WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Human resources handbook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

2

Agripedia glossary [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A glossary of terms used in the classes contained within Agripedia, an Internet accessible interactive multimedia instructional resource developed by the University of Kentucky's College of Agriculture.

3

Using Electronic Resources for Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Computers and related electronic resources have come to play a central role in education. Whatever your feelings about what some have called the digital revolution, you must accept that many, perhaps most, of your students are fully immersed in it. At the very simplest level, you will rarely receive a paper or other assignment from a student that has not been written with the help of a computer. Most of your students will have considerable experience with the Internet and will, whether you like it or not, make use of it for much of their academic work. Many of them will be accustomed to using e-mail as a normal form of communication. But it is not just students who find electronic resources valuable. Teachers can benefit from these resources as well, by employing a series of useful tools. We stress the word "useful" because electronic resources complement, but seldom replace, more conventional teaching techniques. Electronic tools can make classes more efficient; lectures more compelling, informative, and varied; reading assignments more extensive, interesting, and accessible; discussions more free ranging and challenging; and students' papers more original and well researched. Only you, however, can judge if these techniques advance your own teaching goals.

2010-06-09

4

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Document Server

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

5

Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray

1998-01-01

6

Principles of Selection for Electronic Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability in electronic format of scholarly and scientific literatures and other forms of information has altered challenges faced by library collection managers. Drawing on ideas of the multi-library consortia, which have grown up partly in response to the advent of electronic resources, librarians have devised new criteria and means of…

Metz, Paul

2000-01-01

7

Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and informative…

Tijerina, Bonnie

2008-01-01

8

Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach  

CERN Document Server

To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

Anderson, Elsa K

2014-01-01

9

Free online electronic information resources on applied science and technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses free online electronic information resources and different means of collection of the resources. The online electronic information resources on “Applied Science and Technology are compiled and linked at URL: http://www.geocities.com/ghosh_svrec and described the different free Internet resource like online electronic journals, online electronic books, online databases, organizations, virtual libraries on Applied Science and Technology and special page on earthquake info...

Ghosh, T. B.

2003-01-01

10

In utero transplantation: Disparate ramifications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In utero stem cell transplantation, which promises treatment for a host of genetic disorders early in gestation before disease effect stems from Ray Owen’s seminal observation that self-tolerance, is acquired during gestation. To date, in utero transplantation (IUT has proved useful in characterizing the hematopoietic stem cell. Recent observations support its use as an in vivo method to further understanding of self-tolerance. Preclinical development continues for its application as a treatment for childhood hematolymphoid diseases. In addition, IUT may offer therapeutic options in the treatment of diabetes among other diseases. Thus IUT serves as a technique or system important in both a basic and applied format. This review summarizes these findings.

John S Pixley

2013-01-01

11

In utero nephrostomy catheter placement.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero diagnosis of severe oligohydramnios and fetal ureteral pelvic outlet obstruction resulted in the placement of nephrostomy catheters in two fetuses. The amniotic fluid index improved, mid-chest thoracic circumference increased and renal calyceal dilation decreased in both patients. Both neonates had evidence of pulmonary hypoplasia but survived. This new technique offers an alternative for antenatal management of obstructive uropathy when the bladder is not accessible or is distal to the site of the obstruction. PMID:7818785

Pinckert, T L; Kiernan, S C

1994-01-01

12

Electronic Resource Management: Functional Integration in Technical Services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Declining usage of print materials along with increasing usage of electronic resources makes it necessary for libraries to reallocate personnel from print management to electronic resources management. Electronic resources management should be the primary focus of technical services units in the early twenty-first century. Print should no longer be treated as the default format, and the work of library staff must be reorganized and reintegrated with librarians and other professionals to refle...

Stachokas, George

2014-01-01

13

Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

2012-01-01

14

Programación in utero: un desafío / In utero programming: a challenge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: recientemente, mediante estudios epidemiológicos realizados en distintas poblaciones se ha llegado a la conclusión de que la situación nutricional durante las etapas prenatal y posnatal puede influir en la susceptibilidad del adulto a padecer intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensión, en [...] fermedad coronaria y obesidad. Actualmente, la teoría de que los factores medioambientales en el feto, y en particular la nutrición de la madre, influyen en la susceptibilidad a padecer determinadas enfermedades en el adulto, ha logrado amplio apoyo y muy especialmente, cuando el tema se ha ido trasladando al terreno de la biología molecular. Los cambios bioquímicos que ocurren durante la vida intrauterina y la etapa prenatal implican el continuo aporte de sustratos plásticos y energéticos de la madre, así como su integración. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear que una mala nutrición materna, ambiental, así como malas condiciones al nacer y durante la infancia, pueden condicionar riesgo de padecer aterosclerosis en el adulto. Métodos: se realizó una revisión exhaustiva del tema programación in utero, añadida al conocimiento en factores de riesgo aterosclerótico por investigaciones realizadas y los conocimientos adquiridos y lógicos en esta materia. Desarrollo: la relación descrita entre medidas corporales al nacer y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de la edad gestacional en los diferentes estudios desarrollados en Sheffield. Este problema puede ser bien confirmado no solo por la malnutrición por defecto de la madre sino también por otros factores bien conocidos que causan el bajo peso al nacer; además del estado nutricional de la madre existen factores intrínsecos del embarazo como la gemelaridad, anomalías cromosómicas, malformaciones congénitas, y otros asociadas a los maternos como edad, paridad, entre otros. Conclusiones: los factores macrodeterminantes y microdeterminantes in utero durante la gestación son causantes de factores de riesgo aterosclerótico no solo en la adultez, sino desde la edad escolar, esto ocurre por injurias durante las etapas embriogénica, fetal y de la infancia y no así por la medición corporal al nacer. Abstract in english Introduction : recent epidemiological studies of different populations have shown that pre- and postnatal nutrition may influence adult susceptibility to suffer from glucose intolerance, hypertension, coronary heart disease and obesity. The theory that fetal environmental factors and in particular m [...] aternal nutrition exert an influence upon the susceptibility to suffer from certain conditions in adulthood, has achieved great support, especially because the topic has gradually gained space in molecular biology. The biochemical changes occurring during the intrauterine and prenatal stages of life involve a continuous supply by the mother of plastic and energy substrates, as well as their integration. Poor maternal nutrition, a deficient environment, and bad conditions at birth and during childhood, may result in the risk to suffer from atherosclerosis in adulthood. Methods: Based on knowledge about in utero programming obtained from an exhaustive review, data about atherosclerotic risk factors drawn from research previously conducted, and information acquired about the topic. Development: The relationship described between body measurements at birth and coronary heart disease was irrespective of gestational age in the various studies conducted in Sheffield. This problem may be confirmed not only by maternal malnutrition, but other well-known factors as well, cause low weight at birth. Alongside the mother's nutritional status, other pregnancy-related factors should also be considered, such as multiple births, chromosomal anomalies, congenital malformations, maternal age, parity and others. Conclusions: In utero macro- and microdetermining factors during pregnancy cause atherosclerotic risk factors not only in adulthood, but since school age. Body me

Nuris, Rodríguez Vargas; Tania P, Martínez Pérez; Rolando, Martínez García; Mailin, Garriga Reyes; José Emilio, Fernández-Britto; Gilda, Martínez Fure.

2014-03-01

15

Bulletin of entomological research [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A journal covering agricultural entomology, medical and veterinary entomology, biological control, stored products entomology, and natural resource management. Includes taxonomic papers when relevant.

16

BBC news style guide [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representing some of BBC's accumulated wisdom surrounding the use of English in written and spoken communications, this guide was written for BBC journalists but is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to write well.

17

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-06-01

18

Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correlated with their self-efficacy scores. Through statistical analysis, we found that use of the library correlated to the students' use of the library's electronic resources. We also found out that students who express an interest in learning about the library's electronic resources will be more likely to have higher self-efficacy.

Micaela Waldman

2003-01-01

19

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

20

Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation  

Science.gov (United States)

A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

D-Lib magazine [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents "D-Lib Magazine," a monthly electronic publication related to digital libraries. Includes commentaries and news articles. Offers an archive of back issues and a site search engine. Provides access to working groups, digital library research

22

IBEX Electronic Resource for Museum Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This material is a comprehensive educational resource for informal educators highlighting the major mission information and science background for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. New for 2012, this material also includes a comprehensive overview of all of the science results released through mid-2011 and information about the IBEX satellite's orbital change in June 2011. All of this material can be modified to use with informal education audiences, including museum and planetarium visitors, afterâschool clubs, and others. It is available as PDF .zip file and as a PowerPoint .zip file. The PowerPoint .zip file contains the newlyârevised PowerPoint resource and its associated movie clips. The PDF .zip file contains a PDF version of the newly-revised PowerPoint resource, a PDF version of the Notes section for each of the slides, and the movie clips. Because movie clips cannot be embedded into the PDF slides, each movie clip file name contains its associated slide number so users can play the movie clip alongside the slide.

23

IBEX: An Electronic Resource for Museum Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This PowerPoint is a resource for museum educators that highlights the major mission information and science background for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) Mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. This PowerPoint supports a full-length planetarium show about the IBEX mission and the boundary of the Solar System. Each short activity/product helps to build awareness and engagement in the science and engineering aspects of the mission that is reinforced as visitors choose to participate in more activities, including viewing the Show and mission Web site.

Nichols, Michelle

2008-01-01

24

Biology Resources in the Electronic Age  

CERN Document Server

How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians be certain that the information a Web site provides is accurate and age appropriate? In this unique book, experienced science educator Judith A. Bazler reviews hundreds of the most reliable biology-related Web sites. Each review discusses the most appropriate grade level of the site, analyzes its accuracy and usefulness, and provides helpful hints for getting the most out of the resource.||The Web is the first place many students look for information. Yet the Web is notoriously unreliable. How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians b

Bazler, Judith

2003-01-01

25

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

26

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-11-01

27

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

28

Congenital (in utero, teratogenic) effects of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter deals with the congenital, or teratogenic, effects on the individual irradiated while the individual is in utero. The chapter is divided into 2 sections: the first examines the nonstochastic in utero effects on the central nervous system, skeleton and organ development; the second section examines the stochastic in utero induction of cancer and leukemia

29

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisati...

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

30

In utero release of constriction amniotic bands via blunt dissection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapeutic techniques for in utero release of amniotic bands have relied on transecting instruments. We present an additional technique, blunt dissection, to release a constriction band in utero. The lower extremity that had detectable abnormalities during prenatal ultrasound had improved outcome after blunt in utero release of the amniotic band compared to the contralateral (control) leg. These findings support two conjectures: first, the degree of band adherence to the fetus is an important factor influencing the surgical approach to in utero lysis of the bands; second, that in utero release of constriction bands can result in improvement in outcome. PMID:22017664

Assaf, Raymen; Llanes, Arlyn; Chmait, Ramen

2012-02-01

31

In utero repair of spina bifida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed. PMID:24819146

Moldenhauer, Julie S

2014-08-01

32

In utero incarceration of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero diagnosis of incarcerated congenital diaphragmatic hernia has never been reported. In our case, congenital diaphragmatic hernia presented at 34 weeks of gestation with dilated bowel loops, pleural effusion, and ascites on fetal ultrasound. Preterm delivery and emergency exploration revealed a tight posterolateral diaphragmatic defect with extensive bowel infarction. PMID:21376208

Cserni, Tamas; Polonkai, Edit; Torok, Olga; Nagy, Andrea; Pataki, Istvan; Long, Anna May; Cserni, Peter; Orosz, Laszlo; Balla, Gyorgy

2011-03-01

33

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

34

E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

2009-01-01

35

Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2011-01-01

36

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family ...

37

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic...

P?nar Al; Umut Al

2003-01-01

38

COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

?.?. ????????

2011-02-01

39

Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

Zhong Wenjuan

2014-01-01

40

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

Thomas Groenewald

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
41

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

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MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) Solution at York University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, d...

Aaron August Lupton; Marcia Kay Salmon

2012-01-01

43

Use and Users of Electronic Library Resources: An Overview and Analysis of Recent Research Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

This Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR) report summarizes and analyzes more than 200 recent research publications that focus on the use of electronic library resources (digital libraries and digital resources) and were published between 1995 and 2003. Eight major ongoing studies (each with multiple publications) are identified as…

Tenopir, Carol

2003-01-01

44

Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consu...

Nulman, I.; Rovet, J.; Altmann, D.; Bradley, C.; Einarson, T.; Koren, G.

1994-01-01

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Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

46

Sistema internacional sobre contaminates y residuos en alimentos [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISICRA the Spanish version of INFOCRIS provided an ideal Internet tool to improve awareness of successful case studies. SICRA uses a common set of Divisional resources to address issues from production to consumption.

47

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

48

A comparative analysis of the use of electronic resources by undergraduate students at two Kenyan universities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article compares the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures, the levels of access, and the electronic resources usage patterns at two academic libraries in Kenya. The focus is on the use by undergraduate students at the private University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB) and the public Kenyatta University (KU) of electronic resources to support formal and informal learning. The article also briefly explores the perceptions of library managers with regard to teach...

Ingutia-oyieke, Lilian; Dick, Archie L.

2010-01-01

49

Improving Electronic Resources Management (ERM): Critical Work Flow and Operations Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organization of electronic resources work flow and operations are critical in the increasingly complex world of library management. The way in which this management process is structured differs according to the type of library and organizational structure within. A common goal, though, is strategically sustaining access and availability to electronic resources over time and the effective management of the library staff that maintains them. In this joint session, librarians from George Mason ...

Appleton, Betsy; Regan, Shannon; England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2012-01-01

50

Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection  

Science.gov (United States)

Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

Downey, Kay

2012-01-01

51

Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

Kamble M.G

2012-10-01

52

In-utero exposed atomic bomb survivors: cancer risk update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is special interest in cancer risk estimates derived from the continuing follow-up of persons who were exposed in utero to radiation from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This letter updates a previous paper with five more years of observation in a cohort being studied by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The intent of the letter is to draw attention to a rather different outlook on the cancer risk associated with in-utero exposure to atomic bomb radiation than that suggested in 1988. (UK)

53

Pesticides and electronic resources for health care providers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agricultural workers are at higher risk of occupational injuries, including pesticide exposures. There is general agreement that the training of health care providers to recognize and manage such exposures is limited and in need of improvement. While the Internet presents opportunities for health care providers to access information and continue their medical education, it can be difficult to identify relevant resources in a timely manner. This case report presents a realistic scenario of a suspected pesticide exposure among symptomatic agricultural workers. The discussion that follows presents Web-based resources that health care providers can rely upon in recognizing, managing, and preventing pesticide-related illness. PMID:15927917

Sudakin, Daniel L

2005-01-01

54

Resource Sharing in the Electronic Era: Potentials and Paradoxes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses library resource sharing. Highlights include access to information, document delivery, interlibrary loan, and the social, economic, and technological complexities of new mechanisms; and traditional roles of libraries that provide both opportunities for cooperation and paradoxes for the continuation of selection, archiving, and…

Dannelly, Gay N.

1995-01-01

55

ODLIS : Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hypertext reference resource for library and information science professionals, university students and faculty, and users of all types of libraries. Includes not only the terminology of the various specializations within library science and information studies but also the vocabulary of publishing, printing, binding, the book trade, graphic arts, book history, literature, bibliography, telecommunications, and computer science.

56

Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

Barbier, Patricia

2007-01-01

57

Using the Internet Gopher Protocol to link a computerized patient record and distributed electronic resources.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At Duke University Medical Center, we are developing a prototype clinical application for automated patient care plans with integrated links to electronic documents and other electronic resources. These links are implemented using the Internet Gopher Protocol, an emerging standard for distributed document search and retrieval. Use of this protocol permits storage of electronic documents in an open, nonproprietary manner. This paper discusses the architecture of the link mechanism and presents...

Hales, J. W.; Low, R. C.; Fitzpatrick, K. T.

1993-01-01

58

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

59

Electronic information resource use: implications for teaching and library staff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within institutions of higher education, teaching staff and library-based information specialists have tended to occupy separate worlds. Although there has been some contact, in the main this has been partial and intermittent. For first-year students, one consequence of this state of affairs has been the absence of a systematic and co-ordinated strategy for enabling them to acquire, practise and develop information-gathering skills. Teaching staff have seen their role in this respect mainly in terms of issuing students with reading lists containing a mix of books and journal articles, and underlying this approach is the expectation that information specialists will be on hand to provide whatever additional help is needed to access these resources, for example through the provision of introductory talks and one-to-one support sessions. Relatively few teaching staff have incorporated library exercises into their teaching and assessment, or adopted a more creative approach to information gathering by students, such as helping them use bibliographic and other aids to prepare personalized reading lists. Consequently, when students have been required to do this at later stages of their studies, especially in the context of preparing a dissertation, they have not been adequately prepared, and often find it extremely difficult to access and evaluate information resources effectively.

Roger Ottewill

1997-12-01

60

Persistent Noggin arrests cardiomyocyte morphogenesis and results in early in utero lethality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Multiple bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) genes are expressed in the developing heart from the initiation to late-differentiation stages, and play pivotal roles in cardiovascular development. In this study, we investigated the requirement of BMP activity in heart development by transgenic over-expression of extracellular BMP antagonist Noggin. Results: Using Nkx2.5-Cre to drive lineage-restricted Noggin within cardiomyocyte progenitors, we show persistent Noggin arrests cardiac development at the linear heart stage. This is coupled with a significantly reduced cell proliferation rate, subsequent cardiomyocyte programmed cell death and reduction of downstream intracellular pSMAD1/5/8 expression. Noggin mutants exhibit reduced heartbeat which likely results in subsequent fully penetrant in utero lethality. Significantly, confocal and electron micrographic examination revealed considerably fewer contractile elements, as well as a lack of maturation of actin-myosin microfilaments. Molecular analysis demonstrated that ectopic Noggin-expressing regions in the early heart's pacemaker region, failed to express the potassium/sodium hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4 (Hcn4), resulting in an overall decrease in Hcn4 levels. Conclusions: Combined, our results reveal a novel role for BMP signaling in the progression of heart development from the tubular heart stage to the looped stage by means of regulation of proliferation and promotion of maturation of the in utero heart's contractile apparatus and pacemaker. Developmental Dynamics, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25428115

Simmons, Olga; Snider, Paige; Wang, Jain; Schwartz, Robert J; Chen, Yiping; Conway, Simon J

2014-11-26

 
 
 
 
61

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learnin...

Nerisa Kamar

2008-01-01

62

Electronic textbooks as a professional resource after dental school.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two previous studies of dental students' attitudes about the VitalSource Bookshelf, a digital library of dental textbooks, students expressed negative opinions about owning and reading electronic textbooks. With the assumption that dentists would find the digital textbooks useful for patient care, the authors surveyed recent graduates to determine if their attitude toward the VitalSource Bookshelf had changed. A brief survey was sent to 119 alumni from the classes of 2009 and 2010 of one U.S. dental school. Forty-seven (39.5 percent) completed the questionnaire. Eighteen respondents (48.3 percent) reported using the e-textbooks often or sometimes. The twenty-nine dentists who said they have not used the collection since graduation reported preferring print books or other online sources or having technical problems when downloading the books to a new computer. Only five respondents selected the VitalSource Bookshelf as a preferred source of professional information. Most of the respondents reported preferring to consult colleagues (37.8 percent), the Internet (20 percent), or hardcopy books (17.8 percent) for information. When asked in an open-ended question to state their opinion of the Bookshelf, nineteen (42.2 percent) responded positively, but almost one-third of these only liked the search feature. Six respondents reported that they never use the program. Twenty-two said they have had technical problems with the Bookshelf, including fifteen who have not been able to install it on a new computer. Many of them said they have not followed up with either the dental school or VitalSource support services to overcome this problem. Our study suggests that dentists, similar to dental students, dislike reading electronic textbooks, even with the advantage of searching a topic across more than sixty dental titles. PMID:22550109

Bates, Michael L; Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Gallo, John R

2012-05-01

63

First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than two-fold) increased risk of congenital malformations.

Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton

2013-01-01

64

Bioanalytical procedures for monitoring in utero drug exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drug use by pregnant women has been extensively associated with adverse mental, physical, and psychological outcomes in their exposed children. This manuscript reviews bioanalytical methods for in utero drug exposure monitoring for common drugs of abuse in urine, hair, oral fluid, blood, sweat, meconium, amniotic fluid, umbilical cord tissue, nails, and vernix caseosa; neonatal matrices are particularly emphasized. Advantages and limitations of testing different maternal and neonatal biologic...

Gray, Teresa; Huestis, Marilyn

2007-01-01

65

Outcome of isolated congenital complete heart block diagnosed in utero.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To establish identifiable prenatal factors in fetal heart block which might predict death in utero, the need for intervention, or the probability of pacemaker requirement. SETTING: Tertiary referral unit for fetal echocardiography. SUBJECTS: 36 fetuses with congenital complete heart block and structurally normal hearts identified between 1980 and 1993. METHODS: Maternal anti-Ro antibody status was documented. Prenatal variables examined included absolute heart (ventricular) rate, c...

Groves, A. M.; Allan, L. D.; Rosenthal, E.

1996-01-01

66

Mouse in Utero Electroporation: Controlled Spatiotemporal Gene Transfection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to understand the function of genes expressed in specific region of the developing brain, including signaling molecules and axon guidance molecules, local gene transfer or knock- out is required. Gene targeting knock-in or knock-out into local regions is possible to perform with combination with a specific CRE line, which is laborious, costly, and time consuming. Therefore, a simple transfection method, an in utero electroporation technique, which can be performed with short time,...

Matsui, Asuka; Yoshida, Aya C.; Kubota, Mayumi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Shimogori, Tomomi

2011-01-01

67

Utero-muscular twisting and sperm storage in viperids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

suggested that females store sperm after mating and prior to ovulation/fertilization by “utero-muscular twisting” (UMT).Basically, the posterior region of the uterus becomes convoluted and contracted. Previous workers have indicated that thismechanism also occurs in temperate taxa, including Agkistrodon piscivorus, and others have suggested that UMT is an ancestralreproductive strategy of viperids. The work of these authors ignores earlier histological studies that found infundibular sper...

Siegel, Dustin S.; Sever, David M.

2006-01-01

68

Immunological considerations in in utero hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (IUHCT)  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHCT) is an attractive approach and a potentially curative surgery for several congenital hematopoietic diseases. In practice, this application has succeeded only in the context of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disorders. Here, we review potential immunological hurdles for the long-term establishment of chimerism and discuss relevant models and findings from both postnatal hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and IUHCT. PMID:25610396

Loewendorf, Andrea I.; Csete, Marie; Flake, Alan

2014-01-01

69

Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2010-07-01

70

Accommodating Consortia within Electronic Resource Management Systems: Extending the ERMI Specifications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article discusses the needs of library consortia with respect to electronic resource management systems. The paper notes areas where the ERMI data dictionary fails to accommodate groups of libraries that by choice or necessity share an ERMS. The article documents areas where extension of the ERMI specifications is warranted in order to support library consortia.

Medeiros, Norm

2006-01-01

71

The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

Xiaohua Zhu

2011-06-01

72

Bit by Bit: A Series of Trends, Tools, and Initiatives Are Aimed at Improving Electronic Resource Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources are more prominent than ever in library collections, yet they resist easy management. A range of tools and cooperative efforts are emerging to improve the management and evaluation of electronic resources. Initiatives are underway to standardize and automate the harvesting of usage statistics and e-journal title and holdings…

Webster, Peter

2006-01-01

73

Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provid...

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah; Nayereh Dadkhah

2012-01-01

74

Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child’s genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and ...

Von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L.; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

2014-01-01

75

Medical Image Resource Center–making electronic teaching files from PACS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for dat...

Tchoyoson Lim, C. C.; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Hui, Francis

2003-01-01

76

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

2012-09-01

77

Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and behaviours. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure in utero and children's academic attainment, but there is a strong social gradient in maternal drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In stark contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child educational attainment. These results are very robust to an extensive set of model specifications. In addition, we show that that the effects are solely driven by the maternal genotype, with no impact of the child's genotype. PMID:25431500

von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

2014-05-01

78

Utero-muscular twisting and sperm storage in viperids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available suggested that females store sperm after mating and prior to ovulation/fertilization by “utero-muscular twisting” (UMT.Basically, the posterior region of the uterus becomes convoluted and contracted. Previous workers have indicated that thismechanism also occurs in temperate taxa, including Agkistrodon piscivorus, and others have suggested that UMT is an ancestralreproductive strategy of viperids. The work of these authors ignores earlier histological studies that found infundibular spermstorage tubules (SSTs in old world viperids Cerastes cerastes and Viperus aspis. The SSTs in these two viperids were similar tothose of harmless snakes, including some more basal (Leptotyphlophidae and Typhlopidae and others more derived(Colubridae than the Viperidae. In addition, our studies on seasonal variation in sperm storage in Agkistrodon piscivorus showsperm in infundibular SSTs in all reproductively active females and even those with fetuses in utero, with no indication ofUMT. Our histological examination of the crotalines Sisturus miliarius and Crotalus durissus indicates that SSTs occur in theseforms as well. The evidence for UMT as a sperm storage strategy needs anatomical and physiological confirmation.

Dustin S. Siegel

2006-12-01

79

Development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors in utero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The role of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous systems is well established in adults. Cholinergic modulation of vascular functions and body fluid balance has been extensively studied. In the embryo-fetus, cholinergic receptors are widespread in the peripheral and central systems, in [...] cluding smooth muscle and the epithelial lining of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems, as well as in the brain. Fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors develop in a pattern (e.g., amount and distribution) related to gestational periods. Cholinergic mechanisms have been found to be relatively intact and functional in the control of vascular homeostasis during fetal life in utero at least during the last third of gestation. This review focuses on the development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors, and provides information indicating that central cholinergic systems are well developed in the control of fetal blood pressure and body fluid balance before birth. Therefore, the development of cholinergic systems in utero plays an important role in fetal vascular regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and urinary control.

C., Mao; J., Lv; H., Li; Y., Chen; J., Wu; Z., Xu.

2007-05-01

80

Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Teachers' Link to Electronic Resources in the Library Media Center: A Local Study of Awareness, Knowledge, and Influence  

Science.gov (United States)

High school students often use online databases and the Internet in the school library media center (SLMC) to complete teachers' assignments. This case study used a survey to assess teachers' awareness of electronic resources, and to determine whether their directions influence student use of these resources in the SLMC. Participants were teachers…

Williams, Teresa D.; Grimble, Bonnie J.; Irwin, Marilyn

2004-01-01

82

Semanti?ki veb i elektronski izvori informacija-SEMANTIC WEB AND ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The usage of electronic resources depends on good possibilities of searching and concept of the Semantic Web can be convenient solution for information retrieval (IR). WWW (World Wide Web) enables, with help of the search engines and huge number of available (meta)information, data that can satisfy user information need, but only at some extent. At the same time, there are more and more research efforts to increase the efficiency for IR until one gets as much as relevant information on the We...

Radovanovic, Danica

2003-01-01

83

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom

2007-01-01

84

Spinal neural tube defects on in utero MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinal neural tube defects are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which remain relatively common, with a prevalence of 1–2 per 1000 live births despite advances in maternal antenatal care. They range from mild disorders with limited neurodevelopmental sequelae to extensive abnormalities with significant morbidity and mortality. The advent of in utero magnetic resonance imaging has enabled accurate anatomical characterization of an increasing number of abnormalities with increasing confidence. Recognition of the salient radiological features of these disorders and their relationship to the embryogenesis of the spinal cord and its coverings is now possible. This review describes the radiological appearances of these disorders with examples from Fetal Imaging Unit, University of Sheffield to illustrate the key anatomical and radiological features to aid the radiologist in their recognition

85

Studies of children in utero during atomic bomb detonations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mortality and morbidity surveillance of about 1,800 children exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been and continues to be undertaken at RERF. While an increased frequency of mental retardation associated with exposure to radiation during the 8th through 15th week of gestation age has been well documented, late effects on cancer risk among these children remain to be determined through continued follow-up of the subjects. The two dozen cancer cases observed thus far represent less than 10% of the cases to be expected through the lifetime of these children. This presentation provides epidemiologic characteristics of the children, and summarizes cancer risk in 1946--89. It seems unlikely that a large excess of leukemia will appear in later life. However, for solid tumors, further careful study will be needed since these subjects are now entering the cancer-prone ages

86

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

Wajeeh M. Daher

2010-12-01

87

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

Itunu Bamidele

2012-06-01

88

In utero Transplanted Human Hepatocytes Allows for Postnatal Engraftment of Human Hepatocytes in Pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In utero cell transplantation (IUCT) can lead to postnatal engraftment of human cells in the xenogeneic recipient. Most reports of IUCTs have involved hematopoietic stem cells. It is unknown if human hepatocytes used for IUCT in fetal pigs will lead to engraftment of these same cells in the postnatal environment. In this study, fetal pigs received direct liver injections of 1×107 human hepatocytes in utero and were delivered by cesarean-section at term. Piglets received a second direct liver...

Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Mckenzie, Travis J.; Rodysill, Brian R.; Wettstein, Peter J.; Nyberg, Scott L.

2013-01-01

89

Cancer Mortality Following In Utero Exposure Among Offspring of Female Mayak Worker Cohort Members  

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Little is known about long-term cancer risks following in utero radiation exposure. We evaluated the association between in utero radiation exposure and risk of solid cancer and leukemia mortality among 8,000 offspring, born from 1948–1988, of female workers at the Mayak Nuclear Facility in Ozyorsk, Russia. Mother’s cumulative gamma radiation uterine dose during pregnancy served as a surrogate for fetal dose. We used Poisson regression methods to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% conf...

Schonfeld, S. J.; Tsareva, Y. V.; Preston, D. L.; Okatenko, P. V.; Gilbert, E. S.; Ron, E.; Sokolnikov, M. E.; Koshurnikova, N. A.

2012-01-01

90

Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

1980-01-01

91

Cancer mortality following in utero exposure among offspring of female Mayak Worker Cohort members.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about long-term cancer risks following in utero radiation exposure. We evaluated the association between in utero radiation exposure and risk of solid cancer and leukemia mortality among 8,000 offspring, born from 1948-1988, of female workers at the Mayak Nuclear Facility in Ozyorsk, Russia. Mother's cumulative gamma radiation uterine dose during pregnancy served as a surrogate for fetal dose. We used Poisson regression methods to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of solid cancer and leukemia mortality associated with in utero radiation exposure and to quantify excess relative risks (ERRs) as a function of dose. Using currently available dosimetry information, 3,226 (40%) offspring were exposed in utero (mean dose = 54.5 mGy). Based on 75 deaths from solid cancers (28 exposed) and 12 (6 exposed) deaths from leukemia, in utero exposure status was not significantly associated with solid cancer: RR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.49; ERR/Gy = -0.1 (95% CI leukemia mortality; RR = 1.65, 95% CI 0.52 to 5.27; ERR/Gy = -0.8 (95% CI radiation exposure increases solid cancer or leukemia mortality risk, but the data are not inconsistent with such an increase. As the offspring cohort is relatively young, subsequent analyses based on larger case numbers are expected to provide more precise estimates of adult cancer mortality risk following in utero exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:22799629

Schonfeld, S J; Tsareva, Y V; Preston, D L; Okatenko, P V; Gilbert, E S; Ron, E; Sokolnikov, M E; Koshurnikova, N A

2012-09-01

92

Long-term consequences of low-level irradiation of rats in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant rats were irradiated on gestational day 15 with whole-body doses of 25, 50, 75, or 100 rads of either 250 KVP X-rays or Cs-137 ?-rads. Postnatal growth and preweaning behavior rate delayed in a dose-dependent manner. Pituitary cells show enlarged nuclei and cell diameters in both acidophils and basophils. Electron microscopy of pituitary cells shows vesiculated cytoplasm and dilated endoplasmic reticulum characteristic of hypersecretory activity. Changes in the ovaries were detectable at 4 months after high radiation doses. Large cystic follicles and a reduction in the number of smaller follicles were observed. More atresia was seen after large doses than after small doses. Multiple sets of corporalutea were observed indicating ovarian cyclicity. The authors conclude that in utero irradiation of rats produces significant, dose-dependent changes in growth and development. Doses as low as 25 rads result in demonstrable effects in all animals studied. The low doses required and the consistent nature of the lesions observed implies that the long-term effects of fetal irradiation are not only due to the loss of a few cells during fetal development, but also to an overall perturbation of the hormonal regulatory systems responsible for growth and development

93

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

94

Genetic-algorithm-based optimization of a fuzzy logic resource manager for electronic attack  

Science.gov (United States)

A fuzzy logic based expert system has been developed that automatically allocates electronic attack (EA) resources in real-time over many dissimilar platforms. The platforms can be very general, e.g., ships, planes, robots, land based facilities, etc. Potential foes the platforms deal with can also be general. This paper describes data mining activities related to development of the resource manager with a focus on genetic algorithm based optimization. A genetic algorithm requires the construction of a fitness function, a function that must be maximized to give optimal or near optimal results. The fitness functions are in general non- differentiable at many points and highly non-linear, neither property providing difficulty for a genetic algorithm. The fitness functions are constructed using insights from geometry, physics, engineering, and military doctrine. Examples are given as to how fitness functions are constructed including how the fitness function is averaged over a database of military scenarios. The use of a database of scenarios prevents the algorithm from having too narrow a range of behaviors, i.e., it creates a more robust solution.

Smith, James F., III; Rhyne, Robert D., II

2000-04-01

95

Hemophilia A: an ideal disease to correct in utero  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemophilia A (HA) is the most frequent inheritable defect of the coagulation proteins. The current standard of care for patients with HA is prophylactic factor infusion, which is comprised of regular (2–3 times per week) intravenous infusions of recombinant or plasma-derived FVIII to maintain hemostasis. While this treatment has greatly increased the quality of life and lengthened the life expectancy for many HA patients, its high cost, the need for lifelong infusions, and the fact that it is unavailable to roughly 75% of the world's HA patients make this type of treatment far from ideal. In addition, this lifesaving therapy suffers from a high risk of treatment failure due to immune response to the infused FVIII. There is thus a need for novel treatments, such as those using stem cells and/or gene therapy, which have the potential to mediate long-term correction or permanent cure following a single intervention. In the present review, we discuss the clinical feasibility and unique advantages that an in utero approach to treating HA could offer, placing special emphasis on a new sheep model of HA we have developed and on the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as cellular vehicles for delivering the FVIII gene. PMID:25566073

Porada, Christopher D.; Rodman, Christopher; Ignacio, Glicerio; Atala, Anthony; Almeida-Porada, Graça

2014-01-01

96

Fetal cerebral responses to ventilation and oxygenation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) increases by nearly 50% at birth. The perinatal factors responsible for this increase are unknown; however, one possibility is that fetal CMRO2 is constrained by the normal intrauterine arterial Po2 (Pa02) of ?20 mmHg. The authors investigated this possibility in seven near-term chronically instrumented fetal sheep (131-138 days gestation) in which they inserted vascular catheters and an endotracheal tube. After 1-3 days recovery, they measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) with radiolabeled microspheres and calculated CMRO2. Measurements were made in utero under three conditions for each fetus: (1) nonventilated control; (2) ventilation with 3% O2-5% CO2-92% N2; and (3) ventilation with an inspired oxygen concentration sufficient to raise fetal Pa02 to normal newborn levels. The results showed that increasing fetal arterial Po2 to postnatal levels did not consistently increase CMRO2. CBF decreased as arterial O2 content (Ca02) rose, with an inverse hyperbolic response similar to that previously found to relate CBF to Ca02 during fetal hypoxic hypoxia. This indicates that the normally low intrauterine Pa02 does not intrinsically limit CMRO2 and implies that the rapid increasesub> and implies that the rapid increase in CMRO2 at birth reflects the activation of specific cellular and physiological processes at (or near) this unique developmental event

97

Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource

Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

98

Clinical application of an improved utero-operator in the interventional treatment of infertility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an improved utero-operator in the interventional treatment of tube obstruction infertility, and to make a comparison with other methods. Methods: One hundred cases of infertile women with tubal obstruction were divided into 3 groups and treated separately under TV fluoroscopy with 3 different methods and follow-up examination was made up to 24 months. Among the 100 cases, 60 cases were treated with improved utero-operator (109 tubes), 20 with Cook cupped coaxial catheter (36 tubes), and 20 with emulsoid double-cavity tube (20 tubes). Result: Among the improved utero-operator group, Cook cupped coaxial catheter group, and emulsoid double-cavity tube group, the successful rate of selective catheterization was 92.7%, 80.6% and 80.0%, respectively. The successful rate of recanalization was 72.3%, 72.4% and 71.4%, respectively. The pregnancy rate was 36.4%, 35.7% and 36.4%, respectively. Improved utero-operator has the highest successful rate in selective catheterization (x2 = 4.275, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improved utero-operator has a high successful rate of selective catheterization in selective salpingography and treatment of tube obstruction infertility, and it is an easy and stable method which spends less time and received less X-ray. It is an ideal treating method at the moment

99

Management of the adolescent girl exposed in utero to DES.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attention in this discussion of the management of the adolescent girl exposed "in utero" to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is directed to the following: history; scope of the problem; pathogenesis/embryology; management; future fertility; squamous cell carcinoma; and male factors. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, estrogen deficiency was thought to play a role in the high fetal death rate among pregnant diabetic women. DES was 1st used in diabetics and soon thereafter in patients who were threatening to miscarry, who had previous stillbirths, and previous spontaneous abortions. Estrogens were used by some physicians through the late 1960s. In 1970 Herbst and Scully reported 7 carcinomas of the vagina in young women. On careful review, it was found that the mothers of these young women with clear-cell cancer had been treated with DES at various stages of their pregnancies. Subsequent investigation led to the discovery of the condition of vaginal adenosis in many young women exposed "in utero" to DES. It is estimated that 80-90% of patients exposed to intrauterine DES will show gross and microscopic evidence of vaginal and cervical adenosis. It is now felt by most authorities that adenosis coexists with the clear-cell cancer rather than preceding the tumor. A clear-cell tumor registry has been established and, to date, over 400 cases have been registered. The age-range of DES-exposed clear-cell carcinoma is between 7 and 31 years of age. The care of a girl exposed to DES begins when the physician is informed that the patient's mother either received the medication or there was any possibility of such medication. If bleeding occurs before the menarche, the patient should be hospitalized and examined under anesthesia. In the women of menstrual age, management has been somewhat controversial. The use of the colposcope has allowed careful initial examination of the cervix and vagina as well as providing an excellent means of follow-up. The colposcope has been very helpful in delineating the changes caused by DES. There are numerous gross findings that represent adenosis. These include the cervical changes of the "cockscomb" or anterior cervical ridge or "hood," a cervix within a cervix, and a hermicervix. With the colposcope, the areas of adenosis are seen as grape-like projections which, on biopsy, represent columnar epithelium. Areas of metaplastic squamous tissue are easily identified. On occasion dysplasia can occur in areas of adenosis. Of equal importance is the digital examination of the vagina. At this time it is felt that adenosis requires no other treatment than observations. The treatment of clear-cell carcinoma of the vagina or cervix is best determined by a gynecologic oncologist. 80% of DES patients have had live births. PMID:7335401

Gerbie, M V

1981-12-01

100

Assessing environmental chemical uptake in fetal brain in utero. A preliminary PET/CT study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exposure to several environmental chemicals in utero is associated with subtle deleterious effects in cognitive, motor and behavioral functions. In order to assess in utero exposure to possible neurotoxins, fetal brain uptake of an exogenous compound given to a pregnant rhesus macaque was investigated using PET/CT imaging. CT clearly delineated the fetus which allowed the time course of the PET tracer in the fetal brain and other organs to be monitored. This study demonstrates the feasibility of quantifying the absolute fetal uptake of chemicals given systemically to the mother. (author)

 
 
 
 
101

In utero and peripubertal exposure to phthalates and BPA in relation to female sexual maturation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The age of pubertal onset for girls has declined over past decades. Research suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play a role but exposure at multiple stages of development has not been considered. We examined in utero and peripubertal exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates in relation to serum hormones and sexual maturation among females in a Mexico City birth cohort. We measured phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations in urine collected from mothers during their third trimester (n=116) and from their female children at ages 8-13 years (n=129). Among girls, we measured concurrent serum hormone concentrations, Tanner stages for breast and pubic hair development, and collected information on menarche onset. We used linear and logistic regression to model associations between in utero and peripubertal measures of exposure with hormones and sexual maturation, respectively, controlling for covariates. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in in utero urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) was positively associated with 29% (95% CI: 9.2-52.6%) higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), an early indicator of adrenarche, and 5.3 (95% CI: 1.13-24.9) times higher odds of a Tanner stage >1 for pubic hair development. Similar relationships were observed with other in utero but not peripubertal di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolites. IQR increases in in utero monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) and monoethyl phthalate (MEP) were associated with 29% and 25% higher serum testosterone concentrations (95% CI: 4.3-59.3; 2.1-54.1), respectively. In addition, we observed suggestive associations between in utero and peripubertal MEP concentrations and increased odds of having undergone menarche, and between peripubertal MnBP concentrations and increased odds of having a Tanner stage >1 for both breast and pubic hair development. BPA was not associated with in utero or peripubertal serum hormones or sexual maturation. Our findings suggest in utero phthalate exposure may impact hormone concentrations during peripubescence and timing of sexual maturation. Efforts to control phthalate exposure during pregnancy should be of high priority. PMID:25173057

Watkins, Deborah J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Ferguson, Kelly K; Lee, Joyce M; Solano-Gonzalez, Maritsa; Blank-Goldenberg, Clara; Peterson, Karen E; Meeker, John D

2014-10-01

102

Illness during Pregnancy and Bacterial Vaginosis are Associated with In Utero HIV-1 Transmission  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20–30% of vertical transmission events in breastfeeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in utero HIV-1 transmission (95% CI 1.2, 5.8) and bacterial vaginosis with a 3-fold increase (95% CI 1.0–7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention...

Farquhar, Carey; Mbori-ngacha, Dorothy; Overbaugh, Julie; Wamalwa, Dalton; Harris, Jennifer; Bosire, Rose; John-stewart, Grace

2010-01-01

103

Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

2012-07-01

104

Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma diagnosed in a phetus in utero by prenatal ultrasound in a 20-year-old woman on the 22nd week of pregnancy is reported. The follow-up by fetal echography allowed to evaluate the case. Abortion was induced and the diagnosis was confirmed. The study of the mother at the Genetics Department concluded that she was carrier of tuberous sclerosis.

Adis L. Peña Cedeño

2001-01-01

105

Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple ...

Pen?a Ceden?o, Adis L.; Nancy Vasallo Pastor; Abel Faure Berty Pérez

2001-01-01

106

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

Daher, Wajeeh M.; Ali Shaqour

2010-01-01

107

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

???89-102

???????????

2007-04-01

108

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

109

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

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This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

110

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

Soto Giselle

2008-11-01

111

The effects of in utero irradiation on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of prenatal irradiation can manifest during childhood, resulting in an increased risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth. However, the mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of foetal irradiation remain poorly understood. This study was designed to analyse the impact of in utero irradiation on mutation rates at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci in directly exposed mice and their first-generation (F1) offspring. ESTR mutation frequencies in the germline and somatic tissues of male and female mice irradiated at 12 days of gestation remained highly elevated during adulthood, which was mainly attributed to a significant increase in the frequency of singleton mutations. The prevalence of singleton mutations in directly exposed mice suggests that foetal irradiation results in genomic instability manifested both in utero and during adulthood. The frequency of ESTR mutation in the F1 offspring of prenatally irradiated male mice was equally elevated across all tissues, which suggests that foetal exposure results in transgenerational genomic instability. In contrast, maternal in utero exposure did not affect the F1 stability. Our data imply that the passive erasure of epigenetic marks in the maternal genome can diminish the transgenerational effects of foetal irradiation and therefore provide important clues to the still unknown mechanisms of radiation-induceill unknown mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability. The results of this study offer a plausible explanation for the effects of in utero irradiation on the risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth.

112

The effects of in utero irradiation on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of prenatal irradiation can manifest during childhood, resulting in an increased risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth. However, the mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of foetal irradiation remain poorly understood. This study was designed to analyse the impact of in utero irradiation on mutation rates at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci in directly exposed mice and their first-generation (F{sub 1}) offspring. ESTR mutation frequencies in the germline and somatic tissues of male and female mice irradiated at 12 days of gestation remained highly elevated during adulthood, which was mainly attributed to a significant increase in the frequency of singleton mutations. The prevalence of singleton mutations in directly exposed mice suggests that foetal irradiation results in genomic instability manifested both in utero and during adulthood. The frequency of ESTR mutation in the F{sub 1} offspring of prenatally irradiated male mice was equally elevated across all tissues, which suggests that foetal exposure results in transgenerational genomic instability. In contrast, maternal in utero exposure did not affect the F{sub 1} stability. Our data imply that the passive erasure of epigenetic marks in the maternal genome can diminish the transgenerational effects of foetal irradiation and therefore provide important clues to the still unknown mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability. The results of this study offer a plausible explanation for the effects of in utero irradiation on the risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth.

Barber, Ruth C.; Hardwick, Robert J.; Shanks, Morag E.; Glen, Colin D.; Mughal, Safeer K.; Voutounou, Mariel [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2009-05-12

113

Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females. In contrast, a statistically significant increase in the mutation frequency of male mice exposed in utero to DEP was observed (2-fold; Fisher's exact p < 0.05). Thus, maternal exposure to DEP results in increased mutation in sperm during development.

Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

114

EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1 1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort...

115

Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation.

Anthony Al-Khan

2002-01-01

116

In utero dimethadione exposure causes postnatal disruption in cardiac structure and function in the rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure of rat embryos to dimethadione (DMO), the N-demethylated teratogenic metabolite of the anticonvulsant trimethadione, induces a high incidence of cardiac heart defects including ventricular septal defects (VSDs). The same exposure regimen also leads to in utero cardiac functional deficits, including bradycardia, dysrhythmia, and a reduction in cardiac output (CO) and ejection fraction that persist until parturition (10 days after the final dose). Despite a high rate of spontaneous postnatal VSD closure, we hypothesize that functional sequelae will persist into adulthood. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were administered six 300?mg/kg doses of DMO, one every 12?h in mid-pregnancy beginning on the evening of gestation day 8. Postnatal cardiac function was assessed in control (CTL) and DMO-exposed offspring using radiotelemetry and ultrasound at 3 and 11 months of age, respectively. Adult rats exposed to DMO in utero had an increased incidence of arrhythmia, elevated blood pressure and CO, greater left ventricular volume and elevated locomotor activity versus CTL. The mean arterial pressure of DMO-exposed rats was more sensitive to changes in dietary salt load compared with CTL. Importantly, most treated rats had functional deficits in the absence of a persistent structural defect. It was concluded that in utero DMO exposure causes cardiovascular deficits that persist into postnatal life in the rat, despite absence of visible structural anomalies. We speculate this is not unique to DMO, suggesting possible health implications for infants with unrecognized gestational chemical exposures. PMID:25239635

Aasa, Kristiina L; Purssell, Elizabeth; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

2014-12-01

117

The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

Barreca, Alan I.

2010-01-01

118

PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero. Cherrington JW, Chernoff N. Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

119

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality

120

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality.

Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

2013-10-15

 
 
 
 
121

Does in utero exposure to Illness matter? The 1918 influenza epidemic in Taiwan as a natural experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper tests whether in utero conditions affect long-run developmental outcomes using the 1918 influenza pandemic in Taiwan as a natural experiment. Combining several historical and current datasets, we find that cohorts in utero during the pandemic are shorter as children/adolescents and less educated compared to other birth cohorts. We also find that they are more likely to have serious health problems including kidney disease, circulatory and respiratory problems, and diabetes in old age. Despite possible positive selection on health outcomes due to high infant mortality rates during this period (18%), our paper finds a strong negative impact of in utero exposure to influenza. PMID:24997382

Lin, Ming-Jen; Liu, Elaine M

2014-09-01

122

Building and Managing of Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two library of Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) and Information Centre and Library (ICL) of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research) (NIV-ICMR). It covers the processes for acquiring/subscribing various e-resources, get access under UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium/Electronic Resources in Medicine (ERMED), including free databases available and developing e-resources...

Sahu, Hemant Kumar; Singh, Surya Nath

2014-01-01

123

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

124

Does in utero Exposure to Illness Matter? The 1918 Influenza Epidemic in Taiwan as a Natural Experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper uses the 1918 influenza pandemic in Taiwan as a natural experiment to test whether in utero conditions affect long-run developmental outcomes. Combining several historical and current datasets, we find that cohorts in utero during the pandemic are shorter as child/teenagers, less educated, and more likely to have serious health problems, including kidney disease, circulatory, respiratory problems, and diabetes in old age, than other birth cohorts. Despite the possible positive sele...

Lin, Ming-jen; Liu, Elaine M.

2014-01-01

125

Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

Rahman, Md Anisur

2011-01-01

126

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

127

MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

Blumberg, Roger B.

128

Impact of Electronic Resources on Collection Development, the Roles of Librarians, and Library Consortia.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the purchase of virtual resources accelerates, particularly through consortial agreements, the autonomy of the local library will fade and the roles of librarians will change drastically. This rapid transformation is illustrated by a discussion of OhioLINK and its positive and negative effects on one member library. (Contains 21 references.)…

Thornton, Glenda A.

2000-01-01

129

Obstruction of the fetal urinary tract: a role for surgical intervention in utero?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obstruction of the lower urinary tract was diagnosed by ultrasound in 11 fetuses. One pregnancy was therapeutically aborted. Four of the neonates died within 48 hours because of pronounced pulmonary hypoplasia, which is associated with obstruction of the urinary tract. The remaining six survived with adequate renal function but one, now aged 4, is obviously too small for his age. Intervention in utero for obstruction of the urinary tract is safe, but those fetuses for whom it is appropriate c...

Thomas, D. F.

1984-01-01

130

In utero exposure to low doses of environmental pollutants disrupts fetal ovarian development in sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiological studies of the impact of environmental chemicals on reproductive health demonstrate consequences of exposure but establishing causative links requires animal models using ‘real life’ in utero exposures. We aimed to determine whether prolonged, low-dose, exposure of pregnant sheep to a mixture of environmental chemicals affects fetal ovarian development. Exposure of treated ewes (n = 7) to pollutants was maximized by surface application of processed sewage sludge to pasture...

Fowler, Paul A.; Dora?, Natalie J.; Mcferran, Helen; Amezaga, Maria R.; Miller, David W.; Lea, Richard G.; Cash, Phillip; Mcneilly, Alan S.; Evans, Neil P.; Cotinot, Corinne; Sharpe, Richard M.; Rhind, Stewart M.

2008-01-01

131

Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates possible (re-)constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with material...

Collins, Paul M.

2010-01-01

132

Natural selection in utero induced by mass layoffs: the hCG evidence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evolutionary theory, when coupled with research from epidemiology, demography, and population endocrinology, suggests that contracting economies affect the fitness and health of human populations via natural selection in utero. We know, for example, that fetal death increases more among males than females when the economy unexpectedly contracts; that unexpected economic contraction predicts low secondary sex ratios; and that males from low sex ratio birth cohorts live, on average, longer than...

Catalano, Ralph; Margerison-zilko, Claire; Goldman-mellor, Sidra; Pearl, Michelle; Anderson, Elizabeth; Saxton, Katherine; Bruckner, Tim; Subbaraman, Meenakshi; Goodman, Julia; Epstein, Mollie; Currier, Robert; Kharrazi, Martin

2012-01-01

133

Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation. CASE: This is a case presentation of a pregnant patient who received varicella vaccination during the same menstrual cycle that she became pregnant, and is supplemented by a literary review. The fe...

Anthony Al-Khan; Leslie Iffy; Vijaya Ganesh; Joseph Apuzzio

2002-01-01

134

In utero transmission of Mycoplasma pulmonis in experimentally infected Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Genital mycoplasmosis is important as an animal model for the interaction between infectious agents and the host during pregnancy as well as in its own right as a confounding variable affecting research projects in which the rat is used as a model to study reproductive function and physiology. We report the in utero transmission of Mycoplasma pulmonis and the development of placentitis, amnionitis, and mild fetal bronchopneumonia in Sprague-Dawley rats. A minimum of 10 days prior to breeding,...

Steiner, D. A.; Uhl, E. W.; Brown, M. B.

1993-01-01

135

Percutaneous angio-embolization of a post laparoscopy complex utero-adenexal vascular malformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vascular abnormalities are uncommon causes of uterine bleeding. Laparoscopic surgeries, however, require expertise and improper techniques can lead to major vascular complications. We report an unusual case of utero-adenexal arterio- venous fistula with arterio - venous malformation due to pelvic trauma caused during laparoscopic sterilisation procedure, which was treated by percutaneous embolisation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of such a complex vascular injury caused by laparoscopic sterilisation and its endovascular management

Verma Ashish

2008-01-01

136

Percutaneous angio-embolization of a post laparoscopy complex utero-adenexal vascular malformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vascular abnormalities are uncommon causes of uterine bleeding. Laparoscopic surgeries, however, require expertise and improper techniques can lead to major vascular complications. We report an unusual case of utero-adenexal arterio- venous fistula with arterio - venous malformation due to pelvic trauma caused during laparoscopic sterilisation procedure, which was treated by percutaneous embolisation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of such a complex va...

Verma Ashish; Mohan Suyash; Chandra Tripti; Kathuria Manoj; Baijal Sanjay

2008-01-01

137

Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain in utero: Methods and applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to the live fetus in utero is a relatively recent endeavor. The relative advantages and disadvantages of clinical MRI relative to the widely used and accepted ultrasonographic approach are the subject of a continuing debate; however the focus of this review is on the even younger field of quantitative MRI as applied to non-invasive studies of fetal brain development. The techniques covered under this header include structural M...

Biegon, Anat; Hoffmann, Chen

2014-01-01

138

In utero arsenic exposure and infant infection in a United States cohort: A prospective study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arsenic (As), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant, has recently been linked to disrupted immune function and enhanced infection susceptibility in highly exposed populations. Drinking water As levels above the EPA maximum contaminant level occur in our US study area and are a particular health concern for pregnant women and infants. As part of the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study, we investigated whether in utero exposure to As affects risk of infant infections. We prospectively obtained infor...

Farzan, Shohreh F.; Korrick, Susan; Li, Zhigang; Enelow, Richard; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Madan, Juliette; Nadeau, Kari; Karagas, Margaret R.

2013-01-01

139

The effect of genotype and in utero environment on interindividual variation in neonate DNA methylomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating the genotype with epigenetic marks holds the promise of better understanding the biology that underlies the complex interactions of inherited and environmental components that define the developmental origins of a range of disorders. The quality of the in utero environment significantly influences health over the lifecourse. Epigenetics, and in particular DNA methylation marks, have been postulated as a mechanism for the enduring effects of the prenatal environment. Accordingly, neonate methylomes contain molecular memory of the individual in utero experience. However, interindividual variation in methylation can also be a consequence of DNA sequence polymorphisms that result in methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) and, potentially, the interaction between fixed genetic variation and environmental influences. We surveyed the genotypes and DNA methylomes of 237 neonates and found 1423 punctuate regions of the methylome that were highly variable across individuals, termed variably methylated regions (VMRs), against a backdrop of homogeneity. MethQTLs were readily detected in neonatal methylomes, and genotype alone best explained ?25% of the VMRs. We found that the best explanation for 75% of VMRs was the interaction of genotype with different in utero environments, including maternal smoking, maternal depression, maternal BMI, infant birth weight, gestational age, and birth order. Our study sheds new light on the complex relationship between biological inheritance as represented by genotype and individual prenatal experience and suggests the importance of considering both fixed genetic variation and environmental factors in interpreting epigenetic variation. PMID:24709820

Teh, Ai Ling; Pan, Hong; Chen, Li; Ong, Mei-Lyn; Dogra, Shaillay; Wong, Johnny; MacIsaac, Julia L.; Mah, Sarah M.; McEwen, Lisa M.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Soh, Shu-E.; Chong, Mary F.F.; Barton, Sheila; Karnani, Neerja; Cheong, Clara Y.; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Stünkel, Walter; Kobor, Michael S.; Meaney, Michael J.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Holbrook, Joanna D.

2014-01-01

140

Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer. PMID:24637845

Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

In utero arsenic exposure and fetal immune repertoire in a US pregnancy cohort.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic has wide-ranging effects on human health and there is evidence that it alters the immune response by influencing CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratios, IL-2 cytokine levels, and the expression of immune-response genes. We investigated the impact of in utero environmental arsenic exposure on immune development and function in newborns participating in a pregnancy cohort in New Hampshire, U.S., where arsenic levels have exceeded the current EPA maximum contaminant level of 10 ?g/L. Our results showed that maternal urinary arsenic concentrations were inversely related to absolute total CD45RA+ CD4+ cord blood CD69+ T cell counts (N=116, p=0.04) and positively associated with CD45RA+ CD69- CD294+ cell counts (p=0.01). In placental samples (N=70), higher in utero urinary arsenic concentrations were positively associated with the expression of IL1? (p=0.03). These data provide evidence that relatively low-level arsenic exposure in utero may alter the fetal immune system and lead to immune dysregulation. PMID:25229165

Nadeau, Kari C; Li, Zhigang; Farzan, Shohreh; Koestler, Devin; Robbins, David; Fei, Dennis Liang; Malipatlolla, Meena; Maecker, Holden; Enelow, Richard; Korrick, Susan; Karagas, Margaret R

2014-12-01

142

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar

2013-06-01

143

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources...

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

2012-01-01

144

Searching Electronic Resources on Internet : Tools for Researchers And Library Professional  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this Internet Era Libraries & Information Centers increasingly being called upon to provide more relevant, up-to-date and timely information to a wide range of users. To satisfy the varied needs, they require availability and accessibility to a variety of information resources and formats ( such as digital, full text, sound, graphics, images, multimedia & hypertext as well as printed documents). To cope with the new technology library professionals and the researchers should developed hims...

Lokhande, Rahul

2010-01-01

145

In Utero DDT and DDE Exposure and Obesity Status of 7-Year-Old Mexican-American Children in the CHAMACOS Cohort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been hypothesized to increase risk of obesity later in life.

Warner, Marcella; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana; Eskenazi, Brenda

2013-01-01

146

Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

2012-06-01

147

In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets. Phagocytic capacity of blood monocytes against Salmonella bacteria was investigated by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst in blood monocytes and in alveolar lung macrophages was investigated by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Decreased phagocytosis against Salmonella was found in blood monocytes from 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets compared to controls. In contrast, 2-week-old infected piglets showed phagocytic responses comparable to age matched control piglets. While oxidative burst capacity was increased in blood (PBMC) from in utero PRRSV infected piglets, the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar lung macrophages was decreased, especially in 2- and 4-week-old piglets, compared to age-matched control piglets. The present results indicate that in utero infection with PRRSV inhibits phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar macrophages. These observations indicate that PRRSV in utero infection induces at state of immunosuppression in piglets paving the way for enhanced secondary infections.

Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens

2004-01-01

148

Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is stated that induction of neoplastic transformation in vitro by x-rays and neutrons has been reported, and the authors had previously found that transformation by x-rays could be detected at doses as low as 1 R and the rate of transformation increased with dose, reaching a peak of 1% between 150 and 300 R. This frequency of neoplastic transformation in vitro is much higher than the frequency of radiation induced tumors observed after exposing animals to similar doses of radiation. Studies are here reported showing that malignant transformed cells can be obtained from embryos irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro, and that the frequency of transformation is at least tenfold lower than when the irradiations are performed in vitro, and thus closer to the incidence in animals. Hamster embryo cells were used for the studies. Questions that arise are as follows: does the host mediate in modulating transformation by radiation; is there a repair of transforming events before they can be expressed; and how significant is the state of cells during irradiation in determining the rate of transformation. It is known from in vitro studies that cell replication is required for fixation of the transformation. With the in vitro technique cells are seeded as single cells with ample opportunity to divide. In addition they are not in contact with one another, and constitute a mixture of cell types from many tissues. In utero the situation is quite different; the embryonic cells a is quite different; the embryonic cells are irradiated as tissues where there is cell to cell contact in tissue-specific arrangements, and where the rate of cell replication varies with the tissue. It remains to be seen which of these factors, if any, is responsible for the lowered yield of transformed cells characteristic of in utero as opposed to in vitro irradiation. (U.K.)

149

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Persistent organochlorine pollutants are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier - thus the developing fetus is exposed in utero. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with sons' semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen- and blood samples that were analysed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. Maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30 were analysed for concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. Potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/mL), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/mL), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/mL, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/mL, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/mL, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health, however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine modulating compounds may have adverse effects.

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst

2014-01-01

150

Developmental disruptions and behavioral impairments in rats following in utero RNAi of Dyx1c1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental malformations of cortex have been shown to co-occur with language, learning, and other cognitive deficits in humans. Rodent models have repeatedly shown that animals with such developmental malformations have deficits related to auditory processing and learning. More specifically, freeze-lesion induced microgyria as well as molecular layer ectopias have been found to impair rapid auditory processing ability in rats and mice. In humans, deficits in rapid auditory processing appear to relate to later impairments of language. Recently, genetic variants of four different genes involved in early brain development have been proposed to associate with an elevated incidence of developmental dyslexia in humans. Three of these, DYX1C1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319, have been shown by in utero RNAi to play a role in neuronal migration in developing neocortex. The present study assessed the effects of in utero RNAi of Dyx1c1 on auditory processing and spatial learning in rats. Results indicate that RNAi of Dyx1c1 is associated with cortical heterotopia and is suggestive of an overall processing deficit of complex auditory stimuli in both juvenile and adult periods (p=.051, one-tail). In contrast, adult data alone reveal a significant processing impairment among RNAi treated subjects compared to shams, indicating an inability for RNAi treated subjects to improve detection of complex auditory stimuli over time (p=.022, one-tail). Further, a subset of RNAi treated rats exhibited hippocampal heterotopia centered in CA1 (in addition to cortical malformations). Malformations of hippocampus were associated with robust spatial learning impairment in this sub-group (p<.01, two-tail). In conclusion, in utero RNAi of Dyx1c1 results in heterogeneous malformations that correspond to distinct behavioral impairments in auditory processing, and spatial learning. PMID:17259020

Threlkeld, Steven W; McClure, Melissa M; Bai, Jilin; Wang, Yu; LoTurco, Joe J; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

2007-03-15

151

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-12-01

152

Feasibility and potential of in utero foetal membrane-derived cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells isolated from foetal membranes of human term placenta display multiple properties, including some features of stem/progenitor cells, together with immunomodulatory actions and the ability to secrete bioactive soluble factors. Whilst such properties support the potential applicability of these cells in transplantation settings aimed at regenerating/repairing tissues in adults, theoretically, using these cells in prenatal treatment strategies may also be achievable. To assess the feasibility of a foetal membrane-derived cell-based therapeutic treatment during foetal development, we firstly addressed the question of whether in utero transplantation using these cells was possible. To this end, we assessed postnatal microchimerism after transplantation of amniotic membrane-derived cells (a mixture of both mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and epithelial cells) in foetal sheep. Transplantation was performed with or without human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, and was followed by a postnatal booster cell injection. Lambs were euthanized 2-4 months postnatally and their organs/tissues were analysed for microchimerism through detection of human DNA. Human DNA was found in almost all tissues of all of the lambs, with the seemingly random appearance of human cells in some of the analysed tissues suggesting long-term human microchimerism and donor cell migration after in utero/postnatal booster xenotransplation. Differences in microchimerism tissue distribution between animals transplanted with different cell types are discussed. This pilot study adds to ongoing efforts by different investigators to explore the potential of in utero cellular transplantation, and warrants further investigation of using foetal membrane-derived cells for prenatal cell therapies. PMID:24150776

Caruso, Maddalena; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Zanini, Roberto; Ressel, Lorenzo; Vertua, Elsa; Bonelli, Piero; Dattena, Maria; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Wengler, Georg; Parolini, Ornella

2014-06-01

153

In utero and post-natal accumulation of organochlorine compounds in children under different environmental conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study of intake of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in children both in utero and at the age of four years has been performed in two cohorts. One encompasses children born in Menorca Island between 1997 and 1998, and the other those born between 1997–1999 in Ribera d’Ebre, an in-land industrial–agricultural area of Catalonia. Comparison of the OC concentrations in serum samples from both populations, including those obtained from cord blood and blood collected at four years, pr...

Carrizo, Daniel; Grimalt, Joan O.; Ribas-fito?, Nu?ria; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi

2007-01-01

154

Ex utero intrapartum treatment for an infant with cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare disorder characterized by multiple rib abnormalities, micrognathia described as Pierre-Robin sequence, and cerebral involvement. Appropriate management of respiratory distress immediately after birth is crucial to rescue these patients. A boy, having a mother with Pierre-Robin sequence and a sister with CCMS, was diagnosed prenatally with CCMS and successfully treated with ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) at 36 weeks 6 days of gestation. EXIT would be an effective option for rescuing patients with prenatally diagnosed CCMS and preventing neonatal hypoxia. PMID:25252050

Ogasawara, Kei; Honda, Yoshinobu; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

2014-08-01

155

Involvement of testicular growth factors in fetal Leydig cell aggregation after exposure to phthalate in utero  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposures to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) have been shown to be associated with decreased adult testosterone (T) levels and increased Leydig cell numbers. As yet, little is known about DEHP effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC). The present study investigated effects of DEHP on FLC function. Pregnant Long–Evans female rats received vehicle (corn oil) or DEHP at 10, 100, or 750 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD)2–20. At GD21, T production, FLC numbers and distribut...

Lin, Han; Ge, Ren-shan; Chen, Guo-rong; Hu, Guo-xin; Dong, Lei; Lian, Qing-quan; Hardy, Dianne O.; Sottas, Chantal M.; Li, Xiao-kun; Hardy, Matthew P.

2008-01-01

156

[Interest of multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography in the diagnosis of utero-peritoneal fistulas about 4 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report four cases of uterine fistula found with the multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography. Patients were received for suspicious of a utero-peritoneal fistula at hysterosalpingography. They were young people at childbearing age (average age of 33 years), multigravidae, two of whom were nulliparous, one primiparous and one multiparous. We noted a history of voluntary interruption of pregnancy by curettage and a cesarean section. For the opacification, we used the classic hysterography standard equipment by means of 1/5 diluted iodine with saline solution as contrast. The multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography revealed small uterine perforations including three which were located in uterine posterior face at cervico-isthmic area and corporeal area, bringing about a utero-peritoneal fistula. The multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography is a simple and powerful technique for the diagnosis of utero-peritoneal fistula. It is convenient and then deserves an important place in the evaluation of uterine fistula. PMID:25245887

Nouraly, H; Toure, A; Horo, A; Bedji Kouassi, A; Élogne, A; Camara, Y

2015-01-01

157

Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2014-05-01

158

THE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO NUTRITION IN BALI CATTLE ON THE SUBSEQUENT GROWTH OF THE OFFSPRINGS FROM BIRTH TO WEANING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of in utero nutrition given during different ages of gestation : (1) along gestation period (0 m to paturation ??? positive control), (2) the 1st trimester (0-3 m of gestation), (3) the 2nd trimester (3-6 m of gestation) and (4) the 3rd trimester (6-9 m of gestation), and (5) without in utero nutrition (0 ??? parturition ??? negative control) of Bali cows (n = 25) on the subsequent growth and the development of the offsprings. In addi...

Rahardja, D. P.; Toleng, A. L.; Hasan, S.; Antsir, A.; Yusuf, M.

2012-01-01

159

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

160

The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Spatiotemporal molecular approach of in utero electroporation to functionally decipher endophenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have only just begun to decipher the complexity of our brain including its maturation. Correct brain development and communication among brain areas are crucial for proper cognitive behavior. Brain area-specific genes expressed within a particular time window direct neurodevelopmental events such as proliferation, migration, axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. These genes can pose as susceptibility factors in neurodevelopmental disorders eventually resulting in area-specific cognitive deficits. Therefore, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer can aid in creating valuable animal models in which the regionality and time of expression can be restricted for the targeted gene(s. Moreover, through the use of cell-type specific molecular constructs, expression can be altered in a particular neuronal subset within a distinct area such that we are now able to causally link the function of that gene in that brain region to the etiology of the disorder. Thus, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer is an attractive molecular technique to spatiotemporally address the developmental aspects of gene function in relation to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated endophenotypes.

SharonMargrietKolk

2011-11-01

162

Disturbances of perinatal carbohydrate metabolism in rats exposed to methylmercury in utero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pregnant rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of methylmercuric chloride (at 4 or 8 mg/kg) on the ninth day of gestation. Fetal (2 days prenatal), newborn and postnatal (6 days post partum) animals from the methylmercury-treated mothers were investigated with respect to parameters of carbohydrate metabolism. In the absence of any physical abnormalities, fetal rats exposed to methylmercury in utero showed diminished concentrations of plasma glucose and liver glycogen concentrations and a lower hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity compared to control animals. Newborn rats from the methylmercury-treated mothers showed an impairment in glycogen mobilization in the first hours of extra-uterine life which was accompanied by a severe and protracted hypoglycemic response. Postnatal rats exposed to methylmercury in utero exhibited higher liver glycogen concentration and decreased body weights compared to control rats. The results point to a derangement of perinatal carbohydrate metabolism in the offspring of pregnant rats exposed briefly to low doses of methylmercury during gestation (''metabolic teratogenesis''). The postnatal hypoglycemic episode in exposed rats may contribute to the pathogenesis of the neurological disturbances revealed by these animals in later life.

Snell, K.; Ashby, S.L.; Barton, S.J.

1977-12-01

163

In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 ?m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults

164

Prevention and treatment in utero of autoimmune-associated congenital heart block.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transplacental transfer of maternal anti-Ro and/or anti-La autoantibodies can result in fetal cardiac disease, including congenital heart block and cardiomyopathy, called cardiac neonatal lupus (NL). Thousands of women are faced with the risk of cardiac NL in their offspring, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are no known therapies to permanently reverse third-degree heart block in NL, although several treatments have shown some effectiveness in incomplete heart block and disease beyond the atrioventricular node. Fluorinated steroids taken during pregnancy have shown benefit in these situations, although adverse effects may be concerning. Published data are discordant on the efficacy of fluorinated steroids in the prevention of mortality in cardiac NL. ?-agonists have been used to increase fetal heart rates in utero. The endurance of ?-agonist effect and its impact on mortality are in question, but when used in combination with other therapies, they may provide benefit. No controlled experiments regarding the use of plasmapheresis in cardiac NL have been performed, despite its theoretical benefits. Intravenous immunoglobulin was not shown to prevent cardiac NL at a dose of 400 mg/kg, although it has shown effectiveness in the treatment of associated cardiomyopathy both in utero and after birth. Retrospective studies have shown that hydroxychloroquine may prevent the recurrence of cardiac NL in families with a previously affected child, and a prospective open-label trial is currently recruiting patients in order to fully evaluate this relationship. PMID:25050975

Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M; Mendez, Barbara; Buyon, Jill P; Friedman, Deborah M

2014-01-01

165

The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

166

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37{sup +3} weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract.

Bui, T.; Daire, J.L.; Chalard, F.; Sebag, G. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Zaccaria, I.; Alberti, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Clinical Epidemiology; Elmaleh, M.; Garel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Univ. of Paris-7 (France). Faculty of Medicine; Luton, D. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Blanc, N. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Neurology Service

2006-11-15

167

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm2) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37+3 weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 ?m2/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 ?m2/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 ?m2/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract

168

Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

169

Sperm impairments in adult vesper mice (Calomys laucha) caused by in utero exposure to bisphenol A.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of in utero administration of bisphenol A (BPA) on semen parameters of vesper mice. Sixty female Calomys laucha were divided into six groups and received by gavage during gestation the following substances: Water (negative control), Olive Oil (vehicle control), Diethylstilbestrol (DES - positive control - 6.5 ?g kg(-1) bw) and BPA (40, 80 and 200 ?g kg(-1) bw). Male offspring were euthanised at 70 days of age, and sperm parameters were analysed. BPA reduced normal sperm morphology (water = 96.1 ± 0.65; BPA200 = 96.8 ± 2.3%), sperm membrane integrity (water = 88.8 ± 1,65; BPA200 = 70.6 ± 4,15%), sperm motility (water = 87.5 ± 1.71; BPA200 = 51.3 ±9.9%) and in vitro penetration rates (water = 55.0 ± 7.14; BPA200 = 7.47 ±2.96%), but it did not affect body weight, anogenital distance, sperm DNA integrity and acrosome integrity. In conclusion, in utero exposure to BPA caused a reduction in sperm parameters of adult C. laucha. Natural mating studies should be conducted to verify the effects of BPA on fertility of the animals. PMID:24147964

Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Silva, E F; Cardoso, T; Corcini, C D; Varela-Junior, A S; Martinez, P E; Colares, E P

2014-11-01

170

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

2001-07-01

171

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

172

Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

173

Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2month-old) and older (6.5month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. PMID:23142467

Martinez-Arguelles, D B; McIntosh, M; Rohlicek, C V; Culty, M; Zirkin, B R; Papadopoulos, V

2013-01-01

174

Children exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero : clinical and epidemiological aspects on growth, development and occurrence of malformations  

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Antiepileptic drugs (AED) are known teratogenic substances. Major congenital malformations, minor anomalies, retarded intrauterine growth and delayed psychomotor development have been reported after exposure to AED in utero. Results from previous studies are inconclusive due to different study designs, therapeutic traditions, genetic and environmental factors. Aims of the study: A) To investigate the incidence of minor anomalies and psychomotor development in children bo...

Wide, Katarina

2000-01-01

175

E X I T (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) en linfangioma cervical fetal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un caso clínico de una embarazada primigesta de 17 años, con un feto con gran masa cervical a las 20 semanas, se diagnostica como linfangioma cervical. La evaluación prenatal concluye que existe gran riesgo de asfixia perinatal por obstrucción de la vía aérea superior, se resuelve el par [...] to mediante procedimiento EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) a las 37 semanas. Se logra realizar intubación con larin-goscopia directa, con un tiempo de by-pass uteroplacentario de 7 minutos. Se obtiene un recién nacido de 3300 g, al segundo día se opera del tumor con buenos resultados. Se revisa el protocolo del procedimiento EXIT en sus aspectos anestésicos, obstétricos, quirúrgicos y neonatológicos. Se concluye que el EXIT debe ser planteado en todo caso en que se sospeche obstrucción de la vía aérea superior y puede ser realizado en hospitales que cuenten con equipamiento habitual y un equipo médico multidisciplinario. Abstract in english We report a case of primigravida patient, 17 years old, with a fetus showing a large cervical mass at 20 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed as a cervical lymphangioma. The prenatal evaluation concludes that there exists a great risk of perinatal asphyxia due to obstruction of the upper airway and [...] therefore it is decided to perform a cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation, using an EXIT procedure (ex-utero intra-partum therapy). We perform intubation with a semi- rigid tube having a by-pass time utero-placental of 7 minutes, obtaining a newborn of 3300 g at birth. The newborn is operated two days after birth removing the cervical tumor with good results. We review the protocol of the EXIT procedure concerning aspects related to anesthesia, obstetrics, surgery and neonatal care. We conclude that EXIT should be considered in all cases in which obstruction of the upper airway is suspected, and can be performed in hospitals that have basic surgical facilities and a multidisciplinary team.

Juan Carlos, Bustos V; Vivian, González C; Francisco, Olguin C; René, Bustamante T; Américo, Hernández L; Leopoldo, Razeto W; Alejandro, Paredes W.

176

Efficient gene delivery into multiple CNS territories using in utero electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to manipulate gene expression is the cornerstone of modern day experimental embryology, leading to the elucidation of multiple developmental pathways. Several powerful and well established transgenic technologies are available to manipulate gene expression levels in mouse, allowing for the generation of both loss- and gain-of-function models. However, the generation of mouse transgenics is both costly and time consuming. Alternative methods of gene manipulation have therefore been widely sought. In utero electroporation is a method of gene delivery into live mouse embryos(1,2) that we have successfully adapted(3,4). It is largely based on the success of in ovo electroporation technologies that are commonly used in chick(5). Briefly, DNA is injected into the open ventricles of the developing brain and the application of an electrical current causes the formation of transient pores in cell membranes, allowing for the uptake of DNA into the cell. In our hands, embryos can be efficiently electroporated as early as embryonic day (E) 11.5, while the targeting of younger embryos would require an ultrasound-guided microinjection protocol, as previously described(6). Conversely, E15.5 is the latest stage we can easily electroporate, due to the onset of parietal and frontal bone differentiation, which hampers microinjection into the brain. In contrast, the retina is accessible through the end of embryogenesis. Embryos can be collected at any time point throughout the embryonic or early postnatal period. Injection of a reporter construct facilitates the identification of transfected cells. To date, in utero electroporation has been most widely used for the analysis of neocortical development(1,2,3,4). More recent studies have targeted the embryonic retina(7,8,9) and thalamus(10,11,12). Here, we present a modified in utero electroporation protocol that can be easily adapted to target different domains of the embryonic CNS. We provide evidence that by using this technique, we can target the embryonic telencephalon, diencephalon and retina. Representative results are presented, first showing the use of this technique to introduce DNA expression constructs into the lateral ventricles, allowing us to monitor progenitor maturation, differentiation and migration in the embryonic telencephalon. We also show that this technique can be used to target DNA to the diencephalic territories surrounding the 3(rd) ventricle, allowing the migratory routes of differentiating neurons into diencephalic nuclei to be monitored. Finally, we show that the use of micromanipulators allows us to accurately introduce DNA constructs into small target areas, including the subretinal space, allowing us to analyse the effects of manipulating gene expression on retinal development. PMID:21730943

Dixit, Rajiv; Lu, Fuqu; Cantrup, Robert; Gruenig, Nicole; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Schuurmans, Carol

2011-01-01

177

In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ?500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However, additional studies are needed to clarify whether in utero exposure to I-131 at levels > = 500 mGy may be associated with increases in weight/BMI and to evaluate the confounding or modifying role of thyroid disease, past iodine deficiency, maternal and prenatal/postnatal factors. PMID:24611659

Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V; Tereschenko, Valery P; Tronko, Mykola D; Brenner, Alina V

2014-03-01

178

Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

179

In utero and transgeneration effects and biological defence mechanism in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multicellular animals are composed of 2 types of cells; cells of the germ line, from which next generation of gametes will be derived, and the somatic cells, which form the rest of the body and leave no progeny. In a sense, somatic cells exist only to help the germ line cells survive and propagate. During development of mammals, 2 haploid cells (gametes), one large and non-motile (ovum) and the other small and motile (sperm) fuse and then diploid cells proliferate and diversify to form a complex multicellular organism in utero. During the long course of germ line and embryonic development, there are extraordinary radiation (also chemicals)-sensitive phases, some of which must be very important for animals to defense their species from radiation and chemical hazards in the environment by replacing damaged cells with un-damaged or normal totipotent reserve cells. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

180

Fetus, fasting, and festival: the persistent effects of in utero social shocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fetal Origins Hypothesis (FOH), put forward in the epidemiological literature and later flourished in the economics literature, suggests that the time in utero is a critical period for human development. However, much attention has been paid to the consequences of fetal exposures to more extreme natural shocks, while less is known about fetal exposures to milder but more commonly experienced social shocks. Using two examples of under-nutrition due to mild social shocks, i.e. Ramadan fasting and festival overspending, this paper summarizes our current knowledge, especially the contribution from economics, and key challenges in exploring fetal exposures to milder social shocks. I also discuss the salient added value of identifying milder versus more extreme fetal shocks. Finally, implications are drawn on individual decisions and public policy to improve children's well-being before they are born or even before their mothers realize that they are pregnant. PMID:25279378

Chen, Xi

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Long-term studies in children following low radiation doses in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective clinical study was started in 1967 in order to give optimal advice to parents who want to have children after radiation exposure in early pregnancy. Recommendations were elaborated, whether an interruption is necessary or not. Within this study embryologic studies after interruptio were carried out and children irradiated in utero were examined clinically and genetically. Until 1. May 1982 more than 200 cases were examined and lomg-term studies of 73 children up to 10 years of age were performed. The results of cytogenetic, biochemico-genetic, clinical and other investigations are reported. It is concluded that the recommendation to carry the child to full term if the radiation exposure was less than 0.1 Sv had been correct. (author)

182

A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or ?-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

183

Design and Thermal Distribution of Intra-hyperthermia Microwave Antennas for Utero-cervical Applicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracavitary brachytherapy combined hypertermin for utero-cervical cancer seems to be a promising method for salvage treatments in persistent tumors and inoperable or previously irradiated cervical recurrences. In order to heat the vaginal apex and uterus, power full conical antennas which are suitable for afterloading cervical applicator have been designed for use in conjunction with intracavitary radiation therapy. The antennas were constructed with conical conductive material to feed line and the effective length were designed proportional to microwave length, Power deposition profiles of 2450 MHz of conical antennas were studied in both phantom models and muscle tissue and compared to those of commonly used dipole antenna. Improvement of the heating pattern was found in both phantom and muscle tissue. The heating pattern produced by the conical antenna resembles an ellipsoid and then the temperature distribution in depth was extended to 2-3 cm from the effective antenna axis

184

In utero stem cell transplantation for radical treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta: perspectives and controversies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a lethal hereditary connective tissue disease that affects the synthesis of type I collagen. Current treatment options including surgical, physical, and medical treatment help to reduce pain, deformities, and rate of bone fracture. However, these choices are insufficient and are associated with many adverse effects. The development of stem cell therapy allows scientists to consider this option for radical treatment of many genetic diseases including OI. In utero stem cell transplantation provides a better opportunity for early prenatal intervention while the fetus is preimmune and before any permanent damage occurs. Few animal and human trials for treatment of OI have been published, and the results were promising but still controversial. Our objective is to review the available evidence and discuss the points of controversy including the parameters of treatment success and postnatal predictors of long-term treatment outcome. PMID:24347264

Amin, Mariam Taher Mohamed; Shazly, Sherif Abd-Elkarim Mohammed

2014-11-01

185

Transcriptional activity assessment of three different promoters for mouse in utero electroporation system.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation (IUE) is a simple and rapid approach to in vivo investigate exogenous gene function in mouse brain, and intensive studies using IUE have greatly contributed to analyze the characterization of specific steps during mouse brain development. Because the efficiency of IUE is highly dependent on the plasmid used and its concentration, and the transcriptional activity of plasmid is not only regulated by the host defense system, but also by the promoter of the expression vectors. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the transcriptional activity of three commonly used promoters, CMV, CAG and SV40, in IUE system through measuring the fluorescence intensity of green fluorescent protein which serves as an indicator. Our results demonstrated that the artificially-designed CAG promoter is a potent promoter that effectively drives target gene expression in IUE system. PMID:24984206

Liu, Yanli; Fu, Sulei; Niu, Rongcheng; Yang, Ciqing; Lin, Juntang

2014-07-01

186

In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for autism spectrum disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used Denmark's health and population registers to obtain information regarding prescription drugs, ASD diagnosis, and health and socioeconomic status. There were 1.5 % of cases and 0.7 % of controls exposed to SSRIs during the pregnancy period, and higher effect estimates observed with longer use. We found evidence that in utero exposure to SSRIs increases a child's risk associated with ASD. These results, while adding to the limited knowledge on prenatal pharmacological exposures as potential ASD risk factors, need to be balanced against the benefits of indicated medication use by pregnant mothers.

Gidaya, Nicole B; Lee, Brian K

2014-01-01

187

Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis. The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.

Jamie E. Jennings-Gee

2010-06-01

188

Fetal lung and placental methylation is associated with in utero nicotine exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero smoke exposure has been shown to have detrimental effects on lung function and to be associated with persistent wheezing and asthma in children. One potential mechanism of IUS effects could be alterations in DNA methylation, which may have life-long implications. The goal of this study was to examine the association between DNA methylation and nicotine exposure in fetal lung and placental tissue in early development; nicotine exposure in this analysis represents a likely surrogate for in-utero smoke. We performed an epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in fetal lung tissue (n = 85, 41 smoke exposed (48%), 44 controls) and the corresponding placental tissue samples (n = 80, 39 smoke exposed (49%), 41 controls) using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Differential methylation analyses were conducted to evaluate the variation associated with nicotine exposure. The most significant CpG sites in the fetal lung analysis mapped to the PKP3 (P = 2.94 × 10(-03)), ANKRD33B (P = 3.12 × 10(-03)), CNTD2 (P = 4.9 × 10(-03)) and DPP10 (P = 5.43 × 10(-03)) genes. In the placental methylome, the most significant CpG sites mapped to the GTF2H2C and GTF2H2D genes (P = 2.87 × 10(-06) - 3.48 × 10(-05)). One hundred and one unique CpG sites with P-values DNA methylation in fetal lung and placental tissues, suggesting a role for DNA methylation variation in the fetal origins of chronic diseases. PMID:25482056

Chhabra, Divya; Sharma, Sunita; Kho, Alvin T; Gaedigk, Roger; Vyhlidal, Carrie A; Leeder, J Steven; Morrow, Jarrett; Carey, Vincent J; Weiss, Scott T; Tantisira, Kelan G; DeMeo, Dawn L

2014-11-01

189

Persistent spatial working memory deficits in rats following in utero RNAi of Dyx1c1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disruptions in the development of the neocortex are associated with cognitive deficits in humans and other mammals. Several genes contribute to neocortical development, and research into the behavioral phenotype associated with specific gene manipulations is advancing rapidly. Findings include evidence that variants in the human gene DYX1C1 may be associated with an increased risk of developmental dyslexia. Concurrent research has shown that the rat homolog for this gene modulates critical parameters of early cortical development, including neuronal migration. Moreover, recent studies have shown auditory processing and spatial learning deficits in rats following in utero transfection of an RNA interference (RNAi) vector of the rat homolog Dyx1c1 gene. The current study examined the effects of in utero RNAi of Dyx1c1 on working memory performance in Sprague-Dawley rats. This task was chosen based on the evidence of short-term memory deficits in dyslexic populations, as well as more recent evidence of an association between memory deficits and DYX1C1 anomalies in humans. Working memory performance was assessed using a novel match-to-place radial water maze task that allows the evaluation of memory for a single brief (?4-10 seconds) swim to a new goal location each day. A 10-min retention interval was used, followed by a test trial. Histology revealed migrational abnormalities and laminar disruption in Dyx1c1 RNAi-treated rats. Dyx1c1 RNAi-treated rats exhibited a subtle, but significant and persistent impairment in working memory as compared to Shams. These results provide further support for the role of Dyx1c1 in neuronal migration and working memory. PMID:20977651

Szalkowski, C E; Hinman, J R; Threlkeld, S W; Wang, Y; LePack, A; Rosen, G D; Chrobak, J J; LoTurco, J J; Fitch, R H

2011-03-01

190

Murine arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons communicate with GnRH neurons in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty is a transition period of reproductive development from juvenile stages to adulthood and depends upon the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. GnRH neurons are initially activated in utero but remain quiescent throughout the juvenile period. Premature reactivation of GnRH neurons results in precocious puberty in mice and humans, but the mechanisms underlying developmental control of GnRH neuron activity remain unknown. The neuropeptide kisspeptin, a potent activator of GnRH neurons that is implicated as a critical permissive signal triggering puberty and a major regulator of the adult female hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, is paradoxically produced by neurons in the developing brain well before puberty onset. Thus, the neural circuits controlling the timing of reproductive maturation remain elusive. Here, we delineate the underlying neural circuitry using conditional genetic transsynaptic tracing in female mouse embryos. We find that kisspeptin-producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) already communicate with a specific subset of GnRH neurons in utero. We show that ARC kisspeptin neurons are upstream of GnRH neurons, and that GnRH neuron connectivity to ARC kisspeptin neurons does not depend on their spatial position in the brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the neural circuits between ARC kisspeptin and GnRH neurons are fully established and operative before birth. Finally, we find that most GnRH neurons express the kisspeptin receptor GPR54 upon circuit formation, suggesting that the signaling system implicated in gatekeeping puberty becomes operative in the embryo. PMID:24599473

Kumar, Devesh; Freese, Maria; Drexler, Dagmar; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marquardt, Annette; Boehm, Ulrich

2014-03-01

191

Tolerance and immunity following in utero transplantation of allogeneic fetal liver cells: the cytokine shift.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although in utero transplantation (IUT) has resulted in donor-specific tolerance to posnatal solid organ transplantation, the mechanisms of this tolerance remain poorly understood. Our recent findings demonstrate that under specific conditions prenatal injection of allogeneic cells may lead to allosensitization instead of tolerance. These laboratory observations were supported by clinical findings as well, and therefore suggested that, depending on the conditions of prenatal transplantation, tolerance or immunity may develop. The present study explored the role of CD4 cells, cytokines, and I-E superantigen in developing tolerance vs. immunity after in utero transplantation. Sixteen animals survived IUT (40-60% survival rate) and were free from any signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Mice were considered tolerant when their antidonor and antihost CTL responses were similar, sensitized when antidonor responses were significantly higher than antihost and anti-third-party responses, and nontolerant when antidonor responses in transplanted and control mice were similar. The TH1 --> TH2 shift was associated with tolerance and TH2 --> TH1 shift with allosensitization. Our results showed that tolerant BALB/c (H-2d, I-E+) --> CS7BL/6 (H-2b, I-E-) (2/7) mice showed higher IL-4 (p C3H (H-2k, I-E+) mice CD3Vbeta11 T cells do not play any role in tolerance induction because they are deleted in the C3H background. Tolerant mice (4/9) showed an overproduction of IL-4 (p C3H as demonstrated by suppressor assay. Hence, a shift from TH1 --> TH2 or TH2 --> TH1 cytokines may determine whether tolerance or immunity develops. PMID:12693667

Sefrioui, H; Donahue, J; Gilpin, E A; Srivastava, A S; Carrier, E

2003-01-01

192

In utero therapy for congenital disorders using amniotic fluid stem cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital diseases are responsible for over a third of all pediatric hospital admissions. Advances in prenatal screening and molecular diagnosis have allowed the detection of many life-threatening genetic diseases early in gestation. In utero transplantation (IUT) with stem cells could cure affected fetuses but so far in humans, successful IUT using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), has been limited to fetuses with severe immunologic defects and more recently IUT with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, has improved phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta. The options of preemptive treatment of congenital diseases in utero by stem cell or gene therapy changes the perspective of congenital diseases since it may avoid the need for postnatal treatment and reduce future costs. Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been isolated and characterized in human, mice, rodents, rabbit, and sheep and are a potential source of cells for therapeutic applications in disorders for treatment prenatally or postnatally. Gene transfer to the cells with long-term transgenic protein expression is feasible. Recently, pre-clinical autologous transplantation of transduced cells has been achieved in fetal sheep using minimally invasive ultrasound guided injection techniques. Clinically relevant levels of transgenic protein were expressed in the blood of transplanted lambs for at least 6 months. The cells have also demonstrated the potential of repair in a range of pre-clinical disease models such as neurological disorders, tracheal repair, bladder injury, and diaphragmatic hernia repair in neonates or adults. These results have been encouraging, and bring personalized tissue engineering for prenatal treatment of genetic disorders closer to the clinic. PMID:25566071

Ramachandra, Durrgah L.; Shaw, Steven S. W.; Shangaris, Panicos; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Guillot, Pascale V.; Coppi, Paolo De; David, Anna L.

2014-01-01

193

In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?  

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Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC.

Rickard, S. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samrickard@tiscali.co.uk; Morris, J. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paley, M. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Whitby, E. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2006-10-15

194

In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlyireflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC

195

Codex alimentarius [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A complete list of food standards for all nations developed to protect the health of consumers, ensure fair trade practices in the food trade, and promote coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organizations. Standards adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission up to 2001.

196

Science conferences [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OSTI Science Conferences portal provides the capability to search for conference information on multiple web sites and databases with a single query utilizing a combination of surface web and deep web tools that can reach where ordinary search engines cannot. Emphasis is on U.S. conferences hosted and/or published by scientific and professional organizations whose areas of focus relate substantially to the Department of Energy's mission. Also possible to search and access the full-text of a subscribed service, the AIP Conference Proceedings.

197

Carnegie Council [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, the world's premier forum for research and education in ethics and international policy. Explores the ethical dilemmas posed by issues such as deadly conflict, human rights violations, environmental protection, global economic disparities, and the politics of reconciliation. The website provides information about the Council, its mission and programs, and links to its many publications, including Ethics & International Affairs, Human Rights Dialogue, etc.

198

Description des documents électroniques et les besoins des utilisateurs (Bibliographic description of electronic resources and user needs) [French version presented at the International Conference  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I'll focus my observations on public libraries and I'll talk about the situation of the access to electronic documents in French libraries. I'll base my speech also upon the remarks about this topic found in professional literature, including that published in France. How can selection, bibliographic description of electronic resources and mediation of librarians reduce users' frustration? It is a fact that the best search engines cover only a third of the Web, the remaining stays invisible a...

Witt, Maria

2001-01-01

199

Utero-vaginal packing. Seven years review in the management of post partum hemorrhage due to placenta previa/accreta at a maternity hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Utero-vaginal packing is of benefit in achieving hemostasis in cases of post partum hemorrhage due to low lying placenta previa/accreta and conserving the uterus particularly in women with low parity.

Nawal A. Al-Harbi

2009-02-01

200

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

202

Organizing Internet Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading sys...

Hsueh-Hua Chen

1996-01-01

203

A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1500 children who were born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Study Groups 1 and 2) were identified from lists of children undergoing mandatory surveillance in the Minsk Chernobyl Dispensary. During pregnancy mothers of these children lived in highly contaminated territories in several areas of three Belarus Regions - Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest. Children in Study Group 1 were born between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. The mothers of these children during their pregnancy period were exposed both to radiocesium and radioiodine. Children in Study Group 2 were born between February 1, 1987 and December 31, 1987. The mothers of children from Study Group 2 lived in the same areas as the mothers of children from Study Group 1, but during their pregnancy period were mainly exposed to radiocesium. The Control Group consists of children born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987, to mothers living throughout pregnancy in the uncontaminated Vitebsk Region. These children were randomly selected from medical records of family-practice clinics, and were matched to Study Groups 1 and 2 by age and sex. To assess the health effects of in utero radiation exposure among the cohort, the specific protocol for annual health examination was developed in 1988. The study protocol included collection of data on family history; history of mothers pregnancy and delivery; head circumference at birth; annual measurements of standing height and weight; examination by neurologist; clinical thyroid evaluation, and ultrasound examination of the thyroid; annual measurements of levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies in children's blood (i.e. thyrotropin (TSH), total and free thyroxin (T4), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroglobulin (TG) and TG autoantibodies, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and anti-TPO (thyroid microsomal )assay; annual blood count; analyses of the components of the immune system (T- cells, B-cells, immunoglobulins, complement, etc.); and data on general health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation

204

In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV) have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression...

Marrero Luis; Dunn Daisy; Larson Janet E; Garrett Deiadra J; Craig, Cohen J.

2003-01-01

205

Association of in Utero Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure and Fetal Growth and Length of Gestation in an Agricultural Population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathio...

Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Weltzien, Erin; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Barr, Dana B.; Furlong, Clement E.; Holland, Nina T.

2004-01-01

206

Serotonin Transporter Occupancy in Rats Exposed to Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors In Utero or via Breast MilkS?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rigorous data regarding fetal central nervous system (CNS) exposure after antidepressant exposure are sparse. The magnitude of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) CNS exposure was measured in three groups of rats using ex vivo autoradiography of the serotonin transporter (SERT): 1) in utero, 2) postnatal clearance after birth, and 3) exposure through lactation. Rats were exposed to one of five SRI-type antidepressants (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) administ...

Capello, Catherine F.; Bourke, Chase H.; Ritchie, James C.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Nemeroff, Amanda; Owens, Michael J.

2011-01-01

207

Fetal Onset of Aberrant Gene Expression Relevant to Pulmonary Carcinogenesis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Development Induced by In Utero Arsenic Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) transcript and protein levels in the fe...

Shen, Jun; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yaxiong; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

2007-01-01

208

In Utero Exposure to the Antiandrogen Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Decreases Adrenal Aldosterone Production in the Adult Rat1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously reported that in utero exposure of the male fetus to the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) resulted in decreased circulating levels of testosterone in the adult without affecting Leydig cell numbers, luteinizing hormone levels, or steroidogenic enzyme expression. Fetal exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced mineralocorticoid receptor (MR; NR3C2) expression in adult Leydig cells. In the present studies, treatment of pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams from Gestational Day 14 ...

Martinez-arguelles, Daniel B.; Guichard, Theodore; Culty, Martine; Zirkin, Barry R.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2011-01-01

209

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

210

Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohisto...

Chacón Cecilia; Erices Rafaela; Valdés Gloria; Corthorn Jenny

2008-01-01

211

Transient in utero knockout (TIUKO of C-MYC affects late lung and intestinal development in the mouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmentally important genes often result in early lethality in knockout animals. Thus, the direct role of genes in late gestation organogenesis cannot be assessed directly. In utero delivery of transgenes was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer to pulmonary and intestinal epithelial stem cells. Thus, this technology can be used to evaluate late gestation development. Results In utero gene transfer was used to transfer adenovirus with either an antisense c-myc or a C-MYC ubiquitin targeting protein to knockout out c-myc expression in late gestation lung and intestines. Using either antisense or ubiquitin mediated knockout of C-MYC levels in late gestation resulted in similar effects. Decreased complexity was observed in both intestines and lungs. Stunted growth of villi was evident in the intestines. In the lung, hypoplastic lungs with disrupted aveolarization were observed. Conclusions These data demonstrated that C-MYC was required for cell expansion and complexity in late gestation lung and intestinal development. In addition they demonstrate that transient in utero knockout of proteins may be used to determine the role of developmentally important genes in the lungs and intestines.

Zhou Pengbo

2004-04-01

212

Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950 - May 1992  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46. Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

213

Clinician?selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician?selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653?9.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour?long interviews and think?aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty?five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple?choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty?three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword?based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician?selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of one correct answer was due to the answers from 5 (10.9% questions changing from correct to incorrect, while the answers to 6 questions (13.0% changed from incorrect to correct. The ability to provide correct answers differed among the various resources. Google and Cochrane provided the correct answers about 50% of the time while PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, UpToDate, Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews and InfoPOEMs were more likely to be associated with incorrect answers. Physicians also seemed unable to determine when they needed to search for informationi n order to make an accurate decision.Conclusion – Clinician?selected electronic information resources did not guarantee accuracy in the answers provided to simulated clinical questions. At times the use of these resources caused physicians to change self?determined correct answers to incorrect ones. The authors state that this was possibly due to factors such as poor choice of resources, ineffective search strategies, time constraints and automation bias. Library and information practitioners have an important role to play in identifying and advocating for appropriate information resources to be integrated into the electronic medical record systems provided by healthcare institutions to ensure evidence based health care delivery.

Martha Ingrid Preddie

2008-03-01

214

Spontaneous in utero recovery of a fetus in a brain death-like state.  

Science.gov (United States)

A healthy pregnant woman at 28 weeks of gestation was admitted with complete loss of fetal movement. Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring showed a fixed flat FHR pattern with no variability. Ultrasound examination revealed no fetal breathing movement. The fetus showed heart failure with extremely diminished left heart contractility. No abnormalities were found in the fetus. We assessed that the fetus was in a brain death-like status. After discussion, we decided not to deliver the baby but to monitor it carefully using FHR monitoring and continuous fetal ultrasound examinations, assuming the baby was dying or at least had little possibility of survival. However, 8 h after admission, FHR monitoring showed some variability and after another 12 h the fetus recovered completely. The baby was born at 35 week of gestation by cesarean section. The baby sustained some white matter brain damage, but with no significant clinical delay of motor development. This is a rare case of in utero recovery from a fetal brain death-like status. PMID:20492393

Ueda, Keiko; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Parer, Julian T

2010-04-01

215

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

216

Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates possible (re-constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with materiality. Neal argues with Irigaray that symbolic changes follow on from psychological changes. This proposal for the (re- construction of masculinity will be compared with four recent image-based constructions of masculinity: Daniel Craig in Casino Royale and the film of The History Boys; the French national rugby team’s calendar Dieux du Stade, and David Beckham’s portrayal in the recent advertising campaign for Armani. Do these constructions of masculinity confirm Neal and Irigaray’s understanding of change?

Paul M. Collins

2010-06-01

217

Novel method for in vivo hydroxyl radical measurement by microdialysis in fetal sheep brain in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydroxyl radical (.OH) is a reactive oxygen species produced during severe hypoxia, asphyxia, or ischemia that can cause cell death resulting in brain damage. Generation of .OH may occur in the fetal brain during asphyxia in utero. The very short half-life of .OH requires use of trapping agents such as salicylic acid or phenylalanine for detection, but their hydroxylated derivatives are either unstable, produced endogenously, or difficult to measure in the small volume of microdialysis samples. In the present study, we used terephthalic acid (TA), hydroxylation of which yields a stable and highly fluorometric isomer (excitation, 326 nm; emission, 432 nm). In vitro studies using .OH generated by the Fenton reaction showed that hydroxylated TA formed quickly (performed in fetal sheep using microdialysis probes implanted into the parasagittal cortex. The probe was perfused at 2 mul/min with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 5 mM TA, and samples were collected every 30 min. Fluorescence measured in 10 mul of dialysate was significantly greater than in the efflux from probes perfused without TA. High-performance liquid chromotography analysis showed that the fluorescence in dialysis samples was entirely due to hydroxylation of TA. Thus this study shows that it is possible to use TA as a trapping agent for detecting low concentrations of .OH both in vitro and in vivo and that low concentrations of .OH are present in fetal brain tissue and fluctuate with time. PMID:15718409

Yan, Edwin B; Unthank, Jessica K; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Miller, Suzanne L; Langford, Steven J; Walker, David W

2005-06-01

218

Influence of diurnal phase on startle response in adult rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle. We speculated that this observation of increased basal startle might be influenced by diurnal phase. In the present study, adult female Sprague Dawley rats, stressed prenatally with DEX (200 ?g/kg, gestational days 14-21) and postnatally by blood sampling under restraint, were tested for the ASR during both circadian phases (light and dark). Basal startle was increased in animals tested both during the light and the dark phases of the cycle. We hereby replicated our earlier findings in a new strain and laboratory, thus strengthening the validity of our model regarding prenatal stress effects on ASR in female offspring. Our results indicate that observation of increased basal ASR is not solely dependent on diurnal phase. We found no difference in hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid receptor expression between groups.

Kjaer, S L; Hougaard, K S

2011-01-01

219

The normal diameter of the fetal aorta and pulmonary artery: echocardiographic evaluation in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements of the fetal aorta and pulmonary artery can aid in the detection and diagnosis of congenital heart defects. In a prospective study of 403 normal fetuses whose gestational ages were between 14 and 42 weeks, two-dimensional (2D) real-time and M-mode echocardiography were used to measure the diameters of the aortic root and the pulmonary artery in utero. The goals were to establish norms for the diameters of these structures as a function of both gestational age and biparietal diameter, to compare measurements obtained in systole and diastole, and to compare 2D and M-mode measurements. A high correlation was found between measurements made during systole and diastole (r = .994 for aorta, r = .996 for pulmonary artery) and between 2D and M-mode measurements for each vessel (r = .992 for aorta, r = .973 for pulmonary artery). The differences between systolic and diastolic measurements and between M-mode and 2D measurements were small (2.2-4.6%) for both the aorta and the pulmonary artery. The norms established here provide an objective standard for comparison when a cardiac anomaly involving a fetal aorta or pulmonary artery of abnormal size is suspected. The results indicate that a sonographic facility need not have M-mode equipment to obtain technically adequate measurements. PMID:3499772

Cartier, M S; Davidoff, A; Warneke, L A; Hirsh, M P; Bannon, S; Sutton, M S; Doubilet, P M

1987-11-01

220

In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders. PMID:24879814

Derderian, S Christopher; Togarrati, P Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L; MacKenzie, Tippi C

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

piggyBac transposon-mediated cellular transgenesis in mammalian forebrain by in utero electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation (IUE) is an effective transfection method for delivering plasmid DNA into neural progenitor cells and neurons of mammalian neocortex in vivo. Although IUE is effective at delivering multiple DNA plasmids into populations of cells, unfortunately plasmids delivered into neural progenitor cells remain largely episomal and often get inactivated or lost after cell division. This results in a form of "birthdate" labeling in which only the cell types that do not undergo a second cell division continue to express the transfected plasmids. This limits the application of IUE with standard plasmids and precludes its use in experiments where manipulating or labeling the complete cell lineage of a progenitor is desired. To circumvent this episomal loss of plasmid in IUE, we have used a binary piggyBac transposon system to induce nonviral genomic integration of transgenes. These transgenes do not appear to inactivate after cell division, and this results in stable somatic cellular transgenesis of neurons and glia. Like standard IUE, the system can be used with multiple combinations of plasmids to achieve multicolor labeling and both loss-of-function and gain-of-function manipulations. In this protocol, we describe the method for delivering a binary piggyBac transposon plasmid system by IUE. PMID:24987137

Chen, Fuyi; Maher, Brady J; LoTurco, Joseph J

2014-07-01

222

In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.oses.

223

Superoxide dismutase in fetal rat cerebrum x-irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in fetal rat cerebrum was studied on gestational days (gd) 19 and 21 after X-irradiation with 100 R on gd 13 or no X-irradiation. Fetuses X-irradiated on gd 13 showed marked microcephalus on gd 19 and 21. Most of the SOD activity was found in the crude mitochondrial fraction in both groups and most of the SOD was Cu, Zn-SOD. The SOD activity increased about two times from gd 19 to 21. The mean SOD activity of the fetal rat cerebrum X-irradiated with 100 R showed no significant differences compared to that of the control group with Student's t test. But the activities in the irradiated group were widely distributed with a large standard deviation and so the chi-square test showed a significant difference in SOD activity between the two groups on gd 19. The SOD activity of adult rat cerebrum 6 and 8 days after X-irradiation with 100 R was increased compared to that 3 days after X-irradiation. It was suspected that X-irradiation in utero may have some lasting effect on the SOD activity in fetal rat cerebrum. (author)

224

Late effects of iodine-131 in utero exposure: Toxicological effects in first generation of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have initiated studies to evaluate the possible immunotoxic effects to both the mother and offspring following an in utero exposure to /sup 131/I, and initial observations suggest induction of antitumor immunity as measured by cell-mediated immune (CMI) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The animal model selected for these studies was the Fischer F344 female rat intraperitoneally exposed to concentrations ranging from 4 to 3700 kBq of Na/sup 131/I during the gestation period of 16 to 18 days. The CMI results suggested the male offspring were 1.7 times more immunologically responsive than their sisters with a threshold detection level in the range of 9.25 kBq being observed. The parents of F/sub 1/ generation exposed to the /sup 131/I are now being evaluated for possible immunotoxicity according to: host resistance to E. coli endotoxin and blastogenenic responses to phytohemagglutin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide. The results of these studies suggest that perinatal /sup 131/I exposure exerts an immunotoxic effect upon the first generation

225

Risk of cancer among children exposed in utero to A-bomb radiations, 1950-84  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over 40 years among in-utero exposed survivors of atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the 0.30+ Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but incidence continues to increase, and crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the 0.3+ Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus as estimated by the 1986 dosimetry system (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire 0.01 + Gy dose group the average excess risk per 104 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9-90.2%). (author)

226

Dietary supplementation with resveratrol protects against striatal dopaminergic deficits produced by in utero LPS exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol in pregnant dams on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic deficits in pups exposed to LPS in utero. Gravid female rats were fed with a resveratrol-enriched diet during gestational days 3-22.5 (E3-E22.5) and received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1mg/kg LPS at E10.5. The striata were isolated from the pups at postnatal days 10 (P10) and P21. LPS-induced dopaminergic deficits were noted at P21, but not P10. These DA deficits at P21 were exhibited by a loss of DA and DA metabolite [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] levels and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum. The LPS-induced loss of DA, DA metabolites, and TH expression were attenuated in the striata of pups from the dams fed with the resveratrol-supplemented diet. These data suggest that a resveratrol-supplemented diet may restore homeostasis of the striatal DA neuronal system following disruption by LPS. PMID:24863468

Rose, Katherine M; Parmar, Mayur S; Cavanaugh, Jane E

2014-07-21

227

Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the electronic equipment used in pulse counting and mean current radiation detection systems is described. This includes the high voltage supply, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, scalers or counters, ratemeters, single-channel pulse height analyser, multi-channel pulse height analyser, d.c. amplifiers, coincidence and anticoincidence units and gain stabilisers

228

Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários / Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciê [...] ncia da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science [...] are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

Guilherme Ataíde, Dias.

2002-09-01

229

Organizing Internet Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

Hsueh-Hua Chen

1996-12-01

230

Contribution of in utero drug exposure when interpreting hair results in young children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure. Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy. Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation. The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration), after analysis of 4 segments (irrespective of the length of the segment but longer than 1cm), it was observed the following pattern: proximal segment, 5-35% of the response; segment 2, 15-50% of the response; segment 3, 25-60% of the response; and distal segment, 100% of the response. It is proposed to consider 100% in utero contribution to the final interpretation when the ratio concentration of the proximal segment to the concentration of the distal segment is lower than 0.5. This can be applied only when the child is under 1 year old and the hair shaft length is at least 4cm (to achieve suitable segmentation). It is important, when using this cut-off to have at least 3 or 4 segments to be able to observe the variation in drug concentrations, whatever the length of each segment (>1cm). PMID:25450508

Kintz, P

2014-09-28

231

Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2-/-) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2-/- and Folbp2+/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

232

Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved management.

PratibhaNReebye

2012-02-01

233

Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ?50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy-1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy-1), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict thtandard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

234

Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant approximately 50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy(-1) (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy(-1)), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. PMID:18922822

Wakeford, Richard

2008-01-01

235

Histological studies in developing brain after 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy neutrons on day 13, 15 or 18 of gestation. There was no significant difference in number of living young born per litter between in neutron irradiated mice and controls. Mortality of irradiated offspings increased in the first 3 days after birth. The brain weight of 21-day old animals after neutron irradiation averaged only 55, 56 and 69% of controls, resp. At six hours after irradiation morphological analysis showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system. On day 13 the telencephalon was severely affected. The 30% cells were pyknotic in the wall of the cerebral hemisphere and 20% of cells in corpus striatum. In the metencephalon marked pyknosis was established in the tectal lamina of mesencephalon (16%) and in the cerebellar anlage (21%). The olfactory plate (24%), the ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere (30%) and colliculus ganglionaris were damaged mostly (40%) after radiation on day 15 of gestation. The tectum of the mesencephali and in metencephalon the external granular layer of cerebellum and area of the rhombic lip were affected by irradiation (17-20%). The telencephalon found pyknotic but to a less extent in group irradiated on day 18 than it was on day 15. In the olfactory bulb 10% of pyknotic cells were seen and 16% of primary cortex of cerebral hemisphere more over 30% of nucleus caudatus/putamen were affected. In metencephalon 19% of external granular layer of cerebellum and 13% of trigonum cerebelli were pyknotic. In general, lesions of irradiation were rather mild in diencephalon and myelencephalon at all examined ages. Histological examinations support that defined parts of brain are damaged after neutron irradiation in utero and it may lead to the described physiological18-20 and biochemical consequences20,23. (orig.)

236

3D global and regional patterns of human fetal subplate growth determined in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The waiting period of subplate evolution is a critical phase for the proper formation of neural connections in the brain. During this time, which corresponds to 15 to 24 postconceptual weeks (PCW) in the human fetus, thalamocortical and cortico-cortical afferents wait in and are in part guided by molecules embedded in the extracellular matrix of the subplate. Recent advances in fetal MRI techniques now allow us to study the developing brain anatomy in 3D from in utero imaging. We describe a reliable segmentation protocol to delineate the boundaries of the subplate from T2-W MRI. The reliability of the protocol was evaluated in terms of intra-rater reproducibility on a subset of the subjects. We also present the first 3D quantitative analyses of temporal changes in subplate volume, thickness, and contrast from 18 to 24 PCW. Our analysis shows that firstly, global subplate volume increases in proportion with the supratentorial volume; the subplate remained approximately one-third of supratentorial volume. Secondly, we found both global and regional growth in subplate thickness and a linear increase in the median and maximum subplate thickness through the waiting period. Furthermore, we found that posterior regions--specifically the occipital pole, ventral occipito-temporal region, and planum temporale--of the developing brain underwent the most statistically significant increases in subplate thickness. During this period, the thickest region was the developing somatosensory/motor cortex. The subplate growth patterns reported here may be used as a baseline for comparison to abnormal fetal brain development. PMID:21046152

Corbett-Detig, J; Habas, P A; Scott, J A; Kim, K; Rajagopalan, V; McQuillen, P S; Barkovich, A J; Glenn, O A; Studholme, C

2011-01-01

237

Radiation-induced adaptive response. In vitro and in utero studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pre-exposure to low dose radiation reduces the biological effects of a subsequent higher challenging dose and the phenomenon is called radiation-induced adaptive response (AR). Described here are author's experimental findings of AR in mice during late embryogenesis and in human lymphoblastoid cells irradiated by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In the former, pregnant ICR mice at the gestation day 11 (E11) were exposed to priming X-irradiation with 0.3 Gy at 0.34 or 4.2 Gy/min where AR had been known to be induced, or with 0.3-1 Gy at 2.5-0.34 Gy/min, the ineffective doses/dose rates for AR. On E12, fetal RNA was subjected to microarray analysis for gene expression levels. In utero, AR specific gene modulations were firstly observed in such genes as for signal transduction, p53, development, etc. In the latter human cell system above, cells of TK6 (p53 +/+), AHH-1 (+/-) and NH32 (p53-knockout) were exposed to priming radiation of either X-ray or heavy ion (0.02 Gy to AHH-1, 0.1 Gy to TK6) and after 6hr, to challenging radiation of different LETs (X-ray, C-ion: 15 and 40 keV/?m and Ne-ion: 150 keV/?m). Mutation was examined with hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) test, and DNA double strand breaks and their repair, with flow cytometry following ?-H2AX phosphorylation kinetics. LET-dependent mutation by challenging heavy ions was observed but its frequency was decreased by pre-exposure in p53+/+ and +/- cells; and neither cell cycle effect norells; and neither cell cycle effect nor apoptosis was involved in AR mechanism but DNA repair was suggested involved. Further studies on AR were thought necessary incorporating the factors of bystander effect and genomic instability. (K.T.)

238

In utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses resulting from maternal ingestion of strontium isotopes from the Techa river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reliable estimates of tissue doses to individuals exposed as a result of radioactive releases to the Techa River are essential prerequisites for epidemiological analyses. This paper describes progress made in collaborative studies, sponsored by the European Union, between the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and the UK Health Protection Agency to provide dose estimates to Techa River populations following in utero exposures and infant exposures resulting from breast-feeding. Studies have concentrated on the assessment of internal doses from 90Sr as the main contributor to internal doses to the Techa River populations. (authors)

239

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

240

Assessment of in-utero venlafaxine induced, ROS-mediated, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal neocortex and neurobehavioral sequelae in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venlafaxine (VEN), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor is being used as a drug of choice for treating clinical depression even during pregnancy. It is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of perinatal depression, but the effects of VEN on fetus and the newborn are uncertain. Therefore, present study was undertaken to investigate the safety of in-utero exposure to VEN in terms of developmental neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative potential by using prenatal rat model. The selected doses of VEN (25, 40 and 50mg/kg) were administered to pregnant rats from GD 5 to 19 through oral gavage. The fetal brains were dissected and processed for histopathological measurements of neocortical thickness that showed significant reduction. Considering vulnerability of immature brain to free radical injury, VEN exposed neocortices were tested for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which were significantly increased. As ROS play important role in the initiation of apoptotic mechanisms, we explored for in situ detection of apoptosis by confocal microscopy that showed enhanced apoptosis including chromatin condensation which was further reconfirmed by electron microscopy. Substantially increased levels of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 as shown by western blotting also supported the increased neuro-apoptotic degeneration. For further correlation of these findings, prenatally VEN exposed young-adult rat offspring were assessed for open field exploratory behavior that showed increased anxiety-like and stereotypic responses indicating disturbed neurobehavioral pattern. The study concludes that prenatal VEN exposure may primarily enhance ROS generation that plays a key role in regulating release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria and thereby enhancing apoptotic neurodegeneration that affect proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells, resulting in neuronal deficits manifested as long term neurobehavioral impairments. PMID:25450524

Singh, Manish; Singh, K P; Shukla, Shubha; Dikshit, Madhu

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
241

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell

2001-12-01

242

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

2012-07-01

243

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

244

El concepto de metadato: algo más que descripción de recursos electrónicos / The metadata concept: something more than description of electronic resources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resulta evidente la necesidad de establecer mecanismos que permitan una descripción más exhaustiva de los recursos electrónicos. En este trabajo se propone como solución el uso de metadatos. Por ese motivo se estudia el concepto de metadato con el fin de determinar tanto su campo de acción como los [...] diferentes presupuestos subyacentes en este. Abstract in english It is evident the necessity to establish mechanisms that allow a more exhaustive description of the electronic resources. In this work we propose as solution the use of metadata. For that reason the concept of metadata is studied for the purpose of determining their action field and the underlying d [...] ifferent meanings in this.

José A., Senso; Antonio de la, Rosa Piñero.

2003-08-01

245

Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

246

Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in a 4-day-old cria: Support for in utero transmission by use of a polymerase chain reaction assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blood smear examination in a 4-day-old alpaca revealed massive erythrocyte parasitism by Mycoplasma haemolamae. Blood collected from both the nonparasitemic dam and the cria were positive for M. haemolamae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These findings suggest in utero transmission of M. haemolamae in camelids, even when the dam is not parasitemic.

Almy, Frederic S.; Ladd, Sabine M.; Sponenberg, D. Phillip; Crisman, Mark V.; Messick, Joanne B.

2006-01-01

247

Embryonic mutation as a possible cause of in utero carcinogenesis in mice revealed by postnatal treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although in utero irradiation at early stages induced a high incidence of somatic mutations at coat color genes in the embryos of a specified tester strain (PT x HT F1) of mice, it was not carcinogenic by itself. However, in utero-irradiated animals did develop skin tumors and hepatomas (but not leukemias) by the postnatal administration of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The incidence of both tumors and embryonic mutations increased with in utero doses of X-rays. Furthermore, a large reduction of tumor incidence, about 80%, was observed by low-dose-rate irradiation, similar to the 75% reduction in spot size found for embryonic mutations. The tumor nodule size was also dramatically reduced by low-dose-rate irradiation. Consequently, the induced incidence and size of tumors produced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment parallel those which are observed for coat color mutations as expected, because somatic mutations observed in the pigment cells must similarly occur in embryonic cells of other organs. The larger the clone of mutant cells, the greater their chance of becoming tumorigenic by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate posttreatment. These results strongly support the recent epidemiological survey showing that adult types of cancers, but not leukemias, are increasing in the atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero, since humans are continuously exposed to a variety of cancer-promoting agents in contrast to experimental animals reared without sucho experimental animals reared without such exposures

248

In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

249

Cytomegalovirus Upregulates Expression of CCR5 in Central Memory Cord Blood Mononuclear Cells, Which May Facilitate In Utero HIV Type 1 Transmission.  

Science.gov (United States)

Administration of combination antiretroviral therapy to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected pregnant women significantly reduces vertical transmission. In contrast, maternal co-opportunistic infection with primary or reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) or other pathogens may facilitate in utero transmission of HIV-1 by activation of cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). Here we examine the targets and mechanisms that affect fetal susceptibility to HIV-1 in utero. Using flow cytometry, we demonstrate that the fraction of CD4(+)CD45RO(+) and CD4(+)CCR5(+) CBMCs is minimal, which may account for the low level of in utero HIV-1 transmission. Unstimulated CD4(+) CBMCs that lack CCR5/CD45RO showed reduced levels of HIV-1 infection. However, upon in vitro stimulation with CMV, CBMCs undergo increased proliferation to upregulate the fraction of T central memory cells and expression of CCR5, which enhances susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in vitro. These data suggest that activation induced by CMV in vivo may alter CCR5 expression in CD4(+) T central memory cells to promote in utero transmission of HIV-1. PMID:25081935

Johnson, Erica L; Howard, Chanie L; Thurman, Joy; Pontiff, Kyle; Johnson, Elan S; Chakraborty, Rana

2015-01-15

250

Preserving Electronic Resources to Warrant Public Access [English version presented at the International Conference] = Conservazione delle risorse elettroniche per garantire il pubblico accesso [Versione italiana presentata alla Conferenza internazionale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Access to library collections through electronic means is now a standard and an increasingly important benchmark in evaluating library collections. In this paper I will discuss briefly the current environment relating to issues of access to and preservation of electronic resources and will follow that with examples of standards under development, examples of some developing and existing preservation models, and examples of recent institutional archiving projects. Through these examples I hope...

Madison, Olivia M. A.

2001-01-01

251

The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

252

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactese results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

253

Herpes - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes - www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/complications- ...

254

Photon migration through fetal head in utero using continuous wave, near infrared spectroscopy: clinical and experimental model studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) measurements were made from the maternal abdomen (clinical studies) and laboratory tissue phantoms (experimental studies) to gain insight into photon migration through the fetal head in utero. Specifically, a continuous wave spectrometer was modified and employed to make NIR measurements at 760 and 850 nm, at a large (10 cm) and small (2.5/4 cm) source-detector separation, simultaneously, on the maternal abdomen, directly above the fetal head. A total of 19 patients were evaluated, whose average gestational age and fetal head depth, were 37 weeks +/- 3 and 2.25 cm +/- 0.7, respectively. At the large source-detector separation, the photons are expected to migrate through both the underlying maternal and fetal tissues before being detected at the surface, while at the short source-detector separation, the photons are expected to migrate primarily through the superficial maternal tissues before being detected. Second, similar NIR measurements were made on laboratory tissue phantoms, with variable optical properties and physical geometries. The variable optical properties were obtained using different concentrations of India ink and Intralipid in water, while the variable physical geometries were realized by employing glass containers of different shapes and sizes. Third, the NIR measurements, which were made on the laboratory tissue phantoms, were compared to the NIR measurements made on the maternal abdomen to determine which tissue phantom best simulates the photon migration path through the fetal head in utero. The results of the comparison were used to provide insight into the optical properties and physical geometry of the maternal and fetal tissues in the photon migration path. PMID:10938781

Ramanujam, N; Vishnoi, G; Hielscher, A; Rode, M; Forouzan, I; Chance, B

2000-04-01

255

Mediagraphy: Print and Nonprint Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lists educational media-related journals, books, ERIC documents, journal articles, and nonprint resources classified by Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Electronic Performance Support Systems; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Distance Education; Educational Research; Educational Technology; Electronic Publishing; Information Science and…

Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1998

1998-01-01

256

Electronic Resources for Searching Health Scientific Information: Database Publication Type / Recursos Electrónicos para la Búsqueda de Información Científica en Salud: Tipos de Bases de Datos de Publicaciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish A pesar de la gran cantidad de información disponible en Internet, la obtención de información científica válida y evidente puede no ser una tarea sencilla. El objetivo fue identificar las diferentes bases de datos, motores de búsqueda y bibliotecas disponibles para recuperar la información científi [...] ca publicada en ciencias de la salud. Estudio de publicación de base de datos. Se realizó una búsqueda en los metabuscadores Altavista, Google, Yahoo, Ixquick y Copérnico, y en la base de datos "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS). La estrategia de búsqueda utilizó los términos "sistemas de gestión de base de datos", "informática médica", "motor de búsqueda" y "toma de decisiones". Se creó un documento de síntesis de la información recogida. Las direcciones halladas se agruparon en: bases de datos, motores de búsqueda y bibliotecas. A partir de la búsqueda realizada se encontraron 46 fuentes electrónicas: 25 bases de datos, 8 motores de búsqueda y 13 bibliotecas. Existe una gran variedad de recursos para la búsqueda de información científica en salud. Conocer la diversidad de opciones disponibles en el acceso a la información ayuda al usuario para llevar adelante su investigación y para poder realizar la toma de decisiones relacionada con la salud. Abstract in english Despite the large amount of information available on the Internet, getting valid scientific information and evidence may not be a simple task. The aim of this study was to identify the different databases, search engines and libraries available to retrieve published scientific information in health [...] sciences Database publication type. A search on Altavista, Google and Yahoo, Ixquick and Copérnico metasearch engines and in the database "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS) was performed. The search strategy used the terms "database management systems", "medical informatics", "search engine" and "decision making". A summary document of the information collected was created. Addresses found were grouped into: databases, search engines and libraries. The search performed returned 46 electronic resources: 25 databases, 8 search engines and 13 libraries. There is a variety of resources for searching health scientific information. Knowing the diversity of available options aids the user in access to information to generate research and health-related decision-making.

Carlos, Manterola; Tamara, Otzen; Lilian, Calo.

1484-14-01

257

Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY) ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH). In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid d...

Montoya Rebecca; La Grange Linda; Moreland Nicol

2002-01-01

258

Exposure to Tobacco Smoke in Utero and Subsequent Plasma Lipids, ApoB, and CRP among Adult Women in the MoBa Cohort  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Recent findings suggest that maternal smoking during pregnancy may play a role in the development of metabolic alterations in offspring during childhood. However, whether such exposure increases the risk of developing similar metabolic alterations during adulthood is uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the association of in utero exposure to maternal tobacco smoke with plasma lipids, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adulthood. Methods: The study was based on a subsample of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and included 479 pregnant women with plasma lipids, apoB, and CRP measurements. Information on in utero exposure to tobacco smoke, personal smoking, and other factors were obtained from the women by a self-completed questionnaire at enrollment, at approximately 17 weeks of gestation. Results: Women exposed to tobacco smoke in utero had higher triglycerides [10.7% higher; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.9, 17.9] and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (–1.9 mg/dL; 95% CI: –4.3, 0.5) compared with unexposed women, after adjusting for age, physical activity, education, personal smoking, and current body mass index (BMI). Exposed women were also more likely to have triglycerides ? 200 mg/dL [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3, 5.1] and HDL < 50 mg/dL (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.1, 5.0). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and apoB were not associated with the exposure. CRP was increased among exposed women; however, after adjustment for BMI, the association was completely attenuated. Conclusions: In this population, in utero exposure to tobacco smoke was associated with high triglycerides and low HDL in adulthood, 18–44 years after exposure. PMID:22814200

Skjaerven, Rolv; Haug, Kjell; Travlos, Gregory S.; Wilson, Ralph E.; Eggesbø, Merete; Hoppin, Jane A.; Whitworth, Kristina W.; Longnecker, Matthew P.

2012-01-01

259

In utero methanesulfonyl fluoride differentially affects learning and maze performance in the absence of long-lasting cholinergic changes in the adult rat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is increasing evidence that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may have various specific developmental roles in brain development. Nevertheless, specific effects of AChE inhibition during early brain development have not been adequately described. Therefore, methanesulfonyl fluoride (MSF), an irreversible AChE inhibitor that shows high selectivity for the CNS was used to produce AChE inhibition in utero to study subsequent adult behaviors, sleep, and cholinergic markers. Rats exposed to MSF in...

Carcoba, Luis M.; Santiago, Miguel; Moss, Donald E.; Cabeza, Rafael

2008-01-01

260

Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as 'little adults'; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahrb-1/d ('responsive') genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahrd/d ('non-responsive') siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiin utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing

 
 
 
 
261

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 7...

Moore, R. W.; Rudy, T. A.; Lin, T. M.; Ko, K.; Peterson, R. E.

2001-01-01

262

Power plant tracker [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Screen, monitor and analyse the development of power generation assets with Power Plant Tracker. The powerful competitive intelligence tool allows you to understand the future power generation mix, assess the drivers of the power generation industry and identify companies' asset portfolio.

263

European Patent Office [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the European Patent Office, which was established by the Convention on the Grant of European Patents in 1973 as part of European countries' efforts to establish a uniform patent system for the participating countries. Links to information on what's new with the office, the latest on patent information, and where to find patent information.

264

NDT data fusion [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides detailed case studies and practical guidelines for readers wishing to explore NDT data fusion. The first book devoted exclusively to multisensor integration and data fusion applied to NDT, it offers the most compressive introduction to NDT available.

265

Business source elite [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Business Source Elite provides full-text coverage of scholarly business, management and economics journals. This rich collection also includes publications covering topics such as accounting, banking, finance, international business, marketing, sales, etc.

266

Uranium market outlook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CRU's Uranium Market Outlook is a deep-dive into uranium market fundamentals. The report explores and analyses the outlook for demand, supply and U3O8 prices. Forecasting models are based on robust methodologies which are tested across a variety of markets in the mining and metals industry.

267

Malaysian Nuclear Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Malaysian Nuclear Society, a non-government organization which aims to promote the development and dissemination of information on nuclear science and technology, provide objective views and advice, and promote cooperation among members and other organizations with similar objectives. Its website provides information on the society, its constitution, members, news and events, publications; also gives contact information.

268

Babylon dictionaries & glossaries [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Database of 25 dictionaries in 12 languages, professional glossaries from commercial companies and premium content providers, and thousands of user contributed glossaries in specific areas of expertise.

269

VTT Prosessit : Ydinenergia [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the nuclear energy branch of Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, a contractor of Finnish research assignments which co-ordinates national research programmes on reactor safety, nuclear waste management, fusion technology and contributes to energy systems research. Its website provides a gateway to all VTT nuclear services, research programmes, and publications in full-text.

270

Geophysical research abstracts [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) is a publication of collections of short summaries (abstracts) of up-to-date research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences in separate volumes. The collections may include summaries of presentations at scientific meetings or extended summaries on well defined topics compiled by editors or organizations.

271

LexisNexis [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents LEXIS-NEXIS, a division of Reed Elsevier, Inc. that supplies commercial online legal, news, and business information services. Notes that LEXIS-NEXIS is based in Dayton, Ohio. Provides information about the company and its information

272

HeinOnline [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides full text access to legal journals and other legal materials, from volume 1 of each title. A project in progress, it will include all indexed legal journals. Also includes a Federal Register Library, a U.S. Supreme Court Library, a U.S.

273

CERN document server [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Permits searching through the bibliographic information and the full-text of documents stored in CDS catalogues. Includes over 666,000 bibliographic records, including 320,000 full-text documents, of interest to people working in particle physics and related areas. Covers preprints, articles, books, journals, photographs, and much more.

274

Journal impact factor [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative tool for ranking, evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals, journal impact factors measure the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period. Includes links to Essential Science Indicators and Journal and Academic Rankings.

275

E Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The E- Resources have become very popular in Libraries & Information Centers. This paper deals with the concept of E- Resources, its Features and types as well as Use of e-resources in libraries and selection cum evaluation of e-resources It also reveals the significance of E- resources.

Daya B. Dalve

2012-01-01

276

E Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The E- Resources have become very popular in Libraries & Information Centers. This paper deals with the concept of E- Resources, its Features and types as well as Use of e-resources in libraries and selection cum evaluation of e-resources It also reveals the significance of E- resources.

Dalve, Daya B.; Tekale, R. B.

2012-01-01

277

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

278

Mortality of in-utero children exposed to the A-bomb and of offspring of A-bomb survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A cohort-type follow-up study has been carried out by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the mortality of children exposed to A-bomb radiation while in utero. The mortality increased with tissue dose during the first year of life and did not increase during the following nine years, but an increase with dose was again suggested during 10-32 years of age. A detailed analysis of infant mortality revealed that the dose-associated excess in mortality among those under one year of age, especially within one month after birth, was attributable partly to the mechanical injury of the mother, but this does not provide the whole explanation. There was no increase of mortality from cancer including leukaemia with dose. As the number of cancer deaths is at present only five, further careful follow-up on this cohort is necessary to determine the state of radiation-induced cancer among this cohort. The continuing study on mortality rates among children born to A-bomb survivors has been updated to 1976. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the offspring (average age 24 years) could be demonstrated either by a contingency chi2-type of analysis or regression analysis. (author)

279

The contribution of attenuated selection in utero to small-for-gestational-age (SGA) among term African American male infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural selection conserves mechanisms allowing women to spontaneously abort gestations least likely to yield fit offspring. Small gestational size has been proposed as an indicator of fitness observable by maternal biology. Previous research suggests that exposure to ambient stress in utero results in more "culling" of small fetuses and therefore lower rates of small-for-gestational-age (SGA). However, African American women persistently have higher rates of SGA than non-Hispanic white women, despite experiencing more ambient stress. This paper tests whether attenuation of the stress response among highly stressed African American women, as suggested by the weathering hypothesis, may help to explain this apparent inconsistency. We apply time-series modeling to over 2 million African American and non-Hispanic white male term births in California over the period of January 1989 through December 2010. We test for the parabolic (i.e., "U" shaped) relationship, implied by an attenuated stress response, between unusually strong labor market contraction and the rate of SGA among African American term male infants, and a linear relationship among non-Hispanic whites. We find the hypothesized parabolic relationship among term male African American infants. As expected, we find a linear relationship between unexpected layoffs and the rate of SGA among term male non-Hispanic whites. These results are robust to sensitivity analyses. These results may help to explain the high rates of SGA among term male African American infants, despite greater maternal exposure to ambient stress during pregnancy. PMID:23702213

Goodman, Julia M; Karasek, Deborah; Anderson, Elizabeth; Catalano, Ralph A

2013-07-01

280

Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic - The battle of prevention starts in utero - The FIGO challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. PMID:25248554

Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

Tanja S. Zabka

2008-06-01

282

Partial rescue of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice with a lifelong engraftment of allogeneic stem cells in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) has been performed in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII (MPSVII) mice, but a lifelong engraftment of allogeneic donor cells has not been achieved. In this study, we sought to confirm a lifelong engraftment of allogeneic donor cells immunologically matched to the mother and to achieve partial rescue of phenotypes in the original MPSVII strain through IUHCT by intravenous injection. We performed in vitro fertilization in a MPSVII murine model and transferred affected embryos to ICR/B6-GFP surrogate mothers in cases where fetuses receiving IUHCT were all homozygous. Lineage-depleted cells from ICR/B6-GFP mice were injected intravenously at E14.5. Chimerism was confirmed by flow cytometry at 4 weeks after birth, and ?-glucuronidase activity in serum and several phenotypes were assessed at 8 weeks of age or later. Donor cells in chimeric mice from ICR/B6-GFP mothers were detected at death, and were confirmed in several tissues including the brains of sacrificed chimeric mice. Although the serum enzyme activity of chimeric mice was extremely low, the engraftment rate of donor cells correlated with enzyme activity. Furthermore, improvement of bone structure and rescue of reproductive ability were confirmed in our limited preclinical study. We confirmed the lifelong engraftment of donor cells in an original immunocompetent MPSVII murine model using intravenous IUHCT with cells immunologically matched to the mother without myeloablation, and the improvement of several phenotypes. PMID:25421592

Ihara, Norimasa; Akihiro, Umezawa; Onami, Naoko; Tsumura, Hideki; Inoue, Eisuke; Hayashi, Satoshi; Sago, Haruhiko; Mizutani, Shuki

2015-02-01

283

Surgical treatment of toraco-abdominal teratoma diagnosed in utero, approached with mini-invasive technique: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thoracic tumours of childhood arise either in the mediastinum, or from the chest wall and rarely from the lung parenchyma. Mediastinal teratoma occur in the anterior mediastinum and are usually very large at presentation; initial treatment is under discussion, but it appears that surgical excision and histological examination are the treatments of choice and it will determine whether the lesion is benign or malignant. The authors report a case of thoracic-abdominal teratoma, diagnosed in utero, and treated successfully with thoracoscopy and laparoscopy. No complication was described in short follow up, and the child was discharged in day 8th postoperative day. Histology showed mature teratoma. Follow-up at one year: no evidence of recurrence. Due to the rarity of multifocal teratoma in newborns, author believe that mini-invasive technique was useful to stage histological the mass, giving the opportunity to plans a second stage in treatment of the patient. Day of hospitalization resulted shorter in both surgical approaches, and discomfort less for the thoracic approach. This staging must be anyway planned, in the way of prenatal counselling and in the perinatal period, with the team involved in the procedure, that include anaesthetists, oncology staff, obstetricians, neonatologists and pediatric surgeons. It is mandatory in cases like the one reported that a multisciplinary team manage the patients and expert surgeons, especially in minimal invasive surgery, make the adequate plans. PMID:22555330

Leva, E; Arnoldi, R; Ferrari, C; Morandi, A; Brisighelli, G; Parolini, F; Farris, G

2012-06-01

284

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pathology Investigation and Resources Branch support programs that collect and distribute human biospecimens programs through grant funding. These programs make high-quality tissue and associated data available to the research community. Listed below is a description of current PIRB supported programs.

285

Experiment K-314: Fetal and neonatal rat bone and joint development following in Utero spaceflight  

Science.gov (United States)

Infant rat limb specimens from Soviet and U.S. ground-based studies were examined by radiography, macrophotography, histologic sectioning and staining and scanning electron microscopy. A comparison was conducted between vivarium and flight-type diets suggesting that nutritional obesity may adversely affect pregnancy. Data were obtained on maturation of ossification centers, orientation of collagen fibers in bone, tendon and ligaments, joint surface texture and spatial relationships of bones of the hind limb. Computer reconstructions of the knee and hip show promise as a means of investigating the etiology of congenital hip dislocation.

Sabelman, E. E.; Holton, E. M.; Arnaud, C. D.

1981-01-01

286

ChemTeacher: Electron  

Science.gov (United States)

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electron page includes resources for teaching students about electrons.

2011-01-01

287

Effect of reduced heifer nutrition during in utero and post-weaning development on glucose and acetate kinetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Energetic efficiency was evaluated in composite bred heifers born from dams receiving 1·8 or 1·2 kg/d winter supplementation for approximately 80 d before parturition. Heifers were then developed post-weaning and randomly assigned to heifer development treatments of either control (100 %; ad libitum; n 8/year) or restricted (80 %; fed 80 % of supplementation fed to controls adjusted to a common body weight: n 8/year) in a 2-year study. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) and acetate irreversible loss test (AILT) were administered to heifers at the termination of a 140 d development period when the heifers were approximately 403 d of age and consumed a silage-based diet, and again at 940 d of age when pregnant with their second calf and grazing dormant forage. No differences were measured (P>0·08) for dam winter nutrition or heifer development treatment for baseline serum metabolites or measures in either the GTT or the AILT. However, changes in baseline serum concentrations (P>0·05) were different between metabolic challenges, which occurred at different stages of development. No difference in acetate disappearance (P = 0·18) and half-life (P = 0·66) was measured between the two metabolic challenges. A trend for glucose half-life to be shorter in heifers born from dams receiving in utero winter treatments that supplied 1·2 kg/d of winter supplementation was observed (P = 0·083). Heifers developed with lower total DM intake during a 140 d development period had similar glucose and acetate incorporation rates as ad libitum-fed heifers when evaluated at two different production stages. PMID:21736769

Waterman, Richard C; Roberts, Andrew J; Geary, Thomas W; Grings, Elaine E; Alexander, Leeson J; MacNeil, Michael D

2011-12-01

288

Development of cerebellar neurons and glias revealed by in utero electroporation: Golgi-like labeling of cerebellar neurons and glias.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebellar cortical functions rely on precisely arranged cytoarchitectures composed of several distinct types of neurons and glias. Studies have indicated that cerebellar excitatory and inhibitory neurons have distinct spatial origins, the upper rhombic lip (uRL) and ventricular zone (VZ), respectively, and that different types of neurons have different birthdates. However, the spatiotemporal relationship between uRL/VZ progenitors and their final phenotype remains poorly understood due to technical limitations. To address this issue, we performed in utero electroporation (IUE) of fluorescent protein plasmids using mouse embryos to label uRL/VZ progenitors at specific developmental stages, and observed labeled cells at maturity. To overcome any potential dilution of the plasmids caused by progenitor division, we also utilized constructs that enable permanent labeling of cells. Cerebellar neurons and glias were labeled in a Golgi-like manner enabling ready identification of labeled cells. Five types of cerebellar neurons, namely Purkinje, Golgi, Lugaro and unipolar brush cells, large-diameter deep nuclei (DN) neurons, and DN astrocytes were labeled by conventional plasmids, whereas plasmids that enable permanent labeling additionally labeled stellate, basket, and granule cells as well as three types of glias. IUE allows us to label uRL/VZ progenitors at different developmental stages. We found that the five types of neurons and DN astrocytes were labeled in an IUE stage-dependent manner, while stellate, basket, granule cells and three types of glias were labeled regardless of the IUE stage. Thus, the results indicate the IUE is an efficient method to track the development of cerebellar cells from uRL/VZ progenitors facing the ventricular lumen. They also indicate that while the generation of the five types of neurons by uRL/VZ progenitors is regulated in a time-dependent manner, the progenitor pool retains multipotency throughout embryonic development. PMID:23894597

Kita, Yoshiaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Murakami, Fujio

2013-01-01

289

Gene expression profiling following in utero exposure to phthalate esters reveals new gene targets in the etiology of testicular dysgenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male reproductive tract abnormalities associated with testicular dysgenesis in humans also occur in male rats exposed gestationally to some phthalate esters. We examined global gene expression in the fetal testis of the rat following in utero exposure to a panel of phthalate esters. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by gavage daily from Gestational Days 12 through 19 with corn oil vehicle (1 ml/kg) or diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dioctyl tere-phthalate (DOTP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dipentyl phthalate (DPP), or benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) at 500 mg/kg per day. Testes were isolated on Gestational Day 19, and global changes in gene expression were determined. Of the approximately 30 000 genes queried, expression of 391 genes was significantly altered following exposure to the developmentally toxic phthalates (DBP, BBP, DPP, and DEHP) relative to the control. The developmentally toxic phthalates were indistinguishable in their effects on global gene expression. No significant changes in gene expression were detected in the nondevelopmentally toxic phthalate group (DMP, DEP, and DOTP). Gene pathways disrupted include those previously identified as targets for DBP, including cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis, as well as newly identified pathways involved in intracellular lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, insulin signaling, transcriptional regulation, and oxidative stress. Additional gene targets include alpha inhibin, which is essential for normal Sertoli cell development, and genes involved with communication between Sertoli cells and gonocytes. The common targeting of these genes by a select group of phthalates indicates a role for their associated molecular pathways in testicular development and offers new insight into the molecular mechanisms of testicular dysgenesis. PMID:15728792

Liu, Kejun; Lehmann, Kim P; Sar, Madhabananda; Young, S Stanley; Gaido, Kevin W

2005-07-01

290

77 FR 45330 - Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee  

Science.gov (United States)

...The Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee...Fresno County Resource Advisory Committee...Prather, CA 93651. Electronic comments should...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Darcy Brown, Fresno County Resource Advisory...

2012-07-31

291

Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Reproductive Development of Eight-Year-Old Children following In Utero and Environmental Exposure to Phthalates  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted. PMID:25207995

Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Lin, Ching-Yi; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Wang, Shu-Li

2014-01-01

292

Characterization of placental cholesterol transport : ABCA1 is a potential target for in utero therapy of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by approximately 30%. In contrast, disruption of the Abcg1 had no effect. Treatment of pregnant C57Bl/6 female mice with TO901317, an LXR-agonist, increased both Abca1 expression and maternal-fetal cholesterol transfer to the fetus. In an SLOS mouse model (Dhcr7(-/-)), which is incapable of de novo synthesis of cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating maternal-fetal cholesterol transport has potential for in utero therapy of SLOS.

Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A

2008-01-01

293

Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

Scott Marsalis

2008-12-01

294

Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

Royo Pedro

2009-01-01

295

CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 regulates fetal lung growth and maturation in utero by potentiating endogenous bombesin-like peptides.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bombesin-like peptides (BLPs) are mitogens for bronchial epithelial cells and small cell lung carcinomas, and increase fetal lung growth and maturation in utero and in organ cultures. BLPs are hydrolyzed by the enzyme CD10/neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10/NEP) which is expressed in bronchial epithelium and functions to inhibit BLP-mediated growth of small cell lung carcinomas. To determine whether CD10/NEP regulates peptide-mediated lung development, we administered a specific CD10/NEP inhib...

King, K. A.; Hua, J.; Torday, J. S.; Drazen, J. M.; Graham, S. A.; Shipp, M. A.; Sunday, M. E.

1993-01-01

296

In Utero and Lactational Exposures to Diethylhexyl-Phthalate Affect Two Populations of Leydig Cells in Male Long-Evans Rats1  

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Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) has been classified as an antiandrogen. However, whether in utero and lactational exposures of DEHP affect Leydig cells has not been well established. In the present study, the effects of DEHP exposures on fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and adult Leydig cells (ALCs) were assessed. Pregnant dams of Long-Evans rats were treated with 0, 10, and 750 mg/kg body weight DEHP from Gestational Day 12.5 to Postnatal Day (PND) 21.5. Fetal Leydig cell clustering and FLC-specific g...

Lin, Han; Lian, Qing-quan; Hu, Guo-xin; Jin, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Hardy, Dianne O.; Chen, Guo-rong; Lu, Zhong-qiu; Sottas, Chantal M.; Hardy, Matthew P.; Ge, Ren-shan

2009-01-01

297

Curriculum Resources for Schools  

...VisitCurriculum ResourcesPrimary ResourcesPost Primary Resources...ResourcesPrimary ResourcesPost Primary ResourcesTeacher ResourcesFactsheets...NanotechnologyLooking for HelpCurriculum Resources for SchoolsLast updated: 2 April...

298

Free Technology Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Freestudy is dedicated to providing free tutorials and resources for those studying engineering from the degree level to certificate level. The site specializes mainly in Mechanical Engineering and provides materials on thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mechanics of solids, materials, fluid power, mechatronics, control, electrical, electronics and math.

299

Identification, selection and licensing of electronic resources within library consortia: the case of Germany-Bavaria [English summary of the version presented at the International Conference] = Identificazione, selezione e licensing di risorse elettroniche nei consorzi bibliotecari: il caso della Baviera [Riassunto in italiano della versione presentata alla Conferenza internazionale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Identification, selection and licensing of electronic resources increasingly takes places within the framework of library consortia, i.e. groups of libraries aiming at the collaborative acquisition of access rights for databases and electronic journals. Due to the federal structure of the country, there are a number of different regional consortia throughout Germany.

Scha?ffler, Hildegard

2001-01-01

300

In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on the CNS. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to low concentration of diesel exhaust on behaviour and the monoaminergic neuron system. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and monoamine levels in the CNS were assessed. Methods Mice were exposed prenatally to a low concentration of diesel exhaust (171 ?g DEP/m3 for 8 hours/day on gestational days 2-16. SLA was assessed for 3 days in 4-week-old mice by analysis of the release of temperature-associated infrared rays. At 5 weeks of age, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were used for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results and Discussion Mice exposed to a low concentration of diesel exhaust showed decreased SLA in the first 60 minutes of exposure. Over the entire test period, the mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust showed decreased daily SLA compared to that in control mice, and the SLA in each 3 hour period was decreased when the lights were turned on. Neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and noradrenaline, were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in the exposure group compared to the control group. The metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline also increased in the PFC. Neurotransmitter turnover, an index of neuronal activity, of dopamine and noradrenaline was decreased in various regions of the CNS, including the striatum, in the exposure group. The serum corticosterone level was not different between groups. The data suggest that decreased SLA in mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust is due to facilitated release of dopamine in the PFC. Conclusions These results indicate that exposure of mice in utero to a low concentration of diesel exhaust decreases SLA and alters the neurochemical monoamine metabolism of several regions of the brain.

Odagiri Takashi

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

2004-09-15

302

Unusual outcome of in utero infection and subsequent postnatal super-infection with different PCV2b strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

VC2002, isolated from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pig, is a mixture of two porcine circovirus genotype 2b (PCV2b) viruses, K2 and K39. Preliminary experiments disclosed short-term adverse effects of K39, but not K2, on porcine foetuses. These findings led to the hypothesis that infection of immuno-incompetent foetuses with K2 confers a status of immunotolerance, and postnatal super-infection with K39 triggers PMWS. To explore this hypothesis, nine 55-day-old foetuses were inoculated in utero (three with K2-10(4.3)TCID50, three with K39-10(4.3)TCID50 and three with medium), and foeto-pathogenicity examined. At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), K2 did not induce pathology, whereas pathological effects of K39 were evident. Twenty-four 45-day-old foetuses were subsequently inoculated to examine the long-term effect of K2, including six with K2-high dose-10(4.3)TCID50, six with K2-low dose-10(2.3)TCID50 and 12 mock-inoculated controls. Both doses resulted in five mummified foetuses and one live-born piglet each (69dpi). K2 was recovered from all mummies. K2 and K2-specific antibodies were not detected in serum of the two live-born piglets at birth, indicating full control of K2 infection. The K2-low dose-infected piglet was immunostimulated at day 2, but not the K2-high dose-infected piglet. Both non-stimulated and stimulated K2-infected piglets were super-inoculated with K39 at day 6 or 8 (taken as 0 days post super-inoculation). Low viral replication was observed in the non-stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(3.3)TCID50/g; identified as K39). In contrast, viral replication was extremely high in the stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(5.6)TCID50/g) and identified as K2, indicating that K2 infection is controlled during foetal life, but emerges after birth upon immunostimulation. However, none of the piglets showed any signs of PMWS. PMID:24950783

Saha, Dipongkor; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Huang, Liping; Geldhof, Marc; Vanhee, Merijn; Lefebvre, David J; Meerts, Peter; Ducatelle, Richard; Doorsselaere, Jan V; Nauwynck, Hans J

2014-06-01

303

Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of the signals in placenta and syncytial streamers was digitally analysed. Flt1 and eNOS content of placental homogenates was determined by western blotting. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Results In the subplacenta, placental interlobium and labyrinth VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were expressed in all stages of pregnancy. Syncytial streamers in all stages of gestation, and cytotrophoblasts surrounding myometrial arteries in early and mid pregnancy – and replacing the smooth muscle at term – displayed immunoreactivity for VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, eNOS and B2R. In partly disrupted mesometrial arteries in late pregnancy cytotrophoblasts and endothelial cells expressed VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS. Sections incubated in absence of the first antibody, or in presence of rabbit IgG fraction and mouse IgG serum, yielded no staining. According to the digital analysis, Flt-1 increased in the placental interlobium in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.016, and in the labyrinth in day 60 as compared to days 20 and 40 (P = 0.026, while the signals for VEGF, KDR, B2R, and eNOS showed no variations along pregnancy. In syncytial streamers the intensity of VEGF immunoreactivity was increased in day 40 in comparison to day 20 (P = 0.027, while that of B2R decreased in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.011; VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS expression showed no variations. Western blots for eNOS and Flt-1 in placental homogenates showed no significant temporal differences along pregnancy. Conclusion The demonstration of different angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the same cellular protagonists of angiogenesis and invasion in the pregnant guinea-pig, supports the presence of a functional network, and strengthens the argument that this species provides an adequate model to understand human pregnancy.

Chacón Cecilia

2008-03-01

304

Lipopolysaccharide-induced weakness in the preterm diaphragm is associated with mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction and oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diaphragmatic contractility is reduced in preterm lambs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero. The mechanism of impaired fetal diaphragm contractility after LPS exposure is unknown. We hypothesise that in utero exposure to LPS induces a deficiency of mitochondrial complex activity and oxidative damage in the fetal diaphragm. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-established preterm ovine model of chorioamnionitis: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA) saline or 10 mg LPS, at 2 d or 7 d prior to surgical delivery at 121 d GA (term?=?150 d). The fetus was killed humanely immediately after delivery for tissue sampling. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared from the isolated diaphragm and mitochondrial electron transfer chain activities were evaluated using enzymatic assays. Oxidative stress was investigated by quantifying mitochondrial oxidative protein levels and determining antioxidant gene and protein (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase 1) expression. The activity of the erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant signalling pathway was examined by quantifying the Nrf2 protein content of cell lysate and nuclear extract. A 2 d LPS exposure in utero significantly decreased electron transfer chain complex II and IV activity (pDiaphragm mitochondria accumulated oxidised protein after a 7 d LPS exposure. We conclude that intrauterine exposure to LPS induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and electron chain dysfunction in the fetal diaphragm, that is further exacerbated by impairment of the antioxidant signalling pathway and decreased antioxidant activity. PMID:24039949

Song, Yong; Pinniger, Gavin J; Bakker, Anthony J; Moss, Timothy J M; Noble, Peter B; Berry, Clare A; Pillow, Jane J

2013-01-01

305

Oxidative DNA damage in the in utero initiation of postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits by normal fetal and ethanol-enhanced oxidative stress in oxoguanine glycosylase 1 knockout mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies in mice with deficient antioxidative enzymes have shown that physiological levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can adversely affect the developing embryo and fetus. Herein, DNA repair-deficient progeny of oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (ogg1)-knockout mice lacking repair of the oxidative DNA lesion 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) exhibited enhanced postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits, revealing the pathogenic potential of 8-oxodGuo initiated by physiological ROS production in fetal brain and providing the first evidence of a pathological phenotype for ogg1-knockout mice. Moreover, when exposed in utero to ethanol (EtOH), ogg1-knockout progeny exhibited higher levels of 8-oxodGuo in fetal brain and more severe postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits than wild-type littermates, both of which were blocked by pretreatment with the free radical trapping agent phenylbutylnitrone. These results suggest that ROS-initiated DNA oxidation, as distinct from altered signal transduction, contributes to neurodevelopmental deficits caused by in utero EtOH exposure, and fetal DNA repair is a determinant of risk. PMID:25311828

Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Pinto, Daniel J; Wells, Peter G

2015-01-01

306

Biochemical analysis of cerebrum of fetal rats X-irradiated in utero - content and composition of DNA, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero and biochemical analysis of the cerebrum was performed. The cerebral weight was significantly lower in the irradiated group on gestational day (gd) 13 with 100R than in the control group from gd 19 to postnatal day (pd) 15. In the isolation step for cerebral DNA on gd 21, decreased DNA contents of the homogenate and isolated nuclei and an increase in the ratio of protein to DNA in nuclei and isolated DNA were observed on X-irradiation. Analysis of the nucleoside composition of isolated DNA showed the radiation resistivity of dAdo. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was extremely low in fetal cerebrum. The lipid peroxide (LP) level of the cerebrum in the irradiated group was increased compared to that in the control group. Administration of vitamin E during pregnancy resulted in an increased cerebral weight and a decreased cerebral LP level in the irradiated fetuses. The low activity of SOD may be one of the factors which cause the vulnerability of the fetal brain to irradiation. The study on vitamin E supplementation showed evidence of the possibility of the prevention of microcephaly induced by X-irradiation in utero. (orig.)

307

In utero and early-life exposure of rats to a Wi-Fi signal: screening of immune markers in sera and gestational outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. Pregnant rats were exposed free-running, 2 h/day and 5 days/week to a 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi signal in a reverberation chamber at whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0, 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg (with 10, 10, 12, and 9 rats, respectively), while cage control rats were kept in the animal facility (11 rats). Dams were exposed from days 6 to 21 of gestation and then three newborns per litter were further exposed from birth to day 35 postnatal. On day 35 after birth, all pups were sacrificed and sera collected. The screening of sera for antibodies directed against 15 different antigens related to damage and/or pathological markers was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No change in humoral response of young pups was observed, regardless of the types of biomarker and SAR levels. This study also provided some data on gestational outcome following in utero exposure to Wi-Fi signals. Mass evaluation of dams and pups and the number of pups per litter was monitored, and the genital tracts of young rats were observed for abnormalities by measuring anogenital distance. Under these experimental conditions, our observations suggest a lack of adverse effects of Wi-Fi exposure on delivery and general condition of the animals. PMID:22228576

Aït-Aïssa, Saliha; Billaudel, Bernard; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Ruffié, Gilles; Duleu, Sébastien; Hurtier, Annabelle; Haro, Emmanuelle; Taxile, Murielle; Athané, Axel; Geffard, Michel; Wu, Tongning; Wiart, Joe; Bodet, Dominique; Veyret, Bernard; Lagroye, Isabelle

2012-07-01

308

Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

Ovacik, Meric A. [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Division of Human Food Safety, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States); Ierapetritou, Marianthi G. [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Androulakis, Ioannis P., E-mail: yannis@rci.rutgers.edu [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, NJ 08854 (United States)

2013-09-15

309

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects bone tissue in rhesus monkeys.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bone tissue is one of the target tissues for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on bone tissue in rhesus monkey, the most human-like experimental model available. Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; age 4-10 years) were exposed to TCDD with a total dose of 40.5-42.0 or 405-420ng/kg bodyweight by repeated subcutaneous injections starting at gestational day 20 and followed by injections every 30 days until 90 days after delivery. At a mean age of 7 years the offspring were sacrificed and the femur bone dissected. Results from peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) analyses of the metaphyseal part of the femur bones in female offspring showed significant increases in trabecular bone mineral content (BMC; +84.6%, pbone were observed. Displacement at failure were significantly increased in the male low-dose group compared to the controls (+38.0%, pTCDD did not induce any significant changes in bone morphology. In conclusion, in utero and lactational low-dose, but not high-dose exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced disruption of bone tissue development in rhesus monkey, a result suggesting that similar effects might occur in humans also. PMID:18835322

Hermsen, Sanne A B; Larsson, Sune; Arima, Akihiro; Muneoka, Atsunobu; Ihara, Toshio; Sumida, Hiroshi; Fukusato, Toshio; Kubota, Shunichiro; Yasuda, Mineo; Lind, P Monica

2008-11-20

310

Neuronal precursor-restricted transduction via in utero CNS gene delivery of a novel bipartite HSV amplicon/transposase hybrid vector.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to modify genetically in utero the precursors of neuronal lineage contributing to multiple postmitotic cell types in the adult central nervous system would provide a means to evaluate strategies to ameliorate conditions affecting cellular patterning, metabolism, or survival. The herpes simplex virus (HSV)-derived amplicon, a vector devoid of viral genes and with the largest known payload capacity, normally exists episomally within nuclei of transduced cells, thus precluding conveyance during mitosis. Herein, we modify the Tc1-like Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system to create an integrating amplicon vector platform wherein provision of transposase in trans effectively catalyzes integration of a transgenomic segment. Cotransduction with a Rous sarcoma virus promoter-driven beta-galactosidase-neomycin (betageo) fusion flanked by SB terminal repeats (HSVT-betageo) and a second expressing the SB transposase gene under HSV immediate-early 4/5 gene promoter control (HSVsb) resulted in integration and extension of expression duration. Most notably, in utero intraventricular application led to extensive transgene expression within neuronal precursors and their derivatives without attendant adverse consequences, suggesting this new platform could be used to evaluate prenatally the function of gene products in neuronal lineages and evaluate therapeutic strategies for correction of genetic abnormalities affecting the developing CNS. PMID:16412694

Bowers, William J; Mastrangelo, Michael A; Howard, Darlene F; Southerland, Hilary A; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A; Federoff, Howard J

2006-03-01

311

Effects of in utero exposure to D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in the male rat: a comparison with finasteride.  

Science.gov (United States)

D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm fruits, consisting of a mixture of free fatty acids, that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. This study investigated the possible alterations due to D-004 of androgen-dependent development after exposure in utero and compared them with those due to finasteride. Rats were randomized into five experimental groups: a control group, three groups treated with D-004 at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively, and a group treated with finasteride (10 mg/kg/day). Male rats were treated 10 weeks before and during mating. Female rats were treated for 15 days prior mating, during mating, during pregnancy, and until lactation (day 21) except for those treated with finasteride, which were only administered the drug on gestational days 12-21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy after postnatal day 90. The results of the present study indicate that D-004 induced no alterations in androgen-dependent development after the exposure in utero. Also, the current study demonstrated a permanent reduction in anogenital distance and retention of nipples in adult male rats exposed to finasteride during late gestation. Significant alterations induced by exposure to finasteride were mainly in tissues dependent on dihydrotestosterone during development. PMID:21861713

Martínez, Ariadne Gutiérrez; Pardo, Balia; Gámez, Rafael; Mas, Rosa; Noa, Miriam; Marrero, Gisela; Valle, Maikel; García, Haydee; Curveco, Dayisell; Mendoza, Nilda; Goicochea, Edy

2011-12-01

312

Comunidades científicas e infra-estrutura tecnológica no Brasil para uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação na pesquisa / Scientific communities and technological infrastructure in Brazil for use of electronic resources of communication and information in research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo do uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação por pesquisadores brasileiros, na geração de novos conhecimentos. A análise abrange a freqüência de participação na rede, fatores intervenientes, finalidades de uso e o grau de relevância dessa tecnologia. No acesso e uso da informaçã [...] o científica e técnica, são comparados os recursos eletrônicos/digitais e os impressos/ tradicionais. A partir dos resultados, são identificadas percepções e perspectivas, entre as quais a aproximação entre comunicação científica e divulgação científica, a confluência dos processos de comunicação e informação e o crescente interesse pela temática da pesquisa, inclusive no Brasil. Pela importância dos recursos eletrônicos para pesquisa, há necessidade de sua expansão e atualização constantes, com investimento das instituições e sua inserção nas políticas públicas nacionais. Abstract in english Usage study of communication and information electronic resources by Brazilian researchers in the generation of new knowledge. The analysis encompasses the frequency of participation in the network as well as the intervenient factors, usage aims and the relevance of this technology. Electronic resou [...] rces and traditional printed ones are compared in scientific and technical information usage and access. Results identified perceptions and perspectives, among which the coming together of scientific communication and scientific divulgation, the confluence of communication and information processes and the growing interest for research in the area, including Brazil. Considering the importance of electronic resources for research, there is a need for its constant expansion and updating, which implies investments by Brazilian institutions and its insertion in the national public policies.

Lena Vania Ribeiro, Pinheiro.

2003-12-01

313

Bilgi Teknolojilerinin Belge Yönetimine Etkisi ve Elektronik Belge Yönetimi / The Effect of Information Technologies on Resources Management and Electronic Record Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technologies have undergone rapid development in the last decade and these developments especially affected the information and records management profession. Developments in information technologies have caused changes in the way of creating, storing, sending and sharing records in organisational structures, and traditional record management has been replaced by a modern understanding of record management. In this respect, the management of electronic records let important problems arise. This study focuses on the effects of information technologies on records management, and thus on electronic record management.

Cengiz Ayd?n

2005-04-01

314

What Can Electrons Do? Electron Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

From the NanoEd Resource Portal, this course aims to "educate students about important roles of electron microscopy in nanoscience and nanotechnology." Topics covered here include "electrons, principles of electron microscopy, applications of electron microscopy in characterizing nano-scale materials, and the development of electron microscopy to meet challenges in nanotechnology." Here, visitors will find the lecture notes of Dr. Jian-Guo Zheng from Northwestern University as pdf forms of PowerPoint presentations, which illustrate each topic. This is a helpful and ready-to-use lecture for any educator in a nanotechnology classroom to help students understand electron microscopy.

Zheng, Jian-Guo

315

Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

2005-01-01

316

Bilgi Teknolojilerinin Belge Yönetimine Etkisi ve Elektronik Belge Yönetimi / The Effect of Information Technologies on Resources Management and Electronic Record Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Information technologies have undergone rapid development in the last decade and these developments especially affected the information and records management profession. Developments in information technologies have caused changes in the way of creating, storing, sending and sharing records in organisational structures, and traditional record management has been replaced by a modern understanding of record management. In this respect, the management of electronic records let important proble...

Cengiz Ayd?n

2005-01-01

317

Veterinary Medicine Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Iowa State University's libraries have been compiling electronic subject guides for a number of years, and this is one such guide that users in the field of veterinary medicine will want to bookmark. Organized thematically, the resources are contained within one single list, and they are divided into categories such as websites, electronic journals, online abstracts, and basic pet care and health resources. Some of the gateway sites are quite helpful, particularly the link to the animal diseases database offered by the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. Both potential veterinarian technicians and laypersons will appreciate the pet care links, which include links to the Healthy Pet site created by the American Animal Hospital Association and an overview to animal care created by the American Veterinary Medical Association.

2007-03-03

318

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome in the breech presentation managed by ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure after intraoperative external cephalic version.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) caused by laryngeal atresia was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound in a male fetus at 26 weeks of gestation. Findings included massive ascites, subcutaneous edema, enlarged hyperechogenic lungs with diaphragmatic inversion, dilated trachea, polyhydramnios, and breech presentation. Those findings of CHAOS spontaneously returned to normal by 33 weeks of gestation. However, the placenta was localized to the anterior uterine wall. In addition, the fetal position had been breech until delivery. At 36 weeks of gestation, a planned ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure was performed following intraoperative external cephalic version (ECV) in which the fetus was approached from the posterior wall of the uterus. Laryngoscopy revealed the predicted laryngeal obstruction, and tracheostomy was placed. Intraoperative ECV may be a useful technique in breech presentation before EXIT procedure. PMID:22435362

Miwa, Ichiro; Sase, Masakatsu; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Keiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Ueda, Kazuyuki

2012-05-01

319

In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (?secondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular dynamics in lambs and modulate the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona

2011-01-01

320

In utero exposure to tributyltin alters the expression of E-cadherin and localization of claudin-1 in intercellular junctions of the rat ventral prostate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tributyltin (TBT) is an environmental contaminant, exhibiting well-established toxicity to reproductive systems in aquatic organisms. Little information exists regarding the effects of TBT on mammalian reproduction. Cellular junctions are crucial for sperm development and maturation. Intercellular tight junctions are formed by transmembrane proteins such as claudins (Cldns), while the formation of tight junctions involves signaling components of adhering junctions, comprised of cadherins. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of in utero exposure to TBT on the rat ventral prostate. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given doses of TBT (2.5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) throughout gestation and sacrificed at Day 91. Ventral prostate weights of TBT-treated rats were decreased in all treatment groups. Results of gene expression macro-array analysis indicated that numerous genes related to cellular adhesion and cell polarity were affected. Cldn-1 mRNA levels decreased after exposure to TBT. Cldn-1 was immunolocalized to the apical lateral margins of adjacent prostatic epithelial cells in controls, but was increasingly dispersed along the lateral plasma membrane with increasing TBT dose, suggesting that the targeting of Cldn-1 or its localization to tight junctions was altered as a result of fetal TBT exposure. E-cadherin mRNA levels and immunolocalization were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. These data indicate that in utero TBT exposure results in permanent alterations in ventral prostate and that these are associated with alterations in the expression and distribution of cell adhesion and tight junctional proteins. PMID:17120308

Barthelemy, Johanna; Adeeko, Adedayo; Robaire, Bernard; Cyr, Daniel G

2007-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

2004-09-15

322

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

323

The Electronic Zoo  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Zoo: A List of Animal-Related Computer Resources (Internet/Bitnet Mailing Lists, Gophers, World Wide Web Sites, Mail Servers, Usenet Newsgroups, FTP Archives, Commercial Online Services, and Bulletin Board Systems.)

Boschert, Ken.

1997-01-01

324

Hemophilia - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart Lung and Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

325

Arthritis - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation - www.arthritis.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

326

Transition Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a site for teachers that work with students with disabilities at the secondary level. This site is broken down into categories to help you with the transition aspect of the IEP. The categories are as follows: Employment/Training, For Students - Career Exploration and Profiles, Independent Living, Learning Styles & Trainings, Level 1 Assessments, Self-Determination, and Transition Resources. All of the resources included in this site are free! TRANSITION RESOURCES: 1.) Adult Career and Continuing Education Services (ACCES-VR) This website takes you directly to the ACCES-VR website, where you can find information about vocational rehabilitation and the referral process. 2,) Guide to Quality Individualized Education Program (IEP) Development and Implementation Created by the New York State Special Education Department to help answer questions regarding the New IEP. Great resource! Gives examples!! 3.) Indicator 13 Checklist Use this ...

Transition

2011-11-23

327

Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM  

Science.gov (United States)

This website is from Boston Museum of Science and is an introduction to Scanning Electron Micrscope (SEM). It contains an image gallery of insects, plants and other items as seen with an SEM. A slide show and a movie explains how the microsope works. Teacher resources offer guidance on building your own microscope and setting up a lab, including wet mounts and staining cells. Information on how the Museum uses the scope, and additional electronic resources, completes the site.

328

77 FR 66863 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Electronic Stakeholder Survey...  

Science.gov (United States)

...proposal. The Electronic Stakeholder Survey...align ideas and resources by working across...cross-sector resources and ideas. DATES...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Colette Pollard...permitting electronic submission of responses...align ideas and resources by working...

2012-11-07

329

Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

330

Resource Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

Conrad, Jon M.

2000-01-01

331

Carcinogenic effect of in utero 252Cf and 60Co irradiation in C57BL/6N x C3H/He F1 (B6C3F1) mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C57BL/6N x C3H/He F1 mice were exposed in utero to 0, 1.0 and 2.7 Gy of 252Cf or 60Co at day 16.5th of gestation. Mice of both sexes were observed for 2 years. The females in the irradiated groups showed increases in the incidences of pituitary, mammary gland, liver and lung tumors. 252Cf was more effective in inducing tumors than was 60Co. Interestingly, the incidence of hematopoietic tumors decreased by irradiations with 252Cf but not with 60Co. The incidences of liver tumors in males increased by 252Cf-irradiation, whereas, the incidences of skin and soft tissue tumors increased by 60Co-irradiation. These results indicate that irradiation in utero during the late embryonic stage can induce tumors postnatally after a long latency. Moreover, females irradiated in utero had disfunction of the ovaries, evidence of impairment of the female's specific hormonal environment. This may be the cause of the low incidence of ovarian tumors and the high incidences of liver, lung and pituitary tumors in these female mice. Females with pituitary tumors had a high serum prolactin, which might be responsible for the concurrence of mammary gland tumors. These results indicate the importance of host factors in the development of radiation-induced tumors. (author)

332

Adaptation of the ICRP models for the Techa River populations to estimate in utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses from ingested strontium isotopes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Reliable estimation of tissue doses for exposed individuals is very important in epidemiological studies. Long-term cohort studies of the Techa River populations exposed in the early 1950s due to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Southern Urals, Russia) are unique in allowing the quantification of risks from low-level chronic exposure of the general population and providing information on risks for persons exposed in utero. Strontium isotopes were the most important contributors to haemopoietic tissue doses for people living in the riverside settlements. Large-scale monitoring of the exposed population has provided a comprehensive database, including post mortem and in vivo measurements of 90Sr in bones and whole body, for use in the estimation of doses. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to members of the public, including doses from in utero exposures and from intakes with breast milk. However, the ICRP models as applied to Sr required modification to provide best estimates of doses to Techa River residents. Adaptations were made to the ICRP model for Sr in children and adults to take account of population-specific features relating to bone mineral turnover and to model age and gender differences in strontium retention. Refinements in the ICRP model for Sr uptake and retention in the fetus were made to improve the treatment of discrimination against Sr, relative to Ca, in transfer from maternal to foetal blood and to take account of population-specific data on the calcium content of the maternal and fetal skeleton. Modification of the ICRP model for Sr transfer in breast-milk included adaptations relating to changes in maternal mineral metabolism during lactation and consideration of population-specific features of breast feeding in the rural population. The improved models were successfully validated using data on 90Sr in humans compiled at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine. The models will be used to provide best estimates of doses resulting from ingestion of Sr isotopes as a result of the Techa River contamination, an essential prerequisite to analyses of health risks from protracted low-level exposure of this population. (author)

333

Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

334

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

335

Uranium resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

336

Energy resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The book deals with the energy resources available, and then with techniques of energy conversion. Chapters follow on natural, fossil and nuclear sources and their associated technologies. The chapter on nuclear power covers both fission and fusion reactions, types of reactor, reactor safety and radioactive waste. The book ends with a chapter in inefficiencies (waste heat, waste products, the heat pump, insulation, etc.). (U.K.)

337

Teacher Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources for Preschool Teachers in the classroom. This link will have emotion faces and a tool to create a solution box for student use. Behavior This is the home page to Positive Behavior Intervention System PBIS Entering data for check points Creative Curriculum NAYEC national page along with the IA page NAEYC IA AEYC Dr. Jean's main page with some YouTube songs Dr. Jean ...

Miller, Heather

2011-12-13

338

Detection of Codeine, Morphine, 6-Monoacetylmorphine, and Meconin in Human Umbilical Cord Tissue: Method Validation and Evidence of In Utero Heroin Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Heroin abuse is a significant public health issue and is on the rise because of the unintended consequences of strengthening controls for nonmedical use of prescription pain killers. Included in this trend is an increase in opiate exposed newborns that are particularly vulnerable to a number of negative health outcomes. Methods: After presenting a fully validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric method for codeine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, and meconin, a metabolite of the heroin contaminant noscapine, we compared the outcome of 46 authentic umbilical specimens with the results generated using a previous less sensitive method that did not include meconin. Additionally, we provided a summary of opiate finding from a year-long survey of specimens received into a commercial reference laboratory. Results: The limits of detection for all 4 compounds were 0.1 ng/g, the limit of quantitation was 0.2 ng/g, and the assay was linear from 0.2 to 10.0 ng/g. Of the 46 comparative specimens, this method improved the identification of heroin exposure from 2 to 5, and the year-long survey identified 86 heroin-exposed newborns with 11 of them identified by the sole identification of meconin. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a more sensitive analytical platform and the inclusion of meconin in the opiates assay improved the ability to distinguish between in utero heroin exposure and maternal administration of codeine or morphine. PMID:24901495

Jones, Mary; Jones, Brian; Sulaiman, Kristin; Plate, Charles; Lewis, Douglas

2015-01-01

339

Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

Montoya Rebecca

2002-11-01

340

Identification of Hot Spots of DNA Methylation in the Adult Male Adrenal in Response to In Utero Exposure to the Ubiquitous Endocrine Disruptor Plasticizer Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to environmental toxicants during fetal development alters gene expression and promotes disease later in life. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer widely used for the manufacturing of consumer products. Exposure to DEHP has been associated with obesity, asthma, and low T levels. In utero exposure of pregnant dams to DEHP from gestational day 14 until birth resulted in reduced levels of serum T and aldosterone in the adult male offspring. Because DEHP is rapidly cleared from the body, the effects observed in the adult are likely epigenetic in origin. Under the same experimental conditions, we used reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing to assess changes in DNA methylation. We identified hot spots of DNA methylation changes primarily within CpG islands followed by shelf regions of the genome known to control regional gene expression. We also identified epigenomic areas responsive to exposure to environmental levels of DEHP and found the chromosomal region that houses genes controlling immune responsiveness to be a primary target of DEHP. These data suggest that DEHP phthalate exposure early in life induces epigenetic changes that may be linked to altered gene expression and function in the adult. PMID:25330100

Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Papadopoulos, V

2015-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Nitrate after In Utero Exposure in Rats and of Nitrate and Nitrite in the H295R and T-Screen Assay  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studies of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in vitro assays, the H295R assay and T-screen. There were no consistent indications that nitrate induces anti-androgenic effects in male fetuses or that prenatal nitrate exposure affected the thyroid axis. However, a more comprehensive study with long-term exposure before and during pre- and postnatal development would be relevant to sufficiently address the concerns based on the indications for endocrine disrupting effects in adult animals.

Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla

2009-01-01

342

Unique in utero identification of fetuses in multi-fetal mouse pregnancies by placental bi-directional arterial spin labeling (BD-ASL) MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-invasive imaging is a critical part of the study of developing embryos/fetuses, particularly in the context of alterations of gene expression in genetically modified animals. However, in litter-bearing animals such as mice, the inability to accurately identify individual embryo/fetus in utero is a major obstacle to longitudinal, non-invasive in vivo studies. Arterial Spin Labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) was adopted here to determine the fetal order along the uterine horns in vivo, based upon the specific pattern of dual arterial blood supply within the mouse uterine horns. Blood enters the mouse uterus cranially through the ovarian artery, and caudally through the uterine artery. Saturation slices were alternately placed on the maternal heart or on the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery, thereby saturating either downward inflow via the ovarian arteries, or upward inflow via the uterine arteries, respectively. Saturation maps provided a unique signature with highly significant correlation between the direction-dependent magnetization transfer and the position of the fetuses/placentas along the uterine horns. The Bi-Directional ASL-MRI (BD-ASL) method reported here opens possibilities to determine and pursue phenotypic alterations in fetuses and placentas in longitudinal studies of transgenic and knockout mice models, and for studying defects in placental vascular architecture. PMID:22162003

Avni, Reut; Raz, Tal; Biton, Inbal E.; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Garbow, Joel R.; Neeman, Michal

2013-01-01

343

Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

344

Maternal human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) genetic variants associate with in utero mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Black South Africans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-bp insertion/deletion (indel) within the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) that affects HLA-G expression has been associated with HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). However, other 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence HLA-G mRNA stability have been described but not analysed in the context of MTCT, and little is known about the role of HLA-G alleles. We examined HLA-G alleles and 3'UTR SNPs, including the 14-bp indel, in 216 mother-infant pairs from Johannesburg, South Africa. Mother-infant pairs were classified as HIV-1 non-transmitting (NT, n=144) or HIV-1 transmitting (TR, n=72) with either intrapartum (IP, n=29) or in utero (IU, n=19) infected infants. We found HLA-G allele, G(?)01:01:02 (in strong linkage disequilibrium with the 14-bp insertion) and +3187G SNP were significantly over-represented in IU-TR mothers compared to NT mothers (P=0.036, OR=2.26; P=0.011, OR=2.96, respectively). These findings suggest that maternal HLA-G alleles and/or SNPs that might alter expression of HLA-G potentially influence IU HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:25541520

Hong, Heather A; Paximadis, Maria; Gray, Glenda E; Kuhn, Louise; Tiemessen, Caroline T

2015-03-01

345

Noninvasive cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation quantification of fetal sheep under hypoxic stress in utero using frequency-domain diffuse optical two-layer model  

Science.gov (United States)

A study using pregnant sheep was designed to simulate fetal hypoxia in order to investigate the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect and quantify fetal hypoxia in utero. The near-infrared spectroscopic probe consisted of two detectors and six source positions. It was placed on the maternal ewe abdomen above the fetal head. The light sources were modulated at 70 MHz and frequency-encoded so that simultaneous measurements at 675, 786, 830 nm for each source position were possible. After the baseline measurements, fetal hypoxia was induced by blocking the aorta of pregnant ewe and thus compromising the blood supply to the uterus. Blood gas samples were concurrently drawn from the fetal brachial artery and jugular veins. Analysis of the diffuse optical data used a two-layer model to separate the maternal layer from the fetal head. The analysis also employed a priori spectral information about tissue chromophores. This approach provided good quantification of blood oxygenation changes, which correlated well with the blood gas analyses. By contrast the homogeneous model underestimated oxygenation changes during hypoxia.

Choe, Regine; Durduran, Turgut; Yu, Guoqiang; Nijland, Mark J. M.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.; Ramanujam, Nirmala

2003-07-01

346

Electronics Kits - SparkFun  

Science.gov (United States)

This site provides new ways to engage electronics students. Sparkfun Electronics started in 2003 with the development of the Arduino Microcontroller board and over the years has added numerous sensors and other components to its offerings. The resources were developed for tinkerers rather than education but they can be used in an electronics lab.

2014-08-20

347

English Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

In this section, DeafTEC provides a series of teaching resources on English, rhetoric, and writing. Specifically, the Writing in the Disciplines (WID) approach is used as a method to reach out to deaf and hard-of-hearing students, as well as high school students learning in STEM subjects. Viewers will find several pages with useful pedagogical information, including: Why Writing in the Sciences Matter; Articles: Teaching Writing and Writing to Learn; Articles: Responding to Student Writing; Articles: Writing for Second Language Users; Articles: Writing and Deafness; and Supporting English Acquisition. 

2014-07-10

348

Uranium resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article deals with uranium resources according to types of deposit both in time and in space as well as according to exploitation types. A chart of past and future uranium productions is established. Demand and production costs for nuclear energy are also dealt with. The price of uranium and its market are not only complex but often faked due to the existence of huge stocks above the security levels. However, it is possible to say that considering the present stocks and the excess production capacity in relation to needs, a spectacular change in tendencies is not likely to occur until the beginning of the next century

349

European Free Trade Association [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Lists the member states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland. Discusses the responsibilities of the EFTA Secretariat, Surveillance Authority, and Court. Links to EFTA legal texts and publications, including its annual report.

350

Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, an institute for basic research and training in physical and biophysical sciences. Its website provides information about the institute, its history, facilities, activities, conferences, lectures, contacts.

351

International journal of cancer [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Journal of Cancer is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering experimental and clinical cancer research. It publishes original research articles, mini reviews, short reports, and letters to the editor.

352

IEEE Xplore digital library [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content in IEEE Xplore comprises over 160 journals, over 1,200 conference proceedings, more than 3,800 technical standards, over 1,000 eBooks and over 300 educational courses. Approximately 25,000 new documents are added to IEEE Xplore each month.

353

Country nuclear power profiles [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Covers background information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in countries having nuclear plants in operation and/or plants under construction, reviews the organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes in participating countries, and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international frameworks in each country.

354

European Court of Human Rights [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), based in Strasbourg, France. Discusses the historical background of the court, its organization, procedures before the court, admissibility procedure, judgements, and advisory opinions. Details pending cases, judgements, and decisions.

355

Middle East Research Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MERI is an independent, not-for-profit organisation, focused on policy issues relating to the people, the land and the system of governance in the Middle East in general, and Kurdistan and Iraq in particular. It is based in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

356

On Korea [electronic resource] : academic paper series.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KEI commissions 10 papers per year with diverse perspectives on original subjects of current interest to Korea watchers. This year-long program provides both leading Korea scholars and new voices from around the world to speak and write on trends and events affecting the Korean peninsula.

357

League of Arab States [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the League of Arab States, an organisation with 22 member states, formed in 1945. The site provides information about the League, its relations with other organisations, its activities, member states, documents and history.

358

Nuclear Age Peace Foundation [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting actions that increase the possibilities for peace, as well as a world free of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. Includes facts about nuclear weapons, reasons to abolish nuclear weapons, and membership information. Contains a calendar of events.

359

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and offers information about its history, activities, publications, and research areas. Notes projects in arms transfers, arms production, military expenditure, military technology, chemical and biological weapons, and European security. Provides the complete list of SIPRI publications from 1969 to present; press releases and chapter summaries for the SIPRI Yearbooks 1993 to present.

360

United Nations multilingual terminology database [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

70,000 entries of United Nations related terminology in the 6 official UN languages, updated daily. Compiled over the years in response to diverse and wide-ranging demands of UN language staff for terminology and nomenclature; facilitates the efforts of people around the world who participate in the work of the UN but do not have access to the Secretariat's intranet.

 
 
 
 
361

Interactive terminology for Europe [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission's multilingual term bank. Covers a broad spectrum of human knowledge, but is particularly rich in technical and specialized terminology (agriculture, telecommunications, transport, legislation, finance) related to EU policy. Contains about five and a half million entries (terms and abbreviations), subdivided into more than 800 collections.

362

Global energy & CO2 data [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For close to 30 years, Enerdata has compiled over 200 information sources worldwide on the energy sector. Once sourced, data is individually verified and processed using our proven statistical methodology to guarantee a reliable and timely updated global energy market database. The database provides an extensive coverage of all energy sources for 186 countries through a user-friendly web portal. Greenhouse gas emissions resulting from the energy & industry sectors are included too.

363

Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A glossary of abbreviations and acronyms of terms used in IAEA documents. The objectives of the glossary are to save the time spent by drafters of IAEA documents in checking terms, to provide readers of these documents with a quick reference tool, to avoid the proliferation of incorrect terms in IAEA documents, to standardize terminology used in these documents, and to avoid duplication of effort by having one central list for the whole IAEA.

364

Association of Caribbean States [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), which works to harness, utilize, and develop the collective capabilities of the Caribbean region to achieve sustained cultural, economic, social, scientific and technological advancement. Discusses member countries, activities, and historical background.

365

Scirus : for scientific information only [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive science search engine available on the Internet or via ScienceDirect. It covers over 167 million science-related pages and can pinpoint scientific, scholarly, technical and medical data that other search engines cannot reach, including pdf files and peer reviewed articles.

366

Passive reactor cooling system [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A nuclear reactor cooling system with passive cooling capabilities operable during a reactor shutdown event without available electric power. In one embodiment, the system includes a reactor vessel with nuclear fuel core and a steam generator fluidly coupled thereto. Primary coolant circulates in a flow loop between the reactor vessel and steam generator to heat secondary coolant in the steam generator producing steam. The steam flows to a heat exchanger containing an inventory of cooling water in which a submerged tube bundle is immersed. The steam is condensed in the heat exchanger and returned to the steam generator forming a closed flow loop in which the secondary coolant flow is driven by natural gravity via changes in density from the heating and cooling cycles. In other embodiments, the cooling system is configured to extract and cool the primary coolant directly using the submerged tube bundle heat exchanger.

367

Get more from your electronic resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anna Creech, Todd King and Linda Sizemore gave a presentation at the Fall 2003 KLA/KSMA Conference on Eastern Kentucky University's implementation of the OpenURL link resolver product, SFX. This article is a summary of that presentation.

Creech, Anna; Sizemore, Linda

2004-01-01

368

Electronics and electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

Olsen, George H

1987-01-01

369

my resources: adding your own resources  

Science.gov (United States)

/* */ Information toward adding your own resources. Introducing the add own resources page Why add your own resource? As cool as the NSDL and other digital libraries are, we know that they do not have information about every page that may be useful to you. Because of this, we have provided the ability to add whatever resource you would like (provided ...

Palmer, Mr.

2005-10-05

370

Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group  

...Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group institute,physics,iop,quantum,electronics,photonics,groups Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group This site uses cookies. By continuing ...Policy Resources You are here Activities Groups All Groups Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group Groups All Groups Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group Committee Contact ...Group calendar Group prize Newsletter Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group The Quantum Electronics Group was founded in 1972 to provide a forum for burgeoning ...In 1999 its name was changed to include the increasingly important area of photonics. The membership of the Group is drawn equally from education,...

371

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

... Communication Resource Center Press Room Social Media Publications Electronic Aggression Share Compartir On this Page Publications Additional ... not come without possible risks. Youth can use electronic media to embarrass, harass or threaten their peers. ...

372

Infant cynomolgus monkeys exposed to denosumab in utero exhibit an osteoclast-poor osteopetrotic-like skeletal phenotype at birth and in the early postnatal period.  

Science.gov (United States)

RANKL is a key regulator of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. Denosumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that inhibits bone resorption by binding and inhibiting the activity of RANKL. To determine the effects of denosumab on pre- and postnatal skeletal growth and development, subcutaneous injections of 0 (control) or 50 mg/kg/month denosumab were given to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from approximately gestation day (GD) 20 until parturition (up to 6 doses). For up to 6 months postpartum (birth day [BD] 180/181), evaluation of the infants included skeletal radiographs, bone biomarkers, and oral examinations for assessment of tooth eruption. Infant bones were collected at necropsy for densitometry, biomechanical testing, and histopathologic evaluation from control and denosumab-exposed infants on BD1 (or within 2 weeks of birth) and BD181, and from infants that died or were euthanized moribund from BD5 to BD69. In all denosumab-exposed infants, biomarkers of bone resorption and formation were markedly decreased at BD1 and BD14 and slightly greater at BD91 vs. control, then similar to control values by BD181. Spontaneous long bone fractures were detected clinically or radiographically in 4 denosumab-exposed infants at BD28 and BD60, with evidence of radiographic healing at ?BD60. In BD1 infants exposed to denosumab in utero, radiographic evaluations of the skeleton revealed decreased long bone length; a generalized increased radio-opacity of the axial and appendicular skeleton and bones at the base of the skull with decreased or absent marrow cavities, widened growth plates, flared/club-shaped metaphysis, altered jaw/skull shape, and reduced jaw length; and delayed development of secondary ossification centers. Densitometric evaluations in these infants demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density at trabecular sites, but cortical bone mineral density was decreased. Histologically, long bone cortices were attenuated and there was an absence of osteoclasts. Bones with active endochondral ossification consisted largely of a dense network of retained primary spongiosa with reduced marrow space consistent with an osteopetrotic phenotype. A minimal increase in growth plate thickness largely due to the expansion of the hypertrophic zone was present. Retained woven bone was observed in bones formed by intramembranous ossification, consistent with absence of bone remodeling. These changes in bone tissue composition and geometry were reflected in reduced biomechanical strength and material properties of bones from denosumab-exposed infants. Material property changes were characterized by increased tissue brittleness reflected in reductions in calculated material toughness at the femur diaphysis and lack of correlation between energy and bone mass at the vertebra; these changes were likely the basis for the increased skeletal fragility (fractures). Although tooth eruption was not impaired in denosumab-exposed infants, the reduced growth and increased bone density of the mandible resulted in dental abnormalities consisting of tooth malalignment and dental dysplasia. Radiographic changes at BD1 persisted at BD28, with evidence of resumption of bone resorption and remodeling observed in most infants at BD60 and/or BD90. In 2 infants euthanized on BD60 and BD69, there was histologic and radiographic evidence of subphyseal/metaphyseal bone resorption accompanied by multiple foci of ossification in growth plates that were markedly increased in thickness. In infants necropsied at BD181, where systemic exposure to denosumab had been below limits of quantitation for approximately 3months, there was largely full recovery from all bone-related changes observed earlier postpartum, including tissue brittleness. Persistent changes included dental dysplasia, decreased bone length, reduced cortical thickness, and decreased peak load and ultimate strength at the femur diaphysis. In conclusion, the skeletal and secondary dental effects observed in infant monkeys exposed in utero to denosumab are consistent with the anticipat

Boyce, Rogely W; Varela, Aurore; Chouinard, Luc; Bussiere, Jeanine L; Chellman, Gary J; Ominsky, Michael S; Pyrah, Ian T

2014-07-01

373

my resources: selecting high-quality resources  

Science.gov (United States)

/* */ Information about how to decide if a resource is of high-quality. Finding high-quality resources What is a quality resource? Consider using some of the following criteria for evaluating an online learning resource. This resource... is accurate . encourages active participation of the learner. includes all the information needed to use it. flows in an orderly manner. is age appropriate . is free of advertising . the activities support core curriculum objectives . The websites listed below ...

Palmer, Mr.

2005-05-17

374

Lymphoid tissue tropism of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication during persistent infection of pigs originally exposed to virus in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to establish a persistent infection is the principal contributing factor to the world-wide spread of the disease. Several studies have documented the course of viral infection in postnatally infected pigs; however, very little is known regarding sites of virus replication during persistent infection of pigs exposed to PRRSV in utero. In this study, virus replication and PRRSV-specific antibody were followed for several hundred days in a group of pigs derived from three sows infected at 90 days of gestation with PRRSV isolate VR-2332. Eighty-four percent of pigs were born viremic with a mortality of 54% within 21 days after birth. At approximately 60 days sera from pigs were negative for virus by virus isolation. Analysis of virus replication in the tissues of pigs randomly sacrificed between 63 and 132 days showed no evidence of virus in lung and other non-lymphoid organs. However, virus was easily recovered from tonsil and lymph nodes and in situ hybridization identified these tissues as sites of virus replication. Even though replication was at a low level, virus was easily transmitted to sentinel pigs. By 260 days pigs became seronegative and did not transmit virus to sentinel pigs. Sacrifice of remaining pigs after 300 days showed no evidence of virus in blood and tissues. This study shows that congenital PRRSV-infected pigs can support virus replication for an extended period during which virus replication is primarily restricted to tonsil and lymph nodes. PMID:14559170

Rowland, Raymond R R; Lawson, Steven; Rossow, Kurt; Benfield, David A

2003-10-30

375

Dietary and in utero exposure to a pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture did not affect cholinergic parameters in the cerebral cortex of ranch mink (Mustela vison).  

Science.gov (United States)

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants that are recognized as global environmental contaminants and a potential health risk. They have been shown to elicit neurodevelopmental toxicity through disruption of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in rodent models, but the effects of environmentally relevant exposures in wildlife species are unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of the commercial pentabrominated diphenyl ether mixture DE-71 on cholinergic parameters in ranch mink (Mustela vison) following dietary exposure of adult females and in utero, lactational, and dietary exposure of their offspring. Adult females were fed diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 microg DE-71/g feed from four weeks prior to breeding through weaning of their kits at six weeks of age. A portion of the weaned kits were maintained on their respective diets through 27 weeks of age. Cholinergic parameters, including muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) binding, cholinesterase (ChE) activity, and acetylcholine (ACh) concentration, were assayed in the cerebral cortex, and ChE activity was measured in the plasma. In the cerebral cortex, results indicated a significant exposure-dependent increase in PBDE concentrations, but no significant effects of DE-71 on cholinergic parameters. There was a threefold increase in ChE activity in the plasma of adult females in the 2.5 microg DE-71/g feed group, but was likely due to effects on liver function. This study demonstrated that environmentally relevant exposures to DE-71 did not affect key parameters of the cholinergic neurotransmitter system in the brain of ranch mink. PMID:17150973

Bull, Kimberly; Basu, Niladri; Zhang, Si; Martin, Jonathan W; Bursian, Steven; Martin, Pamela; Chan, Laurie Hing Man

2007-03-01

376

Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell prolifeion of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis

377

Female adolescent exposure to cannabinoids causes transgenerational effects on morphine sensitization in female offspring in the absence of in utero exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Female adolescent marijuana use is increasing, yet the effect on future offspring is unknown. Here, adolescent female Sprague Dawley rats (postnatal-day 30; PN30) were given subcutaneous (s.c.) injections with the cannabinoid agonist WIN-55,212 (WIN) or its vehicle (VEH) for three consecutive days using a twice-daily, increasing dosage regimen (1 mg/kg day 1; 2 mg/kg day 2; 4 mg/kg day 3). As adults (PN60), females were mated with drug-naïve males. Their adult female offspring (VEH-F1 or WIN-F1) were tested for behavioral sensitization by administering morphine (0 or 7.5 mg/kg s.c.) every other day for a total of five administrations. Following five days of abstinence, all animals received a morphine challenge (7.5 mg/kg s.c.) and locomotor activity was monitored. At completion of behavioral testing, mu opioid receptor (OPRM1), FosB, cFos, and dopamine receptor mRNA expression was measured in the nucleus accumbens as well as OPRM1 and corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In addition, plasma corticosterone levels were examined. On the day of challenge, morphine-pretreated WIN-F1 animals demonstrated a significantly enhanced response to morphine compared to morphine-pretreated VEH-F1 animals. Also following the morphine challenge, significantly higher levels of OPRM1 in the nucleus accumbens were observed in WIN-F1 animals. Together, these findings demonstrate transgenerational effects of adolescent exposure to cannabinoids in the absence of any in utero exposure. PMID:24048098

Vassoler, Fair M.; Johnson, Nicole L.; Byrnes, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

378

In utero and lactational exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants detected in Canadian Arctic human populations alters retinoid levels in rat offspring with low margins of exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctic inhabitants are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP), which may produce adverse health effects. This study characterized alterations in tissue retinoid (vitamin A) levels in rat offspring and their dams following in utero and lactational exposure to the Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM), a mixture of 27 contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), present in maternal blood of the Canadian Arctic Inuit population. Further, effect levels for retinoid system alterations and other endpoints were compared to the Arctic Inuit population exposure and their interrelationships were assessed. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed with NCM from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were obtained from offspring on PND35, PND77, and PND350 and their dams on PND30 for analysis of tissue retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes, and serum thyroid hormones. Benchmark doses were established for all endpoints, and a partial least-squares regression analysis was performed for NCM treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, CYP enzyme induction, and thyroid hormone levels, as well as body and liver weights. Hepatic retinoid levels were sensitive endpoints, with the most pronounced effects at PND35 though still apparent at PND350. The effects on tissue retinoid levels and changes in CYP enzyme activities, body and liver weights, and thyroid hormone levels were associated and likely driven by dioxin-like compounds in the mixture. Low margins of exposure were observed for all retinoid endpoints at PND35. These findings are important for health risk assessment of Canadian Arctic populations and further support the use of retinoid system analyses in testing of endocrine-system-modulating compounds. PMID:24588224

Elabbas, Lubna E; Esteban, Javier; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Viluksela, Matti; Borg, Daniel; Håkansson, Helen

2014-01-01

379

Energy resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A reviw of reserve estimates based on the collation performed by M. King Hubbert relates his findings with time-scale histories of cumulative reserves and production. Policy decisions which lead to a massive shift to coal will prolong the projected depletion of the other fossil fuels and shorten the availability time of coal. The exploitation of nuclear-fission fuels indicates a need for more-efficient applications to prolong the life span of limited resources. The total recoverable energy potential is derived for fossil and nuclear fuels and from solar, hydrothermal, hydroelectric, tidal, and wind energy. Summaries of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources reveal a wide variety in the estimates due partly to the lack of a systematics and standardized reporting mechanism that can define physical characteristics and economic feasibility. 57 references, 22 figures, 37 tables

380

Mineral resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in develr parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

 
 
 
 
381

Screening by microarray analysis for genes that alter prostate development in C57BL/6J mice exposed in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats and mice leads to a disruption of prostate development in the male offspring. Although it is not clear if this phenomenon occurs in human populations exposed to TCDD, the observed effect level is low among the various endpoints of TCDD developmental toxicity in animal studies. Clarification of the mechanism by which the effect is produced at the molecular level would help substantiate male reproductive toxicity caused by in utero TCDD exposure as a model for human health risk assessment. In both rats and mice, a critical window for TCDD disruption of prostate development in late pregnancy has been illustrated. The primary alteration in gene expression that presumably causes this phenomenon depends on the fetal aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene being expressed in the fetal urogenital sinus from which the outgrowth of prostatic buds occurs. In the male offspring of mice exposed to TCDD on gestation day 13 (GD 13), severe inhibitory developmental effects were found on ventral prostate development. These effects were significantly lower when in utero TCDD exposure occurred after GD 16 than GD 13. Upon administration of TCDD to the dam on GD 13, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 were induced in the urogenital complex of the male offspring on postnatal day 14. Thus, ''dioxin biomarker genes'' are responsive to in utero and lactational TCDD exposure during the neonatal stage of development. This suggests that key TCDD responsive genes involved in disrupting prostate development would be genes other than CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In the present study we administered a single dose of TCDD to mouse dams during the critical window (GD 13 or GD 14) for impairing prostate development, or later during a less TCDD sensitive period (GD 17). Microarray techniques were then used to compare gene expression profiles of the fetus versus the urogenital sinus in order to identify genes involved in disruption of prostate development caused by in utero TCDD exposure.

Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Lin, Tienmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ. (United States); Suzuki, Junko S.; Wu, Qing; Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan)

2004-09-15

382

Energy resources in California  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a concise synopsis and visual representation of California's energy resources, current uses of these resources, and new, innovative ways to use these resources in the future. Chapter One identifies the state's energy resources and their locations; Chapter Two discusses current uses; and Chapter Three describes potential uses of these resources

383

Linguistics Resources on the Internet  

Science.gov (United States)

This site is provided by the Summer Institute of Linguistics, located at the International Linguistics Center in Dallas, Texas. The focus of the whole site is the study of minority languages and cultures around the world. The Academic domains represented include linguistics, anthropology, translation, literacy, language learning, and computing. The Linguistics Resources on the Internet section contains annotated listings of resources of interest to the linguistics, computational linguistics and natural language processing fields of study. The page is divided into eight sections including computing resources (including links to text and speech analysis, morphology and phonology, and lexical software); journals and newsletters; conferences and meetings and electronic texts, dictionaries and data. The individual sections contain extensive lists of links, many of which are briefly annotated.

1997-01-01

384

Integrated water resources management.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, the highest priority issue of water resources management is supply of increasing water demand with limited water resources. Water resources are a basis of sustainable development, so sustainable approach should be based on usage and management of water resources. In the twenty first century, the world is faced with a major water crisis. And the problems are originated from deficiencies and errors in the management of water resources. Thus, sustainable use of water resources is cruci...

EM?N TA?

1995-01-01

385

Preschool iron-folic acid and zinc supplementation in children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero confers no added cognitive benefit in early school-age.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Nepal, antenatal iron-folic acid supplementation improved aspects of intellectual, executive, and fine motor function among school-age children. We examined the impact of added zinc to the maternal antenatal supplement (M-IFAZn) and preschool supplementation from 12 to 36 mo with iron-folic acid (C-IFA) ± zinc (C-IFAZn) on cognitive outcomes compared to maternal iron-folic acid (M-IFA) alone. Children 7-9 y old (n = 780) who participated in early childhood micronutrient supplementation trial during 2001-2004 and whose mothers participated in an antenatal micronutrient supplementation between 1999 and 2001 were followed for cognitive assessments in 2007-2009. Using multivariate analysis of variance and adjusting for confounders, M-IFA with child supplementation (either C-IFA or C-IFAZn) did not impact scores on the tests of general intelligence (Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test), and executive function (Stroop and go/no go tests) relative to the M-IFA alone. However, children in the C-IFAZn group had slightly lower scores on the backward digit span (-0.29, 95% CI: -0.55, -0.04) and Movement Assessment Battery for Children (1.33, 95% CI: 0.26, 2.40) relative to the referent group, whereas both C-IFA (-1.92, 95% CI: -3.12, -0.71) and C-IFAZn (-1.78, 95% CI: -2.63, -0.92) produced somewhat lower finger tapping test scores (fine motor skills). The combination of M-IFAZn and C-IFA or C-IFAZn did not lead to any outcome differences relative to M-IFA alone. Preschool iron-folic acid ± zinc to children exposed to iron-folic acid in utero or addition of zinc to maternal iron-folic acid conferred no additional benefit to cognitive outcomes assessed in early school age. The late timing of supplementation during preschool may explain the lack of impact of iron and/or zinc. PMID:21956955

Christian, Parul; Morgan, Mary E; Murray-Kolb, Laura; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Schaefer, Barbara; Cole, Pamela M; Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M

2011-11-01

386

The impact of Italian academic library consortia for full-text electronic resources activities on the job of library staff: a study of Ca???Foscari University branch libraries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The activity of academic library consortia in Italy has had noteworthy consequences, one of the main ones being that advantageous deals have made available a massive quantity of information for academic library users. The availability of all these resources has raised many new activities within academic library systems, and it has stimulated libraries to adopt tools to facilitate information towards end users about the presence of these resources. This phenomenon reflects the international...

Zorzi, Alessandra

2004-01-01

387

Solar radiation resource assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

1990-11-01

388

Effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to physical or chemical teratogens are expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins when embryonic hearts are cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to get more insight into the effects of teratogens on developing embryos, we investigated the protein synthesis patterns of the target organs isolated from teratogen-treated embryos. Rat embryos were either irradiated in utero with either 252Cf fission neutrons or 60Co gamma rays on day 8 of gestation or treated in utero with a bis(dichloroacetyl)diamine (a chemical teratogen) on days 9 and 10. Hearts were removed from the embryos on day 12 and were incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C in the presence of [35S]methionine for up to 8 hr. The newly synthesized labeled proteins were then analyzed qualitatively by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Enhanced and prolonged induction of a family of heat-shock (stress) proteins with a molecular weight of about 70,000 (SP70s) was observed as compared with those of controls. Among the teratogen-treated hearts, those with gross malformations already detectable at this early stage showed especially higher inductions of SP70s than did the others. The abnormal expression of SP70s observed in the present study appears to be a reflection of persisting cellular (tissue) damage inflicted by the teratogens, and the extent of the induction may be indicative of the degree and/or type of the damage. Such persisting defects in surviving cells, manifested by abnormal induction of SP70s in the present study, might be related to malformation of embryonic hearts

389

The New Resource File  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

Luck, Donald D.

2011-01-01

390

NISCAIR: Information Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) came into existence on 30th Sept. 2002 with the merger of NISCOM and INSDOC. It provides many resources and products to users and researchers i.e.E-Resources,Online Databases, In_house databases, National Science Library, National Knowledge Resources Consortium, etc.

Waghmode, S. S.

2012-01-01

391

75 FR 44973 - Report: A New Approach to Targeting Inspection Resources and Identifying Patterns of Adulteration...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Targeting Inspection Resources and Identifying...Reportable Food electronic portal on September...INFORMATION section for electronic access to the report...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Gombas...FDA establish an electronic portal to which...targeting inspection resources. This report...

2010-07-30

392

48 CFR 1852.204-76 - Security requirements for unclassified information technolocgy resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Technology Resources (MAY 2007) ...obtain physical or electronic (i.e., authentication...SP) 800-63, Electronic Authentication...Contractor shall contact the Contracting...information and IT resources provided to the...Have physical or electronic access to...

2010-10-01

393

Gravidez Gemelar com Morte Fetal de Um dos Gêmeos: Avaliação Neurológica dos Gemelares Sobreviventes Neurological Evaluation of the Surviving Twin When One Dies In Utero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar as intercorrências pré e perinatais e a evolução neurológica de crianças de gestações gemelares em que um dos fetos apresentou óbito intra-uterino. Métodos: foram avaliados 14 casos de gestações gemelares ocorridas no período de 1988 a 1994 com óbito de um dos fetos, acompanhadas no Setor de Patologia Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP. Dados do acompanhamento pré e perinatal, bem como de autópsia dos fetos mortos, foram obtidos. As crianças foram convocadas no ano de 1996 para exame neurológico, sendo avaliados dados evolutivos e sinais patológicos nas áreas motoras, sensitivas, sensoriais e funções corticais superiores, incluindo linguagem, praxias e agnosias. Resultados: do total de 14 casos, 10 retornaram para a avaliação neurológica tardia. Destas, apenas uma criança apresentou alteração no exame neurológico, cursando com paresia espástica de MIE de grau leve, tendo apresentado Apgar 0 no primeiro minuto e 5 no quinto minuto. A avaliação da placentação e idade gestacional mostrou 5 casos (35,7% com placentação monocoriônica e um caso com monoamniótica, 8 casos de pré-termo e 6 casos a termo. O óbito de um dos fetos ocorreu no segundo trimestre em 6 casos (42,8% e os demais no terceiro trimestre. Conclusões: o problema neurológico constatado em um único feto pode ser atribuído às intercorrências perinatais que este recém-nascido apresentou. Não tivemos como resultado outros RN com seqüelas provavelmente pela opção da conduta conservadora, tendo-se resolvido as gestações após a 32ª semana com diminuição das complicações do parto pré-termo extremo.Purpose: to analyze the effects of prenatal and perinatal complications and the neurological development of surviving twins when the other had died in utero. Methods: fourteen cases of twin pregnancies where one of the twins had died during the pregnancy were analyzed. These patients gave birth between 1988 and 1994 and were subsequently followed-up by the Department of Obstetrics, Pathology Division, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Data from prenatal and perinatal records as well as findings from the deceased twins' autopsies were analyzed. In 1996, requests were made for the children to have a neurological examination as part of the study. The examination included developmental assessment and pathological signs in the motor, sensory and sensitivy areas and superior cortical functions such as praxis and agnosia. Results: ten of the fourteen contacted subjects complied with the request for neurological examination. Of the ten examined children only one had abnormal neurological findings, presenting a light degree of spastic paresis of the left leg. The pregnancy evaluation showed five cases of monochorionic placenta and one case of monoamnionic pregnancy; six of the fourteen cases reached full-term. In six cases (42.8% one of the fetus died during the second trimester and in the other they died during the third trimester. Only one newborn, who had Apgar 0 at the first minute, developed neurological sequelae. Conclusion: the neurological problem of one fetus may be a consequence of the perinatal complications that this fetus developed. The other newborns did not develop sequelae, possibly because of the conservatory management, trying to make the pregnancy reach 32 weeks or more, thus decreasing the complications of preterm delivery.

Carolina Araújo Rodrigues Funayama

2002-03-01

394

Hard electronics; Hard electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

395

Mining Frequent Closed Patterns using Sample-growth in Resource Effectiveness Data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the occurrence of failure of electronic resources is sudden, real-time record analysis on the effectiveness of all resources in the system can discover abnormal resources earlier and start using backup resources or restructure resources in time, thus managing abnormal situations and finally realizing health management of the system. This paper proposed an algorithm: MFPattern, for mining frequent closed resource patterns in resource effectiveness matrix. In order to improve the efficiency, MFPattern algorithm uses sample-growth method and effective pruning strategies to guarantee mining all frequent closed patterns without candidate maintenance. Different from the traditional frequent closed pattern, MFPattern algorithm can mine resource combination patterns with all resources very effective during work, those with simultaneous failure of resources and combination patterns in which some resources are very effective while some other resources have failure. The experimental result shows that our algorithm has more efficiently than existing algorithms.

Lihua Zhang

2014-05-01

396

DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST TO MEASURE E-RESOURCES KNOWLEDGE (ERKT OF HIGHER SECONDARY TEACHERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available -An electronic resource (E- Resource is any information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format. E-Resource consist of e-books,e-journals,e-thesis, e-library, edatabases, e-portfolio, etc.. In this research paper an attempt has been made to construct and standardize the E- Resources Knowledge Test to measure E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers, as there is no suitable questionnaire available to measure the E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers.

P. Selvam

2014-05-01

397

Hard electronics; Hard electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

398

Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F2 progeny  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F1) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F1) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F2 offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of maCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F1), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2)

399

Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f1 sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f2 generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistenendpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out

400

Resources and Vectors  

This theme will explore the current and future roles of different resources and \\energy vectors in the UK energy system. Its scope includes renewable and non-\\renewable resources: fossil fuels, critical materials and renewable ... Connect \\with us.

 
 
 
 
401

Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - chronic fatigue syndrome; CFS resources ... The following organizations provide information on chronic fatigue syndrome : CFIDS Association of America - www.cfids.org U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/cfs

402

Ecosocialist resources, 28  

... Why the world needs an activist feminist movement Alison Pennington Green Left Weekly A critique of the ecosocialist manifesto of the Parti de Gauche Daniel Tanuro International Viewpoint Life after oil and gas Elisabeth Rosenthal New York Times Two years after Fukushima Pierre Rousset International Viewpoint New research confirms global warming has accelerated Skeptical Science For links to all previous Ecosocialist resources columns, click here. If you read (or write)...Ecosocialist resources, 37 (posted on September 23, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 34 (posted on June 17, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 32 (posted on June 8, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 36 (posted on August 6, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 27 (posted on March 22, 2013) Category: Ecosocialist Notebook, Ecosocialist resources | Tagged: Alison Pennington, Daniel Tanuro, Elisabeth Rosenthal, Pierre Rousset Previous: Should socialists support degrowth? Next: Marxism as if the planet matters More Ecosocialist Notebook … Pete Seeger, 1919-2014 Doug Taylor, 1956-2014 Ecosocialist resources, 46 Toronto ...

403

Solar Resource Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

2008-02-01

404

Human Resource Management System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems e...

Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

2013-01-01

405

Bookmarks for Electronics Designers  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrical design engineer Lazar Rozenblat was once told in college that "an engineer does not have to remember everything, but should know where to find the information he/she needs." Following that advice, Rozenblat has put together this "one-stop informational resource on Power Electronics /SMPS design." The website provides links to engineering reference information and design resources and is "being constantly updated." The About section describes his selection process and invites others to submit their websites to the page. The links are organized by topic areas, such as SMPS design, standards, tools, and magnetics, and links are then listed under sub-topics within those areas. The EE Reference section provides some links to tutorials, general engineering reference, and career resources.

406

Natural Resources Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography presents a modern definition of the conceptual framework from which to view natural resources, and affords access to information which examines resources from the social scientists point of view. It presents five broad divisions of activity or variables which include (1) Natural and Human Resources, (2) Epistomological and…

Hoadley, Irene Braden

407

Chapter Four: Discursive Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, the focus of attention moves from the contexts described in chapter 3 to the verbal, nonverbal, and interactional resources that participants employ in discursive practices. These resources are discussed within the frame of participation status and participation framework proposed by Goffman. Verbal resources employed by…

Young, Richard F.

2008-01-01

408

18 CFR 35.7 - Electronic filing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Electronic filing requirements. 35.7 Section 35.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL...FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.7 Electronic filing requirements. (a) General...

2010-04-01

409

Energy Resources and Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Several activities are included to teach and research the differences between renewable and non-renewable resources and various energy resources. Students work with a quantitative, but simple model of energy resources to show how rapidly finite, non-renewable energy sources can be depleted, compared to the ongoing availability of renewable resources. Then they complete a homework assignment (or a longer, in-depth research project) to learn how various technologies capture energy resources for human uses, and their pros and cons. Fact sheets help them get started on their investigations of assigned energy sources.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

410

Learning Resource Server  

Science.gov (United States)

The Learning Resource Server at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign has as its goal the provision of resources that help learners advance from "surfing" to "serving." It has been redesigned to better serve the needs of learners and teachers at all levels. The Learning Resource Server contains resources for accessing and creating knowledge for K-12 classes, higher education students and teachers, and teacher education. Resources include exemplary lesson plans, how-to guides, and good network-based learning projects and papers.

411

TES: Resources: Art and design resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Based in Britain, the TES group provides a range of educational resources for teachers around the world. Some of their services require a fee, but the teaching materials on this site are available after a simple free registration. Visitors to the site will note that there is a featured Resource of the Week on the left-hand side of the homepage. Depending on the day, it might be an in-class exercise on dress design or a helpful handout on making an original ceramic creation. The age-grouping conventions here for different grade levels are matched to the secondary school system in Britain, but other visitors won't have a hard time navigating the three main areas. Each of the areas has about a dozen or so thematic categories, including fine art, history of art, and graphic communication. Also, the site has a listing for Latest Resources and Highly Rated Resources.

2012-05-11

412

Electronic Recruitment at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

2004-01-01

413

Bootstrapping Deep Lexical Resources: Resources for Courses  

CERN Document Server

We propose a range of deep lexical acquisition methods which make use of morphological, syntactic and ontological language resources to model word similarity and bootstrap from a seed lexicon. The different methods are deployed in learning lexical items for a precision grammar, and shown to each have strengths and weaknesses over different word classes. A particular focus of this paper is the relative accessibility of different language resource types, and predicted ``bang for the buck'' associated with each in deep lexical acquisition applications.

Baldwin, Timothy

2007-01-01

414

Electronic Publishing: The Movement From Print To Digital Publication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an overview of electronic publishing, describes how information increasingly is being exchanged within the scientific community, and discusses the scholarly qualifications of electronic venues. The following content is included: definition of electronic publishing; uses and types of electronic publishing; uses of electronic journals in nursing and health care; advantages and disadvantages of electronic journals; advantages and disadvantages of print journals; and the authors' projections for the future. Hotlinks to a variety of Internet resources on electronic resources are integrated throughout the article.

Ludwick, R., Glazer, G

2000-01-01

415

Introduction of home electronics for the future  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of electronics has accelerated the automation and labor saving at factories and offices. Home electronics is also expected to be needed more and more in Japan towards the 21st century, as the advanced information society and the elderly society will be accelerated, and women's participation in social affairs will be increased. Resources Council, which is the advisory organ of the Minister of State for Science and Technology, forecast to what extent home electronics will be popularized by the year of 2010. The Council expected to promote home electronics, because resource and energy saving should be accelerated and people should enjoy much more their individual lives at home.

Yoshimoto, Hideyuki; Shirai, Iwao

416

75 FR 22678 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of Electronic Filing for Recently Revised Incident/Accident...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Implementation of Electronic Filing for Recently...now available for electronic filing. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamerson Pender, Information Resources Manager, 202-366-0218...Implementation of Electronic Filing for...

2010-04-29

417

Licensing and Negotiations for Electronic Content  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of the basic characteristics of database, or eContent, license agreements, defines general licensing terms, maps the anatomy of an electronic resources subscription agreement, and discusses negotiating skills and techniques for library staff. (Contains a list of additional resources and a sample agreement.)

Crawford, Amy R.

2008-01-01

418

Convoy electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent developments in the theory of the production and of the transport of convoy electrons through solids are reviewed. Similarities and differences to cusp electron emission in binary ion-atom collisions and to transport of ''free'' electrons through solids are highlighted. We also discuss recent observations of convoy electron emission in ion-surface collisions at small glancing angles. 36 refs., 13 figs

419

Electronic Prescribing  

Science.gov (United States)

... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... E S eRx eRx Electronic prescribing can help you. Electronic prescribing can keep you safe • Doctors have secure ...

420

Physics Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of physics-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources in many areas of the discipline, including electromagnetism, classical mechanics, optics, oscillations and waves, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and other areas. Here may be found materials for physics educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at physics research communities.

2008-03-14

 
 
 
 
421

ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information includ...

IOANA-JULIETA JOSAN

2011-01-01

422

Sharing Cloud Computing Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We address the issue of sharing the CPU and RAM resources of a cloud computing system. Specifically, we argue that these resources should be shared according to proportional fairness instead of dominant resource fairness. The latter has recently been proposed as a desirable scheduling objective mainly because of its strategy-proofness property. We show that proportional fairness, which satisfies a weaker form of strategy-proofness that we refer to as scale-invariance, yields a much better res...

Bonald, Thomas; Roberts, James

2014-01-01

423

CAD Resources Library  

Science.gov (United States)

This section of Virtual Library, started by Tim Berners-Lee, provides educational resources on CAD. CAD software, used for drafting architectural and engineering drawings and for making technical illustrations in general, is widely used by engineering professionals and students. The website provides links to "important CAD resources associated with the CAD industry." The resources are organized into the following sections: Organizations Associated with CAD; CAD Research and Artificial Intelligence Links; CAD Directories, Gateways and News Centers; Important CAD Review Resources; CAD Magazines, Journals and Newsletters; and CAD Software Programs. Visitors are invited to make recommendations for additions to the library.

424

Sharing network resources  

CERN Document Server

Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications.We start from the fund

Parekh, Abhay

2014-01-01

425

World uranium resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Red Book' is a joint report by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), it is edited an issue every two years. The 'Red Book' reports chiefly uranium resources, uranium exploration, uranium production and uranium demand in the latest two years in the world. To help people understand the total uranium resources and uranium supply and demand, on the basis of update (No. 20) 'Red Book', total world uranium resources and their changes, as well as Known Conventional Resources (RAR and EAR-I) of some countries are presented. Worldwide uranium exploration and production are also briefly described. (authors)

426

Resources for the classroom  

...Affiliation Scheme Support for teachers Resources for the classroom Practical Physics Teaching Advanced Physics Supporting the Level 3 Extended Project Qualification (EPQ) in physics Teaching astronomy and space Teaching Medical Physics Teaching radioactivity Physics in Concert Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech SimPhysics The MODEL Project Other ... Teaching Astronomy and SpaceThis resource supports the teaching of astronomy and space to 11-16 year olds Teaching Medical PhysicsThese resources are designed for teaching GCSE and standard grade science using examples from medical physics. Teaching RadioactivityThese resources  support the teaching of radioactivity, with advice on ...

427

75 FR 10225 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Language Resource Centers Program...  

Science.gov (United States)

...process should contact the person listed...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT in section VII...section. a. Electronic Submission of...the Language Resource Centers Program...required to use the electronic data instrument International Resource Information System...VII. Agency Contact FOR FURTHER...

2010-03-05

428

Electronic Commerce in Canada  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Commerce in Canada Website is the official Web presence of the Canadian Task Force on Electronic Commerce. The task force was created in 1998 as a "focal point and catalyst for the development of a comprehensive policy, regulatory, and legal framework, and to promote the growth and use of electronic commerce in Canada." The site offers excellent news, information, and resources about the Canadian government's ecommerce initiatives. This broad-based Website provides information on consumers, business, and the government. Along with a frequently-updated Features column which includes new events, Websites, and statistics and data, the site also contains a compendium of Canadian ecommerce reports and links. The Canadian Strategy section considers opportunities and challenges for Canadian ecommerce, and addresses the Canadian government's response to ten main issues including privacy, consumer protection, taxation, and digital signatures. Advantage Canada examines the ways in which Canada is positioned to become a leader in global ecommerce, and Global Initiatives looks at Canada's international ecommerce policies and themes. The Using Electronic Commerce Section offers a collection of links that showcases the ways in which the government, consumers, and businesses of Canada can use and educate themselves about electronic commerce. Electronic Commerce in Canada shows the way Canada has positioned itself to take full advance of ecommerce.

429

The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography  

Science.gov (United States)

Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…

Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

2010-01-01

430

Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein restriction in utero may give rise to restricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suitability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001 but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P < 0.05, and retained less nitrogen (0.3 vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P < 0.05 than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05. LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001 and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001 than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

Kristine Vesterdorf

2012-01-01

431

Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Protein restriction in utero may give rise to re-stricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suit-ability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P < 0.05), and retained less nitrogen (0.3 vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P < 0.05) than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05). LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001) and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001) than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

Vesterdorf, Kristine HØvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul

2012-01-01

432

Chemistry Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Chemistry Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of chemistry-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources pertaining to many areas of the discipline - general chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, physical chemistry, and others - and intended for a wide range of audiences: educators and learners, the general public, and chemistry research communities.

2008-03-14

433

National Resource Centers Program  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Resource Centers Program provides grants to institutions of higher education to establish, strengthen, and operate comprehensive and undergraduate centers that are national resources for: (1) Teaching modern foreign languages, especially the less and least commonly taught languages; (2) Disciplinary instruction to provide a thorough…

Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

2012-01-01

434

Resources in Technology 7.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume of Resources in Technology contains the following eight instructional modules: (1) "Processing Technology"; (2) "Water--A Magic Resource"; (3) "Hazardous Waste Disposal--The NIMBY (Not in My Backyard) Syndrome"; (4) "Processing Fibers and Fabrics"; (5) "Robotics--An Emerging Technology"; (6) Machine Vision--Giving Eyes to Robots"; (7)…

International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

435

ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

2011-04-01

436

An Evaluation of E-Resources in Academic Libraries in Tamil Nadu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E-resources are resources in which information is stored electronically and it can be accessible through electronic systems and network environment. E-resources are a very broad term that includes a variety of different file formats. Instant access is quite possible with E-resources within a fraction of second. Acquiring knowledge from E-Books, E-Journals, Online resources, CDROM, Internet with related Databases are the impact of E-Resources. The purpose of this paper is to identify the availability of E-resources facility and accessing mode in the engineering institutions in Tamilnadu. A well structured questionnaire was distributed among library professionals in engineering institutions in Tamilnadu to evaluate the E-resource facility

S. Dhanavandan

2012-03-01

437

1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining