, inédita no país, do certificado de vistoria sanitária.The ingesting of raw vegetables plays an important role in the transmission of several infectious diseases due to the high frequency of irrigation with wastewater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sanitary conditions of all lettuce producing crops in Ribeirão Preto through microbiological and parasitological analysis of both irrigation water and lettuce together with the implantation of an effective crop monitoring. Laboratory analysis of 129 crops showed irregularities in 26 (20.1% of these: high concentration of fecal coliforms in 17% of the lettuce, presence of Salmonella in 3.1% and several enteroparasites (Ascaris sp, Ancylostomidae, Strongyloides sp, Hymenolepis nana, and Giardia sp in 13.1%. Persistent irregularities determined the definitive closing down of one producer; all of the remaining 128 crops were eventually approved, thus demonstrating the efficacy of lettuce crop monitoring. Crops approved in the laboratory analysis were awarded a Sanitary Inspection Certificate - an unprecedented procedure in our Country - that resulted in a better acceptance of the monitoring.

  20. Changes in the chlorophyll content in stored lettuce Lactuca sativa L. after pre-harvest foliar application of CaCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Perucka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigations was to determine the cumulative effect of foliar treatment of lettuce plants with a CaCl2 solution and the cold-storage period on the level of chlorophylls in the leaves of lettuce cv. ?Omega? (Lactuca sativa L.. Plants were grown in a pot experiment conducted in the greenhouse of the Department of Cultivation and Fertilisation of Horticultural Plants, University of Life Sciences in Lublin. During the growing period, 10 and 20 days before harvest, the plants received foliar application of CaCl2 at the concentrations of 0.1 M and 0.2 M. Control plants were sprayed with water. Some plants were analysed immediately after the harvest; other specimens were cold-stored at a temperature of 4oC for 7 and 14 days. Whole leaves and blades without the midrib were analysed. The results obtained indicated that the foliar application of 0.2M CaCl2 in lettuce resulted in a decrease in the level of chlorophylls in fresh plants, compared with the control. A beneficial cumulative effect of the CaCl2 application and storage period on the chlorophyll level in lettuce leaves was observed in the leaf blades of plants after foliar treatment with the 0.1M CaCl2.solution and cold-stored for 7 and 14 days, in which in- creased levels of chlorophyll “a” and “b” and total chlorophyll, compared with the control, were found.

  1. Effect of CO2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar 'Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar 'Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO2 level.

  2. Effect of CO_2 levels on nutrient content of lettuce and radish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeehen, J. D.; Smart, D. J.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Wheeler, R. M.; Nielsen, S. S.

    Atmospheric carbon-dioxide enrichment is known to affect the yield of lettuce and radish grown in controlled environments, but little is known about CO_2 enrichment effects on the chemical composition of lettuce and radish. These crops are useful model systems for a Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS), largely because of their relatively short production cycles. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivar `Waldmann's Green' and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivar `Giant White Globe' were grown both in the field and in controlled environments, where hydroponic nutrient solution, light, and temperature were regulated, and where CO_2 levels were controlled at 400, 1000, 5000, or 10,000 ppm. Plants were harvested at maturity, dried, and analyzed for proximate composition (protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrate), total nitrogen (N), nitrate N, free sugars, starch, total dietary fiber, and minerals. Total N, protein N, nonprotein N (NPN), and nitrate N generally increased for radish roots and lettuce leaves when grown under growth chamber conditions compared to field conditions. The nitrate-N level of lettuce leaves, as a percentage of total NPN, decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The ash content of radish roots and of radish and lettuce leaves decreased with increasing levels of CO_2 enrichment. The levels of certain minerals differed between field- and chamber-grown materials, including changes in the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents of radish roots and lettuce leaves, resulting in reduced Ca/P ratio for chamber-grown materials. The free-sugar contents were similar between the field and chamber-grown lettuce leaves, but total dietary fiber content was much higher in the field-grown plant material. The starch content of growth-chamber lettuce increased with CO_2 level.

  3. Assessment of lettuce quality during storage at low relative humidity using Global Stability Index methodology / Avaliação da qualidade da alface durante o armazenamento em baixa umidade relativa usando o Índice Global da Estabilidade

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Roberta, Ansorena; María Victoria, Agüero; María Grabriela, Goñi; Sara, Roura; Alejandra, Ponce; María del Rosario, Moreira; Karina, Di Scala.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante a pós-colheita a alface é exposta a condições adversas (baixa umidade relativa) que reduzem a qualidade do vegetal. A fim de avaliar sua vida útil, um grande número de índices de qualidade tem que ser analisado, requerendo um cuidadoso delineamento experimental e um longo consumo de tempo. N [...] este trabalho, o método modificado do Índice Global da Estabilidade foi aplicado para estimar a qualidade da alface manteiga a uma baixa umidade relativa durante o armazenamento diferenciando três zonas (interna, média e externa). Os resultados indicaram que, para a zona externa, os índices mais relevantes foram o conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, ácido ascórbico e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Para a zona média, foram conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, clorofila total, ácido ascórbico e, para a interna, conteúdo da umidade relativa, água ligada, conteúdo da água e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Foi proposto um modelo matemático entre o Índice Global da Estabilidade e qualidade visual geral para cada zona da alface. Ademais, foi aplicada a distribuição de Weibull para estimar o tempo da vida útil do vegetal, o qual foi: 5, 4 e 3 dias para as zonas interna, média e externa, respectivamente. Quando foi estudado o efeito do tempo de armazenamento para cada zona da alface, todos os índices avaliados na zona externa mostraram diferenças significativas (p Abstract in english During postharvest, lettuce is usually exposed to adverse conditions (e.g. low relative humidity) that reduce the vegetable quality. In order to evaluate its shelf life, a great number of quality attributes must be analyzed, which requires careful experimental design, and it is time consuming. In th [...] is study, the modified Global Stability Index method was applied to estimate the quality of butter lettuce at low relative humidity during storage discriminating three lettuce zones (internal, middle, and external). The results indicated that the most relevant attributes were: the external zone - relative water content, water content , ascorbic acid, and total mesophilic counts; middle zone - relative water content, water content, total chlorophyll, and ascorbic acid; internal zone - relative water content, bound water, water content, and total mesophilic counts. A mathematical model that takes into account the Global Stability Index and overall visual quality for each lettuce zone was proposed. Moreover, the Weibull distribution was applied to estimate the maximum vegetable storage time which was 5, 4, and 3 days for the internal, middle, and external zone, respectively. When analyzing the effect of storage time for each lettuce zone, all the indices evaluated in the external zone of lettuce presented significant differences (p

  4. TiO2 photocatalytic inactivation under simulated solar light of bacterial consortia in domestic wastewaters previously treated by UASB, duckweed and facultative ponds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julián Andrés, Rengifo-Herrera; Cesar, Pulgarin; Fiderman, Machuca; Janeth, Sanabria.

    Full Text Available In this work, TiO2 photocatalysis was used to disinfect domestic wastewaters previously treated by different biological treatment systems: Upward-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB), facultative pond, and duckweed pond. The microorganisms monitored were E. coli, total coliforms, Shigella species, a [...] nd Salmonella species. Photocatalytic experiments were carried out using two light sources: a solar simulator (UV intensity: 68-70 W m-2) and black-light lamps (BLL UV intensity: 17-20 W m-2). Samples were taken after each treatment stage. Results indicate that bacterial photocatalytic inactivation is affected by characteristics of the effluent, including turbidity, concentration of organic matter, and bacterial concentration, which depend of the type of biological pretreatment previously used.

  5. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  6. Biological Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Lettuce Using Antagonistic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Goan Chon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To isolate antagonistic bacteria against sclerotinia rot of lettuce, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, soil samples were collected from the diseased greenhouse field in Namyangju city, Gyeong-gi province from 2007 to 2008. A total of 196 bacterial isolates were isolated using serial dilution method. In dual culture assay in vitro, 26 isolates showed more than 80% of inhibition rates of mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum. Based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis, the 26 isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus, B. subtilis, Arthrobacter nicotianae, A. ramosus, Pseudomonas filiscindens, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Brevibacterium frigoritolerans and Sphingobacterium faecium. The 26 isolates inhibited the mycelial growth of S. sclerotiorum up to 80% and the sclerotial germination 0?100%. In the greenhouse pot test of ten isolates conducted in summer, 2 isolates B. megaterium (DK6 and B. cereus (C210 showed control efficacy on sclerotia viability of S. sclerotiorum, 20% and 35%, respectively. In the greenhouse pot test in winter, the disease incidence of the control group was 80%, whereas those of 9 isolates among 26 were approximately 20%. From the result, the 9 isolates are expected as potentially antagonistic bacteria for biological control of sclerotinia rot of lettuce caused by S. sclerotiorum.

  7. Allelopathic Effects of Shoot and Root Extracts From Three Alien and Native Chenopodiaceae Species on Lettuce Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Bouchikh-Boucif

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One basic method of improving rangelands in the country is the use of native as well as exotic species of adaptable plants. Some species of Atriplex, like Atriplex canescens and Atriplex nummularia has been introduced in many thousands hectares of rangelands since more than 20 years, it feeds some debates on the algerian scientific community, so that’s why it is important to know the impact and necessary to consider its effects on native species. In the current study the effect of chemical competition of Atriplex canescens and Atriplex nummularia comparing to native Atriplex halimus by observing the effect of aqueous extracts of leaves, stems and roots of the three chenopod species assayed at 0.06, 0.63, 1.55, 3.12 and 6.25 g /l on the germination of lettuce seed test. Seed germination was significantly inhibited by shoot alien species extracts especially A.nummularia at concentrations ranging from 1.55 to 6.26 g/l with decrease rate of 20% in the lettuce seed tests indicating the presence of allelopathic substances, in 0,06 the germination increased to more than 10% comparing to the water irrigated seeds. An opposed effect than the expected had been found because Atriplex canescens had a less allelopathic effect than our native plant Atriplex halimus.

  8. An improved method for transformation of lettuce by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a gene that confers freezing resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pileggi Marcos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for constructing transgenic lettuce cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was described by Torres et al., 1993. In the present work, an improvement of the above procedure is described and applied to transform the cultivar Grand Rapids with a mutated P5CS gene. The major modifications were concerned with turning more practical the transformation and regeneration protocols. Also we tried to improve transformation steps by increasing injured area in explants and prolonging co-cultivation with Agrobacteria (in larger concentration. A more significant selective pressure was used against non-transformed plants and bacteria. In these work we were concerned to obtain T1 and T2 seeds. The P5CS gene codes for a delta¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two steps of proline biosynthesis in plants (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996, while the mutated gene is insensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. The potential benefit of this gene is to confer water stress resistance (drought, salt, cold due to increased intracellular levels of proline that works like an osmoprotectant. In this work could obtain and characterize transgenic lettuce lineages which are resistant to freezing temperature.

  9. Escherichia coli Contamination of Lettuce Grown in Soils Amended with Animal Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards.

  10. Transfer of Metals in Food Chain: An Example with Copper and Lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris

    2012-12-01

    Present study investigated the possible transfer of metals in the food chain (from soil to edible plants). The experiment was done with lettuce Lactuca sativa grown in different types of soil contaminated with copper (Cu2+) in various concentrations, with or without addition of humic substances. The highest content of copper was detected in lettuce samples grown in soils with lower levels of organic matter, thus indicating the importance of soil organics in metal transfer routes and accumulation rates in plants. It was found that copper accumulation in lettuce grown in contaminated soils can be significantly reduced by the addition of humic substances.

  11. Reúso de águas residuárias da piscicultura e da suinocultura na irrigação da cultura da alface Reuse of wastewater from swine and fish activities in the lettuce culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Baumgartner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade sanitária da cultura da alface irrigada com águas residuárias originadas da suinocultura e da piscicultura. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - alface irrigada com água de origem subterrânea e adubação suplementar; T2 - alface irrigada com água residuária de viveiro de peixes alimentados com ração; T3 - alface irrigada com água residuária originária de lagoa de estabilização de dejetos de suínos, e T4 - água de lagoa de cultivo de algas, alimentada com resíduo de biodigestor de dejeto de suíno. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças significativas para altura da alface, diâmetro da cabeça, comprimento da raiz, massa da raiz, massa total da planta, massa fresca e massa seca; os tratamentos T4 e T2 apresentaram os maiores valores para comprimento da maior folha e número de folhas, respectivamente; em geral, as análises foliares e a extração de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura não apresentaram diferenças significativas; ocorreu contaminação de coliformes fecais e totais em todos os tratamentos; não ocorreu contaminação de Escherichia coli em todos os tratamentos; todos os Coeficientes de Uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC encontrados foram acima de 85%, exceto para o tratamento T3 que foi de 74,05%; ocorreram alterações químicas no solo proporcionais às características das águas utilizadas nos respectivos tratamentos.The objective of this work was to evaluate development, production and sanitary quality of the irrigated lettuce with wastewater from fish and swine activities. The evaluated treatments was: T1 - lettuce irrigated with water from underground origin and supplemental fertilization; T2 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from fish activities and fish fed with ration; T3 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from swine treated in stabilization lagoon; and T4 - lettuce irrigated with effluent from seaweed lagoon, fed with wastewater from swine activities treated with anaerobic reactor. The treatments did not present significant differences for next culture characteristics: height, diameter head, length root, mass root, total mass plant, green mass and dry mass; the treatments T4 and T2 presented the biggest values for length and number leaf, respectively; in general, leaf analyses and extraction of macro and micronutrients by culture did not present significant differences; contamination by fecal coliforms in all treatments occurred; no contamination by Escherichia coli was observed in all treatments; all the Coefficients of Uniformity of Christiansen (CUC observed were above 85%, except for treatment T3 where was 74%; chemical alterations in the soil occurred proportional to characteristics of waters used in the treatments.

  12. Reúso de águas residuárias da piscicultura e da suinocultura na irrigação da cultura da alface / Reuse of wastewater from swine and fish activities in the lettuce culture

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dirceu, Baumgartner; Silvio C., Sampaio; Tatiana R. da, Silva; Carla R. P. A., Teo; Márcio A., Vilas Boas.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desenvolvimento, a produção e a qualidade sanitária da cultura da alface irrigada com águas residuárias originadas da suinocultura e da piscicultura. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: T1 - alface irrigada com água de origem subterrânea e adubação suplementar; [...] T2 - alface irrigada com água residuária de viveiro de peixes alimentados com ração; T3 - alface irrigada com água residuária originária de lagoa de estabilização de dejetos de suínos, e T4 - água de lagoa de cultivo de algas, alimentada com resíduo de biodigestor de dejeto de suíno. Os tratamentos não apresentaram diferenças significativas para altura da alface, diâmetro da cabeça, comprimento da raiz, massa da raiz, massa total da planta, massa fresca e massa seca; os tratamentos T4 e T2 apresentaram os maiores valores para comprimento da maior folha e número de folhas, respectivamente; em geral, as análises foliares e a extração de macro e micronutrientes pela cultura não apresentaram diferenças significativas; ocorreu contaminação de coliformes fecais e totais em todos os tratamentos; não ocorreu contaminação de Escherichia coli em todos os tratamentos; todos os Coeficientes de Uniformidade de Christiansen (CUC) encontrados foram acima de 85%, exceto para o tratamento T3 que foi de 74,05%; ocorreram alterações químicas no solo proporcionais às características das águas utilizadas nos respectivos tratamentos. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate development, production and sanitary quality of the irrigated lettuce with wastewater from fish and swine activities. The evaluated treatments was: T1 - lettuce irrigated with water from underground origin and supplemental fertilization; T2 - lettuce irriga [...] ted with wastewater from fish activities and fish fed with ration; T3 - lettuce irrigated with wastewater from swine treated in stabilization lagoon; and T4 - lettuce irrigated with effluent from seaweed lagoon, fed with wastewater from swine activities treated with anaerobic reactor. The treatments did not present significant differences for next culture characteristics: height, diameter head, length root, mass root, total mass plant, green mass and dry mass; the treatments T4 and T2 presented the biggest values for length and number leaf, respectively; in general, leaf analyses and extraction of macro and micronutrients by culture did not present significant differences; contamination by fecal coliforms in all treatments occurred; no contamination by Escherichia coli was observed in all treatments; all the Coefficients of Uniformity of Christiansen (CUC) observed were above 85%, except for treatment T3 where was 74%; chemical alterations in the soil occurred proportional to characteristics of waters used in the treatments.

  13. Bovine biofertilizer and irrigation layers on lettuce development and leaf chlorophyll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Aparecida Chiconato

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary and urgent the search by sources of organic fertilizer and decrease the consumption of water for irrigation. In the context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional effects of the use of bovine biofertilizers incorporated into the soil and of the irrigation in the development of lettuce. The research was developed, using an experimental design in randomized blocks, factorial scheme 6x2, with six levels of fertilization (4 doses of bovine biofertilizer and two witnesses: without fertilizer and mineral fertilizer and two irrigation layers (80 and 100% of reference evapotranspiration with four replications, in the field. The variables analyzed were: height, head diameter, chlorophyll, leaf number, fresh matter and dry matter of plant tops. It was performed by analysis of variance of F test, comparison of means by Tukey test (p <0.05 and polynomial regression. The results showed that the levels of biofertilizer were similar to the mineral control, pointing the possibility to replace them with the dose of 90m3ha-1 more recommendable, and the best water layer, of 80% of the evapotranspiration.

  14. EVALUATION OF FUNGICIDES FOR CONTROLLING BOTTOM ROT OF ICEBERG LETTUCE, 2001 AND 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of fungicides such as Quadris, Pristin, Flint Rovral and Switch to the base of young lettuce plants after thinning and one week later reduced the incidence of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani....

  15. Effect of Sulfur Blended N-Fertilizers on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Quality of Lettuce Yield

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Al-Redhaiman; M.I.D. Helal; R.R. Shahin

    2003-01-01

    Volatilization of NH3 is a major factor affects ammonical fertilizer use efficiency particularly when N-fertilizers are surface applied to sandy soil characterized by high pH values and low CEC. Effect of blending various N-fertilizers; urea, U, ammonium sulfate, AS, ammonium nitrate, AN and di-ammonium phosphate, DAP; with elemental sulfur, on fertilizer-N utilization and quality of lettuce yield were studied. The results of lettuce yield grown in greenhouse showed significant increase in le...

  16. Phyllosphere Microbiota Composition and Microbial Community Transplantation on Lettuce Plants Grown Indoors

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Thomas R.; Marco, Maria L.

    2014-01-01

    The aerial surfaces of plants, or phyllosphere, are microbial habitats important to plant and human health. In order to accurately investigate microbial interactions in the phyllosphere under laboratory conditions, the composition of the phyllosphere microbiota should be representative of the diversity of microorganisms residing on plants in nature. We found that Romaine lettuce grown in the laboratory contained 10- to 100-fold lower numbers of bacteria than age-matched, field-grown lettuce. ...

  17. Dynamic Model as Attainment Effort of Nitrogen Synchronization at Lettuce Cultivation with Green Manure Paitan

    OpenAIRE

    Yuni Agung Nugroho; Elik Murni Ningtyas Ningsih

    2009-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is vegetable crop that consumed part of the leaf and harvested at a phase of vegetative. Nitrogen play important role in growth at phase of vegetative. Nitrogen in spacious have the character of easy to lose because of leaching. Increasing yield of lettuce can be done by improving Nitrogen synchronization, that is precisely usage moment with ready moment of N during and amount of its. The research was aimed to study of the pattern nitrogen requirement for let...

  18. Economic analysis of cucumber and lettuce intercropping under greenhouse in the winter-spring

    OpenAIRE

    Bráulio L.A. Rezende; Arthur B Cecílio Filho; Aurélio P Barros Júnior; Diego R. Q Porto; Maria Inez E.G. Martins

    2011-01-01

    The economical analysis complements the evaluation of the intercrop systems efficiency, considering besides the physical production of crops, the price of products according to their quality classification and time of the year. Intercropping systems of lettuce and cucumber in two plant populations under greenhouse were economically evaluated in winter-spring, in Jaboticabal City, São Paulo State, Brazil. The total operating cost (TOC) of cucumber and lettuce as sole crop and intercropping wer...

  19. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Yong Ki; Jee, Hyeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions), L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions), L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions), L. saligna (2 accessions), and L. serriola (1 accession); majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial sus...

  20. Antioxidant capacity and contents of phenols, ascorbic acid, ?-carotene and lycopene in lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Zdravkovi? Jasmina M.; A?amovi?-?okovi? Gordana S.; Mladenovi? Jelena D.; Pavlovi? Radoš M.; Zdravkovi? Milan S.

    2014-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L.) Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, ß-carotene and lycopene, were determined in ethanolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98...

  1. Nitrogenase Activity of Pseudomonas corrugata Isolated from Egyptian Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Emad A. Abada

    2006-01-01

    In the present study an isolate capable of root colonization of Egyptian Lettuce was isolated from the roots after selective enrichment. The isolated strain was identified as Pseudomonas corrugata by using Biochemical and Biolog identification system. The isolate has been found to be positive for nitrogenase activity. This root-colonized bacterium has not been previously isolated from Egyptian Lettuce and could be used as a bio-fertilizer.

  2. Searching the best equilibrium moisture equation for lettuce seeds using measures of curvature and bias

    OpenAIRE

    Bortolotti, Carolina T; Barrozo, Marcos A S

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we performed a discrimination analysis of the nonlinear equations used to describe sorption isotherms of the lettuce seeds. The equilibrium data were obtained by the static method using saturated salt solutions. The best model to describe the equilibrium moisture of lettuce seeds was selected using measures of curvature and bias. The obtained results showed that the Copace equation was the best model in terms of nonsignificance for bias and nonlinearity measures.

  3. Effects of long-term low atmospheric pressure on gas exchange and growth of lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongkang; Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Qin, Lifeng; Ai, Weidang; Lin, Shan

    2010-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and growth of lettuce at long-term low atmospheric pressure. Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L . cv. Youmaicai) plants were grown at 40 kPa total pressure (8.4 kPa p) or 101 kPa total pressure (20.9 kPa p) from seed to harvest for 35 days. Germination rate of lettuce seeds decreased by 7.6% at low pressure, although this was not significant. There was no significant difference in crop photosynthetic rate between hypobaria and ambient pressure during the 35-day study. The crop evapotranspiration rate was significantly lower at low pressure than that at ambient pressure from 20 to 30 days after planting (DAP), but it had no significant difference before 20 DAP or after 30 DAP. The growth cycle of lettuce plants at low pressure was delayed. At low pressure, lettuce leaves were curly at the seedling stage and this disappeared gradually as the plants grew. Ambient lettuce plants were yellow and had an epinastic growth at harvest. The shoot height, leaf number, leaf length and shoot/root ratio were lower at low pressure than those at ambient pressure, while leaf area and root growth increased. Total biomass of lettuce plants grown at two pressures had no significant difference. Ethylene production at low pressure decreased significantly by 38.8% compared with ambient pressure. There was no significant difference in microelements, nutritional phytochemicals and nitrate concentrations at the two treatments. This research shows that lettuce can be grown at long-term low pressure (40 kPa) without significant adverse effects on seed germination, gas exchange and plant growth. Furthermore, ethylene release was reduced in hypobaria.

  4. Manure- and Biosolids-Resident Murine Norovirus 1 Attachment to and Internalization by Romaine Lettuce?

    OpenAIRE

    wei, Jie; Jin, Yan; Sims, Tom; Kniel, Kalmia E.

    2009-01-01

    The attachment of murine norovirus 1 (MNV) in biosolids, swine manure, and dairy manure to Romaine lettuce and internalization of this virus were evaluated. The MNV in animal manures had behavior similar to that of pure MNV; however, MNV in biosolids had significantly higher levels of attachment and internalization than pure MNV or MNV in manures. The incubation time did not affect the attachment of MNV in biosolids or manure. Confocal microscopy was used to observe MNV on lettuce after SYBR ...

  5. Transgenic lettuce seedlings carrying hepatitis B virus antigen HBsAg

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson Marcondes; Ekkehard Hansen

    2008-01-01

    The obtainment of transgenic edible plants carrying recombinant antigens is a desired issue in search for economic alternatives viewing vaccine production. Here we report a strategy for genetic transformation of lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) using the surface antigen HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Transgenic lettuce seedlings were obtained through the application of a regulated balance of plant growth regulators. Genetic transformation process was acquired by cocultivation of cotyledons wit...

  6. Nitrate content in dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) from organic and conventional origin: intake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenjak, Alenka Hmelak; Koležnik, Urška Rizman; Cenci?, Avrelija

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the actual intake of nitrate by consumption of different lettuce varieties, 52 samples of lettuce of different origins and dandelion from 15 different areas of northeast Slovenia were analysed. For determination of actual nitrate content, a continuous flow method was used. The lowest nitrate content was detected in dandelion, with a mean value of 195?mg?kg(-1) (ranging 47-487?mg?kg(-1)). Nitrate content in lettuce of different origins ranged 85-3237?mg?kg(-1), with a mean value of 1196?mg?kg(-1). The mean nitrate content in organically cultivated lettuce was 890?mg?kg(-1), which was considerably lower than the nitrate level in conventionally cultivated lettuce (1298?mg?kg(-1)). Consumption of 100?g of dandelion would result in a maximal nitrate intake corresponding to 22% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI), with values up to seven times higher for lettuce. PMID:24779737

  7. Evaluation of lettuce germplasm resistance to gray mold disease for organic cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Yong Ki; Jee, Hyeong Jin

    2014-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions), L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions), L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions), L. saligna (2 accessions), and L. serriola (1 accession); majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×10(7) conidia/ml) of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease. PMID:25288990

  8. Biogeography of the Pistia clade (Araceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Susanne S; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) and Lemna (duckweeds) are the only free-floating aquatic Araceae. The geographic origin and phylogenetic placement of these unrelated aroids present long-standing problems because of their highly modified reproductive structures and wide geographical distributions. We sampled chloroplast (trnL-trnF and rpl20-rpsl2 spacers, trnL intron) and mitochondrial sequences (nadl b/c intron) for all genera implicated as close relatives of Pistia by morphological, restri...

  9. Phosphate effect on the content of selected elements in a lettuce variety grown at a contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of superphosphate fertilizer in remediating a contaminated soil with potentially toxic elements. For this, different phosphorus doses were used in a number of lettuce plants. The element concentrations determined in their leaves were compared with those found in control lettuce plants. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was the analytical technique used to determine element concentration in lettuce leave samples. The application of 250 mg kg-1 of P was the most effective treatment to reduce the concentrations of Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Sb and Zn in lettuce leaves. (author)

  10. Obtaining resistant lettuce progenies to downy mildew / Obtenção de progênies de alface crespa resistentes ao míldio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata, Castoldi; Hamilton CO, Charlo; Danilo M, Melo; Willame S, Candido; Pablo F, Vargas; Tagli, Dalpian; Leila T, Braz.

    Full Text Available A alface é a hortaliça folhosa mais consumida no Brasil. No entanto, a dificuldade em produzi-la vem aumentando, principalmente pela infestação das áreas de produção por Bremia lactucae, sendo o uso de cultivares com resistência horizontal, a alternativa mais viável no controle da doença. Diante do [...] exposto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter progênies de alface crespa resistentes às raças de míldio SPBl:01, SPBl:02, SPBl:03, SPBl:04, SPBl:05, SPBl:06 e SPBl:07. O trabalho de melhoramento consistiu de duas etapas: cruzamento dos parentais para obtenção das progênies de alface crespa resistentes e teste de resistência das progênies às raças de B. lactucae. Os parentais utilizados na obtenção das progênies resistentes foram Argeles e linhagem JAB 4-13-7, visando a obtenção de progênies de alface do tipo crespa, com os fatores de resistência R-18 e R-38. Para tanto, adotou-se o método genealógico, tendo como padrão, para as seleções, a cultivar Hortência e o genótipo JAB 4-13-7. Após a seleção e autofecundação das plantas no campo, efetuou-se o teste de resistência ou suscetibilidade, por meio da inoculação nas progênies oriundas dos cruzamentos, de uma mistura de água destilada + esporângios de B. lactucae das raças SPBl:01, SPBl:02, SPBl:03, SPBl:04, SPBl:05, SPBl:06 e SPBl:07 obtidas de isolados coletados nos anos de 2008 a 2010. Quinze dias após a inoculação, as plântulas foram selecionadas, descartando aquelas que possuíam esporulação e pontos necróticos causados por B. lactucae. Pelo método genealógico, selecionaram-se 69 progênies F3 com boas características agronômicas. No entanto, após o teste de resistência ou suscetibilidade, somente 19 apresentaram todas as plantas resistentes ao míldio. Abstract in english Lettuce is the most consumed leafy vegetable in Brazil. Its production, nonetheless, is increasing in difficulties mainly due to the infestation of producing areas with Bremia lactucae. Thus, the use of horizontal resistant cultivars is the most viable alternative in controlling progress of disease. [...] So, the objective of this study was to obtain resistant lettuce progenies to the races of downy mildew: SPBl:01, SPBl:02, SPBl:03, SPBl:04, SPBl:05, SPBl:06 and SPBl:07. The breeding consisted of two stages: crossover of parentals to obtain the resistant lettuce progenies and endurance test of the progeny to B. lactucae races. The parentals used to obtain progenies with resistance factor R-18 and R-38 were: JAB 4-13-7 and JAB 4-13-7. The Pedigree method was used for obtaining the progeny, using as default selections the Hortência cultivar and JAB 4-13-7genotype. After selection and selfing of the plants in the field, the resistance or susceptibility test was realized, by inoculation of the progenies from the crosses, with mixture of distilled water + sporangia of B. lactucae races SPBl:01, SPBl:02, SPBl:03, SPBl:04, SPBl:05, SPBl:06 and SPBl:07 obtained from isolates collected in the years 2008-2010. Fifteen days after inoculation, the seedlings were selected as resistant or susceptible, discarding those presenting sporulation and necrotic spots caused by B. lactucae. Through the Pedigree method we found 69 progenies F3 with good agronomic characteristics. However, after resistance or susceptibility test, only 19 showed all the plants resistant to downy mildew.

  11. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables irrigated with low quality water in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tobias B; Petersen, Heidi H.

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contamination level of river water, irrigation water and lettuce, 10L of water and 16 lettuce samples were collected four times in the period September – October 2013, with weekly intervals from six sample sites in and around Kumasi, Ghana. Oocysts were purified from water by sedimentation for 2 x 48 hours or pulsifying of lettuce followed by immunomagnetic separation and quantification by immunofluorescence microscopy, with sensitivities of 2 and 9%, respectively. Oocysts were stored approx. six weeks at 4C° before enumeration and approx. two weeks on slides at room temperature. Oocysts were subsequently washed off the slides and attempts to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. positive samples were done by PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU rRNA, the HSP70 and the GP60 genes. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 75% of the water samples and on 43% of the lettuce with concentrations of 53 – 3,268 per 10L water and 11 – 118 oocysts per 15 g of lettuce. Positive water samples on one or more occasions were demonstrated in all water samples from both rivers and farm sites while all farms had positive lettuce samples on all occasions. Rainfall seemingly lowered the concentration of oocysts in water but not on lettuce. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium positive samples was unsuccessful, thus no conclusions can be drawn concerning sources of contamination. Nevertheless, the detection of high prevalence and concentration levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts on vegetables consumed raw and in water with direct contact to humans entails a potential risk of infection in humans. Implementation of preventive measures based on this study should be considered and actions taken accordingly.

  12. Comparative Study of Lettuce and Radish Grown Under Red and Blue Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and White Fluorescent Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickens, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Growing vegetable crops in space will be an essential part of sustaining astronauts during long-term missions. To drive photosynthesis, red and blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have attracted attention because of their efficiency, longevity, small size, and safety. In efforts to optimize crop production, there have also been recent interests in analyzing the subtle effects of green light on plant growth, and to determine if it serves as a source of growth enhancement or suppression. A comparative study was performed on two short cycle crops of lettuce (Outredgeous) and radish (Cherry Bomb) grown under two light treatments. The first treatment being red and blue LEDs, and the second treatment consisting of white fluorescent lamps which contain a portion of green light. In addition to comparing biomass production, physiological characterizations were conducted on how the light treatments influence morphology, water use, chlorophyll content, and the production of A TP within plant tissues.

  13. Preliminary Studies on Growth and Fresh Weight of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) as Affected by Clay Pot Irrigation and Spacing

    OpenAIRE

    George Nyarko; Abdul-Halim Abubakari; Maalinyuur Sheila

    2011-01-01

    An experiment (Completely Randomized Design) was set up to determine the effects of Clay Pot Sub-surface Irrigation (CPSI) and spacing on the growth and fresh weight of lettuce (Lactuca sativa). The treatments were: CPSI with spacing; 15x15 cm, 20x20 cm and 30x30 cm. Control treatments were Watering Can Irrigation (WCI) with the same spacing as above. Treatments were replicated three times given a total of 18 experimental units. Eighteen large enamel basins of 50/20 cm (diameter/height) were ...

  14. Methods to Estimate Lettuce Evapotranspiration in Greenhouse Conditions in the Central Zone of Chile Métodos de Estimación de la Evapotranspiración de un Cultivo de Lechuga en Condiciones de Invernadero, Zona Central de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Casanova P.; Ingmar Messing; Abraham Joel; Alberto Cañete M

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates five methods to estimate crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse conditions. It compares their performance in relation to the evapotranspiration directly determined from water balance measurements (ETlys) in an irrigated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop during 9 weeks. Daily values of the reference evapotranspiration (ETo) from Class A pan (CAP), Piche atmometers (ATM), Andersson evaporimeters (ANE), FAO-Radiation (FRE) and FAO-Penman-Monteith (PME) equations were compared....

  15. Frequência de Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus em Plantas de alface no Estado de São Paulo e transmissão através de extrato vegetal e solo Frequency of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in symptomatic and assymptomatic lettuce plants and sap and soil transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Martinello Sanches

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de sintomas de 'big vein' ou engrossamento das nervuras em alface e a associação do Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV foram verificadas por RT-PCR utilizando-se oligonucleotídeos específicos para ambos os vírus. Foram coletadas 366 plantas sintomáticas nas regiões de Bauru, Campinas e Mogi das Cruzes no estado de São Paulo nos meses de junho e setembro de 2004 e abril e julho de 2005, e 18 plantas assintomáticas na região de Mogi das Cruzes no mês de dezembro de 2004. Infecção mista do LBVaV e MLBVV foi detectada em 76,2% das plantas sintomáticas, em 11,5% somente o MLBVV foi detectado e em 6,6% somente o LBVaV. Nas plantas assintomáticas coletadas em dezembro na região de Mogi das Cruzes, em áreas de alta incidência da doença durante o inverno, foi detectada a presença de MLBVV em 9 amostras e LBVaV em 7 amostras. Quatro dessas amostras apresentaram infecção mista, indicando que o desenvolvimento de sintomas depende de fatores abióticos, como temperatura. A inoculação via extrato vegetal a partir de plantas de alface com infecção mista pelo MLBVV e LBVaV foi realizada a 16°C/ 10°C (dia/noite e fotoperíodo de 11 horas, verificando-se que o MLBVV foi transmitido para Nicotiana tabacum TNN, N. rustica, N. occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa e para as cultivares de alface Trocadero e White Boston, enquanto o LBVaV foi transmitido apenas para a alface White Boston. Entretanto, nenhuma destas plantas apresentou sintomas da doença, com exceção de C. quinoa que apresentou sintomas de lesões locais. Plantio em solo proveniente de áreas com histórico da doença de Mogi das Cruzes permitiu a transmissão do LBVaV para alface cv. White Boston e do MLBVV para alface cv. Trocadero e White Boston, embora apenas a cv. White Boston tenha apresentado sintomas da doença. Em conjunto, estes resultados demonstram a dificuldade de transmissão de ambos os vírus, mesmo em condições de laboratório.The occurrence of big vein disease symptoms and the association of Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV was evaluated by RT-PCR using specific primers for both viruses. A total of 366 symptomatic plants were collected during June and September 2004 and during April and July 2005 at Bauru, Campinas and Mogi das Cruzes in São Paulo state, and 18 symptomless plants were collected in Mogi das Cruzes on December 2004. Mixed infection was detected in 76,2% of the symptomatic plants, 11,5% had only MLBVV and 6,6% had only LBVaV. In the symptomless plants collected in areas with high incidence of the disease throughout the winter, MLBVV was found in 9 plants and LBVaV in 7 plants. Four plants had both viruses, indicating that symptom development depends on abiotic factors, such as temperature. Plants with MLBVV and LBVaV (mixed infection were used as source of virus in a host range assay at 16C/ 10°C (day/ night and 11h light period. MLBVV was transmitted to Nicotiana tabacum TNN, N. rustica, N. occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa and lettuce cv. Trocadero and White Boston, while LBVaV was transmitted only to lettuce cv. White Boston. No symptons could be verified for these plants with the exception of C. quinoa that showed local lesions. Transmission through soil in areas with high incidence of the disease was observed for LBVaV to lettuce cv. White Boston and MLBVV for lettuce cv. Trocadero and White Boston, but only cv. White Boston showed symptoms. Together, these results demonstrate the difficulties in transmitting both viruses, even under controlled laboratory conditions.

  16. Frequência de Lettuce big-vein associated virus e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus em Plantas de alface no Estado de São Paulo e transmissão através de extrato vegetal e solo / Frequency of Lettuce big-vein associated virus and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus in symptomatic and assymptomatic lettuce plants and sap and soil transmission

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Martinello, Sanches; Renate, Krause-Sakate; Francisco Murilo, Zerbini; Marlene, Rosales; Olivier, Le Gall; Marcelo Agenor, Pavan.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A presença de sintomas de 'big vein' ou engrossamento das nervuras em alface e a associação do Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) e Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) foram verificadas por RT-PCR utilizando-se oligonucleotídeos específicos para ambos os vírus. Foram coletadas 366 planta [...] s sintomáticas nas regiões de Bauru, Campinas e Mogi das Cruzes no estado de São Paulo nos meses de junho e setembro de 2004 e abril e julho de 2005, e 18 plantas assintomáticas na região de Mogi das Cruzes no mês de dezembro de 2004. Infecção mista do LBVaV e MLBVV foi detectada em 76,2% das plantas sintomáticas, em 11,5% somente o MLBVV foi detectado e em 6,6% somente o LBVaV. Nas plantas assintomáticas coletadas em dezembro na região de Mogi das Cruzes, em áreas de alta incidência da doença durante o inverno, foi detectada a presença de MLBVV em 9 amostras e LBVaV em 7 amostras. Quatro dessas amostras apresentaram infecção mista, indicando que o desenvolvimento de sintomas depende de fatores abióticos, como temperatura. A inoculação via extrato vegetal a partir de plantas de alface com infecção mista pelo MLBVV e LBVaV foi realizada a 16°C/ 10°C (dia/noite) e fotoperíodo de 11 horas, verificando-se que o MLBVV foi transmitido para Nicotiana tabacum TNN, N. rustica, N. occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa e para as cultivares de alface Trocadero e White Boston, enquanto o LBVaV foi transmitido apenas para a alface White Boston. Entretanto, nenhuma destas plantas apresentou sintomas da doença, com exceção de C. quinoa que apresentou sintomas de lesões locais. Plantio em solo proveniente de áreas com histórico da doença de Mogi das Cruzes permitiu a transmissão do LBVaV para alface cv. White Boston e do MLBVV para alface cv. Trocadero e White Boston, embora apenas a cv. White Boston tenha apresentado sintomas da doença. Em conjunto, estes resultados demonstram a dificuldade de transmissão de ambos os vírus, mesmo em condições de laboratório. Abstract in english The occurrence of big vein disease symptoms and the association of Lettuce big-vein associated virus (LBVaV) and Mirafiori lettuce big-vein virus (MLBVV) was evaluated by RT-PCR using specific primers for both viruses. A total of 366 symptomatic plants were collected during June and September 2004 a [...] nd during April and July 2005 at Bauru, Campinas and Mogi das Cruzes in São Paulo state, and 18 symptomless plants were collected in Mogi das Cruzes on December 2004. Mixed infection was detected in 76,2% of the symptomatic plants, 11,5% had only MLBVV and 6,6% had only LBVaV. In the symptomless plants collected in areas with high incidence of the disease throughout the winter, MLBVV was found in 9 plants and LBVaV in 7 plants. Four plants had both viruses, indicating that symptom development depends on abiotic factors, such as temperature. Plants with MLBVV and LBVaV (mixed infection) were used as source of virus in a host range assay at 16C/ 10°C (day/ night) and 11h light period. MLBVV was transmitted to Nicotiana tabacum TNN, N. rustica, N. occidentalis, Chenopodium quinoa and lettuce cv. Trocadero and White Boston, while LBVaV was transmitted only to lettuce cv. White Boston. No symptons could be verified for these plants with the exception of C. quinoa that showed local lesions. Transmission through soil in areas with high incidence of the disease was observed for LBVaV to lettuce cv. White Boston and MLBVV for lettuce cv. Trocadero and White Boston, but only cv. White Boston showed symptoms. Together, these results demonstrate the difficulties in transmitting both viruses, even under controlled laboratory conditions.

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidiumspp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T. B.; Petersen, H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contamination level of river water, irrigation water and lettuce, 10L of water and 16 lettuce samples were collected four times in the period of, September – October 2013, with weekly intervals from six sample sites in and around Kumasi, Ghana. Oocysts were purified from water by sedimentation for 2 x 48 hours or pulsifying of lettuce followed by immunomagnetic separation and quantification by immunofluorescence microscopy, with sensitivities of 2 and 9%, respectively. After approximately six weeks of storage at 4C°, analysis and additional storage on slides, oocysts were washed off the slides and attempts to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. positive samples were done by PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU rRNA, the HSP70 and the GP60 genes after. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 75% of the water samples and on 43% of the lettuce with concentrations of 53 – 3268 per 10 L water and 11 – 118 oocyst per 15 g of lettuce. Positive water samples on one or more occasions were demonstrated in all water and farm sites while all farms had positive lettuce samples on all occasions. Rainfall seemingly lowered the concentration of oocysts in water but not on lettuce. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium positive samples was unsuccessful, thus no conclusions can be drawn concerning sources of contamination. Nevertheless, the detection of high prevalence and concentration levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts on vegetables consumed raw and in water with direct contact to humans entails a potential risk of infection in humans. Implementation of preventive measures based on this study should be considered and actions taken accordingly.

  18. Occurence of Cryptosporidium spp. in low quality water and on vegetables in Kumasi, Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T. B.; Petersen, H. H.

    2014-01-01

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contamination level of river water, irrigation water and lettuce, 10L of water and 16 lettuce samples were collected four times in the period of, September – October 2013, with weekly intervals from six sample sites in and around Kumasi, Ghana. Oocysts were purified from water by sedimentation for 2 x 48 hours or pulsifying of lettuce followed by immunomagnetic separation and quantification by immunofluorescence microscopy, with sensitivities of 2 and 9%, respectively. After approximately six weeks of storage at 4C°, analysis and additional storage on slides, oocysts were washed off the slides and attempts to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. positive samples were done by PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU rRNA, the HSP70 and the GP60 genes after. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 75% of the water samples and on 43% of the lettuce with concentrations of 53 – 3268 per 10 L water and 11 – 118 oocyst per 15 g of lettuce. Positive water samples on one or more occasions were demonstrated in all water and farm sites while all farms had positive lettuce samples on all occasions. Rainfall seemingly lowered the concentration of oocysts in water but not on lettuce. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium positive samples was unsuccessful, thus no conclusions can be drawn concerning sources of contamination. Nevertheless, the detection of high prevalence and concentration levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts on vegetables consumed raw and in water with direct contact to humans entails a potential risk of infection in humans. Implementation of preventive measures based on this study should be considered and actions taken accordingly.

  19. Occurrence of Cryptosporidiumspp. oocysts in low quality water and on vegetables in Kumasi, Ghana.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tobias; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    Protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cryptosporidium are transmitted e.g. by food and water and may cause severe diarrhoea, dehydration, weight loss and malnutrition. Ingestion of 10 oocysts can lead to infection and pathogenic symptoms. Thus, to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. contamination level of river water, irrigation water and lettuce, 10L of water and 16 lettuce samples were collected four times in the period of, September – October 2013, with weekly intervals from six sample sites in and around Kumasi, Ghana. Oocysts were purified from water by sedimentation for 2 x 48 hours or pulsifying of lettuce followed by immunomagnetic separation and quantification by immunofluorescence microscopy, with sensitivities of 2 and 9%, respectively. After approximately six weeks of storage at 4C°, analysis and additional storage on slides, oocysts were washed off the slides and attempts to characterize Cryptosporidium spp. positive samples were done by PCR amplification and sequencing of the SSU rRNA, the HSP70 and the GP60 genes after. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 75% of the water samples and on 43% of the lettuce with concentrations of 53 – 3268 per 10 L water and 11 – 118 oocyst per 15 g of lettuce. Positive water samples on one or more occasions were demonstrated in all water and farm sites while all farms had positive lettuce samples on all occasions. Rainfall seemingly lowered the concentration of oocysts in water but not on lettuce. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium positive samples was unsuccessful, thus no conclusions can be drawn concerning sources of contamination. Nevertheless, the detection of high prevalence and concentration levels of Cryptosporidium oocysts on vegetables consumed raw and in water with direct contact to humans entails a potential risk of infection in humans. Implementation of preventive measures based on this study should be considered and actions taken accordingly.

  20. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. I. Temperature, time & oxygen level on insect mortality & lettuce quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments with different oxygen levels, treatment times, and temperatures were studied to determine responses of western flower thrips and effects on postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce. Over 99.6% mortality rates of thrips were achieved in three ULO treatments of 2, 3, and...

  1. Economic analysis of organic greenhouse lettuce production in Turkey Análise econômica da produção orgânica de alface em estufas na Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Engindeniz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Health issues and environmental concerns have drawn the attention to organic agriculture aiming to protect the natural balance and to produce without damaging the environment. This study aims determining economic feasibility of organic greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. in an on farm trial, to foster organic greenhouse vegetable production in the preservation area of Tahtali Dam, projected as the sole water resource of Izmir, Turkey's third largest. A 384 m² greenhouse, constructed of galvanized metal tubing anchored and covered with a polyethylene was analyzed to identify typical operation procedures, and to determine unitary construction and operation cost. Organic lettuces were produced during autumn season of 2001-2002, testing different organic fertilizer applications, including two rates of farmyard and poultry manure (30 and 50 t ha-1 with and without two organic fertilizers based on either bacteria or algae. Economical analysis was performed according to different organic fertilizer applications. Cost, yield, and price data were analyzed to determine the profitability of a typical operation. Net return obtained from organic lettuce growing ranged between us $ 0.376 and us $ 0.901 m-2, as a result of different fertilizer applications.Preocupações sanitárias e ambientais têm atraído a atenção para a prática da agricultura orgânica como meio de proteger o balanço ambiental e produzir sem danificar o ambiente. Este estudo objetiva determinar a viabilidade econômica da produção em estufa da alface (Latuca sativa L. em um ensaio de campo, a fim de incentivar a produção orgânica de vegetais na área de preservação do Reservatório Tahtali, projetado como o único recurso hídrico de Izmir, a terceira maior cidade da Turquia. Uma estufa de tubos galvanizados (384 m², ancorados e cobertos com polietileno, foi analisada para identificar procedimentos operacionais padronizados e determinar custos unitários de construção e operação. Alfaces orgânicas foram produzidas no outono de 2001-2002, testando diferentes aplicações de sobras compostadas e esterco de granja avícola como fertilizantes orgânicos (30 e 50 t ha-1, com ou sem a adição de fertilizantes comerciais bacterianos ou algais. A análise econômica foi feita de acordo com as quantidades de fertilizantes utilizadas. A determinação da lucratividade foi feita com base na análise de dados de custos, produtividade e preço. O lucro líquido obtido da produção orgânica de alface em estufa variou entre US$ 0.376 e US$ 0.901 m-2.

  2. Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvio Sandri

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea.A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrigation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling. The aerial part of the lettuce was analyzed as for the levels of total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, sodium, boron, cobalt and molybdenum. The sodium and the sulfur presented higher levels than the maximum suitable in the aerial part of the lettuce and the smallest level of magnesium, while other chemical elements analyzed were normal and appropriate considering the standard for well-nourished plants, not being influenced by the water type. The sodium was the chemical element that presented the highest levels in the aerial part of the lettuce in the treatments irrigated with wastewater, presenting significant difference in relationship to the treatments irrigated with source deposit water in the three irrigation systems. The use of the different irrigation systems by the application of wastewater treated with constructed wetland did not interfere in the levels of nutrients in the aerial part of the lettuce.

  3. Teores de nutrientes na alface irrigada com água residuária aplicada por sistemas de irrigação / Nutrients levels in lettuce irrigated with wastewater applied by irrigation systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Delvio, Sandri; Edson E., Matsura; Roberto, Testezlaf.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se este trabalho para avaliar a composição química da parte aérea da alface, cv. Elisa, irrigada com água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas e água de um depósito de fonte hídrica superficial, cultivada em Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico, utilizando-se dos sistemas [...] de irrigação por aspersão convencional, gotejamento subterrâneo e superficial. O experimento compreendeu o período de 17-8 a 3-10-2001, e as análises químicas da alface foram realizadas aos 47 dias após o transplantio das mudas em campo. A parte aérea da alface foi analisada quanto ao teor de nitrogênio total, nitrato, fósforo, potássio, cálcio, magnésio, enxofre, ferro, manganês, cobre, zinco, sódio, boro, cobalto e molibdênio. O sódio e o enxofre apresentaram teores maiores que o máximo adequado na parte aérea da alface e o magnésio menor, enquanto para os demais elementos químicos foram normais e adequados, considerando os padrões para plantas bem nutridas, não sendo influenciados pelo tipo de água. O sódio foi o elemento químico que apresentou a maior elevação na parte aérea nos tratamentos irrigados com água residuária, apresentando diferença significativa em relação à água do depósito superficial nos três sistemas de irrigação. A utilização dos diferentes sistemas de irrigação para aplicação de água residuária tratada com leitos cultivados com macrófitas não interferiu no teor de nutrientes na parte aérea. Abstract in english A trial was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition in the aerial part of lettuce, cv. 'Elisa', irrigated with wastewater treated with constructed wetland and source deposit water, grown on a Rhodic Hapludox Soil, using the irrigation systems sprinkle, subsurface drip and surface drip irrig [...] ation. The experiment was carried out from August 17th to October 3rd of 2001 and the chemical analyses of the lettuce were accomplished to 47 days after transplanting of the seedling. The aerial part of the lettuce was analyzed as for the levels of total nitrogen, nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, sodium, boron, cobalt and molybdenum. The sodium and the sulfur presented higher levels than the maximum suitable in the aerial part of the lettuce and the smallest level of magnesium, while other chemical elements analyzed were normal and appropriate considering the standard for well-nourished plants, not being influenced by the water type. The sodium was the chemical element that presented the highest levels in the aerial part of the lettuce in the treatments irrigated with wastewater, presenting significant difference in relationship to the treatments irrigated with source deposit water in the three irrigation systems. The use of the different irrigation systems by the application of wastewater treated with constructed wetland did not interfere in the levels of nutrients in the aerial part of the lettuce.

  4. Yield loss assessments for cultivars of broccoli, lettuce, and onion exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, P J; Jones, T E; Lennox, R W

    1990-01-01

    The effects of the photochemical oxidant air pollutant ozone (O(3)) on growth and yield of three garden crops, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), and onion (Allium cepa L.) were studied in an open-top chamber experiment conducted in the field in southern California. Four cultivars each of leaf lettuce, broccoli, and globe onion were exposed to charcoal-filtered air (CF), non-filtered (NF) air, or NF plus 1.5 times ambient O(3) concentration from 4 weeks after germination in January or February until harvest. Exposures lasted 31 days for lettuce, 55 to 78 days for broccoli, and 105 days for onion. Results showed that despite severe O(3) injury to outer leaves, lettuce yields were not affected by O(3). Broccoli also was resistant to O(3) and no growth reduction was observed at ambient O(3) concentrations. Onions were more susceptible to O(3), but only one cv. 'Rio Bravo' had significant yield losses (ca. 5%) at ambient O(3) levels. These results suggest that, in general, concentrations of O(3) in the winter and spring may be below the threshold for adverse effects on yields of broccoli, lettuce and onion. PMID:15092228

  5. Bacterial networks and co-occurrence relationships in the lettuce root microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grube, Martin; Erlacher, Armin; Quehenberger, Julian; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Lettuce is one of the most common raw foods worldwide, but occasionally also involved in pathogen outbreaks. To understand the correlative structure of the bacterial community as a network, we studied root microbiota of eight ancient and modern Lactuca sativa cultivars and the wild ancestor Lactuca serriola by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon libraries. The lettuce microbiota was dominated by Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes, as well as abundant Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria. Cultivar specificity comprised 12.5% of the species. Diversity indices were not different between lettuce cultivar groups but higher than in L.?serriola, suggesting that domestication lead to bacterial diversification in lettuce root system. Spearman correlations between operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed that co-occurrence prevailed over co-exclusion, and complementary fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy (FISH-CLSM) analyses revealed that this pattern results from both potential interactions and habitat sharing. Predominant taxa, such as Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium and Sphingomonadaceae rather suggested interactions, even though these are not necessarily part of significant modules in the co-occurrence networks. Without any need for complex interactions, single organisms are able to invade into this microbial network and to colonize lettuce plants, a fact that can influence the susceptibility to pathogens. The approach to combine co-occurrence analysis and FISH-CLSM allows reliably reconstructing and interpreting microbial interaction networks. PMID:25367329

  6. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M. E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D{sub 10}-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  7. Evaluation of respiratory parameters in minimally processed lettuce grown under organic or conventional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Mello

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The increased preference for minimally processed vegetables has been attributed to the health benefits associated with fresh produce and the demand for ready-to-eat salads. In this paper, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. was evaluated for the effects of different cropping systems on the respiratory properties. Lettuce was packaged in low density polyethylene bags and stored in a refrigerator at 4 ºC. The concentration of carbon dioxide and oxygen inside the package was monitored during the storage at zero, three, six, eight, ten and twelve days by gas chromatography. Dry matter variation was measured gravimetrically up to day fourteen of storage. Values of respiratory rate for conventional lettuce increased from day 1 to 3 and remained low, while respiratory rate of the organic lettuce increased three-fold up to day 8, stabilizing at a high level. Variation in dry matter during storage also resulted from differences between the two cultivation systems. The highest content of dry matter was achieved by organic lettuce.

  8. Perception of bitterness, sweetness and liking of different genotypes of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, M; Gawthrop, F; Michelmore, R W; Wagstaff, C; Methven, L

    2016-04-15

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable, consumed across the world, containing bitter sesquiterpenoid lactone (SL) compounds that may negatively affect consumer acceptance and consumption. We assessed liking of samples with differing absolute abundance and different ratios of bitter:sweet compounds by analysing recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from an interspecific lettuce mapping population derived from a cross between a wild (L. serriola acc. UC96US23) and domesticated lettuce (L. sativa, cv. Salinas). We found that the ratio of bitter:sweet compounds was a key determinant of bitterness perception and liking. We were able to demonstrate that SLs, such as 8-deoxylactucin-15-sulphate, contribute most strongly to bitterness perception, whilst 15-p-hydroxylphenylacetyllactucin-8-sulphate does not contribute to bitter taste. Glucose was the sugar most highly correlated with sweetness perception. There is a genetic basis to the biochemical composition of lettuce. This information will be useful in lettuce breeding programmes in order to produce leaves with more favourable taste profiles. PMID:26616925

  9. Efficient and stable transformation of Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco (lettuce) plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamoto, Hirosuke; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asao, Hiroshi; Okumura, Satoru; Takase, Hisabumi; Hattori, Masahira; Yokota, Akiho; Tomizawa, Ken-Ichi

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic plastids offer unique advantages in plant biotechnology, including high-level foreign protein expression. However, broad application of plastid genome engineering in biotechnology has been largely hampered by the lack of plastid transformation systems for major crops. Here we describe the development of a plastid transformation system for lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. cv. Cisco. The transforming DNA carries a spectinomycin-resistance gene (aadA) under the control of lettuce chloroplast regulatory expression elements, flanked by two adjacent lettuce plastid genome sequences allowing its targeted insertion between the rbcL and accD genes. On average, we obtained 1 transplastomic lettuce plant per bombardment. We show that lettuce leaf chloroplasts can express transgene-encoded GFP to approximately 36% of the total soluble protein. All transplastomic T0 plants were fertile and the T1 progeny uniformly showed stability of the transgene in the chloroplast genome. This system will open up new possibilities for the efficient production of edible vaccines, pharmaceuticals, and antibodies in plants. PMID:16604461

  10. Sensory quality attributes of lettuce obtained using different harvesting performance systems

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denize Cristine Rodrigues de, Oliveira; Paulo Ademar Martins, Leal; Sylvio Luís, Honório; Eveline Kássia Braga, Soares.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the best lettuce cultivar (American 'Graciosa', 'Vanda', 'Marcela' and 'Lavínia') harvesting method. Therefore, quality and shelf-life were evaluated using sensory analyses. Lettuce heads was harvested with the root on by the producer, so that they were c [...] ut in different ways in the laboratory. The samples were stored in a cold chamber at 10 °C and 80% ± 2% of relative humidity for nine days, and the sensorial analyses were performed according to Qualitative Descriptive Analysis method on days 1, 3, 6, and 9 of storage by twelve trained testers. The results were evaluated by variance analysis, principal component analysis, and the Tukey test with a reliability of 95%. The results indicate that there was a reduction in the quality of lettuce between the 1st and the 5th day of storage and that after the sixth day of storage the lettuce samples were considered unfit for consumption, except for the 'Lavínia' lettuce cultivar with root and cut treatment 2. On the ninth day of storage all samples were considered inappropriate for consumption.

  11. The Protective Role of Lettuce oil (Lactuca sativa) against Radiation induced Biological Hazards in Male Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to clarify the potential role of lettuce oil against damages induced in rats due to exposure to gamma radiation. Adult male albino rats (120-150 g) were divided into 4 groups each of 12 animals. The first group was considered control animals. The second group received, via gavages, lettuce oil (200 mg/Kg body weight) for 3 weeks. The third group was subjected to a single dose of 6.5Gy whole body gamma irradiation. The fourth group received lettuce oil for 3 weeks then was exposed to radiation. Blood samples were collected 1 and 7 days post irradiation. Exposure of rats to gamma irradiation caused a significant increase in the level of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) while a significant decrease was recorded in glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin content (Hb), haematocrit percentage (Hct%), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelets (PLT), leutinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone hormone . In rats treated with lettuce oil then exposed to radiation, the results showed an improvement in all previous parameters. It could be concluded that lettuce oil might reduce the biological hazards in rats induced by gamma irradiation

  12. Effect of different concentrations of diluted seawater on yield and quality of lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ahmet, Turhan; Hayrettin, Kuscu; Nese, Ozmen; Mehmet, Sitki Serbeci; Ali, Osman Demir.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of irrigating lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Funly) with different concentrations of diluted seawater (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%) on the fresh yield, marketable yield and quality (DM, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total sugar, vitam [...] in C, NO3-N, protein, and total oxalate content). The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse in the autumn of 2012. The fresh yield, marketable yield, and DM of lettuce irrigated with 2.5% and 5% seawater were similar to those of control, but these parameters decreased in response to 10% seawater, and the lowest values were obtained in response to 20% seawater. The 2.5% seawater treatment had no effect on the vitamin C and NO3-N content, but both significantly decreased when lettuce was irrigated with seawater concentrations higher than 2.5%. Total soluble solids, total sugar, and protein content significantly increased in response to low salinity (2.5% and 5%) but decreased in response to increasing seawater stress. The titratable acidity values remained unchanged under the various saline conditions. Irrigation with diluted seawater did not affect the total oxalate content up to a concentration of 5%, but increasing the concentration of seawater above 5% increased oxalate content. The results of this study demonstrated that low concentrations of seawater are suitable for lettuce production and lettuce can be grown successfully using diluted seawater at concentrations of 2.5% and 5%.

  13. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage

  14. Essential oils reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on iceberg and romaine lettuce without affecting produce quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Cut lettuce pieces (3 x 2 cm) ...

  15. Fifteen years of verticillium wilt of lettuce in america’s salad bowl: a tale of immigration, subjugation and abatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable that is globally cultivated. The US ranks second in production, with coastal California producing half of the US supply. In 1995, Verticillium wilt caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium dahliae was identified as a disease of lettuce in coastal California, ...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of Cinnamaldehyde and Sporan against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne outbreaks associated with the consumption of fresh produce have increased. In an effort to identify natural antimicrobial agents as fresh produce wash; the effect of essential oils in reducing enteric pathogens on iceberg and romaine lettuce was investigated. Lettuce were cut into pieces (...

  17. Variation for Big Vein Resistance in Lactuca virosa L. and Introgression of Resistance into Cultivated Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Big vein is a damaging disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) caused by the Olpidium brassicae vectored Mirafiori Lettuce Big Vein Virus (MLBVV). Resistance to this disease is needed since no feasible cultural control methods have been identified. Partial resistance is available in cultivars such a...

  18. Iceberg lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wilt caused by race 1 isolates of Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture and the University of California, Davis, announce the release of two breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Lines RH08-0472 and RH08-0475 are F9 iceberg type lettuce breeding lines with resistance to Verticillium wil...

  19. Quality of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4kGy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to investigate radiation tolerance of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach. Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the sam...

  20. Assessment of Escherichia coli O157:H7 transference from soil to Iceberg Lettuce via a contaminated harvesting knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for coring knives to cross-contaminate lettuce heads with pathogens was evaluated for both ring and blade ends. Rings and blades artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC), were used to core three successive heads of iceberg lettuce. The coring rings and blades were...

  1. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  2. Modeling the effect of solar radiation on dry matter accumulation in lettuce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry matter production of lettuce plant in different seasons was studied quantitatively based on the amount of intercepted solar radiation by plant. (1) Top dry weight was a linear function of the total amount of intercepted solar radiation by plant and the relationship between the two parameters did not differ between seasons. Daily dry matter increase (delta-DW) mainly depended on the daily amount of intercepted solar radiation by plant (DIR) and radiation-sue efficiency (RUE; the ratio of the amount of dry matter production to the amount of intercepted solar radiation) was considered to be almost constant throughout the growth period in every experiment. (2) DIR could be resolved into daily amount of solar radiation and effective area (A), modified vertically projected area of plant (VPA) with planting density and light absorptivity of plant. A simple model which calculated A with VPA was developed. This model indicated that delta-DW is influenced proportional by VPA until VPA reaches the area given as the product of row interval and plant interval and there after the VPA increase does not exert any additional effect on the productivity. (3) a simple model for calculating A with top dry weight was also developed. This model used different parameters between seasons because of the difference in the relationship of VPA and top dry weight between seasons. This model indicated that at the early growth stage, A value per top dry weight in winter was lower than that in autumn but that A reached almost the same level in both seasons. (4) Differences in delta-DW due to season could be attributed to the difference in solar radiation and VPA. Negligible difference in VPA per top fresh weight between seasons and low water content of top in winter suggested that suppressed water uptake due to low temperature may result in low VPA in winter

  3. Qualidade microbiológica e produtividade de alface sob adubação química e orgânica / Microbiological quality and productivity of lettuce under chemical and organic fertilization

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ingergleice Machado de Oliveira, Abreu; Ana Maria Resende, Junqueira; José Ricardo, Peixoto; Sebastião Alberto de, Oliveira.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A contaminação de hortaliças por micro-oganismos patogênicos é uma realidade. Os adubos orgânicos têm sido responsabilizados por algumas contaminações de hortaliças observadas no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a contaminação de alface por Salmonella sp. e coliformes [...] a 45 °C, cultivada sob adubação orgânica. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos, em cinco repetições. Os tratamentos foram: T1 - Testemunha (sem adubação); T2 - Adubação química; T3 - Esterco de galinha; T4 - Esterco bovino; T5 - Húmus de minhoca; e T6 - Composto orgânico. As variáveis analisadas foram matéria fresca, matéria seca, macro e micronutrientes e contaminação microbiológica. Foi observada maior obtenção de matéria fresca nas parcelas adubadas com esterco de galinha (543 g), que diferiu estatisticamente da produção observada nos demais tratamentos. Não foi observada diferença estatística significativa entre tratamentos para matéria seca, com exceção da parcela com composto orgânico que apresentou o menor valor (3,7%). Não foi observada contaminação do solo e nem dos adubos orgânicos por esses micro-organismos. Porém, foi observada contaminação da água de irrigação e da alface por coliformes fecais. Existem fortes indícios de que a água de irrigação tenha sido o principal veículo de contaminação. Abstract in english Vegetable contamination with lethal microorganisms is a reality. Organic manure has been considered responsible for vegetable contamination in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the yield and lettuce contamination by Salmonella sp. and fecal coliforms, at 45 °C, grown under organic fer [...] tilization. The experimental design was in randomized blocks composed with 6 treatments in five replicates. The treatments were: T1 - Control (no fertilization); T2 - Chemical fertilization; T3 - Chicken manure; T4 - Cattle manure; T5 - Worm manure, and T6 - Organic compost. Fresh weight, dry matter percentage, macro and micronutrients, and microbiological contamination were recorded. The highest lettuce weight was observed in the parcels fertilized with chicken manure (543 g), which differed statistically from the weights observed in the other treatments. On the other hand, no statistical difference was observed in the dry matter percentage among the different treatments, with the exception of the value observed at the organic compost treatment, which was the lowest (3,7%). The soil and organic manure samples were not contaminated by Salmonella sp. and fecal coliforms. Nevertheless, irrigation water and lettuce samples were contaminated by fecal coliforms. There is strong evidence that irrigation water was the main source of lettuce contamination.

  4. Cooling and concentration of nutrient solution in hydroponic lettuce crop / Resfriamento e concentração da solução nutritiva em cultivo hidropônico da alface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nilton N, Cometti; Diene M, Bremenkamp; Karla, Galon; Leonardo R, Hell; Marinaldo F, Zanotelli.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado em ambiente protegido, no setor de Horticultura do Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Campus Itapina, Colatina, região Noroeste do Espírito Santo, com o objetivo de estudar e avaliar o efeito do resfriamento e da condutividade elétrica da solução nutritiva no crescimento d [...] a alface cv. Vitória de Santo Antão em cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho foi realizado em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com dois fatores (controle de temperatura máxima da solução nutritiva: 26ºC e sem controle; e condutividade elétrica (EC) da solução: 1, 2 e 3 dS m-1 e quatro repetições. Cinquenta e dois dias após a semeadura foi realizada a colheita das plantas e avaliados a massas frescas e secas de folha, caule e raiz, volume de raízes, comprimento do caule e das raízes e porcentagem de água nas plantas. A temperatura da solução nutritiva influenciou o desempenho da alface em função do aumento da condutividade elétrica, demonstrando que o aumento da EC não compromete a produtividade quando há limitação na temperatura máxima da solução nutritiva, que nesse experimento foi de 26ºC. O resfriamento da solução proporcionou maior acúmulo de massa e porcentagem superior de água presente nas plantas, aumentando a produtividade da alface hidropônica em condições de clima tropical. Abstract in english The study was conducted in greenhouse at horticulture department of the Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, Campus Itapina, Colatina, northwestern Espírito Santo state, Brazil, with the objective of evaluating the effect of cooling and electrical conductivity of nutrient solution on growth and deve [...] lopment of lettuce cv. Vitória de Santo Antão in hydroponics. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design with two factors (control of the maximum temperature of the nutrient solution: 26ºC and without control; and electrical conductivity, EC, of the solution: 1, 2 and 3 dS m-1) with three repetitions. The plants were harvested fifty-two days after sowing (DAS). We evaluated the dry and fresh mass of leaves, stems and roots, stem and root length, root volume and plant water content (%). The temperature of the nutrient solution influenced the behavior of lettuce influenced by the electrical conductivity, showing that the increase of the EC did not reduce the lettuce productivity when the maximum temperature of the nutrient solution is limited, which in this experiment was tested at 26ºC. The cooling of the nutrient solution provided greater accumulation of mass and a higher water percentage in plants, increasing the productivity of hydroponic lettuce in tropical climate.

  5. Erigeron bonariensis: hospedeira alternativa do Lettuce mosaic virus no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaves Alexandre L. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Erigeron (Asteraceae, de plantas da vegetação espontânea, encontra-se amplamente disseminado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, sendo freqüentemente encontrado em lavouras perenes e anuais. Plantas de E. bonariensis com sintoma de mosaico, típico do induzido por vírus, foram coletadas no município de São Paulo e submetidas a análises ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, testes biológicos, sorológicos e moleculares. Em cortes ultrafinos do tecido foliar original, observaram-se inclusões tubulares e cata-ventos dispersos no citoplasma. Através de inoculação mecânica, somente Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana e N. clevelandii foram infetadas. Os resultados obtidos em ELISA foram negativos quando se utilizaram antissoros contra o Turnip mosaic vírus (TuMV e diferentes estirpes do Potato virus Y (PVY, constatando-se relacionamento sorológico com o Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Com a utilização de oligonucleotídeos específicos para LMV amplificaram-se fragmentos esperados de aproximadamente 280 pb, que seqüênciados confirmaram a identidade do vírus. A ocorrência do LMV em E. bonariensis, gênero da mesma família botânica da alface (Lactuca sativa, é de grande importância, pois talvez possa atuar como reservatório para infecção de campos de produção de alface. Este é o primeiro relato, no Brasil, de vírus infetando Erigeron sp., o qual só havia sido reportado como hospedeira natural do Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV e do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV nos Estados Unidos.

  6. [Study of microbial contamination of processed fresh vegetables and lettuce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Batishcheva, S Iu; Minaeva, L P; Markova, Iu M; Korotkevich, Iu V; Shilov, G Iu; Sheveleva, S A

    2014-01-01

    Investigations of microbial contamination and species composition of the Enterobacteriaceae family in fresh vegetables and lettuce has been conducted. The objects of study were new types of fresh ready-to-eat vegetable foods - salads, sliced vegetables and mixtures thereof, sampled at the main stages of production, including washing, antimicrobial treatment with sodium hypochlorite, and packaging in the film under vacuum. Quantitative analysis of Enterobacteriaceae levels in fresh and packaged vegetables and salads showed that their part in the total amount of microbial contaminants is large enough. Average Enterobacteriaceae content ranged from 2,14 to 3,34 lg cfu/g, reaching in some samples values 4,38-4,74 lg, comparable with the levels of total bacteria. Considerable species diversity of microflora contaminating ready-to-eat vegetable products has been found. Bacteria of the genera Enterobactel; Pantoea, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Kluyvera, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Rahnella, Acinetobacter were found in the salads and sliced vegetables. In the tested samples most frequently detected Enterobacter spp. - 37% of identified strains and Pantoea spp - 25% of strains. The data on the composition and levels of microbial contaminants in vegetable and salad products highlight not only the need to monitor coliform bacteria - traditional indicators of faecal contamination of raw materials, but also the need to introduce criteria for the amount of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:25816624

  7. Nutrient absorption and response of lettuce to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of lettuce (cultivar Verônica to different levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experiment was conducted from 25/09/2003 (sowing to 03/12/2003 (harvesting at the Fazenda Experimental São Manuel, UNESP/FCA, Botucatu/SP, under protective structures. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800kg.ha-1 of P2O5, in the form of triple superphosphate and five replications. Plants were grown in 13L plastic pots containing Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico Típico. A quadratic response was observed for the fresh mass of the plant shoots and leaf area, with maximum equivalent levels of 733 and 756kg.ha-1 of P2O5, respectively, as well as for potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese and zinc accumulation. Linear increases were observed with the treatments of P2O5 for dry mass of the shoots, leaf number, plant height and nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation.

  8. Modeling uptake kinetics of cadmium by field-grown lettuce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Weiping [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)], E-mail: chenweip@yahoo.com.cn; Li Lianqing [Institute of Resources, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Chang, Andrew C.; Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, 900 University Avenue, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Kwon, Soon-Ik [Agricultural Environmental and Ecology Division, National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Bottoms, Rick [Desert Research and Extension Center, 1004 East Holton Road, El Centro, CA 92243 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Cadmium uptake by field grown Romaine lettuce treated with P-fertilizers of different Cd levels was investigated over an entire growing season. Results indicated that the rate of Cd uptake at a given time of the season can be satisfactorily described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetics, that is, plant uptake increases as the Cd concentration in soil solution increases, and it gradually approaches a saturation level. However, the rate constant of the Michaelis-Menten kinetics changes over the growing season. Under a given soil Cd level, the cadmium content in plant tissue decreases exponentially with time. To account for the dynamic nature of Cd uptake, a kinetic model integrating the time factor was developed to simulate Cd plant uptake over the growing season: C{sub Plant} = C{sub Solution} . PUF{sub max} . exp[-b . t], where C{sub Plant} and C{sub Solution} refer to the Cd content in plant tissue and soil solution, respectively, PUF{sub max} and b are kinetic constants. - A kinetic model was developed to evaluate the uptake of Cd under field conditions.

  9. Changes in the metabolome of lettuce leaves due to exposure to mancozeb pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sara I; Figueiredo, Patricia I; Barros, António S; Dias, Maria C; Santos, Conceição; Duarte, Iola F; Gil, Ana M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a proton high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic study of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) leaves to characterise metabolic adaptations during leaf growth and exposure to mancozeb. Metabolite variations were identified through multivariate analysis and checked through spectral integration. Lettuce growth was accompanied by activation of energetic metabolism, preferential glucose use and changes in amino acids, phospholipids, ascorbate, nucleotides and nicotinate/nicotinamide. Phenylalanine and polyphenolic variations suggested higher oxidative stress at later growth stages. Exposure to mancozeb induced changes in amino acids, fumarate and malate, suggesting Krebs cycle up-regulation. In tandem disturbances in sugar, phospholipid, nucleotide and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism were noted. Additional changes in phenylalanine, dehydroascorbate, tartrate and formate were consistent with a higher demand for anti-oxidant defence mechanisms. Overall, lettuce exposure to mancozeb was shown to have a significant impact on plant metabolism, with mature leaves tending to be more extensively affected than younger leaves. PMID:24518345

  10. Genetic and biochemical evaluation of natural rubber from Eastern Washington prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jared L; Burke, Ian C; Neff, Michael M

    2015-01-21

    Alternative sources of natural rubber are of importance due to economic, biological, and political threats that could diminish supplies of this resource. Prickly lettuce (Lactuca serriola L.) synthesizes long-chain natural rubber and was studied to determine underlying genetic and phenotypic characteristics of rubber biosynthesis. Genotypic and phenotypic analysis of an F2 segregating population using EST-SSR markers led to the discovery of genetic regions linked to natural rubber production. Interval mapping (IM) and multiple QTL mapping (MQM) identified several QTL in the mapping population that had significance based on LOD score thresholds. The discovered QTL and the corresponding local markers are genetic resources for understanding rubber biosynthesis in prickly lettuce and could be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS) breeding. Prickly lettuce is an excellent candidate for elucidating the rubber synthesis mechanism and has potential as a crop plant for rubber production. PMID:25513853

  11. Host-induced gene silencing inhibits the biotrophic pathogen causing downy mildew of lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajulu, Manjula; Epstein, Lynn; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Michelmore, Richard W

    2015-09-01

    Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) is an RNA interference-based approach in which small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are produced in the host plant and subsequently move into the pathogen to silence pathogen genes. As a proof-of-concept, we generated stable transgenic lettuce plants expressing siRNAs targeting potentially vital genes of Bremia lactucae, a biotrophic oomycete that causes downy mildew, the most important disease of lettuce worldwide. Transgenic plants, expressing inverted repeats of fragments of either the Highly Abundant Message #34 (HAM34) or Cellulose Synthase (CES1) genes of B. lactucae, specifically suppressed expression of these genes, resulting in greatly reduced growth and inhibition of sporulation of B. lactucae. This demonstrates that HIGS can provide effective control of B. lactucae in lettuce; such control does not rely on ephemeral resistance conferred by major resistance genes and therefore offers new opportunities for durable control of diverse diseases in numerous crops. PMID:25487781

  12. Alelopatia de extratos de diferentes órgãos de mulungu na germinação de alface / Allelopathy of extracts of different organs of coral tree on the germination of lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andreya K, Oliveira; Maria de Fatima B, Coelho; Sandra Sely S, Maia; Francisco EP, Diógenes; Sebastião, Medeiros Filho.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O mulungu (Erythrina velutina) é uma árvore de crescimento rápido, com propriedades medicinais. O objetivo no presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sementes, flores e cascas de mulungu na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface cv. Mônica SF FI. O deline [...] amento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos [extrato de sementes a 100°C, extrato de sementes a 25°C, extrato de cascas a 100°C, extrato de cascas a 25°C, extrato de flores a 100°C, extrato de flores a 25°C e água destilada (testemunha)] com quatro repetições. Os extratos obtidos de sementes, independente da temperatura de extração reduziram a porcentagem e velocidade de germinação de sementes de alface e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os demais extratos não afetaram a germinação, mas causaram o aparecimento de plântulas anormais e mortas. Os extratos aquosos de sementes de mulungu têm potencial alelopático sobre as sementes de alface cv. Mônica SF FI. Abstract in english The coral tree (Erythrina velutina) is a fast growing tree with medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of seeds, flowers and bark of coral tree on seed germination and seedling development of lettuce cv. Mônica SF FI. The experimental [...] design was completely randomized with seven treatments [seed extract at 100°C, seed extract at 25°C, bark extract at 100°C, bark extract at 25°C, flower extract at 100°C, flower extract at 25°C and distilled water (control)] with four replications. The extracts of seeds, independent of the extraction temperature decreased the percentage and speed of germination of lettuce and affected the development of the seedlings. The other extracts did not affect germination, but caused the appearance of abnormal seedlings and dead. The aqueous extract of seeds of coral tree has allelopathic potential in the seeds of lettuce cv. Mônica SF FI.

  13. Alelopatia de extratos de diferentes órgãos de mulungu na germinação de alface Allelopathy of extracts of different organs of coral tree on the germination of lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreya K Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O mulungu (Erythrina velutina é uma árvore de crescimento rápido, com propriedades medicinais. O objetivo no presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de sementes, flores e cascas de mulungu na germinação e desenvolvimento de plântulas de alface cv. Mônica SF FI. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com sete tratamentos [extrato de sementes a 100°C, extrato de sementes a 25°C, extrato de cascas a 100°C, extrato de cascas a 25°C, extrato de flores a 100°C, extrato de flores a 25°C e água destilada (testemunha] com quatro repetições. Os extratos obtidos de sementes, independente da temperatura de extração reduziram a porcentagem e velocidade de germinação de sementes de alface e afetaram o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Os demais extratos não afetaram a germinação, mas causaram o aparecimento de plântulas anormais e mortas. Os extratos aquosos de sementes de mulungu têm potencial alelopático sobre as sementes de alface cv. Mônica SF FI.The coral tree (Erythrina velutina is a fast growing tree with medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of seeds, flowers and bark of coral tree on seed germination and seedling development of lettuce cv. Mônica SF FI. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments [seed extract at 100°C, seed extract at 25°C, bark extract at 100°C, bark extract at 25°C, flower extract at 100°C, flower extract at 25°C and distilled water (control] with four replications. The extracts of seeds, independent of the extraction temperature decreased the percentage and speed of germination of lettuce and affected the development of the seedlings. The other extracts did not affect germination, but caused the appearance of abnormal seedlings and dead. The aqueous extract of seeds of coral tree has allelopathic potential in the seeds of lettuce cv. Mônica SF FI.

  14. Impacts of major cations (K(+), Na (+), Ca (2+), Mg (2+)) and protons on toxicity predictions of nickel and cadmium to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) using exposure models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M

    2014-04-01

    Biotic ligand models (BLM) explicitly accounting for hypothetical interactions with biotic ligands and bioavailability as dictated by water chemistry have been developed for various metals and different organisms. It is only recently that BLMs for plants have received increasing attention. Lettuce is one of the most important vegetable crops in the world. This study investigated the impacts of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+) and pH, on acute toxicity of Ni and Cd to butter-head lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.). 4-day assays with the root elongation inhibition (REI) as the endpoint were performed in hydroponic solutions. Magnesium was found to be the sole cation significantly enhancing the median inhibition concentration (IC50) of Ni(2+) with increasing concentration. By incorporating the competitive effects of Mg(2+), the Ni-toxicity prediction was improved significantly as compared to the total metal model (TMM) and the free ion activity model (FIAM). The conditional stability constants derived from the Ni-BLM were log K MgBL = 2.86, log K NiBL = 5.1, and f NiBL (50%)  = 0.57. A slight downtrend was observed in the 4-d IC50 of Cd(2+) at increasing H(+) concentrations, but this tendency was not consistent and statistically significant (p = 0.07) over the whole range. The overall variations of Cd-toxicity within the tested Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentration ranges were relatively small and not statistically significant. 80 % of lettuce REI by Cd could be explained using both TMM and FIAM instead of BLM in the present study. Thus, the mechanistically underpinned models for soil quality guidelines should be developed on a metal-specific basis across different exposure conditions. PMID:24510448

  15. Study of atmospheric tritium transfers in lettuce: kinetic study, equilibrium and organic incorporation during a continuous atmospheric exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis has explored the mechanisms of tritium 'absorption and incorporation in a human-consumed plant, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), due to atmospheric exposure. Foliar uptake appears to play a key role in absorption of tritium as tissue free water tritium. Whatever the development stage and the light conditions, the specific activity in tissue free water reaches that of water vapour in air in several hours. The specific activity ratio is then about 0, 4. The time to reach equilibrium in soil is over 24 hours in most cases: the specific activity ratio ranges then 0, 01 to 0, 26. Incorporation rate of tissue free water tritium as organically-bound tritium has been estimated to 0, 13 to 0, 16 % h-l in average over the growing period of the plant, but marked variations are observed during growth. In particular, a significant increase appeared at the exponential growth stage. Deposition and diffusion of tritium in soil lead to significant OBT activities in soil. Results globally indicate equilibrium between the different environmental compartments (air, soil, plant). However, some experiments have revealed high OBT concentrations regarding atmospheric level exposure and ask for a possible phenomenon of local tritium accumulation in OBT for particular conditions of exposure. (author)

  16. Ocorrência generalizada do Lettuce mottle virus em três regiões produtoras de alface comercial do Estado de São Paulo Occurrence of Lettuce mottle virus on three lettuce producing areas from São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Krause-Sakate

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Os sequivírus são vírus isométricos transmitidos por afídeos. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, um provável sequivirus foi descrito no Brasil em 1982 e causa sintomas de mosaico semelhantes aos observados pelo Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Um levantamento para ocorrência do LeMoV nos campos de produção de alface de três diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo (Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas e Bauru foi realizado durante 2002 a 2005. RNA total foi extraído e utilizado na detecção, em RT-PCR, com oligonucleotídeos específicos para o LeMoV. Do total de 1362 amostras, 137 (10,05% foram positivas para o LeMoV. Infecção mista com o LMV foi verificada em 43 amostras (31,4%. Foi verificada a ocorrência do LeMoV nas três diferentes regiões analisadas, porém sua ocorrência foi baixa nas diferentes épocas do ano.Sequiviruses are isometric aphid-borne plant viruses. Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV, a putative sequivirus was first described in Brazil on 1982 causing similar mosaic symptoms as Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. A survey for the occurrence of LeMoV on open field conditions was carried out during 2002 to 2005 on Mogi das Cruzes, Campinas and Bauru in São Paulo state. Total RNA was extracted and used on RT-PCR with specific LeMoV primers. On 1362 samples tested, 137 (10,05% were positive for LeMoV. Mixed infections with LMV was observed on 43 samples (31,4%. The presence of LeMoV was observed in the three different regions, but with low incidence during the year.

  17. Adubação de alface com lodo de esgoto de cervejaria Lettuce manuring with sewage sludge of brewery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altamiro S.L. Ferraz Junior

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O lodo de esgoto pode ser uma alternativa viável na adubação orgânica da alface, em solos arenosos. Avaliou-se a produtividade e a qualidade dessa cultura por meio de um experimento de campo, comparando a aplicação de lodo de esgoto da cervejaria Equatorial, com a de esterco de galinha. Os tratamentos consistiram de adubações com lodo de esgoto, lodo de esgoto + NPK, esterco de galinha, esterco de galinha + NPK, NPK e controle. A produção e a qualidade comercial da alface cultivada com lodo de esgoto de cervejaria não diferiram em comparação ao tratamento com esterco de galinha. Não houve diferença no teor de macronutrientes nas folhas dessa cultura, com a utilização do esterco ou lodo de esgoto de cervejaria. Os teores de micronutrientes e metais pesados nas folhas da alface dos tratamentos não diferiram daqueles observados no controle. Desses resultados depreende-se que o lodo de esgoto de cervejaria pode substituir o esterco de galinha em adubações da cultura de alface, sem prejuízos na produtividade, qualidade e sem afetar os teores de metais pesados nas folhas.Sewage sludge can be a viable alternative as organic manure for lettuce culture in sandy soils. A field experiment was carried out to evaluate the yield and quality of lettuce fertilized with sewage sludge in comparison with poultry manure. The treatments were sewage sludge, sewage sludge + NPK, poultry manure, poultry manure + NPK and control (without fertilizer. The yield and commercial quality of lettuce fertilized with sewage sludge did not differ from the treatments with poultry manure. Macronutrients content in lettuce leaves did not differ from sewage sludge or poultry manure. The micronutrients and heavy metal contents in lettuce leaves did not differ between organic manure and control. The sewage sludge derived from brewery can substitute the poultry manure in organic fertilization of the lettuce, without reducing the yield and quality of this culture and did not affect heavy metal content in the leaves.

  18. Índices morfofisiológicos e de produção de alface sob estresse salino / Morphophysiological indices and production of lettuce under saline stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sergio B. A., Viana; Pedro D., Fernandes; Hans R., Gheyi; Frederico A. L., Soares; Paulo T., Carneiro.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available No Nordeste brasileiro, a alface é uma importante olerícola cultivada sob condições de irrigação em que são utilizadas águas de qualidade variada; uma das características da região é a variação espacial e temporal da qualidade dos recursos hídricos. Mesmo assim, são escassos os trabalhos referentes [...] aos efeitos da salinidade na formação de mudas e seu reflexo sobre a produção. Neste trabalho estudaram-se os efeitos de cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa: 0,3, 1,0, 1,7, 2,4 e 3,1 dS m-1), em relação aos índices morfofisiológicos da alface 'Elba', a partir de mudas produzidas com águas de 0,3 e 3,1 dS m-1. Não houve efeito interativo entre os fatores estudados. O índice raiz/parte-aérea e a taxa de crescimento absoluto, foram afetados pela CEa, mas sem efeito sobre a taxa de crescimento relativo. O crescimento das plantas, cujas mudas foram produzidas com CEa de 3,1 dS m-1, foi inferior no início do ciclo, recuperando-se paulatinamente durante o crescimento; no momento da colheita, as taxas de crescimento absoluto e relativo foram, respectivamente, iguais e superiores às das plantas produzidas com água de baixa salinidade. A evapotranspiração diminuiu com o aumento da salinidade. As relações Na+/(Ca2++Mg2+) e Na+/K+ em folhas foram incrementadas linearmente com a salinidade, mas as plantas conseguiram manter o balanço iônico favorável. O rendimento da alface diminuiu 6,1 e 9,0% por aumento unitário de condutividade elétrica do extrato de saturação do solo e da água de irrigação, acima de 0,3 e 1,73 dS m-1, respectivamente. Abstract in english Lettuce is an important vegetable crop in the Northeast of Brazil cultivated under irrigated conditions using water of variable quality; one of the characteristics of this region is spatial and temporal variation in quality of water resources. In spite of this, research related to effects of salinit [...] y on the seedling formation and its posterior reflex on production is limited. In the present study, the effects of salinity of irrigation water (ECw: 0.3, 1.0, 1.7, 2.4 and 3.1 dS m-1) on growth response of lettuce 'Elba' using two types of seedlings produced with ECw of 0.3 and 3.1 dS m-1 were evaluated in a greenhouse. The studied factors had no interactive effect. Root/shoot ratio and absolute growth rate were affected by salinity although relative growth rate was not affected directly. The seedlings produced with ECw of 3.1 dS m-1 had lower growth rates at the beginning but recovered gradually during the growth cycle. In the last evaluation, the absolute and relative growth rates of these plants were, respectively, equal and superior to that of plants produced with water of low salinity. Increasing water salinity decreased evapotranspiration. The Na+/(Ca2++Mg2+) and Na+/K+ ratios in leaf increased linearly with the salinity but plants maintained favorable ionic balance. The decrease in lettuce yield was 6.1 and 9.0% per unit increase in electrical conductivity of the saturation extract of soil and of irrigation water above 0.3 and 1.73 dS m-1, respectively.

  19. Environmental modification of yield and food composition of cowpea and leaf lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cary A.; Nielsen, Suzanne S.; Bubenheim, David L.

    1990-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) are candidate species to provide ligume protein and starch or serve as a salad base for a nutritionally balanced and psychologically satisfying vegetarian diet in the Controlled Ecology Life Support System (CELSS). Various nutritional parameters are reported. Hydroponic leaf lettuce grew best under CO2 enrichment and photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) enhancement. Leaf protein content reached 36 percent with NH4(+) + NO3 nutrition; starch and free sugar content was as high as 7 or 8.4 percent of DW, respectively, for high PPF/CO2 enriched environments.

  20. Low-dose irradiation of cut iceberg lettuce in modified atmosphere packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation at a mean dosage of 0.19 kGy of commercially prepared fresh-cut lettuce resulted in a product that had, 8 days after irradiation, microbial population of 290 cfu/g and yeast population of 60 cfu/g, compared with values of 220 000 and 1 400 cfu/g, respectively, for the nonirradiated control. Irradiation also caused moderate changes in respiration rate and headspace gas concentrations. It appears feasible to combine chlorination with irradiation at 0.15-0.5 kGy to produce fresh-cut, chopped lettuce with reduced microbial population

  1. Avaliação patogênica in vitro de Pythium middletonii Sparrow e Pythium dissotocum Drechsler em alface / In vitro pathogenic evaluation of Pythium middletonii Sparrow and Pythium dissotocum Drechsler in lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F.R., Baptista; C.L.A, Pires-Zottarelli; L.D., Teixeira; N.A., Santos Júnior.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Infecções radiculares nos cultivos hidropônicos de alface são frequentes e, na maior parte das vezes, causadas por espécies de Pythium, extremamente bem adaptadas ao ambiente aquático. Este estudo buscou avaliar o potencial patogênico in vitro de Pythium middletonii e P. dissotocum, em quatro cultiv [...] ares de alface: Elisa (lisa), Vera (crespa), Mimosa (mimosa) e Tainá (americana). Sementes de alface, de cada cultivar, foram desinfetadas superficialmente, pré-germinadas por 24 horas, e colocadas na superfície do meio ágar-água. Em seguida, um disco de micélio dos isolados de Pythium, foi disposto no centro de cada placa. Placas contendo apenas as sementes de alface serviram como controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, sendo cada uma delas representada por uma placa de Petri. Avaliou-se o comprimento dos hipocótilos, das radículas e a porcentagem das plântulas sobreviventes após dez dias de incubação. O experimento foi conduzido na temperatura ideal de crescimento da alface (20ºC), e nas ideais para o crescimento dos isolados, 23ºC para P. middletonii e 27ºC para P. dissotocum. A 20ºC, P. dissotocum foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii, reduzindo significativamente o comprimento dos hipocótilos e, principalmente, das radículas, de praticamente todas as cultivares. Na temperatura de 27ºC, P. dissotocum foi responsável pela mais baixa porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes entre as cultivares, sendo mais patogênico em Vera (54% de sobrevivência). Dentre as cultivares analisadas, a Mimosa mostrou tendência de menor suscetibilidade a este patógeno, apresentando a maior porcentagem de plântulas sobreviventes e o maior comprimento das radículas em relação ao controle. P. dissotocum apresentou maior crescimento micelial e foi mais patogênico que P. middletonii em todos os experimentos realizados. Abstract in english Root infections in hydroponic lettuce are frequent and mostly caused by Pythium species, which are extremely well adapted to aquatic environments. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro the pathogenic potential of Pythium middletonii and Pythium dissotocum in four cultivars of lettuce, Elisa ( [...] smooth), Vera (curly), Mimosa (mimosa) and Tainá (American). Lettuce seeds from each cultivar were superficially disinfected, pre-germinated for 24 hours and placed on the water agar medium surface. Then, a dish containing mycelium from Pythium isolates was placed in the center of each plate. Control consisted of plates containing lettuce seeds only. Experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates, each one represented by a Petri dish. Hypocotyl and radical length besides surviving seedlings percentage after ten days of incubation were evaluated. The experiment was carried out, at different temperatures, and the pathogenicity of the isolates was investigated at the ideal temperature for the lettuce (20ºC), and at the ideal temperatures for the growth of the isolates, 23ºC for P. middletonii and 27ºC for P. dissotocum. At 20ºC, P. dissotocum had higher pathogenicity on lettuce cultivars than P. middletonii, significantly decreasing the length of hypocotyls, especially radicles, of most cultivars. For P. dissotocum, 27ºC was the most suitable temperature for the specimen growth; however, it led to the lowest percentage of surviving seedlings among all cultivars, with the lowest percentage (54%) detected for Vera. Among the cultivars, Mimosa presented higher percentage of survivor seedlings and higher length of radicles in relation to the control, and thus was considered less susceptible to the pathogen. P. dissotocum presented higher mycelium growth and was more pathogenic than P. middletonii in all experiments.

  2. Active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. / Embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Yamashita

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The minimal processing of horticultural products endears the raw material and is convenient to the consumer due to the facility for preparing and consuming. The objective of this work was to develop an active packaging for fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. to increase its shelf life. Minimally processing methodology was defined and the product quality was determined by sensorial, physico-chemical and microbiological analysis. The lettuce tree was selected, trimmed, pre-washed, soaked in sanitized water (100ppm of active chlorine for 15 minutes and centrifuged. The lettuce leafs were packed in polypropylene pots with a sachet containing 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and sealed with biodegradable starch film. Soon after the processing, the product was stored at 4oC for 12 days. Periodically samples were evaluated in terms of appearance and purchase intention, soluble solids and vitamin C contents, pH, texture, color, weight loss and total count of mesophilic and psicotrofic microorganisms, lactic bacteria, mould and yeast. Using 1-MCP in sachet format did not increase the lettuce shelf life but the minimal processing combined with packaging sealed with biodegradable film is practicable as the product showed good sensorial acceptance, low microbiological counts and shelf life of 5 days at 4oC.O processamento mínimo de produtos hortícolas agrega valor à matéria-prima e são convenientes ao consumidor, devido à facilidade de preparo e consumo. O objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver uma embalagem ativa para alface americana (Lactuca sativa L. minimamente processada visando o aumento da vida útil. Foi definida uma metodologia de processamento mínimo e a qualidade do produto foi acompanhada através de avaliação sensorial, físico-química e microbiológica. As cabeças de alface foram desfolhadas, selecionadas, pré-lavadas, sanificadas (100 ppm de cloro ativo por 15 minutos e centrifugadas. As folhas foram acondicionadas em potes de polipropileno contendo sachês com 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP e seladas com filme biodegradável de amido. Logo após o processamento, o produto foi armazenado a 4ºC por 12 dias. Periodicamente amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente (aparência e intenção de compra e foram determinados os teores de sólidos solúveis e vitamina C, pH, textura, cor, perda de massa e contagem total de microrganismos mesófilos, psicrotróficos, bactérias láticas, bolores e leveduras. O uso de 1-MCP na forma de sachê não aumentou a vida útil da alface em relação ao controle, mas o processamento mínimo associado à embalagem selada com filme biodegradável é uma técnica viável, pois o produto apresentou boa aceitação sensorial, contaminação microbiológica baixa e vida de prateleira de 5 dias a 4oC.

  3. Tolerance of wheat and lettuce plants grown on human mineralized waste to high temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushakova, Sofya A.; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Shikhov, Valentin N.; Gros, Jean-Bernard; Golovko, Tamara K.; Dal'ke, Igor V.; Zakhozhii, Ilya G.

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of a life support system for space missions is to supply a crew with food, water and oxygen, and to eliminate their wastes. The ultimate goal is to achieve the highest degree of closure of the system using controlled processes offering a high level of reliability and flexibility. Enhancement of closure of a biological life support system (BLSS) that includes plants relies on increased regeneration of plant waste, and utilization of solid and liquid human wastes. Clearly, the robustness of a BLSS subjected to stress will be substantially determined by the robustness of the plant components of the phototrophic unit. The aim of the present work was to estimate the heat resistance of two plants (wheat and lettuce) grown on human wastes. Human exometabolites mineralized by hydrogen peroxide in an electromagnetic field were used to make a nutrient solution for the plants. We looked for a possible increase in the heat tolerance of the wheat plants using changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity during heat stress. At age 15 days, plants were subjected to a rise in air temperature (from 23 ± 1 °C to 44 ± 1 °?) under different PAR intensities for 4 h. The status of the photosynthetic apparatus of the plants was assessed by external ??2 gas exchange and fluorescence measurements. The increased irradiance of the plants during the high temperature period demonstrated its protective action for both the photosynthetic apparatus of the leaves and subsequent plant growth and development. The productivity of the plants subjected to temperature changes at 250 W m-2 of PAR did not differ from that of controls, whereas the productivity of the plants subjected to the same heat stress but in darkness was halved.

  4. Avaliação da reação de genótipos de alface (Lactuca sativa L. ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV Reaction of Lactuca sativa L. lines to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Chung

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como meta avaliar a reação de 18 linhagens superiores do programa de melhoramento de alface (Lactuca sativa L. do IAC e de seis cultivares comerciais, ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. Em condições de campo, na região de Atibaia (SP, foram observados sintomas de mosaico, nanismo e necrose em plantas das cultivares Rider, 'Karla H25' e Hortência. O vírus presente nos isolados foi identificado por meio de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras e diferenciadoras e de testes sorológicos de Plate Trapped Antigen-Enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA. Nas amostras avaliadas, identificou-se a espécie LMV pelo PTA-ELISA e do patotipo IV pela reação nas hospedeiras diferenciais. Para a avaliação do comportamento dos genótipos de alface, foi empregado o LMV isolado 'Karla H25'. Foram submetidos à inoculação 24 genótipos de alface empregando-se, como controle positivo, a alface 'White Boston' por sua suscetibilidade ao LMV. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso e analisado pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Detectaram-se genótipos com comportamento de suscetibilidade e de tolerância. Nos genótipos 3 e 4, foram observadas plantas com comportamento de tolerância ao LMV isolado 'Karla H25', enquanto nos demais genótipos, constataram-se plantas com comportamento suscetível. O plantio de cultivares tolerantes pode ser uma alternativa aos prejuízos causados pela infecção pelo LMV com conseqüente diminuição do uso de produtos químicos para o controle dos afídeos vetores.Reactions to one isolate from diseased lettuce plants collected in 2003 in Atibaia, SP, were studied in six varieties and 18 selected lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. lines. Underdeveloped, malformed leaves with mosaic symptoms and also necrotic leaves were found under field conditions in Raider, 'Karla H25' and Hortência lettuce cultivars. These symptomatic plants were sampled and the virus etiology studied by PTA-ELISA and by means of mechanical inoculation on test plants and on differential lettuce cultivars resistant to Lettuce mosaic virus, LMV pathotypes I, II and III. LMV pathotype IV was identified in all cultivars studied by the reaction in the differential hosts. 'Karla H25'isolate was selected to screen the best lines of the breeding as well as lettuce program and commercial varieties. Twenty-four best lines of the program were inoculated with this isolate and the evaluations were based on symptoms. Symptomless lettuce plants were additionally tested for LMV presence, in PTA-ELISA, and by retro-inoculation to Chenopodium amaranticolor. The results indicated lines with varied degrees of susceptibility and tolerance. Lines 3 and 4 showed tolerance and this suggests that they can provide a good alternative for disease control and also that they might contribute in the reduction of chemical control.

  5. Avaliação da reação de genótipos de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) / Reaction of Lactuca sativa L. lines to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa Maria, Chung; Joaquim Adelino de, Azevedo Filho; Addolorata, Colariccio.

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como meta avaliar a reação de 18 linhagens superiores do programa de melhoramento de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) do IAC e de seis cultivares comerciais, ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Em condições de campo, na região de Atibaia (SP), foram observados sintomas de mosaico, nanismo e nec [...] rose em plantas das cultivares Rider, 'Karla H25' e Hortência. O vírus presente nos isolados foi identificado por meio de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras e diferenciadoras e de testes sorológicos de Plate Trapped Antigen-Enzyme linked-immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA). Nas amostras avaliadas, identificou-se a espécie LMV pelo PTA-ELISA e do patotipo IV pela reação nas hospedeiras diferenciais. Para a avaliação do comportamento dos genótipos de alface, foi empregado o LMV isolado 'Karla H25'. Foram submetidos à inoculação 24 genótipos de alface empregando-se, como controle positivo, a alface 'White Boston' por sua suscetibilidade ao LMV. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso e analisado pelo teste do qui-quadrado. Detectaram-se genótipos com comportamento de suscetibilidade e de tolerância. Nos genótipos 3 e 4, foram observadas plantas com comportamento de tolerância ao LMV isolado 'Karla H25', enquanto nos demais genótipos, constataram-se plantas com comportamento suscetível. O plantio de cultivares tolerantes pode ser uma alternativa aos prejuízos causados pela infecção pelo LMV com conseqüente diminuição do uso de produtos químicos para o controle dos afídeos vetores. Abstract in english Reactions to one isolate from diseased lettuce plants collected in 2003 in Atibaia, SP, were studied in six varieties and 18 selected lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) lines. Underdeveloped, malformed leaves with mosaic symptoms and also necrotic leaves were found under field conditions in Raider, 'Karla [...] H25' and Hortência lettuce cultivars. These symptomatic plants were sampled and the virus etiology studied by PTA-ELISA and by means of mechanical inoculation on test plants and on differential lettuce cultivars resistant to Lettuce mosaic virus, LMV pathotypes I, II and III. LMV pathotype IV was identified in all cultivars studied by the reaction in the differential hosts. 'Karla H25'isolate was selected to screen the best lines of the breeding as well as lettuce program and commercial varieties. Twenty-four best lines of the program were inoculated with this isolate and the evaluations were based on symptoms. Symptomless lettuce plants were additionally tested for LMV presence, in PTA-ELISA, and by retro-inoculation to Chenopodium amaranticolor. The results indicated lines with varied degrees of susceptibility and tolerance. Lines 3 and 4 showed tolerance and this suggests that they can provide a good alternative for disease control and also that they might contribute in the reduction of chemical control.

  6. Sensory shelf life estimation of minimally processed lettuce considering two stages of consumers' decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares, Gastón; Giménez, Ana; Gámbaro, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the influence of context, particularly the stage of the decision-making process (purchase vs consumption stage), on sensory shelf life of minimally processed lettuce. Leaves of butterhead lettuce were placed in common polypropylene bags and stored at 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Periodically, a panel of six assessors evaluated the appearance of the samples, and a panel of 40 consumers evaluated their appearance and answered "yes" or "no" to the questions: "Imagine you are in a supermarket, you want to buy a minimally processed lettuce, and you find a package of lettuce with leaves like this, would you normally buy it?" and "Imagine you have this leaf of lettuce stored in your refrigerator, would you normally consume it?". Survival analysis was used to calculate the shelf lives of minimally processed lettuce, considering both decision-making stages. Shelf lives estimated considering rejection to purchase were significantly lower than those estimated considering rejection to consume. Therefore, in order to be conservative and assure the products' quality, shelf life should be estimated considering consumers' rejection to purchase instead of rejection to consume, as traditionally has been done. On the other hand, results from logistic regressions of consumers' rejection percentage as a function of the evaluated appearance attributes suggested that consumers considered them differently while deciding whether to purchase or to consume minimally processed lettuce. PMID:18069080

  7. Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização / Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Nascimento dos, Santos; Ênio Farias de França e, Silva; Tales Miler, Soares; Raquele Mendes Lira, Dantas; Manassés Mesquita da, Silva.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1) obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1) produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito sali [...] no (5,15 dS m-1), um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN) e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca) foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito. Abstract in english Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1) obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1) produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1), a wastew [...] ater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS) and/or replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc). The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter) was higher under Floating conditions. The single use of deep well water and reject brine decreased 22.7 and 39.6% the lettuce yield, respectively. For a better combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish water to replace ETc loss may increase the lettuce yield in comparison to use these waters to prepare the NS; this result was registered for deep well water and reject.

  8. Produção de alface em NFT e Floating aproveitando água salobra e o rejeito da dessalinização Lettuce production under NFT and Floating using brackish groundwater and the reject from its desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Nascimento dos Santos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de alface cv. Elba foram cultivadas em dois sistemas hidropônicos, Floating e NFT, com o objetivo de avaliar três tipos de água: a água salobra natural (2,47 dS m-1 obtida a partir de um poço profundo; água doce (0,11 dS m-1 produzido por dessalinização por osmose inversa, e o rejeito salino (5,15 dS m-1, um efluente do processo de dessalinização. Estas águas foram combinadas em seis tratamentos resultantes da sua utilização alternada para preparar a solução nutritiva (SN e/ou substituir as perdas por evapotranspiração (ETc. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na região semiárida de Pernambuco, utilizando 48 unidades experimentais em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 6x2 com quatro repetições. O rendimento da alface (massa de matéria fresca foi maior nas condições do Floating. O uso exclusivo da água do poço profundo e do rejeito de dessalinizadores diminuiu 22,7 e 39,6% a produção de alface, respectivamente. Para uma melhor combinação de águas doces e salobras, o uso de água salobra para repor a perda por ETc pode aumentar a produção de alface em relação ao uso dessas águas para preparar a SN, estes resultados foram registrados para a água do poço profundo e o rejeito.Plants of lettuce cv. Elba were grown under two hydroponic systems, Floating and NFT, aiming to evaluate three water resources: natural brackish water (2,47 dS m-1 obtained from a deep well; fresh water (0,11 dS m-1 produced by reverse osmosis desalination; and reject brine (5,15 dS m-1, a wastewater from desalination process. These waters were combined in six treatments resulted from their alternated use to prepare nutrient solution (NS and/or replace the evapotranspiration loss (ETc. The experiment was carried out under a greenhouse condition in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Brazil; 48 experimental units were used for both hydroponic systems. The lettuce yield (shoot fresh matter was higher under Floating conditions. The single use of deep well water and reject brine decreased 22.7 and 39.6% the lettuce yield, respectively. For a better combination of fresh and brackish waters, the use of brackish water to replace ETc loss may increase the lettuce yield in comparison to use these waters to prepare the NS; this result was registered for deep well water and reject.

  9. Avaliação da reação de genótipos de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) Reaction of Lactuca sativa L. lines to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Maria Chung; Joaquim Adelino de Azevedo Filho; Addolorata Colariccio

    2007-01-01

    O trabalho teve como meta avaliar a reação de 18 linhagens superiores do programa de melhoramento de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) do IAC e de seis cultivares comerciais, ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Em condições de campo, na região de Atibaia (SP), foram observados sintomas de mosaico, nanismo e necrose em plantas das cultivares Rider, 'Karla H25' e Hortência. O vírus presente nos isolados foi identificado por meio de inoculação mecânica em plantas indicadoras e diferenciadoras e de testes so...

  10. Effects of different nutrients solutions on nutrients concentration and some qualitative traits of lettuce in hydroponics system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safaei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., as a leafy vegetable, has considerable economic benefits. Although nowadays the tendency is to grow lettuce hydroponically, growers use different nutrients solutions for lettuce production and there is not an optimal nutrients solution for lettuce production in Iran. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to introduce the optimal solution out of current solutions in the market for lettuce production. In this experiment, effects of four nutrients solutions (Hoagland and Arnon, NSHoag; Knop’s, NSKnop, England, NSUK, and University of Tabriz solution, NSUT on two cultivars of lettuce (Siahoo and Conquistador were assessed. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized blocks design with four replications at Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran, and traits such as total soluble solids (TSS, panel test, percentage of leaf dry matter and leaf nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and nitrate contents were assessed. Results showed that different nutrients solutions had significant effect on nutrients concentration and some of the qualitative characteristics of lettuce. The highest percentage of dry mater, leaf nitrogen and potassium content, were observed in Knop’s, UT and Hoagland solutions, respectively. Interaction between cultivar and nutrients solution became significant on panel test results. Hoagland and Knop’s solutions in Conquistador cultivar and England and Hoagland solutions in Siahoo cultivar showed maximum panel-test results. Nutrients solutions didn’t have significant effects on other traits. Therefore, it is concluded that Hoagland nutrients solution was the best solution for qualitative traits in lettuce production. But, it is necessary to analyze these nutrients solutions for lettuce yield and economic aspects.

  11. Quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were stored for 14 days at 4 °C. O2 levels in the packages of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce decreased and CO2 levels increased with increasing radiation dose, suggesting that irradiation increased respiration rates of lettuce. Tissue browning of irradiated cut lettuce was less severe than that of non-irradiated, probably due to the lower O2 levels in the packages. However, samples irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy had lower maximum force and more severe sogginess than the non-irradiated control. In addition, ascorbic acid content of irradiated lettuce was 22–40% lower than the non-irradiated samples after 14 days of storage. The visual appearance of spinach was not affected by irradiation even at a dose of 4 kGy. Consumer acceptance suggested that more people would dislike and would not buy spinach that was treated at 3 and 4 kGy as compared to the non-irradiated sample. Overall, irradiation at doses of 1 and 2 kGy may be employed to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach while maintaining quality. - Highlights: ? Headspace composition in the modified atmosphere packages of cut lettuce was affected by irradiation. ? Fresh-cut lettuce in adapted atmosphere could tolerate 1 or 2 kGy rays without quality deterioration in look and texture. ? Lettuce irradiated at doses higher than 2 kGy developed sogginess. ? Irradiated spinach maintained a good appearance at doses of 3 and 4 kGy. ? Higher doses (3 and 4 kGy) of radiation decreased consumers' likingness and purchase intent of irradiated spinach.

  12. Production characteristics of lettuce Lactuca sativa L. in the frame of the first crop tests in the Higher Plant Chamber integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lawson, Jamie; Stasiak, Michael; Dixon, Mike; Paille, Christel; Peiro, Enrique; Fossen, Arnaud; Godia, Francesc

    Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an artificial closed ecosystem that is considered a tool for the development of a bioregenerative life support system for manned space missions. One of the five compartments of MELiSSA loop -Higher Plant Chamber was recently integrated into the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility at Universitat Aut`noma deo Barcelona. The main contributions expected by integration of this photosynthetic compartment are oxygen, water, vegetable food production and CO2 consumption. Production characteristics of Lactuca sativa L., as a MELiSSA candidate crop, were investigated in this work in the first crop experiments in the MELiSSA Pilot Plant facility. The plants were grown in batch culture and totaled 100 plants with a growing area 5 m long and 1 m wide in a sealed controlled environment. Several replicates of the experiments were carried out with varying duration. It was shown that after 46 days of lettuce cultivation dry edible biomass averaged 27, 2 g per plant. However accumulation of oxygen in the chamber, which required purging of the chamber, and decrease in the food value of the plants was observed. Reducing the duration of the tests allowed uninterrupted test without opening the system and also allowed estimation of the crop's carbon balance. Results of productivity, tissue composition, nutrient uptake and canopy photosynthesis of lettuce regardless of test duration are discussed in the paper.

  13. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Laynez Garsaball

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some chemical compounds released by plants can to control the presence of other plants in their environment both of their own species and different ones, allelopathy is an important factor in regulating the structure of plant communities, a better understanding of these relationships is critical for appropriate agricultural development. The objective was to determine the effects of aqueous extracts of leaves of tree marigold (Tithonia diversifolia on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar Parris Island. A 15% w/v extract was prepared with leaves of tree marigold gold, it was allowed to stand for 48 h. After, diluting extracts at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% w/v were obtained and pH and electrical conductivity (S.cm-1 were determined. Sowing was carried out in trays covered with a double layer of absorbent paper on which were placed 25 seeds/tray. Irrigation was applied twice per day using leaf extracts. The control treatment received tap water. A randomized complete block design was used with four replications. Seedlings were harvested at 14 days after sowing. pH decreased and electrical conductivity increased with increases in the concentration of leaf extracts. The germination was negatively affected by extracts. A lowering effect was observed on the overall growth of lettuce seedlings.

  14. Lytic bacteriophages reduce Escherichia coli O157: H7 on fresh cut lettuce introduced through cross-contamination

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Sean; Roberts, Cheryl; Handy, Eric; Sharma, Manan

    2013-01-01

    The role of lytic bacteriophages in preventing cross contamination of produce has not been evaluated. A cocktail of three lytic phages specific for E. coli O157:H7 (EcoShield™) or a control (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) was applied to lettuce by either; (1) immersion of lettuce in 500 ml of EcoShield™ 8.3 log PFU/ml or 9.8 log PFU/ml for up to 2 min before inoculation with E. coli O157:H7; (2) spray-application of EcoShield™ (9.3 log PFU/ml) to lettuce after inoculation with E. coli O157:H...

  15. Combined Use of Green Manure and Farmyard Manure Allows Better Nutrition of Organic Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi CALISKAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic crop production has become a major business due to rising consumer demand, price premiums and increasing market opportunities. A field experiment was conducted to compare organic and conventional production systems by evaluating growth, yield and mineral content of lettuce leaves. Six organic productions systems, green manure (GM, farmyard manure (FYM, commercial organic fertilizer (COF and their combinations were compared with conventional production system (CPS. A non-fertilized control treatment was also included. Plant growth and yield were found higher in the organic production system compare to conventional production system. The lowest plant growth and yield were obtained in the control treatment. Values of vitamin C content of lettuce grown in the organic production systems were higher than those of the conventional production system. The highest lettuce yield (71.8 and 76.5 t ha-1 was obtained with GM + FYM treatment. The results indicated that combined use of green manure and farmyard manure can be successfully used in organic lettuce production.

  16. Effect of silicates and electrical conductivity on Fusarium wilt of hydroponically grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarra, W; Pugliese, M; Gilardi, G; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2013-01-01

    Silicon can stimulate natural defense mechanisms in plants, reducing foliar diseases like powdery arid downy mildew on several crops, including lettuce. The effect of silicate on Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae was evaluated under greenhouse conditions on lettuce grown in soilless systems. Silicon, as potassium silicate, was added at 100 mg L(-1) of nutrient solution at three levels of electrical conductivity; 1.5-1.6 mS cm(-1) (E.C.1), 3.0-3.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.2) and 4-4.2 mS cm(-1) (E.C.3). Pots containing lettuce plants were first inoculated with F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (3x10(5) chlamidospores ml(-1)) 15-20 days before transplanting. Disease severity and physiological parameters, including chlorophyll content, were analyzed weekly after transplanting. The addition of potassium silicate slightly reduced Fusarium wilt, at all levels of electrical conductivity under study, compared to the control. On the contrary, the increase of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution showed no effect on the disease. The use of silicon was previously demonstrated to significantly reduce downy mildew on lettuce in soilless systems, and in this trial it demonstrated to slightly reduce disease severity of an important soil-borne pathogen like F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, suggesting the possibility to apply it successfully in soilless crops. PMID:25151830

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN...houses covered with 50 mesh screens, double self-closing doors, and hard walks (no...The lettuce must be transported to the airport in a closed refrigerated truck for...

  18. A STUDY ON THE ACCUMULATION OF PERCHLORATE IN YOUNG HEAD LETTUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall objective of this study was to demonstrate in a greenhouse study the potential for incorporation of perchlorate from aqueous solutions of 10, 50, 100, 500, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 ppb into an agricultural food crop (lettuce; Lactuca sativa), which is typically grown ...

  19. Romaine lettuce latex deters feeding of banded cucumber beetle: a vehicle for deployment of biochemical defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latex is widely found among plant species and is known to play a defensive role against certain herbivores. Two romaine lettuce cultivars, ‘Valmaine’ (resistant) and ‘Tall Guzmaine’ (susceptible) were selected to study the potential of latex as a defense mechanism against the banded cucumber beetle,...

  20. UPTAKE OF CADMIUM FROM PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS BY PEAS, RADISHES, AND LETTUCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadium uptake from phosphate fertilizers by radish (Raphanus sativa) lettuce (Latuca sativa) and garden peas (Pisum satium) was investigated in the greenhouse. Fertilizer in all treatments was applied at the rate of 100 P/g soil to pots containing 4kg soil. When reagent grade mon...

  1. Moessbauer and EXAFS spectroscopy investigation of iron and arsenic adsorption to lettuce leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcelos, Igor F., E-mail: ifvasco@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Dep. Eng. Metalurgica e de Materiais (Brazil); Silva, Gabriela C.; Carvalho, Regina P.; Dantas, Maria Sylvia S.; Ciminelli, Virginia S. T. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Dep. Eng. Metalurgica e de Materiais (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The accumulation of iron and arsenic from aqueous solution by lettuce leaves biomass was investigated using Moessbauer and EXAFS spectroscopic techniques. Moessbauer spectroscopy results show that iron is oxidized during sorption while EXAFS results indicate that iron is coordinated by approximately 6 oxygen and 2 carbon atoms while arsenic is coordinated by approximately 4 oxygen atoms with iron as a second neighbor.

  2. COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF SIX TEST CHEMICALS TO LETTUCE USING TWO ROOT ELONGATION TEST METHODS (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., cv buttercrunch) was used to evaluate and compare the results from two different root elongation phytotoxicity test methods with the same six test substances. Seeds were either germinated in the dark on an inclined filter paper substrate with one end i...

  3. Mössbauer and EXAFS spectroscopy investigation of iron and arsenic adsorption to lettuce leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Igor F.; Silva, Gabriela C.; Carvalho, Regina P.; Dantas, Maria Sylvia S.; Ciminelli, Virgínia S. T.

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of iron and arsenic from aqueous solution by lettuce leaves biomass was investigated using Mössbauer and EXAFS spectroscopic techniques. Mössbauer spectroscopy results show that iron is oxidized during sorption while EXAFS results indicate that iron is coordinated by approximately 6 oxygen and 2 carbon atoms while arsenic is coordinated by approximately 4 oxygen atoms with iron as a second neighbor.

  4. VIABILITY LOSSES IN CRYOPRESERVED GERMPLASM:A PILOT STUDY USING LETTUCE SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is generally assumed that germplasm stored at liquid nitrogen (LN) temperatures will remain alive indefinitely. The results of this study using 258 accessions of lettuce seeds lead us to question that assumption and to reconsider ideas of the underlying mechanisms that control aging of preserved...

  5. LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI RESPONSE AND SOIL PROPERTIES RESULTING FROM TANNERY WASTE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown on Willamette sil (Pachic Ultic Argixerolls) amended 1 and 2 yr earlier with chrome tannery wastes at rates up to 192 Mg ha to determine nutrient and trace element availability. Soils were sam...

  6. Sanitizer solutions containing detergents for inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreaks have been linked to consumption of fresh lettuce. The development of effective and easily implemented wash treatment could reduce such incidents. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the addition of food-grade detergents to sanitizer solutions for i...

  7. Notice of release of iceberg, romaine, and leaf lettuce breeding lines with improved disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of sixteen breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five (SM13-Il, SM13-I2, SM13-I3, SM13-I4, and SM13-I5) of the six iceberg breeding lines can be used for whole head or salad blend production; the sixth i...

  8. Phosphorus levels in soil and lettuce production due to phosphorus fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Mantovani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The leafy vegetables are considered nutrient-demanding, but are scarce in the literature works about phosphorus fertilization. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phosphate on the production of lettuce, content and amount of P accumulated in leaf plants, and to relate levels of P in the clayey soil with plant production. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in pots in a randomized block design with ten treatments and four replications. The treatments were made up of P, corresponding to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600 and 700 mg dm-3, as triple superphosphate powder. Portions of 6 dm3 of the clay soil (420 g kg-1 clay received lime, aimed at raising the V % soil to 70 %, equivalent to 20 t ha-1 of cattle manure, and the phosphate fertilizer according to the treatments, remaining incubated for about 30 days. At the end of incubation, each pot received a change of lettuce cultivar Verônica. The plant harvesting was performed 39 days after transplanting the seedlings. O P gave large increases in growth and production of lettuce, and culture responded positively to the application of high doses of the nutrient. A dose of 350 mg dm-3, equivalent to 800 kg ha-1 P2O5, was the most suitable for growing lettuce in the clay soil. In this work conditions, the phosphorus fertilizations it was necessary when the P-Mehlich contents in the clay soil were less than 75 mg dm-3.

  9. Effect of Sulfur Blended N-Fertilizers on Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Quality of Lettuce Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Al-Redhaiman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatilization of NH3 is a major factor affects ammonical fertilizer use efficiency particularly when N-fertilizers are surface applied to sandy soil characterized by high pH values and low CEC. Effect of blending various N-fertilizers; urea, U, ammonium sulfate, AS, ammonium nitrate, AN and di-ammonium phosphate, DAP; with elemental sulfur, on fertilizer-N utilization and quality of lettuce yield were studied. The results of lettuce yield grown in greenhouse showed significant increase in lettuce fresh yield (ranging from 9.8-18.9% of treatments received S comparing with those received no S. The effect of S on dry matter of leaves and stems was insignificant. Total N content of leaves and stems showed a significant increase varied between 10.4-20.6 and 8.4-18.5%, respectively. Total-N uptake by lettuce plants treated with sulfur-blended fertilizers was increased by 20%(U-52(AN%. Also, an increase in N recovery reached 70% of the applied was observed for sulfur- blended N- fertilizer treatments, instead of 39-52% of those received no S. Nitrate and sulfate contents of lettuce dry matter were significantly increased using S-blended fertilizers particularly in the case of ammonium nitrate (AN and ammonium sulphate (AS. The results of soil analysis showed significant decrease in soil pH in the treatments received S blended fertilizer compared to those received no S. On the other hand, electrical conductivity increased significantly from 1.8-2.1 to 2.1-3.2 dS m?1 as a result of S addition. Insignificant increase in both SO4 and NH4 contents were recorded for S treated samples.

  10. Cadmium determination in lettuce grown in contaminated soil by INAAA and GFAAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Cd is not essential for the mammalian organism, it follows in body the same pathways of essential elements such as zinc and copper. There is evidence that the Cd induced reduction of Ca absorption, may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Anthropogenic activities associated with industrial activities, mining and use of fertilizers, limestone pesticides in agriculture are the main sources of Cd enrichment in soils. Due to the possibility that Cd being absorbed by plants and through them to reach the food chain, interest has increased in regard to developing techniques for remediation of contaminated sites. The addition of substances capable of immobilizing the toxic elements from the soil is a procedure that has been used for remediation of contaminated sites. The function of these substances is to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in the soil. In this study, five doses of phosphorus as triple phosphorus were used in a number of lettuce plants grown in contaminated soil. The concentration of Cd present in lettuce leaves treated with phosphate was compared with the Cd absorbed by the control plant leaves. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Graphite-Furnace Absorption Atomic Spectrometry (GFAAS) were the analytical methods used to determine Cd contents in lettuce leaves. The objective was to evaluate the performance of the employed analytical methods: INAA and GFAAS in the assessment of the efficiency of phosphorus treatments to reduce the Cd concentrations in leaves of lettuce. Results obtained indicated that both analytical methods were efficient to discriminate the response of Cd concentration in lettuce as a function of soil treatment with phosphorus. Although INAA has shown a positive performance in this study, GFAAS seemed more appropriate because its sensitivity was much higher than that obtained by INAA, in the experimental conditions. (author)

  11. Cadmium determination in lettuce grown in contaminated soil by INAAA and GFAAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Maihara, Vera A.; Saiki, Mitiko, E-mail: marmelin@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Trevizam, Anderson R.; Silva, Maria Ligia S. [Universidade Estadual do Centro Oeste (UNICENTRO), Guarapuava, PR (Brazil); Muraoka, Takashi, E-mail: muraoka@cena.usp.b [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Although Cd is not essential for the mammalian organism, it follows in body the same pathways of essential elements such as zinc and copper. There is evidence that the Cd induced reduction of Ca absorption, may lead to the development of osteoporosis. Anthropogenic activities associated with industrial activities, mining and use of fertilizers, limestone pesticides in agriculture are the main sources of Cd enrichment in soils. Due to the possibility that Cd being absorbed by plants and through them to reach the food chain, interest has increased in regard to developing techniques for remediation of contaminated sites. The addition of substances capable of immobilizing the toxic elements from the soil is a procedure that has been used for remediation of contaminated sites. The function of these substances is to reduce the mobility and bioavailability of potentially toxic elements in the soil. In this study, five doses of phosphorus as triple phosphorus were used in a number of lettuce plants grown in contaminated soil. The concentration of Cd present in lettuce leaves treated with phosphate was compared with the Cd absorbed by the control plant leaves. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Graphite-Furnace Absorption Atomic Spectrometry (GFAAS) were the analytical methods used to determine Cd contents in lettuce leaves. The objective was to evaluate the performance of the employed analytical methods: INAA and GFAAS in the assessment of the efficiency of phosphorus treatments to reduce the Cd concentrations in leaves of lettuce. Results obtained indicated that both analytical methods were efficient to discriminate the response of Cd concentration in lettuce as a function of soil treatment with phosphorus. Although INAA has shown a positive performance in this study, GFAAS seemed more appropriate because its sensitivity was much higher than that obtained by INAA, in the experimental conditions. (author)

  12. Reduction of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in shredded iceberg lettuce by chlorination and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettuce was inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of acid-adapted Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at a level of 1x107 CFU/g. Following chlorination at 200 ?g/ml, the lettuce was irradiated at 0.15, 0.38, or 0.55 kGy using a 60Co source. Survival of E. coli 0157:H7, aerobic mesophiles and yeast and molds were measured over a period of 10 days. For quality analysis, chlorinated lettuce was subjected to irradiation at 0.33 and 0.53 kGy and stored at 1.0 deg. C, 4.0 deg. C or 7.0 deg. C. Changes in texture and color were determined by instrumental means and changes in flavor, odor, and visual quality were determined by sensory testing. Chlorination plus irradiation at 0.55 kGy produced a 5.4-log reduction in E. coli 0157:H7 levels. Chlorination alone reduced the E. coli 0157:H7 counts by 1-2 logs. Irradiation at 0.55 kGy was also effective in reducing standard plate counts and yeast and mold counts. Irradiation at this level did not cause softening of lettuce and sensory attributes were not adversely affected. In general, appearance and flavor were affected more by the length of storage than by temperature conditions. The 5+log reduction in E. coli counts and lack of adverse effects on sensory attributes indicate that low-dose irradiation can improve the safety and shelf-life of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce for retail sale or food service

  13. Factors important for the shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deza Durand, Karla Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The minimally processed vegetable industry has been increasing rapidly due to change in lifestyle. Both women and men work outside home and have less time to cook and need more convenience and time saving products, which also present fresh and healthy characteristics. Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular fresh-cut vegetables. Although an increase in the number of mixed salads in retail food chains is evident, their short shelf-life due to rapid browning and off-odour is a problem that need research. Therefore, the aim of this PhD project was to investigate factors important for the shelf-life of minimally processed iceberg lettuce and to propose a new methodology to measure browning in cut lettuce. Browning has been pointed out as the main factor limitating shelf-life in cut lettuce. The problem becomes complex because browning of cut lettuce is difficult to measure. A novel method using image analysis for the measurement of browning in minimally processed lettuce was developed and presented in paper I. The method used a flatbed scanner for image acquisition, colour dye patches for colour correction, and colour thresholding to quantify the browning, that was expressed as brown area fraction. Cut lettuce was stored at 5°C for 6 days and plus 1 day at room temperature (day 7). Changes in browning were assessed at 2, 6 and 7 days of storage using image analysis. The result showed an increase in browning as time and temperature of storage increased. It was concluded that this technique can be used for measuring the browning in cut lettuce. Few studies are done on the formation of volatiles in cut lettuce. Temperature of storage and methods of preparation that minimized quality loss are highly desirable. As such, cutting direction and storage temperature were investigated to elucidate their influence on aroma formation and respiration rate in minimally processed lettuce, are presented in paper II. Lettuce was cut longitudinal and transverse to the mid-rib and stored at 6 and 10°C for 4 and 5 days. Changes in respiration rate were analyzed through the storage time, and aroma analysis was carried out after 4 and 5 days of storage in January and March, respectively. Respiration rate increased with increasing storage temperatures. Aroma formation was also influenced by storage temperature. Higher storage temperature allowed the increase of -longipinene, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal. Transversal cut to the rib was strongly related with volatiles of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway i.e. cis-3-hexenal, cis-3-hexenol and trans-2-hexenol, meanwhile longitudinal cut enhanced the formation of volatiles from other metabolic routes. Therefore, it was concluded that transversal cut cause a more severe damage to the tissue than longitudinal cut based on aroma production of LOX volatiles. It has been indicated that cultivar, season, packaging and storage time influence the type and concentration of volatile compounds, browning, chemical constituents and texture in vegetables. As part of this project, a more integrated study was undertaken for first time in lettuce to our knowledge. The study took into account the influence of cultivar, season, packaging and storage time. In order to achieve this, iceberg lettuce cultivars Platinas, Diamantinas and Morinas were harvested from June to September 2009. Lettuces were minimally processed and stored under three different treatments: two passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) built up by films of different permeabilities, F1 (OPALEN 65 AF) and F2 (OPP/PE-L 2040 AF), and storage in air. All packages were stored at 5°C. Gas composition, volatile compounds, physicochemical constituents, PPO activity and browning were assessed at 1, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage in packaged lettuce, whereas in air stored samples only at 1 and 5 days of storage. Additionally, respiration rate was only assessed in air stored samples and GC-O analysis was undertaken after 1 and 11 days of storage for cultivar Morinas packaged in passive MAP F2 in September. The study was divided into three

  14. Freshwater aquatic plant biomass production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, K.R.; Sutton, D.L.; Bowes, G.

    1983-01-01

    About 8% (1.2 million ha) of the total surface area of Florida is occupied by freshwater. Many of these water bodies are eutrophic. Nutrients present in these water bodies can be potentially used to culture aquatic plants as a possible feedstock for methane production. This paper summarizes the results of known research findings on biomass production potential of freshwater aquatic plants in Florida and identifies key research needs to improve the quality and quantity of biomass yields. Among floating aquatic plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of water-hyacinth > water lettuce > pennywort > salvinia > duckweed > azolla. Pennywort, duckweed, and azolla appear to perform well during the cooler months compared to other aquatic plants. Among emergent plants, biomass yield potential was in the order of southern wild rice > cattails > soft rush > bulrush. Cultural techniques, nutrient management, and environmental factors influencing the biomass yields were discussed. 68 references.

  15. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes Godinho, R., E-mail: rmgodinho@yahoo.com [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P. [IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL – Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  16. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism

  17. Is Local Produce Safer? Microbiological Quality of Fresh Lettuce and Spinach from Grocery Stores and Farmers' Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiria Soendjojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing demand for fresh, safe, high-quality, and locally grown vegetables. This study compared microbial populations in Romaine lettuce, Bibb lettuce, and spinach procured from grocery stores and farmers’ markets throughout the course of a summer. Standard microbial techniques were used to analyze 42 samples for the presence of total aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria; yeasts and molds; surface and internalized coliforms and Escherichia coli; and the pathogens E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. Large variations in counts were found between produce types, sampling days, and between grocery and farmers’ market samples. The average highest microbial loads were associated with spinach samples from the grocery store, with both total aerobic mesophilic and psychrophilic counts greater than 7.1 log CFU/g. Average psychrophilic counts were higher than mesophilic microorganisms in all samples tested. In general, lettuce from farmers’ markets had more bacterial, yeast, and mold presence than lettuce from grocery stores.

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  19. Assessment of lettuce quality during storage at low relative humidity using Global Stability Index methodology Avaliação da qualidade da alface durante o armazenamento em baixa umidade relativa usando o Índice Global da Estabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roberta Ansorena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During postharvest, lettuce is usually exposed to adverse conditions (e.g. low relative humidity that reduce the vegetable quality. In order to evaluate its shelf life, a great number of quality attributes must be analyzed, which requires careful experimental design, and it is time consuming. In this study, the modified Global Stability Index method was applied to estimate the quality of butter lettuce at low relative humidity during storage discriminating three lettuce zones (internal, middle, and external. The results indicated that the most relevant attributes were: the external zone - relative water content, water content , ascorbic acid, and total mesophilic counts; middle zone - relative water content, water content, total chlorophyll, and ascorbic acid; internal zone - relative water content, bound water, water content, and total mesophilic counts. A mathematical model that takes into account the Global Stability Index and overall visual quality for each lettuce zone was proposed. Moreover, the Weibull distribution was applied to estimate the maximum vegetable storage time which was 5, 4, and 3 days for the internal, middle, and external zone, respectively. When analyzing the effect of storage time for each lettuce zone, all the indices evaluated in the external zone of lettuce presented significant differences (p Durante a pós-colheita a alface é exposta a condições adversas (baixa umidade relativa que reduzem a qualidade do vegetal. A fim de avaliar sua vida útil, um grande número de índices de qualidade tem que ser analisado, requerendo um cuidadoso delineamento experimental e um longo consumo de tempo. Neste trabalho, o método modificado do Índice Global da Estabilidade foi aplicado para estimar a qualidade da alface manteiga a uma baixa umidade relativa durante o armazenamento diferenciando três zonas (interna, média e externa. Os resultados indicaram que, para a zona externa, os índices mais relevantes foram o conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, ácido ascórbico e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Para a zona média, foram conteúdo da umidade relativa, conteúdo da água, clorofila total, ácido ascórbico e, para a interna, conteúdo da umidade relativa, água ligada, conteúdo da água e a contagem total de micro-organismos mesófilos. Foi proposto um modelo matemático entre o Índice Global da Estabilidade e qualidade visual geral para cada zona da alface. Ademais, foi aplicada a distribuição de Weibull para estimar o tempo da vida útil do vegetal, o qual foi: 5, 4 e 3 dias para as zonas interna, média e externa, respectivamente. Quando foi estudado o efeito do tempo de armazenamento para cada zona da alface, todos os índices avaliados na zona externa mostraram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05. Para as zonas interna e média, todos os índices medidos, com exceção do conteúdo da água e do total de clorofila, mostraram diferenças significativas (p < 0,05.

  20. Effect of Vermicompost and Compost on Lettuce Production Efecto de Vermicompost y Compost en la Producción de Lechuga

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Hernández; Hugo Castillo; Dámaris Ojeda; Ana Arras; Julio López; Esteban Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effect on total growth and leaf nutritional content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in the Agrotechnology Sciences Department of the Universidad Autonoma de Chihuahua, Mexico in 2007. Three types of fertilization treatments were analyzed: two organic and one conventional or inorganic. Both vermicompost and compost were produced from cattle manure in a 25-wk process. The study included 12 experimental units made up of lettuce plantlets var. Great...

  1. Association mapping and marker-assisted selection of the lettuce dieback resistance gene Tvr1

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffler Brian; McHale Leah; Truco María; Ochoa Oswaldo; Michelmore Richard; Simko Ivan; Pechenick Dov

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lettuce (Lactuca saliva L.) is susceptible to dieback, a soilborne disease caused by two viruses from the family Tombusviridae. Susceptibility to dieback is widespread in romaine and leaf-type lettuce, while modern iceberg cultivars are resistant to this disease. Resistance in iceberg cultivars is conferred by Tvr1 - a single, dominant gene that provides durable resistance. This study describes fine mapping of the resistance gene, analysis of nucleotide polymorphism and li...

  2. Efficacy of gamma radiation and aqueous chlorine on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in hydroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nthenge, Agnes K; Weese, Jean S; Carter, Melvin; Wei, Cheng-I; Huang, Tung-Shi

    2007-03-01

    Interaction of Escherichia coli O157:H7/pGFP with hydroponically grown lettuce plants was evaluated in this study. Lettuce seedlings were planted in contaminated Hoagland's nutrient solution and thereafter subjected to gamma radiation at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 kGy, and aqueous chlorine at 200 ppm. There was no trace of E. coli O157:H7/pGFP in lettuce leaves harvested from noncontaminated nutrient solution (control); however, for plants grown in contaminated nutrient solution, the pathogen was recovered from the leaves disinfected with 80% ethanol and 0.1% mercuric chloride. Most of the lettuce seedlings grown in contaminated nutrient solution tested negative for E. coli O157:H7/pGFP under controlled conditions. Gamma radiation at 0.25 and 0.5 kGy, and aqueous chlorine at 200 ppm failed to eliminate E. coli O157:H7/pGFP in lettuce tissue completely; however, the bacteria were not detected in 0.75-kGy treated plants. The presence of E. coli O157:H7/pGFP in lettuce leaves is an indication that the pathogen migrated from the contaminated hydroponic system through the roots to the internal locations of lettuce tissue. Due to inaccessibility and limited penetrating power, aqueous chlorine could not eliminate the bacteria localized in the internal tissue. Findings from this study suggest that gamma irradiation was more efficacious than was aqueous chlorine to control internal contamination in hydroponically grown lettuce. Gamma irradiation is a process that processors can use to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 and therefore, consumers benefit from a safer food product [corrected] PMID:17388070

  3. Postharvest Changes in Some Physiological Traits and Activities of Ammonia-assimilating Enzymes in Lettuce During Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Dulal Chandra; Toshiyuki Matsui; Haruo Suzuki; Yusuke Kosugi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and biochemical changes during postharvest storage of two crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars, `Shizuka` and `Cisco`. Lettuce heads were stored for up to 10 days at 20°C. Both cultivars showed remarkable changes in weight loss and respiration rate along with hue angle value. The glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activity decreased gradually in the leaf portion of both cultivars. However, in the midrib portion, these changes were not so...

  4. Non-uniformity of environmental conditions in greenhouse lettuce production increases the risk of N pollution and lower product quality

    OpenAIRE

    De Tourdonnet, Stéphane; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Lafolie, François; Roger-Estrade, Jean; Lagier, Jacques; SEBILLOTTE, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Although it is well known that environmental conditions in greenhouse crops are often not uniform, this is rarely taken into account in research into the factors determining product quality and pollution. Yet non-uniformity of irrigation, radiation and effect of compaction doubtless plays a fundamental part in the problems of quality (uniform size) and N pollution faced in lettuce production under plastic. A monitoring study of four lettuce crops showed a high degree of environmental non-unif...

  5. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, France received an application from the company Syngenta Agro SAS to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery and cardoon. In order to accommodate for the intended use of azoxystrobin, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 15 mg/kg for spinach and similar, lettuces and other salad plants, celery and cardoon. Germany received an application from the plant protection service La...

  6. The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    GabrieleBerg; ArminErlacher; RitaGrosch

    2014-01-01

    Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllo...

  7. Identification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae race 1 as the causal agent of lettuce wilt in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cléia S., Cabral; Kátia R., Brunelli; Hélcio, Costa; Maria Esther de N., Fonseca; Leonardo S., Boiteux; Ailton, Reis.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the virulence to lettuce cultivars and host specificity and to identify races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae (FOLac) isolates associated with lettuce wilt in Brazil. Thirty-one isolates identified based on morphology were inoculated in a set of lettuce [...] cultivars for race determination. Plantlets of 'Elisa', 'Vera', and 'Red Salad Bowl' cultivars were inoculated with all isolates using a root-dipping method. Isolates were also inoculated in species of Asteraceae and other botanical families. 'Elisa' and 'Vera' were susceptible to 27 isolates while 'Red Salad Bowl' was resistant to all isolates. Plants other than lettuce were not infected by any of the isolates, suggesting their specificity to lettuce. All pathogenic isolates were assigned to race 1 and used to evaluate a PCR protocol with primers targeting race 1. Only amplicons associated with race 1 pattern were observed for all pathogenic isolates but not for one non-pathogenic isolate, thus leading us to conclude that FOLac race 1 is so far the sole causal agent of lettuce wilt in Brazil.

  8. Quality of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach irradiated at doses up to 4 kGy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuetong; Guan, Wenqiang; Sokorai, Kimberly J. B.

    2012-08-01

    Fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce packaged in modified atmosphere packages and spinach in perforated film bags were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 kGy. After irradiation, the samples were stored for 14 days at 4 °C. O2 levels in the packages of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce decreased and CO2 levels increased with increasing radiation dose, suggesting that irradiation increased respiration rates of lettuce. Tissue browning of irradiated cut lettuce was less severe than that of non-irradiated, probably due to the lower O2 levels in the packages. However, samples irradiated at 3 and 4 kGy had lower maximum force and more severe sogginess than the non-irradiated control. In addition, ascorbic acid content of irradiated lettuce was 22-40% lower than the non-irradiated samples after 14 days of storage. The visual appearance of spinach was not affected by irradiation even at a dose of 4 kGy. Consumer acceptance suggested that more people would dislike and would not buy spinach that was treated at 3 and 4 kGy as compared to the non-irradiated sample. Overall, irradiation at doses of 1 and 2 kGy may be employed to enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce and spinach while maintaining quality.

  9. Podridão de raízes causada por Pythium aphanidermatum, em cultivares de alface produzidas em sistema hidropônico / Root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum of lettuce cultivars produced in a hydroponic system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zayame Vegette, Pinto; Matheus Aparecido Pereira, Cipriano; José Abrahão Haddad, Galvão; Wagner, Bettiol; Flávia Rodrigues Alves, Patrício; Amaury da Silva dos, Santos.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A podridão de raízes, causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e outras espécies de Pythium, é a principal doença da alface cultivada em sistemas hidropônicos no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar quatro cultivares comerciais de alface em relação à sensibilidade a podridão de raízes, c [...] ausada por P. aphanidermatum. Os estudos foram realizados em placas de Petri contendo ágar-água com plântulas de alface das cultivares crespa (Vera e Verônica) e lisa (Regina e Elisa), infestadas ou não com o patógeno. Com as mesmas cultivares foram realizados quatro experimentos em sistemas hidropônicos (Nutrient Film Technique), sendo dois em estufa coberta com plástico e sombrite e dois em estufa coberta apenas com plástico. As plântulas, infectadas ou não com P. aphanidermatum, foram transplantadas para os sistemas infestados ou não. Foi avaliada a severidade da doença e o desenvolvimento das plantas. Todas as cultivares foram suscetíveis à podridão de raízes nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. A presença do sombrite não reduziu a podridão de raízes em cultivares de alface produzidas no sistema hidropônico. A cultivar Regina apresentou maior massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, na presença ou ausência do patógeno, sendo a mais indicada para o cultivo hidropônico na época mais quente do ano. Abstract in english Lettuce root rot caused by Pythium aphanidermatum and other Pythium species is the main disease in hydroponic systems in Brazil. The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of four commercial lettuce cultivars as to their sensitivity to root rot caused by P. aphanidermatum in hydroponic systems. [...] Experiments were conducted in Petri dishes containing water-agar medium and seedlings of the crisp head lettuce cultivars (Vera and Verônica) and leafy lettuce cultivars (Regina and Elisa), infested or not with the pathogen. With the same cultivars, four other experiments were carried out in hydroponic systems (Nutrient Film Technique), two in a shaded greenhouse and the other two in a conventional greenhouse. Seedlings infected or not with P. aphanidermatum were transplanted to hydroponic systems infested or not with the pathogen. The disease severity and the plant development were evaluated. All cultivars were susceptible to root rot in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The shading did not reduce root rot in the lettuce cultivars in hydroponic system. The cultivar Regina showed higher shoot and root dry mass in the presence or absence of the pathogen, constituting thus the most suitable cultivar for hydroponic systems during the hottest period of the year.

  10. Nitrogen fertilization on intercropping of lettuce and rocket / Adubação nitrogenada em consórcio de alface e rúcula

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aurélio P, Barros Júnior; Arthur B, Cecílio Filho; Bráulio Luciano A, Rezende; Diego RQ, Pôrto; Renato de M, Prado.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido na UNESP, Jaboticabal-SP, de setembro a dezembro de 2006, com objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adubação nitrogenada em consórcio de alface e rúcula. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados completos, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esq [...] uema fatorial 4 x 4 + 2. Os tratamentos resultaram da combinação de quatro doses de N para a alface (0, 65, 130 e 195 kg ha-1) e quatro doses de N para a rúcula (0, 65, 130 e 195 kg ha-1), mais dois tratamentos adicionais, correspondentes aos monocultivos de alface e rúcula. As cultivares utilizadas foram Verônica (alface) e Folha Larga (rúcula). O aumento da dose de N para ambas as culturas, em consórcio, proporcionou incrementos na massa fresca e produtividade de alface e da rúcula e maximizou o índice de eficiência de uso da área (1,84) na dose 127 kg ha-1 de N para a alface e 195 kg ha-1 de N para rúcula. Abstract in english The work was carried out at UNESP, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, from September to December 2006, to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on intercropping of lettuce and rocket. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design, with four replications, treatments be [...] ing arranged in a 4 x 4 + 2 factorial design. The treatments were the result of a combination of four N rates for lettuce (0, 65, 130 and 195 kg ha-1) and four N rates for rocket (0, 65, 130 and 195 kg ha-1), plus two additional treatments, which corresponded to lettuce and rocket under single cropping. Veronica (lettuce) and Folha Larga (rocket) were the cultivars used. An increase in the N rate for both cultures, under intercropping system, caused fresh matter gains and higher yields for lettuce and rocket, maximizing the land equivalent ratio (1.84) at 127 kg ha-1 of N for lettuce and 195 kg ha-1 of N for rocket.

  11. Modeling the contamination of lettuce with Escherichia coli 157:H7 from manure-amended soil and the effect of intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, E.; Semenov, A.V.; van Bruggen, A. H. C.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: A growing number of foodborne illnesses has been associated with the consumption of fresh produce. In this study, the probability of lettuce contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 from manure-amended soil and the effect of intervention strategies was determined. Methods and Results: Pathogen prevalence and densities were modelled probabilistically through the primary production chain of lettuce (manure, manure-amended soil and lettuce). The model estimated an average of 0·34 contam...

  12. Enhanced accumulation of vitamins, nutraceuticals and minerals in lettuces associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF): a question of interest for both vegetables and humans

    OpenAIRE

    Marouane Baslam; Nieves Goicoechea; Idoia Garmendia

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is extensively grown and is the most widely used food crop for the called “Fourth Range” of vegetables. Lettuce exhibits healthy properties mainly due to the presence of antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols) alongside significant fibre content and useful amounts of certain minerals. Lettuce can establish a mutualistic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The establishment of the symbiosis involves a continuous cellular a...

  13. Effect of electric pulse charged to culture soil on improvement of nutritional soil condition and growth of lettuce (Lactuca sative L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Young Yi; Ji Won Choi; Bo Young Jeon; Il Lae Jung; Doo Hyun Park

    2012-01-01

    This study is intended to measure variations of nutritional soil condition and mass spectrometric patterns to describe the specific effects of electric pulse charged to culture soil which induced an increase of lettuce growth. In a previous study, lettuce cultivated in an electrically pulsed culture soil (EPCS) grew more actively than those in a conventional culture soil (CCS). Lettuce growth increased about 20% more in EPCS than CCS during cultivated for 21 days in this study. Content of nut...

  14. Potencial de rizobactérias na promoção de crescimento e controle da podridãoradicular em alface hidropônica / Potential of rhizobacteria to promote root rot growth and control in hydroponically cultivated lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus Aparecido Pereira, Cipriano; Flávia Rodrigues Alves, Patrício; Sueli dos Santos, Freitas.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram avaliar se isolados de rizobactérias do grupo fluorescente do gênero Pseudomonas: 1) produzem metabólitos envolvidos na promoção do crescimento (AIA e HCN); 2) têm potencial para controle biológico de Pythium aphanidermatum; 3) podem promover o crescimento de plantas d [...] e alface cultivadas em sistema hidropônico; 4) e verificar se há correspondência nas interações in vitro e in vivo desses microrganismos. Com esses objetivos, placas de Petri contendo meio de cultura ágar-água, com ou sem Pythium aphanidermatum, receberam sementes prégerminadas de alface tratadas com os isolados de rizobactérias. Os comprimentos do hipocótilo e da radícula foram medidos cinco ou sete dias após a incubação a 28 ºC. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação com plantas de alface hidropônica e 17 isolados bacterianos. As unidades experimentais receberam a suspensão dos isolados de Pseudomonas spp. e, uma semana depois, a suspensão de zoósporos de P. aphanidermatum. Avaliaram-se o escurecimento das raízes e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes das plantas. Os isolados produzem metabólitos que beneficiam o crescimento de alface mesmo na presença do patógeno. Os isolados LP15, LP25, LP28, LP44 e LP47 reduziram os danos causados por P. aphanidermatum nos experimentos realizados in vitro e in vivo. Este é o primeiro estudo que demonstrou que rizobactérias obtidas de solos brasileiros têm potencial para promover o controle biológico de P. aphanidermatum e o crescimento de plantas de alface em sistemas hidropônicos. Abstract in english The aims of this study were to evaluate whether rhizobacteria with hydroponic lettuce plants and 17 bacterial isolates. The experimental isolates of the fluorescent group of the genus Pseudomonas: 1) units received Pseudomonas spp. isolate suspension and, one week later, produce metabolites involved [...] in growth promotion (AIA and HCN); P. aphanidermatum zoospore suspension. The plants were evaluated for 2) have the potential for the biological control of Pythium root darkening and shoot and root dry matter mass. The isolates produce aphanidermatum; 3) promote the growth of lettuce cultivated in metabolites which benefit the growth of lettuce even in the presence of hydroponic system; 4) show correspondence in the in vitro and in vivo the pathogen. The isolates LP15, LP25, LP28, LP44 and LP47 reduced interactions. Thus, Petri dishes containing agar-water culture medium, the damage caused by P. aphanidermatum in experiments in vitro and in with or without Pythium aphanidermatum, received pre-germinated vivo. This is the first study which demonstrated that rhizobacteria seeds of lettuce treated with the rhizobacteria isolates. The lengths of obtained from Brazilian soils have the potential to promote the the hypocotyl and radicle were measured at five or seven days after biological control of P. aphanidermatum and the growth of lettuce incubation at 28 ºC. Two experiments were carried out in a greenhouse plants in hydroponic systems.

  15. An improved method for transformation of lettuce by Agrobacterium tumefaciens with a gene that confers freezing resistance

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos, Pileggi; Albanin Aparecida Mielniczki, Pereira; Joandrei dos Santos, Silva; Sônia Alvim Veiga, Pileggi; Desh Pal S., Verma.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Um método eficiente de obtenção de cultivares de alface por meio de transformação com Agrobacterium tumefaciens foi descrito por Torres et al., 1993. Neste trabalho foi desenvolvido um procedimento melhorado a partir do trabalho descrito acima foi aplicado para transformação da cultivar de alface Gr [...] and Rapids com o gene mutado P5CS. As principais modificações nos protocolos de transformação e regeneração, com o objetivo de torná-los mais práticos. Também foi procurado o melhoramento das etapas de transformação no sentido de se aumentar a superfície de infecção, além do aumento no tempo de co-cultivo com Agrobacterium (em uma alta concentração celular). Maior pressão seletiva foi utilizada contra plantas não transformadas e bactérias. Neste trabalho também se trabalhou na produção de sementes das gerações T1 e T2, para que se pudesse fazer os ensaios fisiológicos e genéticos. Este gene codifica para delta¹-pirrolina-5-carboxilato sintetase, uma enzima bifuncional que catalisa dois passos na biossíntese de prolina em plantas (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996), só que neste caso se tornou insensível para inibição por retroalimentação por prolina. O potencial deste gene é conferir resistência ao estresse hídrico (seca, alta concentração salina, frio) devido ao aumento na concentração de prolina intracelular, que funciona como um osmoprotetor. Neste trabalho foram obtidas e analisadas linhagens de alface transgênicas resistentes ao congelamento. Abstract in english An efficient method for constructing transgenic lettuce cultivars by Agrobacterium tumefaciens was described by Torres et al., 1993. In the present work, an improvement of the above procedure is described and applied to transform the cultivar Grand Rapids with a mutated P5CS gene. The major modifica [...] tions were concerned with turning more practical the transformation and regeneration protocols. Also we tried to improve transformation steps by increasing injured area in explants and prolonging co-cultivation with Agrobacteria (in larger concentration). A more significant selective pressure was used against non-transformed plants and bacteria. In these work we were concerned to obtain T1 and T2 seeds. The P5CS gene codes for a delta¹-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase, a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes two steps of proline biosynthesis in plants (Zhang et al., 1995; Peng et al., 1996), while the mutated gene is insensitive to feedback inhibition by proline. The potential benefit of this gene is to confer water stress resistance (drought, salt, cold) due to increased intracellular levels of proline that works like an osmoprotectant. In this work could obtain and characterize transgenic lettuce lineages which are resistant to freezing temperature.

  16. Erigeron bonariensis: hospedeira alternativa do Lettuce mosaic virus no Brasil / Erigeron bonariensis: an alternative host of Lettuce mosaic virus in Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre L. R., Chaves; Marina R., Braun; Marcelo, Eiras; Addolorata, Colariccio; Silvia R., Galleti.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Erigeron (Asteraceae), de plantas da vegetação espontânea, encontra-se amplamente disseminado nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, sendo freqüentemente encontrado em lavouras perenes e anuais. Plantas de E. bonariensis com sintoma de mosaico, típico do induzido por vírus, foram coletadas no [...] município de São Paulo e submetidas a análises ao microscópio eletrônico de transmissão, testes biológicos, sorológicos e moleculares. Em cortes ultrafinos do tecido foliar original, observaram-se inclusões tubulares e cata-ventos dispersos no citoplasma. Através de inoculação mecânica, somente Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana e N. clevelandii foram infetadas. Os resultados obtidos em ELISA foram negativos quando se utilizaram antissoros contra o Turnip mosaic vírus (TuMV) e diferentes estirpes do Potato virus Y (PVY), constatando-se relacionamento sorológico com o Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). Com a utilização de oligonucleotídeos específicos para LMV amplificaram-se fragmentos esperados de aproximadamente 280 pb, que seqüênciados confirmaram a identidade do vírus. A ocorrência do LMV em E. bonariensis, gênero da mesma família botânica da alface (Lactuca sativa), é de grande importância, pois talvez possa atuar como reservatório para infecção de campos de produção de alface. Este é o primeiro relato, no Brasil, de vírus infetando Erigeron sp., o qual só havia sido reportado como hospedeira natural do Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV) e do Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) nos Estados Unidos. Abstract in english The genus Erigeron, Asteraceae family, comprises weed plants spread over Southern and Southeastern Brazil, and, frequently, is found among annual and perennial crop plants. Erigeron bonariensis L.plants showing symptoms of mosaic, similar to those caused by plant viruses, were collected in São Paulo [...] State and submitted to electron microscopy, biological, serological and molecular analysis. Ultrathin sections of the original foliar tissues samples showed tubular and pinwheel inclusions dispersed in the cytoplasm of infected cells. Following transmission by mechanical inoculation, only Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. clevelandii were infected. The ELISA results were negative with antisera against Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Potato virus Y (PVY) and positive for Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) antiserum. With specific primers to LMV, 280 bp fragments were amplified and sequenced, confirming the virus identity as LMV. The occurrence of LMV in E. bonariensis, which belongs to the lettuce (Lactuca sativa) family, is significant since it may also act as LMV reservoir for lettuce field crops. This is the first report in Brazil of a virus infecting Erigeron sp. which has also been reported as a natural host of Bidens mottle virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in the United States.

  17. Manejo do cálcio em alface de cultivo hidropônico / Calcium management in hydroponic lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elisabete R. Y., Beninni; Hideaki Wilson, Takahashi; Carmen Silvia V.J., Neves.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available "Tipburn" ou "queima dos bordos" é um distúrbio fisiológico da alface ocasionado pelo suprimento inadequado de cálcio, principalmente nas folhas novas. Neste experimento foram avaliadas alternativas de manejo do fornecimento de cálcio, visando propiciar maior fluxo deste nutriente para as folhas int [...] ernas de alface, cv. Vera, e consequentemente, reduzir a incidência de "tipburn". Foram testados cinco tratamentos dispostos em blocos, com cinco repetições: Água; Solução com 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1; Aplicação foliar de cálcio (3 g.L-1) e Completa (solução nutritiva completa). Os três primeiros tratamentos foram aplicados à noite para promover o desenvolvimento da pressão radicular e translocação do cálcio para as folhas internas; durante o dia circulava solução nutritiva completa em todos os tratamentos. Constatou-se que as plantas com maior desenvolvimento foram as mais suscetíveis ao aparecimento de "tipburn". O tratamento Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1 apresentou plantas com teor de cálcio superior aos demais tratamentos, porém a baixa incidência de "tipburn" durante o experimento dificultou a avaliação da eficiência dos tratamentos no seu controle. Mesmo os tratamentos que não receberam todos os nutrientes essenciais durante à noite não apresentaram deficiência nutricional e produziram plantas de peso adequado aos padrões de comercialização. Abstract in english Tipburn is a physiological disorder in lettuce caused an by inadequate supply of calcium, mainly in young leaves. In this trial different management systems were evaluated in order to provide calcium and to increase the stream of calcium and reduce tipburn. Five treatments were studied in block desi [...] gn with five replications: Water; Solution with 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1; Spray calcium (3 g.L-1) and Complete (complete nutrient solution). The three first treatments were applied at night to promote the root pressure and translocation of calcium to young leaves; during the day all treatments received a complete nutrient solution. More developed plants were more susceptible to tipburn. Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1 treatment increased the concentration of calcium in young leaves, but the low incidence of tipburn during the trial made the assessment of the treatments efficiency difficult. Even the treatments without all the essential nutrients during the night, didn't show nutritional deficiency and produced plants with suitable weight according to commercial standards.

  18. Manejo do cálcio em alface de cultivo hidropônico Calcium management in hydroponic lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete R. Y. Beninni

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available "Tipburn" ou "queima dos bordos" é um distúrbio fisiológico da alface ocasionado pelo suprimento inadequado de cálcio, principalmente nas folhas novas. Neste experimento foram avaliadas alternativas de manejo do fornecimento de cálcio, visando propiciar maior fluxo deste nutriente para as folhas internas de alface, cv. Vera, e consequentemente, reduzir a incidência de "tipburn". Foram testados cinco tratamentos dispostos em blocos, com cinco repetições: Água; Solução com 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1; Aplicação foliar de cálcio (3 g.L-1 e Completa (solução nutritiva completa. Os três primeiros tratamentos foram aplicados à noite para promover o desenvolvimento da pressão radicular e translocação do cálcio para as folhas internas; durante o dia circulava solução nutritiva completa em todos os tratamentos. Constatou-se que as plantas com maior desenvolvimento foram as mais suscetíveis ao aparecimento de "tipburn". O tratamento Solução com 200 mg Ca.L-1 apresentou plantas com teor de cálcio superior aos demais tratamentos, porém a baixa incidência de "tipburn" durante o experimento dificultou a avaliação da eficiência dos tratamentos no seu controle. Mesmo os tratamentos que não receberam todos os nutrientes essenciais durante à noite não apresentaram deficiência nutricional e produziram plantas de peso adequado aos padrões de comercialização.Tipburn is a physiological disorder in lettuce caused an by inadequate supply of calcium, mainly in young leaves. In this trial different management systems were evaluated in order to provide calcium and to increase the stream of calcium and reduce tipburn. Five treatments were studied in block design with five replications: Water; Solution with 100 mg Ca.L-1; Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1; Spray calcium (3 g.L-1 and Complete (complete nutrient solution. The three first treatments were applied at night to promote the root pressure and translocation of calcium to young leaves; during the day all treatments received a complete nutrient solution. More developed plants were more susceptible to tipburn. Solution with 200 mg Ca.L-1 treatment increased the concentration of calcium in young leaves, but the low incidence of tipburn during the trial made the assessment of the treatments efficiency difficult. Even the treatments without all the essential nutrients during the night, didn't show nutritional deficiency and produced plants with suitable weight according to commercial standards.

  19. Hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and evaluation of treatments for the elimination of indigenous E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 from the surface of leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ytana oliveira Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of vegetables and irrigation water and assess the effectiveness of lemon juice and vinegar in reducing E. coli strains inoculated on lettuce. One hundred and forty samples of vegetables and 45 samples of irrigation water were investigated for thermotolerant coliforms and Salmonella spp. In order to verify the effectiveness of natural household sanitizers in reducing E. coli in inoculated lettuce, four treatment solutions were tested: fresh lemon juice, alcohol vinegar, lemon juice-vinegar mixture, and lemon juice-vinegar-water mixture. The microbiological analysis revealed high rates of contamination by thermotolerant coliforms and identified the presence of E. coli in 32% of the tested vegetable samples and 56% of the water samples. While no significant statistical difference (p < 0, 05 was identified in the tested solutions, the treatment with a combination of lemon juice and vinegar resulted in the highest Decimal Reductions (DR of E. coli O157: H7 while the treatment with vinegar alone was the most effective against the indigenous E. coli strain

  20. Agroinoculation of the Crinivirus, Lettuce infectious yellows virus, for systemic plant infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinbo; Turina, Massimo; Stewart, Lucy R; Lindbo, John A; Falk, Bryce W

    2009-09-15

    Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) is phloem-limited, non-mechanically transmissible, and is transmitted to plants only by Bemisia tabaci. Here, we developed agroinoculation to deliver LIYV to plants thereby obviating the need for B. tabaci. Agroinfiltration of RNA 1 containing a green fluorescent protein gene into Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in subliminal infections, as judged by green fluorescence. Agroinfiltration of LIYV wild-type RNA 1 and 2 constructs resulted in systemic infections in N. benthamiana plants and typical LIYV symptoms. In addition, partially purified LIYV virions from agroinoculated N. benthamiana plants were successfully acquired via membrane-feeding and transmitted to lettuce plants by B. tabaci. Agroinoculation coupled with targeted mutagenesis technologies will greatly enhance LIYV reverse genetics studies to characterize LIYV gene functions in planta for processes such as virus replication, recombination, trafficking, symptom elicitation and virus-vector interactions. PMID:19632699

  1. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds of lettuce improved by espresso coffee residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rebeca; Gomes, Teresa; Ferreira, Anabela; Mendes, Eulália; Baptista, Paula; Cunha, Sara; Pereira, José Alberto; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Casal, Susana

    2014-02-15

    The antioxidant activity and individual bioactive compounds of lettuce, cultivated with 2.5-30% (v/v) of fresh or composted espresso spent coffee grounds, were assessed. A progressive enhancement of lettuce's antioxidant capacity, evaluated by radical scavenging effect and reducing power, was exhibited with the increment of fresh spent coffee amounts, while this pattern was not so clear with composted treatments. Total reducing capacity also improved, particularly for low spent coffee concentrations. Additionally, very significant positive correlations were observed for all carotenoids in plants from fresh spent coffee treatments, particularly for violaxanthin, evaluated by HPLC. Furthermore, chlorophyll a was a good discriminating factor between control group and all spent coffee treated samples, while vitamin E was not significantly affected. Espresso spent coffee grounds are a recognised and valuable source of bioactive compounds, proving herein, for the first time, to potentiate the antioxidant pool and quality of the vegetables produced. PMID:24128454

  2. The effect of different physical agents in the behaviour of bss-13 Lettuce variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two physical agents in their physiological answer the BSS-13 lettuce variety. Rays gamma Co 60 and rays laser (He-Ne) were the physiological agents utilised. A group of seed were irradiated with gamma in a dose of 10 and 100Grey, and the other group with a time of exposure of 15 sec and 15 min., and power density of 0,4mW/cm2, the rest was no irradiated and was considered like witness. The seed were planted in the protected cultural where remained until of transplantation in field conditions. In the harvest was measured the height, diameter and weight of lettuce. The results show that both agents were presented with an outstanding stimulating with laser with a good efficiency respect to control

  3. Lettuce genotype resistance to "soft rot" caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kátia Cilene da Silva, Felix; Willams José de, Oliveira; Rosa de Lima Ramos, Mariano; Elineide Barbosa de, Souza.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soft rot, caused by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), is the main bacterial disease affecting lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crops in Brazil and leads to significant yield losses. This study aimed to assess the reaction of lettuce genotypes to soft rot induced by a virulent isolate a [...] nd the stability of the resistance to three isolates varying in virulence. Using a descriptive ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 9 a classification system was defined: class 1 = resistant (R): severity (Sev) 3.5). Of the 41 tested genotypes, 14 were classified as MR and 27 as S when inoculated with a Pcc isolate of intermediate virulence. Eleven of these genotypes (four S and seven MR) were selected to test their resistance stability against three other isolates with an increasing degree of virulence (Pcc36

  4. Desempenho de sementes nuas e peletizadas de alface (Lactuca sativa L.) submetidas a estresses hídrico e térmico / Performance of bare and pelleted lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds exposed to hydric and thermal stresses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla Medianeira, Bertagnolli; Nilson Lemos de, Menezes; Lindolfo, Storck; Osmar Souza dos, Santos; Leandro Lourenço, Pasqualli.

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A alface é a hortaliça folhosa de maior importância na alimentação dos brasileiros. Seu plantio é feito por meio de sementes, cujo tamanho reduzido dificulta o seu manuseio. Além disto, essas sementes apresentam dificuldades na germinação quando submetidas a condições desfavoráveis de umidade e temp [...] eratura. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o desempenho fisiológico de sementes nuas e peletizadas de alface da cv. Karla sob diferentes potenciais hídricos e temperaturas. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar sobre papel filtro umedecido com solução de polietileno glicol (PEG 6000), nos níveis de zero, -0,3; -0,6; e -0,9MPa, associados às temperaturas de 20, 25, 30 e 35ºC. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada por meio do teste de germinação, primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. Concluiu-se que para potenciais hídricos menores ou iguais a -0,3MPa e nas temperaturas iguais ou superiores a 25ºC ocorreu redução na velocidade e porcentagem de germinação de sementes de alface da cv. Karla. O potencial hídrico de -0,9MPa e/ou a temperatura de 35ºC impediram a germinação das sementes nuas e peletizadas. As sementes nuas tiveram maior redução na qualidade fisiológica do que as sementes peletizadas, quando submetidas a condições de estresses hídrico e térmico. Abstract in english Lettuce is the most important leafy vegetable in Brazil. Its planting is made by seeds, which are small, making their handling difficult. Moreover lettuce seeds present low germination when submitted to unfavorable moisture and temperature conditions. The objective of this work was to study the phys [...] iological performance of bare and pelleted lettuce seeds, cv. Karla, under different hydric and temperature potentials. Both kinds of seeds were placed to germinate on filter paper wetted with solutions of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), with the following levels of water potential: zero, -0.3, -0.6 and -0.9MPa. Seeds from each water potential treatment were placed to germinate under four temperatures: 20, 25, 30 and 35°C. The physiological quality of the seeds was evaluated by germination test, first counting and speed of germination index. It was concluded that water potentials lower than or equal to -0.3MPa, and temperatures equal to or greater than 25°C caused a reduction in the speed and percentage of germination of lettuce seeds. The water potential of -0.9MPa and/or the temperature of 35°C inhibited seed germination of bare and pelleted seeds. Bare seeds had larger reduction in physiological quality than pelleted seeds when exposed to hydric and thermal stress.

  5. Foliar fertilizations with boron and growth regulators on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cv floresta culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was realized to verify the possibility of applying Boron as foliar fertilization with growth regulators: indol acetic acid, giberellic acid, ethephon and cycocel. The other objective was to compare the foliar and soil fertilization, with Boron, on the lettuce culture. The results showed that there wasn't difference of production between the treatments. Meanwhile the application of growth regulator modified the Boron grade in the leaves. (author)

  6. Contamination of lettuce with antibiotic resistant E. coli after slurry application

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Forslund, A; Dalsgaard, A

    2011-01-01

    Due to disease outbreaks associated with contaminated vegetables it has been speculated to what extent this may be linked with application of animal manure as fertilizer, which is particularly practiced in organic vegetable production where conventional fertilizers are prohibited. A field survey was therefore performed to assess the survival and transfer of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animal manure to lettuces, with E. coli serving as an indicator of bacterial enteric pathogens. Anim...

  7. Identification of QTLs conferring resistance to downy mildew in legacy cultivars of lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Simko; Amy J. Atallah; Ochoa, Oswaldo E.; Rudie Antonise; Galeano, Carlos H; Maria Jose Truco; Michelmore, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Many cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), the most popular leafy vegetable, are susceptible to downy mildew disease caused by Bremia lactucae. Cultivars Iceberg and Grand Rapids that were released in the 18th and 19th centuries, respectively, have high levels of quantitative resistance to downy mildew. We developed a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) originating from a cross between these two legacy cultivars, constructed a linkage map, and identified two QTLs for resistance ...

  8. Insights into the economic viability of a new CEA system producing hydroponic lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Ilaslan, Gunes; White, Gerald B.; Langhans, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    A new CEA (Controlled Environment Agriculture) system growing Boston lettuce, Lactuca Sativa cv. ?Vivaldi?, achieves the same quality and quantity of production every day of the year. The year-round constant quantity and quality production indicate potential for success. However, our research showed that out of nine selected U.S. locations with different climatic and economic conditions, the Northeast had 25.7 percent higher production costs for the same yield. The analysis indicated that giv...

  9. Biopreservative methods to control the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M; Abadias, M; Colás-Medà, P; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2015-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, and it has been demonstrated that current industrial sanitizing treatments do not eliminate the pathogens when present. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using the native microbiota present on fresh produce. The first objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota from whole and fresh-cut produce and to determine whether these bacteria were antagonistic toward foodborne pathogens. A total of 112 putative antagonist isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enterica on lettuce disks. Five different genera reduced S. enterica growth more than 1-log unit at 20°C at the end of 3days. When tested against L. monocytogenes 230/3, only Pseudomonas sp. strain M309 (M309) was able to reduce pathogen counts by more than 1-log unit. Therefore, M309 strain was selected to be tested on lettuce disks at 10°C against S. enterica, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. M309 strain was only able to reduce S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 populations. The second objective was to test different biopreservative methods including M309 strain, Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 (CPA-7), bacteriophages (Listex P100 and Salmonelex) and nisin at conditions simulating commercial applications against Salmonella and L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut lettuce. The addition of the biopreservative agents did not result in a significant reduction of Salmonella population. However, CPA-7 strain together with nisin reduced L. monocytogenes numbers after 6days of storage at 10°C. The cocktail of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was not markedly inactivated by their respective bacteriophage solutions. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, but the combination with other technologies may be required to improve their application on fresh-cut lettuce. PMID:26210531

  10. Produção de sementes de alface em cultivo hidropônico Lettuce seeds production in hydroponic system

    OpenAIRE

    Nilson Lemos de Menezes; Osmar Souza dos Santos; Denise Schmidt

    2001-01-01

    Sementes de alface das cultivares Deyse e Regina foram produzidas em estufa, no sistema hidropônico, com elevados rendimentos por planta e boa qualidade de sementes, quando comparados a resultados de sistema convencional, de canteiros em campo. Esses dados sugerem estudos de produção de sementes de alface em cultivo protegido.Lettuce seeds of Deyse and Regina cultivars were produced in greenhouse, in hydroponic system, with excelents rendiments per plant and seed quality, when compared to con...

  11. The effects of nutrient solution sterilization on the growth and yield of hydroponically grown lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.; Dudzinski, D.; Minners, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Two methods of removing bacteria from hydroponic nutrient solution [ultraviolet (UV) radiation and submicronic filter] were evaluated for efficiency and for their effects on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. Both methods were effective in removing bacteria; but, at high intensity, the ultraviolet sterilizer significantly inhibited the production of plants grown in the treated solution. Bacterial removal by lower intensity UV or a submicronic filter seemed to promote plant growth slightly, but showed no consistent, statistically significant effect.

  12. Carotenoids of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Grown on Soil Enriched with Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Susana Casal; Sara Cunha; José Alberto Pereira; Rebeca Cruz; Paula Baptista

    2012-01-01

    The impact of spent coffee grounds on carotenoid and chlorophyll content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) was evaluated. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted with spent coffee amounts ranging from 0% to 20% (v/v). All evaluated pigments increased proportionally to spent coffee amounts. Lutein and ?-carotene levels increased up to 90% and 72%, respectively, while chlorophylls increased up to 61%. Biomass was also improved in the presence of 2.5% to 10% spent coffee, decreasing...

  13. Preventing thermoinhibition in a thermosensitive lettuce genotype by seed imbibition at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Warley Marcos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seed germination is strongly temperature dependent and under high temperatures, germination of most of genotypes can be erratic or completely inhibited. Lettuce seeds of 'Dark Green Boston' (DGB were incubated at temperatures ranging from 15degrees to 35degreesC at light and dark conditions. Other seeds were imbibed in dark at 20degrees; 25degrees; 30degrees; and 35degreesC for 8 and 16 hours and then transferred to 20 or 35degreesC, in dark. Seeds were also incubated at constant temperature of 20degrees and 35 degreesC, in the dark, as control. In another treatment, seeds were primed for 3 days at 15degreesC with constant light. DGB lettuce seeds required light to germinate adequately at temperatures above 25degreesC. Seeds incubated at 20degreesC had 97% germination, whereas seeds incubated at 35degreesC did not germinate. Seeds imbibed at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours had germination. At 35degreesC, seeds imbibed initially at 20degreesC for 8 and 16 hours, had 89 and 97% germination, respectively. Seeds imbibed at 25degreesC for 16 hours, germinated satisfactory at 35degreesC. High temperatures of imbibition led to no germination. Primed and non-primed seeds had 100% germination at 20degreesC. Primed seeds had 100% germination at 35degreesC, whereas non-primed seeds germinate only 4%. The first hours of imbibition are very critical for lettuce seed germination at high temperatures.

  14. Leaf microbiota in an agroecosystem: spatiotemporal variation in bacterial community composition on field-grown lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi, Gurdeep; Sbodio, Adrian; Tech, Jan J; Suslow, Trevor V; Coaker, Gitta L; Leveau, Johan H J

    2012-01-01

    The presence, size and importance of bacterial communities on plant leaf surfaces are widely appreciated. However, information is scarce regarding their composition and how it changes along geographical and seasonal scales. We collected 106 samples of field-grown Romaine lettuce from commercial production regions in California and Arizona during the 2009–2010 crop cycle. Total bacterial populations averaged between 105 and 106 per gram of tissue, whereas counts of culturable bacteria were on ...

  15. Impact of Ultraviolet-Blocking Plastic Films on Insect Vectors of Virus Diseases Infesting Crisp Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz, B. M.; Biurrun, R.; Moreno, Aránzazu; Nebreda, M.; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing plastic films are being used as a photoselective barrier to control insect vectors and associated virus diseases in different horticultural crops. A 2-year experiment was carried out in northeastern Spain (Navarra) to evaluate the impact of a UV-blocking film (AD-IR AV) on the population density of insect pests and the spread of insect-transmitted virus diseases associated with head lettuce [Lactuca sativa (L.)]. Results showed that the UV-absorbing plastic film did...

  16. Changes in Some Physio-Biochemical Characteristics in Lettuce During Storage at Low Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Dulal Chandra; Toshiyuki Matsui; Haruo Suzuki; Yusuke Kosugi

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effects of low temperature on the physiological and biochemical processes, we held two crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) cultivars ‘Shizuka` and ‘Cisco` at 5°C for 10 days. Minimum weight loss and lower respiration rate along with a higher hue angle value were recorded from both cultivars. However, cultivar ‘Cisco` showed higher relative weight loss, respiration rate and accumulation of ammonia compared to that of ‘Shizuka`. Except in the leaf portion of ‘Shizuka`, glut...

  17. Effete of Gamma Radiation and N.P.K on Lettuce yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiment were carried out during 2005/2006 winter growing seasons at the experiment at farm of Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt – The experiments were conducted to study the effect of irradiated sowing seeds with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gray (Gy) of gamma radiation and / or the effect of different levels of NPK fertilizer 0, (NPK)1, (NPK)2, (NPK)3, (NPK)4 and (NPK)5 on the morphological and chemical parameters of the lettuce yield. The fresh weight of the plant in the line, length of the plant in the line, the number of leaves in the line, the number of plants in the line and the fresh weight in Fadden per ton were studied. There were significant effects of NPK contents on the lettuce leaves at (NPK) 4 in the dose level 6 Gy and on Calcium and Vitamins. We found that the most effective doses on leaf lettuce is 6 Gy dose of gamma radiation which gives strong and early seedlings in maturity upwards in the production of seedlings dose of 4 Gy. While the dose 8 Gray did not occur any increase at dose level 6 Gy. The Level (NPK) 4 increase the production of fresh per acre more upwards for all levels with 6 Gray and fourth level was the best in the natural qualities and characteristics of chemical terms of delay growth harvest lettuce, as well as influence on the plant content of calcium, nitrogen, protein and all the natural qualities among the first season and the second season.

  18. Screening of the Growth-Inhibitory Effects of 168 Plant Species against Lettuce Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Takemura; Emi Sakuno; Tsunashi Kamo; Syuntaro Hiradate; Yoshiharu Fujii

    2013-01-01

    The methanol extracts of 168 plant species from 68 families were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against lettuce seedling elongation. Among the plant species tested, 12 species had EC50 values for radicle growth inhibition ranging from 0.01 to 5.00 mg fresh weight equivalent mL-1. Enterolobium contortisiliquum, a traditionally used herbal medicine, exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity (estimated EC50: 0.28 fresh weight equivalent mL-1). Among the 12 species, Pachysandra termin...

  19. Contamination of lettuce with antibiotic resistant E. coli after slurry application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Storm, Christina; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Forslund, A.; Dalsgaard, A.

    2011-01-01

    Due to disease outbreaks associated with contaminated vegetables it has been speculated to what extent this may be linked with application of animal manure as fertilizer, which is particularly practiced in organic vegetable production where conventional fertilizers are prohibited. A field survey was therefore performed to assess the survival and transfer of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animal manure to lettuces, with E. coli serving as an indicator of bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slu...

  20. Effect of the soil type on the microbiome in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SusanneSchreiter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The complex and enormous diversity of microorganisms associated with plant roots is important for plant health and growth and is shaped by numerous factors. This study aimed to unravel the effects of the soil type on bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of field-grown lettuce. We used an experimental plot system with three different soil types that were stored at the same site for ten years under the same agricultural management to reveal differences directly linked to the soil type and not influenced by other factors such as climate or cropping history. Bulk soil and rhizosphere samples were collected three and seven weeks after planting. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and pyrosequencing revealed soil type-dependent differences in the bacterial community structure of the bulk soils and the corresponding rhizospheres. The rhizosphere effect differed depending on the soil type and the plant growth developmental stage. Despite the soil type-dependent differences in the bacterial community composition several genera such as Sphingomonas, Rhizobium, Pseudomonas and Variovorax were significantly increased in the rhizosphere of lettuce grown in all three different soils. The number of rhizosphere responders was highest three weeks after planting. Interestingly, in the soil with the highest numbers of responders the highest shoot dry weights were observed. Heatmap analysis revealed that many dominant operational taxonomic units were shared among rhizosphere samples of lettuce grown in diluvial sand, alluvial loam, and loess loam and that only a subset was increased in relative abundance in the rhizosphere compared to the corresponding bulk soil. The findings of the study provide insights into the effect of soil types on the rhizosphere microbiome of lettuce.

  1. Tomato chlorotic spot virus in hydroponically-grown lettuce in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colariccio Addolorata

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the regions of Campinas and Sumaré, São Paulo, Brazil, hidroponically grown crops of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Verônica, which showed virus-like symptoms were examined by electron microscope, biological, serological and molecular tests. Pleomorphic, enveloped particles (80-100 nm in diameter were always detected in these samples. Experimentally inoculated host plants, including lettuce, reacted with tospoviruses-induced symptoms. Some differences were observed in Gomphrena globosa, which reacted by showing local lesions and systemic mosaic. Two isolates of Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV were identified by DAS-ELISA and by RT-PCR. The sequencing and alignment of the RT-PCR coat protein amplified fragments have indicated a high degree of homology with the TCSV sequences stored in the GenBank. This is the first report of losses due to a virus from the genus Tospovirus in commercial hydroponic lettuce crops in Brazil. Further epidemiological studies are needed for better understanding the spread of the virus in hydroponic crops, since Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is reported to spread through the nutritive solution.

  2. Produção de alface com doses de lodo de esgoto Lettuce production using doses of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lopes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a produção de alface em solo tratado com doses de lodo de esgoto como fonte de matéria orgânica em experimento em casa de vegetação da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo. o delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e os tratamentos: solo sem adubação (testemunha e solo+lodo de esgoto em doses crescentes de 33,3; 66,6; 99,9 e 133,2 g dm-3 em base seca. As plantas foram cultivadas, individualmente, em vasos contendo 6 dm³ de substrato. O crescimento da parte aérea e o aumento de matéria fresca nas folhas das plantas foram estatisticamente superiores ao controle e a regressão indica a possibilidade da utilização de doses mais elevadas de lodo de esgoto.The lettuce production was evaluated in soil treated with sewage sludge as source of organic matter. The experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of the Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Espirito Santo State, Brazil, in a complete randomized design with five replications. Plants were grown in plastic pots with 6 dm³ of soil mixture using sewage sludge in increasing doses of 0; 33.3; 66.6; 99.9 and 133.2 g dm-3. The development of lettuce plants in soil treated with sewage sludge differed significantly from the control and the regression suggests the possibility of use of larger doses of sewage sludge in the lettuce production.

  3. [Bacteriological quality of traditional, organic and hydroponic cultured lettuce in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Claudio; Chaves, Carolina; Arias, María Laura

    2011-03-01

    The main objective of this work was to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuces commercialized in the Metropolitan Area of San José, Costa Rica, and cultured in different ways, in order to detect differences between the culturing methods and the risk that these products may represent for Public Health. The study was done at the Food Microbiology Laboratory, Universidad de Costa Rica, from March to July, 2010. 30 lettuce samples were analyzed (10 obtained by traditional culture, 10 by organic culture and 10 by hydropony). All samples were obtained from markets where their origin was certified. Total aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms count and Escherichia coli were determined to all samples, as well as the presence/abscense of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in 25 g. Results obtained show that there is no statistically significant difference (p lettuce sample. Four different Salmonella spp. strains were isolated from the samples as well as one Listeria monocytogenes strain. Data obtained show that the consumption of this product, raw or without an adequate hygiene and disinfection may represent a risk for health. Also, from the bacteriological point of view, there is no significant difference between the culturing methods evaluated, suggesting that the specific directions for each type of culture are not followed or that there is an inadequate handling of the products or post harvest contamination. PMID:22097292

  4. Detection of shigella in lettuce by the use of a rapid molecular assay with increased sensitivity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kenia Barrantes, Jiménez; Clyde B., McCoy; Rosario, Achí.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay to be used as an alternative to the conventional culture method in detecting Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) virulence genes ipaH and ial in lettuce was developed. Efficacy and rapidity of the molecular method were determined as c [...] ompared to the conventional culture. Lettuce samples were inoculated with different Shigella flexneri concentrations (from 10 CFU/ml to 10(7) CFU/ml). DNA was extracted directly from lettuce after inoculation (direct-PCR) and after an enrichment step (enrichment PCR). Multiplex PCR detection limit was 10(4) CFU/ml, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% accurate. An internal amplification control (IAC) of 100 bp was used in order to avoid false negative results. This method produced results in 1 to 2 days while the conventional culture method required 5 to 6 days. Also, the culture method detection limit was 10(6) CFU/ml, diagnostic sensitivity was 53% and diagnostic specificity was 100%. In this study a Multiplex PCR method for detection of virulence genes in Shigella and EIEC was shown to be effective in terms of diagnostic sensitivity, detection limit and amount of time as compared to Shigella conventional culture.

  5. Allelopathic activity of medicinal plant essential oils on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Alvarenga Santos Fraga de Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, essential oils have gained commercial interest in the agricultural area, mainly for their allelopathic, insecticidal, antifungal, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and, also for their natural compounds, which have generally displayed low toxicity, relatively low cost and rapid degradation in the environment. Medicinal plants have emerged as potential suppliers of essential oils because of their ethnopharmacological utility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of essential oils extracted from fresh leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, wild basil (Ocimum gratissimum L. and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. with regard to their major constituents (citral, eugenol and cineol, respectively in different application forms (direct contact and the effect of volatile constituents on the germination and vigor of lettuce seeds (cultivar Regina SF 3500. The effects of the oils and their major components were evaluated with regard to the variables: first germination count, total germination, GVI (germination velocity index, seedling dry weight and average lengths of shoots and lettuce roots. The essential oils from lemon grass and basil displayed allelopathic potentials on seed germination and vigor of lettuce achenes that can be assigned to their respective major constituents citral and eugenol. On the other hand, the allelopathic effect of the essential oil from basil was a consequence of the combined effect of all the components, regardless the application method.

  6. Bioprotection of Golden Delicious apples and Iceberg lettuce against foodborne bacterial pathogens by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, Rosalia; Bañeras, Lluís; Badosa, Esther; Montesinos, Emilio

    2008-03-31

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fresh vegetables and fruit and its ability to inhibit the growth of foodborne human pathogens (Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) was tested using the agar spot assay. Eighteen isolates showed a strong antagonistic capacity and were further characterised and identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and API 50CH. Most of them pertained to Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus plantarum, and a few corresponded to Weissella spp. and Lactococcus lactis. Growth and efficacy of control of foodborne pathogen test bacteria by selected strains were tested in wounded Golden Delicious apples and Iceberg lettuce leaf cuts. The strains grew on the substrates and did not cause negative effects on the general aspect of tissues of apple or lettuce. Treatment of apple wounds and lettuce cuts with the antagonistic strains reduced the cell count of S. typhimurium and E .coli by 1 to 2 log cfu/wound or g, whereas the growth of L. monocytogenes was completely inhibited. Results support the potential use of lactic acid bacteria as bioprotective agents against foodborne human pathogens in ready-to-eat fresh fruit and vegetable products. PMID:18191266

  7. Determination of pesticides in lettuce using solid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna I G; Queiroz, Maria E L R; Neves, Antônio A; de Sousa, Flaviane A; Zambolim, Laércio

    2015-08-15

    This work describes the optimization and validation of a method employing solid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (SLE/LTP) together with analysis by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC/ECD) for the determination of nine pesticides (chlorothalonil, methyl parathion, procymidone, endosulfan, iprodione, ?-cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) in lettuce. The method was found to be selective, accurate, and precise, with means recovery values in the range of 72.3-103.2%, coefficients of variation ? 12%, and detection limits in the range 0.4-37 ?g kg(-1). The matrix components significantly influence the chromatographic response of the analytes (above 10%). The optimized and validated method was applied to determine the residual concentrations of the fungicides iprodione and procymidone that had been applied to field crops of lettuce. The maximum residual concentrations of the pesticides in the lettuce samples were 13.6 ± 0.4 mg kg(-1) (iprodione) and 1.00 ± 0.01 mg kg(-1) (procymidone), on the day after application of the products. PMID:25794722

  8. Uptake of azoles by lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valcárcel, Ana I; Loureiro, Iñigo; Escorial, Concepción; Molero, Encarnación; Tadeo, José L

    2016-02-01

    An uptake and translocation study of azole compounds was performed in lamb's lettuce (Valerianella locusta L.) grown in nutrient solution fortified with different azoles. Three azoles, (clotrimazole, fluconazole and propiconazole), which have different physico-chemical properties and are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment, were the compounds selected. An analytical method, based on matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by LC-MS/MS determination, was developed to quantify these compounds in aqueous solution and in roots and leaves. The physicochemical properties of azoles are the main factors governing the uptake and plant accumulation. These azoles were detected in leaves indicating their transport within lamb's lettuce. Translocation from nutrient solution to the aerial part of lamb's lettuce was found to be highly dependent on the hydrophobicity of the azole. Clotrimazole accumulates in roots causing necrosis in roots and leaves, whereas fluconazole was the azole with the highest concentration in leaves without causing apparent phytotoxicity symptoms. The assessment of the levels of these azoles in leaves indicates that the risk for human health is negligible. PMID:26513529

  9. Efeitos na fotossíntese e área foliar de cultivares de alface inoculadas mecanicamente com patótipos do Lettuce mosaic virus e Lettuce mottle virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadão Adriana S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos realizados no estado de São Paulo indicaram a ocorrência isolada e em infecções mistas do Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV e do Lettuce mottle virus (LeMoV em plantas de alface (Lactuca sativa. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar os efeitos da infecção isolada e mista entre o LMV (patótipos II e IV e o LeMoV, em cultivares de alface suscetível (White Boston e tolerante (Elisa - gene mol¹ ao LMV patótipo II. As plantas foram inoculadas via extrato vegetal tamponado com isolados de LMV-II, LMV-IV e LeMoV separadamente e em diferentes combinações, com intervalo de 24 h ou simultaneamente com os dois vírus. As plantas infetadas foram analisadas utilizando-se hospedeiras diferenciais para o LMV e o LeMoV, e no caso do LMV pelo teste sorológico de PTA-ELISA. Nas avaliações de peso fresco e seco, área foliar e teor de clorofila, observou-se que a cultivar White Boston foi a mais afetada por ambos os vírus. As infecções mistas e isoladas na cultivar Elisa causaram efeitos semelhantes, provavelmente devido a presença do gene mo1¹ de tolerância ao LMV-II. O isolado LMV-IV foi considerado o mais agressivo nestas cultivares quando comparado ao LMV-II e o LeMoV.

  10. Association mapping and marker-assisted selection of the lettuce dieback resistance gene Tvr1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffler Brian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lettuce (Lactuca saliva L. is susceptible to dieback, a soilborne disease caused by two viruses from the family Tombusviridae. Susceptibility to dieback is widespread in romaine and leaf-type lettuce, while modern iceberg cultivars are resistant to this disease. Resistance in iceberg cultivars is conferred by Tvr1 - a single, dominant gene that provides durable resistance. This study describes fine mapping of the resistance gene, analysis of nucleotide polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in the Tvr1 region, and development of molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. Results A combination of classical linkage mapping and association mapping allowed us to pinpoint the location of the Tvr1 resistance gene on chromosomal linkage group 2. Nine molecular markers, based on expressed sequence tags (EST, were closely linked to Tvr1 in the mapping population, developed from crosses between resistant (Salinas and Salinas 88 and susceptible (Valmaine cultivars. Sequencing of these markers from a set of 68 cultivars revealed a relatively high level of nucleotide polymorphism (? = 6.7 × 10-3 and extensive linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.124 at 8 cM in this region. However, the extent of linkage disequilibrium was affected by population structure and the values were substantially larger when the analysis was performed only for romaine (r2 = 0.247 and crisphead (r2 = 0.345 accessions. The association mapping approach revealed that one of the nine markers (Cntg10192 in the Tvr1 region matched exactly with resistant and susceptible phenotypes when tested on a set of 200 L. sativa accessions from all horticultural types of lettuce. The marker-trait association was also confirmed on two accessions of Lactuca serriola - a wild relative of cultivated lettuce. The combination of three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at the Cntg10192 marker identified four haplotypes. Three of the haplotypes were associated with resistance and one of them was always associated with susceptibility to the disease. Conclusion We have successfully applied high-resolution DNA melting (HRM analysis to distinguish all four haplotypes of the Cntg10192 marker in a single analysis. Marker-assisted selection for dieback resistance with HRM is now an integral part of our breeding program that is focused on the development of improved lettuce cultivars.

  11. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira / Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando Cesar, Sala; Cyro Paulino da, Costa.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é considerada a principal hortaliça folhosa no Brasil. Nas ultimas décadas, houve muitas mudanças quanto aos tipos varietais predominantes no país bem como para a preferência do uso de semente peletizada. O domínio do cultivo da alface lisa foi até a década de 90 com as cultivares do tipo ' [...] manteiga' e 'Regina'. Posteriormente, houve uma mudança para o tipo crespa e que, atualmente, corresponde ao principal segmento cultivado no Brasil. A ausência de formação de cabeça aliada à presença de folhas flabeladas conferiram a esse tipo de alface uma melhor adaptação no cultivo de verão com altas temperaturas e índices de pluviosidade. A preferência brasileira pela alface crespa é um fato único na alfacicultura mundial. A alface americana vem apresentando maiores índices de crescimento e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de apresentar formação de cabeça e que tem limitado seu cultivo no verão, na ausência de cultivo protegido, suas folhas mais espessas têm conferido melhor sabor, crocância e durabilidade pós-colheita na alface americana. Alface com folha espessa é mandatória para o mercado de processamento que apresenta alta tendência de crescimento. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para contribuir, pelo menos em parte, com essa situação são discutidas com o surgimento de novos tipos varietais tropicalizados, com a tendência de segmentação de mercado e da necessidade de uma cadeia pós-colheita mais eficiente. Abstract in english Lettuce is considered the main leafy vegetable crop in Brazil. In recent decades, many changes occurred towards the varietal types as well as in the preference for pelleted seeds. Until mid 90 decade, the dominant varieties of looseleaf lettuce were the type 'White Boston' and 'Regina'. Later, there [...] was a change toward the Grand Rapids type which represents the main varietal segment grown in Brazil. The non-head Grand Rapids type with its earliness performed better adaptation for hot and high rainfall summer season. Brazilian preference for the Grand Rapids type is a unique event in the world market of lettuce. Crisp head lettuce had increased its preference, but there are many limitations to grow this type outdoors in our rainy hot summer. Thicker leaves of iceberg have a better flavor, crispness and long shelf live under refrigeration for its post-harvest management. Crispness is an important and mandatory quality for the fresh cut market which is a growing tendency. Considerations on breeding focus to get tropical-adapted varieties with crispness and resistance to specific Brazilian diseases which are limiting to lettuce are discussed.

  12. Retrospectiva e tendência da alfacicultura brasileira Retrospective and trends of Brazilian lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Sala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é considerada a principal hortaliça folhosa no Brasil. Nas ultimas décadas, houve muitas mudanças quanto aos tipos varietais predominantes no país bem como para a preferência do uso de semente peletizada. O domínio do cultivo da alface lisa foi até a década de 90 com as cultivares do tipo 'manteiga' e 'Regina'. Posteriormente, houve uma mudança para o tipo crespa e que, atualmente, corresponde ao principal segmento cultivado no Brasil. A ausência de formação de cabeça aliada à presença de folhas flabeladas conferiram a esse tipo de alface uma melhor adaptação no cultivo de verão com altas temperaturas e índices de pluviosidade. A preferência brasileira pela alface crespa é um fato único na alfacicultura mundial. A alface americana vem apresentando maiores índices de crescimento e aceitação pelo mercado consumidor. Apesar de apresentar formação de cabeça e que tem limitado seu cultivo no verão, na ausência de cultivo protegido, suas folhas mais espessas têm conferido melhor sabor, crocância e durabilidade pós-colheita na alface americana. Alface com folha espessa é mandatória para o mercado de processamento que apresenta alta tendência de crescimento. Considerações sobre o melhoramento genético para contribuir, pelo menos em parte, com essa situação são discutidas com o surgimento de novos tipos varietais tropicalizados, com a tendência de segmentação de mercado e da necessidade de uma cadeia pós-colheita mais eficiente.Lettuce is considered the main leafy vegetable crop in Brazil. In recent decades, many changes occurred towards the varietal types as well as in the preference for pelleted seeds. Until mid 90 decade, the dominant varieties of looseleaf lettuce were the type 'White Boston' and 'Regina'. Later, there was a change toward the Grand Rapids type which represents the main varietal segment grown in Brazil. The non-head Grand Rapids type with its earliness performed better adaptation for hot and high rainfall summer season. Brazilian preference for the Grand Rapids type is a unique event in the world market of lettuce. Crisp head lettuce had increased its preference, but there are many limitations to grow this type outdoors in our rainy hot summer. Thicker leaves of iceberg have a better flavor, crispness and long shelf live under refrigeration for its post-harvest management. Crispness is an important and mandatory quality for the fresh cut market which is a growing tendency. Considerations on breeding focus to get tropical-adapted varieties with crispness and resistance to specific Brazilian diseases which are limiting to lettuce are discussed.

  13. Vascular plants for water pollution control and renewable sources of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolverton, B.C.; McDonald, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Vascular aquatic plants have demonstrated their ability to remove pollutants from domestic and chemical wastewaters. Plants such as the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), duckweed (Lemna sp., Spirodela sp., and Wolffia sp.), and cattail (Typha sp.) thrive in nutrient-rich waters and produce tremendous quantities of biomass under favorable climatic conditions. This method of wastewater treatment is currently being used exclusively at NASA's National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL) with water hyacinths and duckweed to treat daily over 759 m/sup 3/ of domestic wastewater and 114 m/sup 3/ of chemical wastewater in four separate systems. The harvested plants from these systems have been used in various biomass utilization projects over the past five years. In laboratory batch studies of digesting vascular plants with anaerobic filters, NASA has found that 140 to 280 liters methane per kg dry weight can be obtained in an average of 23 days. Current NASA projects at NSTL seek to expand the technology required to design energy systems which produce methane through bioconversion with anaerobic filters and use the mineral residue as a nutrient source for producing new biomass.

  14. Fate and Phytotoxicity of CeO2 Nanoparticles on Lettuce Cultured in the Potting Soil Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Shutong; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huafen; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Cao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants. Previous study reported the specific-species phytotoxicity of CeO2 NPs by lettuce (Lactuca sativa), but their physiological impacts and vivo biotransformation are not yet well understood, especially in relative realistic environment. Butterhead lettuce were germinated and grown in potting soil for 30 days cultivation with treatments of 0, 50, 100, 1000 mg CeO2 NPs per kg soil. Results showed that lettuce in 100 mg·kg-1 treated groups grew significantly faster than others, but significantly increased nitrate content. The lower concentrations treatment had no impact on plant growth, compared with the control. However, the higher concentration treatment significantly deterred plant growth and biomass production. The stress response of lettuce plants, such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Malondialdehyde(MDA) activity was disrupted by 1000 mg·kg-1 CeO2 NPs treatment. In addition, the presence of Ce (III) in the roots of butterhead lettuce explained the reason of CeO2 NPs phytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate CeO2 NPs modification of nutritional quality, antioxidant defense system, the possible transfer into the food chain and biotransformation in vivo. PMID:26317617

  15. Fate and Phytotoxicity of CeO2 Nanoparticles on Lettuce Cultured in the Potting Soil Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Xin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Shutong; Ma, Yuhui; Zhang, Peng; He, Xiao; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Huafen; Rui, Yukui; Liu, Liming; Cao, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have been shown to have significant interactions in plants. Previous study reported the specific-species phytotoxicity of CeO2 NPs by lettuce (Lactuca sativa), but their physiological impacts and vivo biotransformation are not yet well understood, especially in relative realistic environment. Butterhead lettuce were germinated and grown in potting soil for 30 days cultivation with treatments of 0, 50, 100, 1000 mg CeO2 NPs per kg soil. Results showed that lettuce in 100 mg·kg-1 treated groups grew significantly faster than others, but significantly increased nitrate content. The lower concentrations treatment had no impact on plant growth, compared with the control. However, the higher concentration treatment significantly deterred plant growth and biomass production. The stress response of lettuce plants, such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Peroxidase (POD), Malondialdehyde(MDA) activity was disrupted by 1000 mg·kg-1 CeO2 NPs treatment. In addition, the presence of Ce (III) in the roots of butterhead lettuce explained the reason of CeO2 NPs phytotoxicity. These findings demonstrate CeO2 NPs modification of nutritional quality, antioxidant defense system, the possible transfer into the food chain and biotransformation in vivo. PMID:26317617

  16. The Effect of Precooling of Lettuces and Green Beans on the Ratio of Weight Loss and Net Weight after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esref Isik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of precooling and not precooling lettuce types Lital and Yedikule to +2 and +4°C and fresh bean types Aysekadin and Rodop to +8°C in a vacuum cooler on the weight loss and net weight of the products at the end of storage. No statistical difference in poststorage weight loss was found between vacuum precooling treatments in the lettuce trials; however, there was a significant (p<0.01 effect of vacuum precooling on poststorage weight loss in beans. Packaging of precooled products affected weight loss of lettuces and beans (p<0.01 and (p<0.05 significance, respectively. The weight loss in packaged products at the end of the vacuum cooling process was 1.82 and 0.74% in lettuces and beans, respectively, whereas in unpackaged products it was 5.05 and 2.41%. Plant types and packages affected the net weight of lettuces significance (p<0.01. Lital was the best product type with 42.34% net weight and packaging products was the best method with 44.95% net weight. No change in net weight was observed in the beans because there was no spoilage after storage.

  17. Potential of E.coli O157:H7 to grow on field-cored lettuce as impacted by postharvest storage time and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent development in iceberg lettuce production is field coring where the outer leaves and the cores of the lettuce heads are removed at the time of harvesting in order to reduce shipping waste and maximize production yield. Using a coring knife contaminated with 2 x 105 cells of E. coli O157:H7,...

  18. Effect of storage temperature and duration on the behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on packaged fresh-cut salad containing Romaine and Iceberg lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the impact of storage temperature and time on the survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on commercially packaged lettuce salads, and the changes in product quality. Fresh-cut Romaine and Iceberg lettuce salads of different commercial brands were obtained from both r...

  19. Shoot Injury Increases the Level of Persistence of Salmonella enterica Serovar Sofia and Listeria innocua on Cos Lettuce and of Salmonella enterica Serovar Sofia on Chive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harapas, Dean; Premier, Robert; Tomkins, Bruce; Hepworth, Graham; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-12-01

    Minor shoot injury significantly (P Listeria innocua on cos lettuce and S. enterica serovar Sofia on chive. The findings reaffirm earlier results with Escherichia coli and increase the impetus to avoid shoot injury during the production of cos lettuce and chive, if bacteria of food safety concern are present. PMID:26613909

  20. PERCHLORATE IDENTIFICATION IN FERTILIZERS AND ACCUMULATION IN LETTUCE SEEDLINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate has contaminated groundwater, drinking water and soils at several locations in the U.S. The primary source of contamination at sites that have been investigated to date seems to be from industrial and military operations that use Perchlorate as an oxidizing agent. How...

  1. Cultivo hidropônico de alface com água salobra subterrânea e rejeito da dessalinização em Ibimirim, PE / Hydroponic lettuce production with brackish groundwater and desalination waste in Ibimirim, PE, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre N., Santos; Tales M., Soares; Ênio F. F., Silva; David J. R., Silva; Abelardo A. A., Montenegro.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Município de Ibimirim, em Pernambuco, está localizado no Semiárido e muitos de seus poços fornecem águas salobras, cujo uso tem sido evitado, em virtude de ensejar doenças humanas (como hipertensão e cálculos renais) e a redução da produtividade agrícola (com depreciação do solo). Propôs-se, no tr [...] abalho, avaliar o aproveitamento da água salobra subterrânea e do rejeito da sua dessalinização no cultivo hidropônico de duas variedades de alface (Vera e AF-1743). Avaliaram-se seis níveis de salinidade da água (CEa: 0.2; 1.2; 2.2; 3.2; 4.2 e 5.2 dS m-1). As águas foram usadas em todo o processo produtivo (preparo da solução nutritiva e reposição do consumo hídrico). O aumento da salinidade levou à redução linear do crescimento das plantas de alface. As plantas apresentaram clorose generalizada no início do ciclo mas este sintoma não foi detectado na colheita. A variedade 'Vera' teve menor crescimento e rendimento absoluto que a 'AF-1743'. Por outro lado, para ambas as variedades a redução percentual em função da salinidade foi equivalente: o acúmulo de massa fresca da parte aérea foi reduzido à razão de 17,06 e 15,74% (dS m-1)-1 para 'Vera' e 'AF-1743', respectivamente. Abstract in english Ibimirim in Pernambuco is a municipal district located in the Brazilian semiarid region and most of its wells produce brackish water. The use of this water has been avoided since it may cause human diseases (such as hypertension and kidney stones) and crop yield reduction (with soil degradation). Th [...] e objective of this work was to evaluate the utilization of brackish groundwater and the waste from its desalination for hydroponic production of two lettuce varieties (Vera and AF-1743). Six levels of water salinity (CEa: 0.2, 1.2, 2.2, 3.2, 4.2 and 5.2 dS m-1) were analyzed. The waters were used in overall production process (to prepare the nutrient solution and to restore the water consumed). The salinity increase caused a linear reduction in the growth lettuce of plants. The plants exhibited general chlorosis at the beginning of the cycle, but this symptom was not verified at the harvest. The variety 'Vera' had a lower absolute growth and yield than the 'AF-1743'. On the other hand, the percent reduction for both varieties was similar - the shoot fresh matter accumulation was decreased by 17.06 and 15.74% (dS m-1)-1 for 'Vera' and 'AF-1743', respectively.

  2. Agronomic and economic viability of intercropping onion and lettuce / Viabilidade agroeconômica do cultivo consorciado de cebola e alface

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wagner F da, Mota; Rosimeire D, Pereira; Gizeli de S, Santos; Janiele Cássia B, Vieira.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivos avaliar o desempenho agroeconômico do consórcio de cebola e alface em quatro densidades populacionais de cada espécie. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4. Os tratamentos [...] resultaram da combinação de quatro populações (100, 80, 60 e 40% das populações recomendadas nos cultivos solteiros) tanto de alface, quanto de cebola. O consórcio não afetou o desempenho agronômico da cebola, tampouco o da alface, e a densidade populacional de 100% para ambas as hortaliças propiciou maior produtividade de cebola e de alface. Do ponto de vista econômico, os melhores resultados foram observados nos consórcios (a) cebola a 80% da densidade de plantas em consórcio com alface a 40 e 100% e (b) cebola a 100% com alface em qualquer densidade (40 a 100%). Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the agronomic and economic performance of intercropping onion and lettuce on four plant densities of each species. The experiment was set up in completely randomized blocks, with four replications and treatments arranged in a 4 x 4 factorial. Treatments resulted from a co [...] mbination of four (100, 80, 60, and 40% of recommended plant densities in monoculture) plant densities for both lettuce and onion. Intercropping did not affect the agronomic performance of onion or lettuce. Higher plant densities (100% for both vegetables) resulted in higher lettuce and onion yields. The best economic results were observed using (a) onion at 80% of plant density combined with lettuce at 40 and 100% and (b) onion at 100% and lettuce at all densities (40 to 100%).

  3. Proximate, Mineral and Biochemical Evaluation of the Haemolymph of Growing Snails Fed Fresh Lettuce Waste, Whole Lettuce, Pawpaw Leaves and Cabbage Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.O. Babalola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease states in experimental animals are usually accompanied by biochemical alterations. Thus a good working knowledge of reference values of some biochemical constituent of the haemolymph of snails (Archachatina marginata is needed as reference point for future researchers on snail. It is also necessary to determine whether these values could be influenced by diets. Thirty six experimental snails of mean weight of 125.64±2.35g were randomly distributed into 4 dietary treatments of Pawpaw Leaves (PL, Whole Lettuce (WL, Lettuce Wastes (LW and Cabbage Wastes (CW. Nine snails were used as control animals to determine the reference values. They were fed ad libitum for 60 days. Parameters determined were, proximate composition, mineral profile, total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin, alanine amino transferase (ALT and aspartate amino transferase. There was significant (p<0.05 reduction in crude protein of haemolymph from 24.14 to 21.20% for snails fed LW. The increase in ash from 0.79 to 0.84 in snails fed LW was significant. There were significant increases in all the minerals analyzed in all the treatment groups with Calcium recording the highest concentration of 170 mg/mL. There was also significant (p<0.05 decrease in albumin and albumin:globulin when snails were fed the experimental diets. Values obtained for the enzymes, ALT and AST between treatments were similar. The study established that the feedstuffs were safe for their consumption and could not lead to any tissue damage. Values of 165 unit/l for AST, 11 units/l for ALT, total protein, 7.1 g/dl, globulin, 3.9 g/dl, albumin, 3.2 g/dl, and albumin:globulin, 0.82 could serve as reference values.

  4. A system and methodology for measuring volatile organic compounds produced by hydroponic lettuce in a controlled environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, C. S.; Cantliffe, D. J.; Wheeler, R. M.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    A system and methodology were developed for the nondestructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of volatile emissions from hydroponically grown 'Waldmann's Green' leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), photoperiod, and temperature were automatically controlled and monitored in a growth chamber modified for the collection of plant volatiles. The lipoxygenase pathway products (Z)-3-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were emitted by lettuce plants after the transition from the light period to the dark period. The volatile collection system developed in this study enabled measurements of volatiles emitted by intact plants, from planting to harvest, under controlled environmental conditions.

  5. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus etunicatum) with Lettuce Plants under Zinc Toxicity in Nutrient Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Shadi Farshian; Jalil Khara; Parviz Malekzadeh

    2007-01-01

    The effects of zinc toxicity on growth, chlorophyll, total sugar and protein content and mineral content of lettuce plants infected or not by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) fungus Glomus etunicatum and treated with nutrient solution containing 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM ZnSO4 were studied. The introduction of Zn caused a decrease in the inhibiting effect of zinc on dry weight of roots and shoots of lettuce plant infected by Am in contrary with non-Am plants. This increase observed in dry weight ma...

  6. [Effects of LED spectrum combinations on the absorption of mineral elements of hydroponic lettuce].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Li; Guo, Wen-Zhong; Xue, Xu-Zhang; Mmanake Beauty, Morewane

    2014-05-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was hydroponically cultured in a completely enclosed plant factory, in which spectrum proportion-adjustable LED panels were used as sole light source for plant growth. Absorption and content of eleven mineral elements such as K, P, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B and Mo in Lactuca sativa under different spectral component conditions were studied by ICP -AES technology. The results showed that: (1) Single or combined spectrums corresponding to the absorbing peaks of chlorophyll a and b (450, 660 nm) could enhance the absorbing ability of roots especially for mineral elements Na, Fe, Mn, Cu and Mo, the single red spectrum had the most significant promoting effect under which contents of those four elements were respectively 7. 8, 4. 2, 4. 0 and 3. 7 times more than that under FL; (2) Absorption of K and B was the highest under FL which was 10. 309 mg g-1 and 32. 6 microg g-1 while the values decreased significantly under single or combined spectrum of red and blue; (3) Plants grown under single blue spectrum had the lowest absorption of Ca and Mg which respectively decreased by 35% and 33% than FL; (4) Lettuce grown under the spectrum combination of 30% blue and 70% red had the highest accumulations of biomass while those grown under 20% blue and 80% red had the highest accumulations of the following seven elements Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Mn, Zn and B. The results provided theoretical basis for adjusting nutrient solution formula and selecting light spectrum of hydroponic lettuce. PMID:25095445

  7. Comparison of biological and molecular characterization of Iranian lettuce mosaic virus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormaz, B; Winter, S; Koohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh; Izadpanah, K

    2006-01-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) is one of the most damaging viruses in lettuce and endive cultivating regions. In order to review the characteristics of different LMV isolates of Iran during 2004-2005 samples were collected from lettuce fields in Esfahan, Ghom, Khorasan, Khuzestan and Tehran provinces. All of the isolates were detected by LMV polyclonal antiserum (AS-0155, DSMZ Germany) in ELISA and TIPA tests. Biological purification was done for the LMV isolates and then they were maintained and propagated on Chenopodium quinoa. A range of plant species such as C. amaranticolor, C. album, Carthamus tinctorius, Gazania sp., Gomphrena globosa, Pisum sativum, Spinacia oleracea were inoculated with these isolates using potassium phosphate buffer (0/05M). Molecular weight of coat protein was determined by Polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Immunocapture reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) was performed using LMV polyclonal antiserum and specific primer pairs of LMV as described by Zerbini et al. (1995). The amplified fragments were included the whole CP and 3'UTR regions and the nucleotide sequences of them determined. All isolates induced chlorotic local lesions on C. amaranticolor and chlorotic local lesions with symptoms of systemic infection (vein clearing) on C. album. Tehran isolate in addition, caused local lesions on Gomphrena globosa with red border and white centre. This isolate infected Pisum sativum without any symptoms. Back inoculation on C. quinoa and DAS-ELISA confirmed the latent infection. None of these isolates infected Carthamus tinctorius, Gazania sp. and Spinacia oleracea. The molecular weight of coat protein was determined 30.33 kDa. Western-blot proved this band as the coat protein of the virus. IC-RT-PCR amplification of LMV isolates produced the expected size IC-RT-PCR product of 1300 bps. The comparison of nucleotide sequences showed that there were 98% identities. PMID:17390892

  8. Production and photosynthetic activity of Mimosa Verde and Mimosa Roxa lettuce in two farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mabel Rosa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the most commonly consumed leaf vegetable in the Brazilian diet, and it is a good source of vitamins and minerals. It is widely grown in the conventional farming system. However, the hydroponic farming system has been gaining importance in the market, wining confidence from consumers, who are becoming increasingly more demanding on food quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of two lettuce cultivars on hydroponic and conventional farming systems for the production of fresh mass (FM and dry mass (DM, photosynthesis, contents of chlorophyll and anthocyanin. The following two experiments were carried out: hydroponics farming (HF and conventional farming (CF, performed in protect and unprotect environments, respectively, in Florianópolis, SC. Mimosa Verde cultivar (MV showed greater fresh mass than Mimosa Roxa (MR, in both farming systems and the two cultivars presented better performance in the hydroponic system (287.7 g MV and 139.1 g MR than the conventional system (129.7 g MV and 111.8 g MR. Mimosa Verde cultivar presented lower average contents of total chlorophyll (7.7 mg g-¹ FM than Mimosa Roxa (11.8 mg g-¹FM, and both cultivars displayed higher means for this variable in the hydroponic farming system. Mimosa Roxa presented higher contents of anthocyanin in the conventional system (88.24 mg g-¹ FM than the ones in the hydroponic system (36.89 mg g-¹ FM. The best results for CO2 net assimilation rate regarded to photosyntheticaly active photon flux density were found in the hydroponic system, for both lettuce cultivars. Variation in the contents of chlorophyll were also found. Those variations were higher in the protected system than in the hydroponic system and contents of anthocyanin were higher in the conventional system.

  9. Allelopathic action essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenesAção alelopática de óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capimsanto na germinação de aquênios de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélida Mara Magalhães

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The alecrim-pimenta and the lemongrass produce secondary compounds that can be used in alternative management of weed. The objective of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of the essential oils of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass in germination of lettuce achenes. It was used mature leaves of both species, and extracted the essential oil by distillation method of drag by water vapor. The bioassay was performed using achenes of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer and arranged in factorial scheme 5 x 2, being five concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% and two species of medicinal plants. It was used four replicates of 50 achenes. The oil of lemongrass was more detrimental to the germination of lettuce achenes when compared with the oil of alecrim-pimenta, being this effect dependent of the concentration. Germination of lettuce achenes treated with lemongrass oil declined by 34%, 12% and 75% for concentrations of 0.25%, 0.75% and 1.0%, respectively when compared with alecrim-pimenta oil. The germination speed index, the length and dry weight of hypocotyl and radicle of lettuce seedlings was compromised by the contact of alecrim-pimenta and lemongrass oils. Although there were lettuce achenes germination treated with alecrim-pimenta oil, the percentage of abnormal seedlings was high, which compromises their survival in field.O alecrim-pimenta e o capim-santo produzem compostos secundários que podem ser utilizados no manejo alternativo de plantas daninhas. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho verificar o efeito alelopático dos óleos essenciais de alecrim-pimenta e capim-santo na geminação de aquênios de alface. Foram utilizadas folhas maduras de ambas as espécies, e extraído o óleo essencial pelo método de destilação de arraste por vapor de água. O bioensaio foi realizado utilizando aquênios de alface da cultivar crespa de verão e arranjado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 sendo cinco concentrações 0, 0,25, 0,5, 0,75 e 1,0 % e duas espécies de plantas medicinais. Foram utilizadas 4 repetições com 50 aquênios. O óleo de capim-santo foi mais prejudicial à germinação de aquênios de alface, sendo esse efeito dependente da concentração. Houve redução de 34%, 12% e 75% da germinação de aquênios de alface tratados com o óleo de capim-santo nas concentrações de 0.25%, 0.75% e 1.0% respectivamente comparando-se ao óleo de alecrim pimenta. O índice de velocidade de germinação, o comprimento e a massa seca do hipocótilo e da radícula das plântulas de alface, foram comprometido pelo contato dos óleos de alecrim-pimenta e capim-santo com os aquênios do bioindicador. Embora tenha ocorrido à germinação dos aquênios de alface tratados com óleo de alecrim-pimenta a porcentagem de plântulas anormais foi elevada, o que compromete sua sobrevivência em campo.

  10. Factors important for the shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deza Durand, Karla Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The minimally processed vegetable industry has been increasing rapidly due to change in lifestyle. Both women and men work outside home and have less time to cook and need more convenience and time saving products, which also present fresh and healthy characteristics. Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular fresh-cut vegetables. Although an increase in the number of mixed salads in retail food chains is evident, their short shelf-life due to rapid browning and off-odour is...

  11. Non-destructive monitoring of agricultural product (lettuce [Lactuca sativa]) based on laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control of agricultural products in process of cultivation and distribution has become an important problem. This paper describes a field measuring method of lettuce based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for growth monitoring. Intensity at 460nm of LIF spectra showed characteristic variations of near harvest time. The results of chemical analysis confirmed that sucrose and chlorogenic acid are origins of the 460nm fluorescence. The prediction of harvest time and the possibility of quality monitoring are discussed based on the experimental data

  12. Round-robin comparison of methods for the detection of human enteric viruses in lettuce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guyader, Francoise S.; Schultz, Anna Charlotte

    2004-01-01

    Five methods that detect human enteric virus contamination in lettuce were compared. To mimic multiple contaminations as observed after sewage contamination, artificial contamination was with human calicivirus and poliovirus and animal calicivirus strains at different concentrations. Nucleic acid extractions were done at the same time in the same laboratory to reduce assay-to-assay variability. Results showed that the two critical steps are the washing step and removal of inhibitors. The more reliable methods (sensitivity, simplicity, low cost) included an elution/concentration step and a commercial kit. Such development of sensitive methods for viral detection in foods other than shellfish is important to improve food safety.

  13. Factors important for the shelf-life of minimally processed lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Deza Durand, Karla Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The minimally processed vegetable industry has been increasing rapidly due to change in lifestyle. Both women and men work outside home and have less time to cook and need more convenience and time saving products, which also present fresh and healthy characteristics. Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most popular fresh-cut vegetables. Although an increase in the number of mixed salads in retail food chains is evident, their short shelf-life due to rapid browning and off-odour...

  14. Parásitos intestinales en lechugas comercializadas en mercados populares y supermercados de Ciudad Bolívar, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela / Intestinal parasites in lettuce commercially sold in popular markets and supermarkets from Ciudad Bolivar, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo, Devera; Ytalia, Blanco; Hecmil, González; Lisdet, García.

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la contaminación por enteroparásitos en lechugas (Lactuca sativa) comercializadas en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela. Fueron estudiadas 102 muestras de lechugas de los tipos criolla, romana y americana procedentes de cuatro lugares: dos supermercados [...] (sitios I y II), una feria libre (sitio III) y un mercado popular (sitio IV). Cada lechuga obtenida fue sometida a dos lavados consecutivos con agua destilada estéril, filtración y sedimentación espontánea por 24 horas; el sedimento se sometió a examen microscópico. Otra porción del sedimento se analizó mediante la técnica de formol éter y finalmente se realizó coloración de Kinyoun. El 53,9% de las muestras presentaron estructuras compatibles con parásitos de humanos. Los parásitos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron Blastocystis hominis (21,6%), coccidios intestinales (16,7%) y Strongyloides stercoralis (15,7%). No hubo diferencias significativas entre la presencia de formas parasitarias y el tipo de lechuga y lugar de comercialización. Se concluye que el elevado porcentaje de contaminación determina un riesgo de infección entre los consumidores de lechuga en Ciudad Bolívar. Se sugiere aumentar la vigilancia sanitaria de este vegetal antes de ser ofrecido a la población. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the parasitological contamination of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) commercially sold in Ciudad Bolivar, Bolivar state, Venezuela. We studied 102 samples of this vegetable (roman, american and native types) from four locals: two supermarkets (I and II locals), one gre [...] engrocer shop (local III), and one popular market (local IV). Each lettuce obtained was submitted to two consecutives washing with sterile distillated water, filtrated and submitted to spontaneous sedimentation for 24 hours and microscopic examination of sediment. Also, it was processed by formol-ether method and Kinyoun staining. Of a total 102 samples, 53.9% were positive for parasitic structures with morphological aspects similar to those of human parasites. The parasites more frequently detected were Blastocystis hominis (21.6%), intestinal coccidians (16.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (15.7%). There was no differences between lettuce types and local of commercially sold and detection of parasitic forms. We concluded that high contamination percentage determine a risk of human infection between consumers of lettuce in Ciudad Bolívar. We suggest greater enforcement in the sanitary surveillance of this vegetable offered to the population.

  15. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface / Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Magda Cristiani, Ferreira; José Roberto Pinto de, Souza; Terezinha de Jesus, Faria.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L.) é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabal [...] ho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.). Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 %) além do controle (0,0 %) água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG) do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%), porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto. Abstract in english Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ef [...] fect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0%) were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B. pilosa and lettuce. However, E. citriodora extract, significantly reduced germination index (GI) of B. pilosa, in all tested concentrations, when compared with the control composed by distilled water. Lettuce GI was affected only by 2,0% concentration of ethanolic extract. Extracts of both P. elliottii and E. citriodora had no significant effect on the root length parameter of both B. pilosa and lettuce.

  16. Potenciação alelopática de extratos vegetais na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface Allelopathy of plant extracts on germination and initial growth of beggartick (Bidens pilosa L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Cristiani Ferreira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L. é uma planta daninha muito agressiva, que está presente em quase todo Brasil. O principal método de controle é o químico, porém apresenta elevado impacto ambiental, risco de intoxicação humana e possibilidade de causar fitotoxicidade as culturas. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos etanólicos de Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. e Pinus elliottii L. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de picão-preto e alface (Lactuca sativa L.. Foram testadas quatro concentrações de cada extrato (0,25; 0,50; 1,0 e 2,0 % além do controle (0,0 % água destilada com Tween 20 a 0,08 %. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições em condições de laboratório. O extrato de P. elliottii não causou efeito alelopático sobre o picão-preto e o alface. O extrato de E. citriodora reduziu significativamente o índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG do picão-preto em todas as concentrações testadas quando comparadas com o controle (0,0%, porém para a alface o IVG foi significativo apenas na concentração de 2,0 %. Para o comprimento da raiz não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para os dois extratos testados tanto para o alface como para o picão preto.Bidens pilosa L. is an aggressive weed found all over Brazil. The main control method for this species is chemical treatment however, causes strong environmental impact, and it has great human contamination risks, and may cause phytotoxity to crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extracts of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. and Pinus elliottii L. on seed germination and initial growth of B. pilosa and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Five concentrations of each extract (0.0; 0.25; 0.50; 1.0; 2.0% were tested in laboratory conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. P. elliottii extract had no effect on B. pilosa and lettuce. However, E. citriodora extract, significantly reduced germination index (GI of B. pilosa, in all tested concentrations, when compared with the control composed by distilled water. Lettuce GI was affected only by 2,0% concentration of ethanolic extract. Extracts of both P. elliottii and E. citriodora had no significant effect on the root length parameter of both B. pilosa and lettuce.

  17. Experimental determinations of soil copper toxicity to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) growth in highly different copper spiked and aged soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen SØgaard; Borggaard, Ole K.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate knowledge about factors and conditions determining copper (Cu) toxicity in soil is needed for predicting plant growth in various Cu-contaminated soils. Therefore, effects of Cu on growth (biomass production) of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were tested on seven selected, very different soils spiked with Cu and aged for 2 months at 35 °C. Cu toxicity was expressed as pEC50(Cu2+), i.e., the negative logarithm of the EC50(Cu2+) activity to plant growth. The determined pEC50(Cu2+) was significantly and positively correlated with both the analytically readily available soil pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon [DOC] which together could explain 87 % of the pEC50(Cu2+) variation according to the simple equation: pEC50(Cu2+) = 0.98 × pH + 345 × [DOC] ? 0.27. Other soil characteristics, including the base cation concentrations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), the cation exchange capacity at soil pH (ECEC), and at pH 7 (CEC7), soil organic carbon, clay content, and electric conductivity as well as the distribution coefficient (Kd) calculated as the ratio between total soil Cu and water-extractable Cu did not correlate significantly with pEC50(Cu2+). Consequently, Cu toxicity, expressed as the negative log of the Cu2+ activity, to plant growth increases at increasing pH and DOC, which needs to be considered in future management of plant growth on Cu-contaminated soils. The developed regression equation allows identification of soil types in which the phytotoxicity potential of Cu is highest.

  18. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains. PMID:26319727

  19. Enhanced Accumulation of Vitamins, Nutraceuticals and Minerals in Lettuces Associated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF: A Question of Interest for Both Vegetables and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouane Baslam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is extensively grown and is the most widely used food crop for the called “Fourth Range” of vegetables. Lettuce exhibits healthy properties mainly due to the presence of antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols alongside significant fibre content and useful amounts of certain minerals. Lettuce can establish a mutualistic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF. The establishment of the symbiosis involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts, which includes the activation of antioxidant, phenylpropanoid or carotenoid metabolic pathways. The presence of AMF colonizing roots of greenhouse-grown lettuces can induce an accumulation of secondary metabolites, vitamins and minerals in leaves that overcome the dilution effect due to the increased size of mycorrhizal plants. Therefore, AMF would allow the intake of minerals and compounds with antioxidant properties to be enhanced without increasing the consumption of lettuce in the diet. In addition, increased quantities of secondary metabolites may help lettuce plants to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses. Our review discusses the influence exerted by several environmental factors and agronomic practices on the ability of AMF for enhancing the levels of vitamins, nutraceuticals and minerals in leaves of green and red-leaf types of lettuces.

  20. Effects of poultry litter biochar on soil enzyme activities and tomato, pepper and lettuce plants growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Onur Akça

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biochar application to soils is being considered as a means to sequester carbon (C while concurrently improving soil functions. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the effects of biochar from the pyrolysis poultry litter (PL on the soil enzyme activities, organic matter content and growth of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants. In the experiment, the combination of 15.15.15 composite fertilizer with 0, 200, 400 and 600kg/da doses of PL biochar were applied into the clay loam soil. Compared to the control and chemical fertilizer alone, the soil organic matter was significantly increased after biochar amendments. ?-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, urease and arylsulphatase enzyme activities in soils were increased by the biochar applications significantly (P<0.05. Plant fresh and dry weight of tomato, pepper and lettuce plants were higher in 4kg/ha PL biochar treatment than in the other treatments. The results showed that PL biochar amendment to soils in the agricultural use increased yield of plants and enzyme activities with increasing soil organic matter content as well as improving soil properties.

  1. Gold nanoparticle-based dynamic light scattering immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes in lettuces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Zhaodi; Mao, Yan; Ji, Yanwei; Xu, Hengyi; Xiong, Yonghua; Li, Yanbin

    2015-04-15

    Gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based dynamic light scattering (DLS) assay has been widely used for sensitive detection of small analytes based on analyte binding-induced GNP aggregation. However, the use of this new method to detect large biological objectives, such as pathogenic bacteria, has not been reported. This study is the first to describe a homogeneous GNP-based DLS immunoassay for ultrasensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes. Compared with small analytes, L. monocytogenes has a larger surface and a higher number of antigen epitopes, which serve as carriers that bind to GNP probes to form "GNP-coated bacteria" complexes. To achieve better analytical performance, various parameters including GNP diameter and concentration, amount of labeled antibodies, and immunoreaction time were systematically investigated and optimized. Under the developed optimum conditions, limit of detection (LOD) for L. monocytogenes reached as low as 3.5×10(1)CFUmL(-1) in 0.01M phosphate-buffered saline. Coupled with a large-volume immunomagnetic separation method, LOD for spiked lettuce samples reached 2.2×10(1)CFUg(-1), which was one order of magnitude lower than the maximum limit imposed in Canada (100CFUg(-1)). The proposed method also exhibited excellent discrimination against 17 common pathogenic bacteria in lettuces. The developed GNP-based DLS immunoassay is highly promising as an approach for detecting large biological objectives. PMID:25460900

  2. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus (Glomus etunicatum with Lettuce Plants under Zinc Toxicity in Nutrient Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Farshian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of zinc toxicity on growth, chlorophyll, total sugar and protein content and mineral content of lettuce plants infected or not by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am fungus Glomus etunicatum and treated with nutrient solution containing 0, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 7.5 mM ZnSO4 were studied. The introduction of Zn caused a decrease in the inhibiting effect of zinc on dry weight of roots and shoots of lettuce plant infected by Am in contrary with non-Am plants. This increase observed in dry weight may be due to improvement of Phosphorous uptake by mycorrhizal fungi. The decrease in dry weight of non-Am plants may be because of inhibitory effects of zinc on growth. Chlorophyll and total sugar content decreased in both Am and non-Am plants, which indicate the toxic effect of Zn on photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism. Mycorrhizal plants due to changing the translocation of Zn and sequestering in the hypha could elevate the effects of Zn to some extent. Total protein content increased in Am plants, probably due to induction of antioxidant enzymes and some stress proteins but reduced in non-Am plants which maybe caused by toxic effects of Zn on protein synthesis. Alleviating the severe effects of Am fungus observed in this study aroused an interest in considering the role of Am fungi in protection and elevation the sever effects of heavy metals in plants.

  3. Production and characterization of cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Ohishi, Noriharu; Hatanaka, Yuka; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nishihara, Eiji; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-04-24

    When lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown for 30 days in hydroponic culture were treated with various concentrations of cyanocobalamin for 24 h, its content in their leaves increased significantly from nondetectable to 164.6 ± 74.7 ng/g fresh weight. This finding indicated that consumption of only two or three of these fresh leaves is sufficient to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance for adults of 2.4 ?g/day. Analyses using a cobalamin-dependent Escherichia coli 215 bioautogram and LC/ESI-MS/MS demonstrated that the cyanocobalamin absorbed from the nutrient solutions by the leaves did not alter any other compounds such as coenzymes and inactive corrinoids. Gel filtration indicated that most (86%) of the cyanocobalamin in the leaves was recovered in the free cyanocobalamin fractions. These results indicated that cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce leaves would be an excellent source of free cyanocobalamin, particularly for strict vegetarians or elderly people with food-bound cobalamin malabsorption. PMID:23578327

  4. The metabolism and distribution of 14C-8N6-benzyladenine in lettuce seeds and seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation sought to follow the uptake of the cytokinin, 14C-8N6-benzyladenine (BAP), by lettuce seeds through time, trace the movement of the metabolites through several areas of the seedling, and identify the BAP metabolites. Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) were exposed to a two hour pulse of the radioactive BAP. These seeds were harvested at 4 hour intervals from 2-48 hours. Seedlings incubated from 36-48 hours were cut in two; root, stem, shoot tip and seed coats. Each of these groups were extracted in 70% methanol and their radioactive isolated by high performance liquid chromatography. Radioactive fractions were pooled and reduced for further analysis by thin layer chromatography. The major compound identified throughout the time periods was BAP, exclusively found from 2-20 hours. BAP riboside was found in addition to BAP from 24-32 hours. The 40 and 44 hour extracts contained BAP and its riboside in the shoot and BAP in the seed coat. The 48 hours extract contained BAP and its riboside in both the shoot tip and the seed coat. This study produced information on the following points. A cytokinin exposure of 2 hours or less is needed to break dormancy in these seeds

  5. Bacterial community and proteome analysis of fresh-cut lettuce as affected by packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Carli, Mariasole; De Rossi, Patrizia; Paganin, Patrizia; Del Fiore, Antonella; Lecce, Francesca; Capodicasa, Cristina; Bianco, Linda; Perrotta, Gaetano; Mengoni, Alessio; Bacci, Giovanni; Daroda, Lorenza; Dalmastri, Claudia; Donini, Marcello; Bevivino, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    With the growing demand of fresh-cut vegetables, a variety of packaging films are produced specifically to improve safety and quality of the fresh vegetables over the storage period. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of different packaging films on the quality of fresh-cut lettuce analyzing changes in bacterial community composition and modifications at the proteome level, by means of culture-dependent/culture-independent methods and differential gel electrophoresis combined with mass spectrometry analysis. Total viable counts indicated the presence of a highly variable and complex microbial flora, around a mean value of 6.26 log10 CFU g(-1). Analysis of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism data indicated that bacterial communities changed with packaging films and time, showing differences in community composition and diversity indices between the commercially available package (F) and the new packages (A and C), in the first days after packaging. Also proteomic analysis revealed significant changes, involving proteins related to energy metabolism, photosynthesis, plant defense and oxidative stress processes, between F and A/C packages. In conclusion, microbiological and proteomic analysis have proved to be powerful tools to provide new insights into both the composition of leaf-associated bacterial communities and protein content of fresh-cut lettuce during the shelf-life storage process. PMID:26511951

  6. Application of an oregano oil nanoemulsion to the control of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Kanika; Conti, Denise S; da Rocha, Sandro R P; Zhang, Yifan

    2015-05-01

    Although antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils are well documented, challenges remain as to their application in fresh produce due to the hydrophobic nature of essential oils. Oregano oil nanoemulsions were formulated with a food-grade emulsifier and evaluated for their efficacy in inactivating the growth of foodborne bacteria on fresh lettuce. Lettuce was artificially inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7, followed by a one-minute dipping in oregano oil nanoemulsions (0.05% or 0.1%). Samples were stored at 4 °C and enumerated for bacteria at fixed intervals (0 h, 3 h, 24 h, and 72 h). Compared to control, 0.05% nanoemulsion showed an up to 3.44, 2.31, and 3.05 log CFU/g reductions in L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Up to 3.57, 3.26, and 3.35 log CFU/g reductions were observed on the same bacteria by the 0.1% treatment. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) demonstrated disrupted bacterial membranes due to the oregano oil treatment. The data suggest that applying oregano oil nanoemulsions to fresh produce may be an effective antimicrobial control strategy. PMID:25583339

  7. Changes in Some Physio-Biochemical Characteristics in Lettuce During Storage at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of low temperature on the physiological and biochemical processes, we held two crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivars ‘Shizuka` and ‘Cisco` at 5°C for 10 days. Minimum weight loss and lower respiration rate along with a higher hue angle value were recorded from both cultivars. However, cultivar ‘Cisco` showed higher relative weight loss, respiration rate and accumulation of ammonia compared to that of ‘Shizuka`. Except in the leaf portion of ‘Shizuka`, glutamine synthetase (GS, 6.3.1.2 activity did not change significantly. The accumulation of ammonia was supposed to be below the critical level to repress GS activity. However, the highest amount of ammonia content was found at the end of the storage period in all cases. Amination activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, 1.4.1.2 decreased by day 4 and slightly increased thereafter while the deamination activity did not show any significant change. Overall, GDH-amination activity was remarkably higher than GDH-deamination activity and the leaf portion showed higher GDH-amination activity while the midrib portion showed higher GDH-deamination activity. Between the two cultivars, ‘Cisco` could have a shorter shelf life than ‘Shizuka`. The results suggested that although the visual quality of lettuce was maintained at low temperature, some physio-biochemical changes occurred in this period.

  8. Desempenho de cultivares de alface na região de Manaus Performance of lettuce cultivars in Manaus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac N Rodrigues

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Na avaliação de cultivares de hortaliças, os rendimentos médios mais elevados nos ensaios de competição, associados a fatores de qualidade, são utilizados como critérios de recomendação para plantio. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar as cultivares de alface Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire e Hortência nas condições climáticas da região de Manaus, sob cultivo protegido e a campo. Foram avaliadas as características: massa fresca total, massa fresca comercial, diâmetro da cabeça e altura. As cultivares de alface Marisa, Itapuã 401 e Hortência são opções mais adequadas para o cultivo protegido e a campo na região, incluindo-se para o cultivo a campo a cultivar Verônica, a qual apresentou a melhor produção na avaliação realizada neste ambiente.In the evaluation of vegetable cultivars, the high average yield in the competition assays associated to quality factors are utilized as criteria to recommend cultivars. In the present work we evaluated the lettuce cultivars Frisella, Deisy, Tender Green, Lollo Bionda, Itapuã 401, Marisa, Verônica, Banchu New Red Fire and Hortência under the climatic conditions of the region of Manaus, under protected and conventional cultivation. The evaluated characteristics were: total and commercial weight, plant diameter and height. The lettuce cultivars Marisa, Itapuã 401 and Hortência presented higher production in both environments adding Verônica with best production under conventional cultivation.

  9. Soil-plant transfer factors of Co-60 for alfalfa lettuce and spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of Co-60 from soil into plants is a less studied problem. Soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60 known from literature vary by about four orders of magnitude for each kind of plants. We have calculated the average values and have determined the field of variability of the known transfer factors. These indicated us that alfalfa, lettuce and spinach have in this order the greatest absorption capacity of Co-60 from soil. We have determined the physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of the utilized soil. This is a brown reddish forest type soil. The plants have been cultivated in pots by plantlet method of Neubauer and Schneider. The results of our measurements of soil-to-plant transfer factors of 60-Co are the followings: 0.0612 ± 0.0047 for alfalfa, 0.0960 ± 0.0072 for lettuce and 0.1446 ± 0.0107 for spinach. These values prove the strong dependence of the type of soil and plant of the soil-plant transfer factors for Co-60. (author)

  10. Prediction of rate of CO2 assimilation of leaf lettuce under low light irradiation during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of CO2 assimilation of leaf lettuce changed with its respiration rate and gas constitution in a storage chamber. The optimum irradiance on the surface of leaf lettuce during storage using low light irradiation can be obtained by the prediction of the rate of CO2 assimilation. For the above mentioned purpose the following equation were derived. -kd[C]/dt=0.5(1-f)I([C]-?/4.5[C]+10.5?)-ae-bt where, k: proportional constant (4.87×10-3mol?m-2) [C]: CO2 concentration (ppm), t: time (h), f: fraction of light not absorbed by chloroplasts (0.23), I: irradiance (?mol?m-2?s-1), ?: CO2 compensation point without respiration (21.5ppm), a, b: parameters (0.308?mol?m-2?s-1, 0.010h-1). Calculated values of rate of CO2 assimilation by the equation agreed well with experimental ones at 3.4 and 6.5?mol?m-2?s-1 of irradiance, so it appeared that the assimilation rate could be sufficiently predicted

  11. Exploring the limits of crop productivity: beyond the limits of tipburn in lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Jonathan M.; Ritchie, Glen; Cometti, Nilton N.; Robinson, Justin; Bugbee, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The productivity of lettuce in a combination of high light, high temperature, and elevated CO2 has not been commonly studied because rapid growth usually causes a calcium deficiency in meristems called tipburn, which greatly reduces quality and marketability. We eliminated tipburn by blowing air directly onto the meristem, which allowed us to increase the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) to 1000 micromoles m-2 s-1 (57.6 mol m-2 d-1); two to three times higher than normally used for lettuce. Eliminating tipburn doubled edible yield at the highest PPF level. In addition to high PPF, CO2 was elevated to 1200 micromoles m-2 mol-1, which increased the temperature optimum from 25 to 30 degrees C. The higher temperature increased leaf expansion rate, which improved radiation capture and more than doubled yield. Photosynthetic efficiency, measured as canopy quantum yield in a whole-plant gas exchange system, steadily increased up to the highest temperature of 32 degrees C in high CO2. The highest productivity was 19 g m-2 d-1 of dry biomass (380 g d-1 fresh mass) averaged over the 23 days the plants received light. Without the limitation of tipburn, the combination of high PPF, high temperature, and elevated CO2 resulted in a 4-fold increase in growth rate over productivity in conventional environments.

  12. Methodology for determination of benzimidazolic fungicides residues in strawberry and lettuce by HPLC-DAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    systemic fungicides like benzimidazolic compounds are used to protect several crops of fruits and vegetables. in this work a new method for analysis of Benomyl, carbendazim and thiabendazol in strawberry and lettuce by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was validated. benomyl residues were determined after its conversion to carbendazim. pesticide residues were extracted from strawberry and lettuce samples with ethyl acetate and these extracts were cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). final determination was carried out by HPLC-DAD in reverse phase column. the method is selective, specific, precise and accurate. the calibration curves show linearity over concentration range of 1.24 to 6.19 mg/kg, with detection limits of 0.40 and 0.27 mg/kg and quantification limits of 1.35 and 0.81 mg/kg for carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively. the recovery experiments yielding averages of 90 %. n o residues of these compounds were found in collected samples from specific areas of Cundinamarca, Colombia

  13. Changes in hyperspectral reflectance signatures of lettuce leaves in response to macronutrient deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacumbaba, R. O.; Beyl, C. A.

    2011-07-01

    The adaptation of specific remote sensing and hyperspectral analysis techniques for the determination of incipient nutrient stress in plants could allow early detection and precision supplementation for remediation, important considerations for minimizing mass of advanced life support systems on space station and long term missions. This experiment was conducted to determine if hyperspectral reflectance could be used to detect nutrient stress in Lactuca sativa L. cv. Black Seeded Simpson. Lettuce seedlings were grown for 90 days in a greenhouse or growth chamber in vermiculite containing modified Hoagland's nutrient solution with key macronutrient elements removed in order to induce a range of nutrient stresses, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Leaf tissue nutrient concentrations were compared with corresponding spectral reflectances taken at the end of 90 days. Spectral reflectances varied with growing location, position on the leaf, and nutrient deficiency treatment. Spectral responses of lettuce leaves under macronutrient deficiency conditions showed an increase in reflectance in the red, near red, and infrared wavelength ranges. The data obtained suggest that spectral reflectance shows the potential as a diagnostic tool in predicting nutrient deficiencies in general. Overlapping of spectral signatures makes the use of wavelengths of narrow bandwidths or individual bands for the discrimination of specific nutrient stresses difficult without further data processing.

  14. Effects of irradiation on the sensory characteristics of vegetables (celery, lettuces and cabbage)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last few years, irradiation has been applied to a growing number of food products in order to increase their conservation process. This technology has to be informed to consumers in order to get their acceptation. The object of this research was to irradiate three kinds of vegetables, Celery, Lettuce and Cabbage with 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 kGy doses and subject them to a sensorial analysis to measure their acceptability and quality. The parameters considered in the analysis of the products were color, smell, sweetness, sour taste, texture, bitterness, and flavor. As well in quality as in acceptability we used a structured value scale from 1 to 9 points, the results were processed statistically by the analyses of Varianza and Duncan test of multiple range in a level of 5% significance. The analyzed data proved that Cabbage was the most resistant to the irradiation treatment. On the other hand we just observed a significant differences in appearances in Lettuce and in color in Celery, which faded on the sixth day. In general terms we can sustain that products showed good acceptability in our control samples and also in the irradiated ones, until the sixth day after their harvest. (au)

  15. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How does lead get into my tap water? Measures taken during the last two decades have greatly reduced exposures to lead in tap water. These measures include actions taken under the requirements of the 1986 and 1996 ...

  16. N transfer from green manures to lettuce in an intercropping cultivation system / Transferência de nitrogênio de adubos verdes para a alface cultivados em sistema de consórcio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rogério Haruo, Sakai; Edmilson José, Ambrosano; Ana Clarissa Alves, Negrini; Paulo Cesar Ocheuze, Trivelin; Eliana Aparecida, Schammass; Paulo César Tavares de, Melo.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a transferência do nitrogênio de adubos verdes para alface em cultivo consorciado, através da técnica da abundância natural de 15N. Os tratamentos foram: alface em monocultivo (testemunha), alface consorciado com aveia-preta, com feijão-caupi e com tremoço-branc [...] o, em duas épocas de semeadura dos adubos verdes: 60 dias antes e no transplante das mudas de alface. Observou-se que a alface consorciada com adubos verdes adquiriu a mesma massa fresca das alfaces solteiras quando a semeadura do adubo verde foi simultânea com o plantio da mesma; no entanto quando os adubos verdes foram semeados com 60 dias de antecedência as alfaces solteiras obtiveram maior massa fresca ; independentemente da época de semeadura as alfaces solteiras alcançaram maior massa seca; o tremoço-branco e o caupi transferiram maior quantidade de N para a alface, independentemente de sua época de semeadura; a relação C:N do feijão-caupi e tremoço-branco foram menores que a da aveia-preta; o cultivo consorciado de tremoço-branco, caupi e a aveia-preta transferiram 18%, 17% e 7% de N para a alface; e que em cultivo consorciado há transferência de N proveniente da fixação biológica do nitrogênio (FBN) dos adubos verdes tremoço-branco e caupi para a alface. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the transfer of N via biological nitrogen fixation from green manures to intercropped lettuce using the 15N abundance method. The treatments consisted of lettuce with black oats, lettuce with cowpea, lettuce with white lupin and monocropped lettuce (control). Gre [...] en manures were sown at two different times including the following: 60 days before transplanting of lettuce seedlings and simultaneous to transplanting of lettuce seedlings. N transfer was estimated using the natural 15N abundance method. It was observed that lettuce intercropped with green manures reached the same fresh mass of monocropped lettuce when the green manures were sown at the same time as the vegetables were planted. However, when the green manures were sown previously, the fresh mass of the monocropped lettuce was higher, and independent of the sowing time of green manures, the monocropped lettuce reached a higher dry mass. White lupin and cowpea transferred higher amounts of N regardless of sowing time, and the C:N ratio of white lupin to cowpea was lower compared to black oats. Intercropping with white lupin, cowpea and black oat transferred 18%, 17% and 7% of N, respectively, to lettuce.

  17. The Impact of Biochar Application on Soil Properties and Plant Growth of Pot Grown Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Cabbage (Brassica chinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Haefele; Tan Boun Suy; Saran Sohi; Simon Shackley; Sarah Carter

    2013-01-01

    The effect of rice-husk char (potentially biochar) application on the growth of transplanted lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) was assessed in a pot experiment over a three crop (lettuce-cabbage-lettuce) cycle in Cambodia. The biochar was the by-product of a rice-husk gasification unit and consisted of 28.7% carbon (C) by mass. Biochar application rates to potting medium of 25, 50 and 150 g kg?1 were used with and without locally available fertilizers (a mixtur...

  18. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  19. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for pymetrozine in lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, the Netherlands, herewith referred to as the evaluating Member State (EMS, received an application from LTO Groeiservice to modify the existing MRLs for pymetrozine in lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods. In order to accommodate for the intended use of pymetrozine on these crops, the EMS proposed to raise the existing MRLs from 2 mg/kg to 15 mg/kg in lamb`s lettuce and to 7 mg/kg in beans (with pods. The EMS drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA, the residue trials on lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods were not valid because the samples were stored for a period for which integrity of the samples is not guaranteed. The proposal to compensate for the potential loss of residues during storage by applying a correction factor is not acceptable because the instability of pymetrozine residues in watery matrices is not only affected by the nature of the crop, but might depend also on other factors such as the preparation of samples and the design of the residue decline studies. EFSA therefore concludes that the available data are not sufficient to derive a MRL proposal for lamb`s lettuce and beans (with pods reflecting the intended GAP notified in this application.

  20. SM09A and SM09B: Romaine Lettuce Breeding Lines Resistant to Dieback and with Improved Shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SM09A and SM09B are F8 romaine breeding lines of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) resistant to dieback and with good shelf-life. SM09B was selected from a cross between ‘Darkland’ and PI491224, while SM09A was developed from ‘Green Towers’ × (‘Darkland’ × PI491224). Resistance to the disease in both bree...

  1. Effect of modified atmosphere on persistence and virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Packaged fresh-cut lettuce contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 has caused several outbreaks of infections. The influence of packaging and storage temperature may affect the persistence and expression of virulence factors of the pathogen, affecting the ability of the pathogen to...

  2. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  3. Genetic variation, genotype x environment interaction, and selection for tipburn resistance in lettuce in multi-environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipburn is a physiological disorder causing major economic damage in all areas of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. Tipburn is known to be the result of a localized calcium deficiency, but the environmental conditions leading to the expression of the disorder are largely unpredictable. The obj...

  4. VARIATION IN ELEMENTAL CONTENT OF LETTUCE GROWN UNDER BASE-LINE CONDITIONS IN FIVE CONTROLLED-ENVIRONMENT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interlaboratory comparison was made of the variation in elemental concentration of leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) plants grown under base-line conditions for 28 days in 5 controlled-environment facilities. Two studies were conducted by each of 5 investigators using a sphagnum p...

  5. Copper, nickel and zinc accumulations in lettuce grown in soil amended with contaminated cattle manure vermicompost after sequential cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Cláudio P; de Andrade, Renato P; Cotta, Aloísio J B; Cecon, Paulo R; Neves, Júlio C L; Fontes, Mauricio P F; Fernandes, Raphael B A

    2013-01-01

    The Cu, Ni and Zn accumulations in leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) grown in soil amended with natural and contaminated cattle manure vermicompost were evaluated. The vermicompost residues containing relatively high metal concentrations used in this work were obtained from a previous experiment, in which vermicompost was applied to removing metals from electroplating wastes. Sequential lettuce cultivations were conducted in pots containing the residual substrates from the first cultivation by adding metal-enriched vermicompost residues. In general, the Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations in leaves and roots of lettuce plants grown in vermicompost enriched with these metals were higher than in the treatment using the natural vermicompost. The metal concentrations in leaves from treatments with natural vermicompost were below the critical concentrations of toxicity to plants. However, the metal concentrations in leaves of the third cultivation in which metal-enriched vermicompost was applied were greater than the upper limit that causes plant toxicity, but no visual damage was observed in the plants. Treatment with Zn-enriched vermicompost resulted in toxicity symptoms, but plant damage did not result in the death of the plant. The chemical fractionation of Cu, Ni and Zn in residues from lettuce cultivation was evaluated by using a sequential extraction procedure and metal concentrations were increased in the different chemical fractions according to the increase of vermicompost dose. PMID:23837328

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water pollution How to protect yourself from water pollution Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ... usually in the water, made up of one cell, and lack true stems, roots, and leaves. Spills ... Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Here are some ...

  7. Reasoned opinion on the modification of the existing MRLs for azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, France received an application from the company Syngenta Agro SAS to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in lettuce, spinach, celery and cardoon. In order to accommodate for the intended use of azoxystrobin, France proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 15 mg/kg for spinach and similar, lettuces and other salad plants, celery and cardoon. Germany received an application from the plant protection service Landesamt für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau des Landes Sachesen-Anhalt to modify the existing MRLs for the active substance azoxystrobin in spices. In order to accommodate for the intended use Germany proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.3 mg/kg for spices/seeds and spices/fruits and berries. Belgium compiled an application to modify the existing MRL for the azoxystrobin in rhubarb. In order to accommodate for the intended use Belgium proposed to raise the existing MRLs to 0.5 mg/kg. France, Germany and Belgium drafted an evaluation report according to Article 8 of Regulation (EC No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to EFSA. According to EFSA the data are sufficient to derive MRL proposals for lettuce, spinach and similar, cardoon, celery, rhubarb and spices. For other crops belonging to the group of lettuce and other salad plants the data were not sufficient to propose a MRL. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to control the residues of azoxystrobin on the commodities under consideration at the validated LOQ of 0.01 mg/kg. Based on the risk assessment results, EFSA concludes that the proposed use of azoxystrobin on lettuce, spinach, celery, cardoon, spices and rhubarb will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a consumer health risk.

  8. The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GabrieleBerg

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48% and Pseudomonadaceae (37% with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%, Moraxellaceae (16% and Enterobacteriaceae (25% with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action.

  9. Effect of irradiation on kinetic behavior of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus in lettuce and damage of bacterial cell envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated effect of gamma irradiation on survival of Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus on lettuce and damage of cell envelope. S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were inoculated on red leaf lettuce, and they were irradiated at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 kGy, and the samples were then stored at 7 and 25 °C for 7 days. Survival of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus were enumerated on xylose lysine deoxycholate agar and Baird–Parker agar, respectively. D10 value (dose required to reduce 1 log CFU/leaf) was calculated, and kinetic parameters (maximum specific growth rate; ?max and lag phase duration; LPD) were calculated by the modified Gompertz model. In addition, cell envelope damage of the pathogens was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). D10 values were 0.35 and 0.33 kGy for S. Typhimurium and S. aureus, respectively. During storage at 7 °C, S. Typhimurium and S. aureus had significant (Pmax, respectively. At 25 °C, cell counts of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus on the samples irradiated at 0 and 0.5 kGy increased (Pmax of both pathogens were higher in 0 kGy (1.08–2.27 log CFU/leaf/day) and 0.5 kGy (0.58–0.92 log CFU/leaf/day), and LPDs ranged from 1.53 to 3.14 day. SEM and TEM observations showed that cells irradiated at 1.5 and 3 kGy showed disrupted cell membrane. These results indicate that gamma irradiation could be a useful decontamination technology to improve food safety of lettuce by destroying cells of S. Typhimurium and S. aureus. - Highlights: ? Low dose of gamma irradiation destroyed cell envelope of the pathogens. ? Gamma irradiation decreased cell counts of the pathogens on lettuce. ? Gamma irradiation could be useful in improving food safety of lettuce.

  10. Effectiveness of Active Packaging on Control of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 and Total Aerobic Bacteria on Iceberg Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Chen, Jinru

    2015-06-01

    Contaminated leafy green vegetables have been linked to several outbreaks of human gastrointestinal infections. Antimicrobial interventions that are adoptable by the fresh produce industry for control of pathogen contamination are in great demand. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of sustained active packaging on control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria on lettuce. Commercial Iceberg lettuce was inoculated with a 3-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 at 10(2) or 10(4) CFU/g. The contaminated lettuce and un-inoculated controls were placed respectively in 5 different active packaging structures. Traditional, nonactive packaging structure was included as controls. Packaged lettuce was stored at 4, 10, or 22 °C for 3 wk and sampled weekly for the population of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria. Results showed that packaging structures with ClO2 generator, CO2 generator, or one of the O2 scavengers effectively controlled the growth of E. coli O157:H7 and total aerobic bacteria under all storage conditions. Packaging structure with the ClO2 generator was most effective and no E. coli O157:H7 was detected in samples packaged in this structure except for those that were inoculated with 4 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 and stored at 22 °C. Packaging structures with an oxygen scavenger and the allyl isothiocyanate generator were mostly ineffective in control of the growth of the bacteria on Iceberg lettuce. The research suggests that some of the packaging structures evaluated in the study can be used to control the presence of foodborne pathogens on leafy green vegetables. PMID:25974213

  11. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris

    2015-02-11

    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) ?g kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) ?g kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) ?g kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) ?g kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 ?g, respectively, depending on the exposure route. PMID:25464330

  12. Selected biochemical properties of polyphenol oxidase in butter lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) elicited with dl-?-amino-n-butyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Z?otek, Urszula; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-02-01

    The study concentrated on changes in certain biochemical parameters of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) from lettuce leaves caused by dl-?-amino-n-butyric acid (BABA) elicitation. PPO from control plants demonstrated the highest affinity toward catechol, whereas PPO from BABA-elicited lettuce showed the highest affinity to 4-methylcatechol. The optimum temperature for enzymes from control plants was 35°C, whereas from plants elicited with 1mM BABA this was 25°C. PPO from plants elicited with BABA was also more sensitive to the tested inhibitors than PPO from control plants. l-Cysteine was the most effective inhibitor. Native gel stained for PPO activity in control samples showed two isoforms. However, in BABA-treated lettuce three bands visualising PPO activity were observed. The information obtained in this study will be valuable for the development of treatment technology and storage conditions to control undesirable browning reactions in elicited lettuce. PMID:25172730

  13. Crop to wild introgression in lettuce: following the fate of crop genome segments in backcross populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwimana Brigitte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After crop-wild hybridization, some of the crop genomic segments may become established in wild populations through selfing of the hybrids or through backcrosses to the wild parent. This constitutes a possible route through which crop (transgenes could become established in natural populations. The likelihood of introgression of transgenes will not only be determined by fitness effects from the transgene itself but also by the crop genes linked to it. Although lettuce is generally regarded as self-pollinating, outbreeding does occur at a low frequency. Backcrossing to wild lettuce is a likely pathway to introgression along with selfing, due to the high frequency of wild individuals relative to the rarely occurring crop-wild hybrids. To test the effect of backcrossing on the vigour of inter-specific hybrids, Lactuca serriola, the closest wild relative of cultivated lettuce, was crossed with L. sativa and the F1 hybrid was backcrossed to L. serriola to generate BC1 and BC2 populations. Experiments were conducted on progeny from selfed plants of the backcrossing families (BC1S1 and BC2S1. Plant vigour of these two backcrossing populations was determined in the greenhouse under non-stress and abiotic stress conditions (salinity, drought, and nutrient deficiency. Results Despite the decreasing contribution of crop genomic blocks in the backcross populations, the BC1S1 and BC2S1 hybrids were characterized by a substantial genetic variation under both non-stress and stress conditions. Hybrids were identified that performed equally or better than the wild genotypes, indicating that two backcrossing events did not eliminate the effect of the crop genomic segments that contributed to the vigour of the BC1 and BC2 hybrids. QTLs for plant vigour under non-stress and the various stress conditions were detected in the two populations with positive as well as negative effects from the crop. Conclusion As it was shown that the crop contributed QTLs with either a positive or a negative effect on plant vigour, we hypothesize that genomic regions exist where transgenes could preferentially be located in order to mitigate their persistence in natural populations through genetic hitchhiking.

  14. Effects of composted urban solid waste addition on yield and metal contents of lettuce

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudio P., Jordão; Clésia C., Nascentes; Renildes L. F., Fontes; Paulo R., Cecon; José L., Pereira.

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um estudo para avaliar a acumulação de Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn, em alface cultivada em Latossolo, ao qual foram adicionados compostos de resíduos sólidos urbanos provindos de uma grande cidade (Rio de Janeiro, Estado do Rio de Janeiro) e de uma pequena cidade (Coimbra, Estado de Minas G [...] erais). As amostras de composto foram aplicadas ao solo em doses crescentes e em diferentes tempos de contato entre o composto e o solo. Foi avaliada ainda a influência dos metais na produção de matéria fresca e seca de folhas da alface. A produção de alface aumentou com a elevação das doses dos compostos, sendo a produção máxima obtida entre 15 e 20 dias. As concentrações de metais nas folhas aumentaram com o acréscimo da dose de composto e com o tempo de contacto entre o composto e o solo, porém não atingiram os limites máximos permitidos pela Legislação Brasileira para alimentos. A aplicação do composto de Coimbra promoveu maior produção e concentrações menores dos metais na planta, em relação ao composto do Rio de Janeiro. Abstract in english A study was performed to evaluate Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ni and Zn accumulations in lettuce grown in an oxisol amended with composted urban solid wastes collected in Brazil from a big city (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro State) and from a small city (Coimbra, Minas Gerais State). The compost samples were a [...] pplied to the soil at increasing doses and different times of contact between compost and soil. The influence of the metals on the fresh and dry matter yield of leaves was also examined. Lettuce yield enhanced when the doses of the composts were increased and maximum yield was achieved in the cropping time between 15 and 20 days. The metal concentrations in the leaves augmented with the increase of the applied compost and with the increase of the time of contact between compost and soil. However, metal concentrations in the plant were below the maximum limits allowable by the food Brazilian legislation. The application of the compost from the smaller city resulted in increased lettuce productivity and lowest metal concentrations in the plants as compared to the results of the application of the compost from the bigger city.

  15. Uso de rejeito da dessalinização na solução nutritiva da alface, cultivada em fibra de coco / Hydroponic lettuce production on coconut fiber using desalination wastewater

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nildo da Silva, Dias; Antonio Gilberto de Oliveira, Jales; Osvaldo Nogueira de, Sousa Neto; Maria Isidória da Silva, Gonzaga; Ítalo Sorac Rafael de, Queiroz; Maria Alice Formiga, Porto.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A escassez de água de boa qualidade na região semiárida leva ao uso de água salobra para a irrigação. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito do uso de rejeito da dessalinização na solução nutritiva, sobre a produção da alface (Lactuca sativa L.), cultivada em sistema hidropônico com o sub [...] strato fibra de coco. O ensaio foi desenvolvido em um ambiente protegido do Departamento de Ciências Ambientais, da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido, em Mossoró-RN, instalado em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial com cinco x dois tratamentos e três repetições, testando-se cinco níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva, obtidos com ou sem a necessidade de diluição da água de rejeito da dessalinização (CE 1,1; 2,4; 3,6; 4,7 e 5,7 dS m-1) e dois cultivares de alface (Verônica e alface roxa, cv. Quatro Estações). As plantas cresceram bem em todos os níveis de salinidade, mostrando que as águas residuárias do processo de dessalinização podem ser usadas como fonte potencial de água para a produção hidropônica de alface, embora as perdas de produção tenham aumentado com a salinidade, (6 a 8% por unidade de condutividade elétrica) , chegando a 28-35% para a solução totalmente preparada com água de rejeito. O cv. Quatro Estações mostrou maior tolerância à salinidade do que Verônica. Abstract in english The scarcity of good quality water has led to the necessity of using wastewater for irrigation in the semi-arid region of Brazil. This greenhouse experiment was carried out in the Universidade Federal Rural do SemiÁrido, located in Mossoro-RN, aiming to evaluate the use of wastewater from the revers [...] e osmosis desalination process on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) production. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments were arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme: five levels of salinity (1.1, 2.4, 3.6, 4,7 and 5.7 dS m-1) in the nutrient solution (according to the proportions of desalination of the wastewater in the nutrient solution: 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), and two lettuce cultivars: Verônica and Quatro Estações. Seedlings were planted in trays filled with coconut fiber as a substrate and allowed to growth for 24 days under hydroponic conditions, with different levels of salinity in the nutrient solution. The nutrient solution treatments were provided by a continuous flow rate drip irrigation system. Total yield, fresh and dry mater, leaf number, and leaf area were recorded. Plants grew well in all levels of salinity showing that the wastewater from the desalination process can be a source of water for the hydroponic production of lettuce, although production losses increased with salinity (6 to 8% per unit of electrical conductivity), reaching 28-35% for the solution fully based on wastewater. 'Quatro Estações' showed more tolerance to salinity than 'Veronica'.

  16. Anxiolytic Effects of Acute Injection of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Lettuce in the Elevated Plus-Maze Task in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komaki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of lettuce (Lactuca sativa in the treatment of anxiety in humans. Objectives The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of lettuce on rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM and the results compared with the effects of diazepam. Materials and Methods Adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 – 240 g were used in the present study. Seven different groups of rats received an intraperitoneal (IP injection of lettuce extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, diazepam (0.3, 0.6, or 1.2 mg/kg, or vehicle (control group, 30 minutes before entering the EPM test. The total distance covered by the animals, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, the time spent in the open arms, and the number of entries into the closed arms were recorded for a 5 minutes duration. Results An IP injection of both diazepam and lettuce extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries and the time spent in the open arms. Diazepam decreased the total distance covered by the animals and the number of closed arm entries, whereas lettuce extract had no effect on these parameters. Locomotor activity was not significantly changed by the lettuce extract. Conclusions Acute administration of lettuce extract has an anxiolytic profile in rats similar to that of anxiolytic diazepam at low dose. Future investigations are essential for better understanding of the anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of lettuce extract.

  17. Influence of Green, Red and Blue Light Emitting Diodes on Multiprotein Complex Proteins and Photosynthetic Activity under Different Light Intensities in Lettuce Leaves (Lactuca sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Sowbiya Muneer; Eun Jeong Kim; Jeong Suk Park; Jeong Hyun Lee

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of light emitting diodes (LEDs) at different light intensities (70 and 80 for green LEDs, 88 and 238 for red LEDs and 80 and 238 ?mol m?2 s?1 for blue LEDs) at three wavelengths in lettuce leaves. Lettuce leaves were exposed to (522 nm), red (639 nm) and blue (470 nm) LEDs of different light intensities. Thylakoid multiprotein complex proteins and photosynthetic metabolism were then investigated. Biomass and photosynthetic parameters...

  18. Laboratory and semi-field evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) against the lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Govinda; Enkegaard, Annie

    2015-01-01

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), is an economically important pest of lettuce worldwide. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain GHA has recently been reported as a potential biocontrol candidate for use against the lettuce aphid. This study provides information on the mortality inflicted by B. bassiana when applied against different life stages of the lettuce aphid under laboratory conditions and how fungus infection affects the aphid fecundity. In addition, temporal changes in persistence of fungus inoculum applied to foliage of young lettuce plants under semi-field conditions was analysed. Immature life stages were generally the least susceptible to fungal infection and the susceptibility of all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest mortality occurring at the highest dose. B. bassiana significantly affected the rate of nymph production by the lettuce aphid, with the highest effect seen when the alatoid fourth instar of N. ribisnigri was inoculated with B. bassi