WorldWideScience
1

Human resources handbook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

2

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

3

Wrangling Electronic Resources: A Few Good Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several freely available tools today that fill the needs of librarians tasked with maintaining electronic resources, that assist with tasks such as editing MARC records and maintaining web sites that contain links to electronic resources. This article gives a tour of a few tools the author has found invaluable as an Electronic Resources Librarian.

Brandy Klug

2010-03-01

4

Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of the kidney in newborn rats exposed to gentamicin in utero.  

OpenAIRE

Kidneys of newborn rats, whose mothers were given 75 mg/kg of gentamicin daily from the tenth day of gestation to its term, were examined by light and electron microscopy, as were kidneys of control rats whose mothers were given saline during the same period. In the gentamicin-treated group, the numbers of differentiated glomeruli and of S-shaped bodies counted in a median cross-section of the kidney were reduced, compared with those in the control group, but the glomerular volume was the sam...

Gilbert, T.; Nabarra, B.; Merlet-be?nichou, C.

1988-01-01

5

Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of the kidney in newborn rats exposed to gentamicin in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kidneys of newborn rats, whose mothers were given 75 mg/kg of gentamicin daily from the tenth day of gestation to its term, were examined by light and electron microscopy, as were kidneys of control rats whose mothers were given saline during the same period. In the gentamicin-treated group, the numbers of differentiated glomeruli and of S-shaped bodies counted in a median cross-section of the kidney were reduced, compared with those in the control group, but the glomerular volume was the same. In newborn rats issued from gentamicin-treated mothers, the proximal tubular lumen of the mature nephron lying in the deepest cortex was dilated, and their proximal tubular cells exhibited extensive damage, resembling that described in tubular cells of adult rats exposed to gentamicin. The subcapsular nephrogenic zone exhibited focal alterations of cytoplasmic organelle membranes, as well as nuclear lesions of several types, in cells of the nephron anlagen of the undifferentiated metanephric blastema, which were otherwise of normal appearance. PMID:3337212

Gilbert, T; Nabarra, B; Merlet-Bénichou, C

1988-01-01

6

Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

Grogg, Jill E.

2008-01-01

7

Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

Henry, Dennis C.

2002-01-01

8

Principles of Selection for Electronic Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Availability in electronic format of scholarly and scientific literatures and other forms of information has altered challenges faced by library collection managers. Drawing on ideas of the multi-library consortia, which have grown up partly in response to the advent of electronic resources, librarians have devised new criteria and means of…

Metz, Paul

2000-01-01

9

In utero. Turvatunderuumid / Kristina Viin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Lõputöö "In utero" on põhijoones munakuju meenutav interaktiivne kunstiobjekt, mis oma funktsioonilt läheneb pigem teraapilisele ruumile, pakkudes turvatunnet ja relaksatsiooni, et saavutada "emaüsatunnetus", vabastades inimest painetest ning meenutades talle algset, prenataalset olemist. Projekt kujutab endast nii osalusskulptuuri kui ka relaksatsioonikambrit. Ka emaihalusest psühhoanalüüsis, munast kui loomise arhetüüpsest sümbolist kosmogoonias, muna ja emaüsa kujutamisest Ülo Soosteri ja Hieronymus Boschi jt. kunstis

Viin, Kristina

2011-01-01

10

Programación in utero: un desafío / In utero programming: a challenge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Introducción: recientemente, mediante estudios epidemiológicos realizados en distintas poblaciones se ha llegado a la conclusión de que la situación nutricional durante las etapas prenatal y posnatal puede influir en la susceptibilidad del adulto a padecer intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensión, en [...] fermedad coronaria y obesidad. Actualmente, la teoría de que los factores medioambientales en el feto, y en particular la nutrición de la madre, influyen en la susceptibilidad a padecer determinadas enfermedades en el adulto, ha logrado amplio apoyo y muy especialmente, cuando el tema se ha ido trasladando al terreno de la biología molecular. Los cambios bioquímicos que ocurren durante la vida intrauterina y la etapa prenatal implican el continuo aporte de sustratos plásticos y energéticos de la madre, así como su integración. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear que una mala nutrición materna, ambiental, así como malas condiciones al nacer y durante la infancia, pueden condicionar riesgo de padecer aterosclerosis en el adulto. Métodos: se realizó una revisión exhaustiva del tema programación in utero, añadida al conocimiento en factores de riesgo aterosclerótico por investigaciones realizadas y los conocimientos adquiridos y lógicos en esta materia. Desarrollo: la relación descrita entre medidas corporales al nacer y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de la edad gestacional en los diferentes estudios desarrollados en Sheffield. Este problema puede ser bien confirmado no solo por la malnutrición por defecto de la madre sino también por otros factores bien conocidos que causan el bajo peso al nacer; además del estado nutricional de la madre existen factores intrínsecos del embarazo como la gemelaridad, anomalías cromosómicas, malformaciones congénitas, y otros asociadas a los maternos como edad, paridad, entre otros. Conclusiones: los factores macrodeterminantes y microdeterminantes in utero durante la gestación son causantes de factores de riesgo aterosclerótico no solo en la adultez, sino desde la edad escolar, esto ocurre por injurias durante las etapas embriogénica, fetal y de la infancia y no así por la medición corporal al nacer. Abstract in english Introduction : recent epidemiological studies of different populations have shown that pre- and postnatal nutrition may influence adult susceptibility to suffer from glucose intolerance, hypertension, coronary heart disease and obesity. The theory that fetal environmental factors and in particular m [...] aternal nutrition exert an influence upon the susceptibility to suffer from certain conditions in adulthood, has achieved great support, especially because the topic has gradually gained space in molecular biology. The biochemical changes occurring during the intrauterine and prenatal stages of life involve a continuous supply by the mother of plastic and energy substrates, as well as their integration. Poor maternal nutrition, a deficient environment, and bad conditions at birth and during childhood, may result in the risk to suffer from atherosclerosis in adulthood. Methods: Based on knowledge about in utero programming obtained from an exhaustive review, data about atherosclerotic risk factors drawn from research previously conducted, and information acquired about the topic. Development: The relationship described between body measurements at birth and coronary heart disease was irrespective of gestational age in the various studies conducted in Sheffield. This problem may be confirmed not only by maternal malnutrition, but other well-known factors as well, cause low weight at birth. Alongside the mother's nutritional status, other pregnancy-related factors should also be considered, such as multiple births, chromosomal anomalies, congenital malformations, maternal age, parity and others. Conclusions: In utero macro- and microdetermining factors during pregnancy cause atherosclerotic risk factors not only in adulthood, but since school age. Body measurement at birth is not determining if no injury o

Nuris, Rodríguez Vargas; Tania P, Martínez Pérez; Rolando, Martínez García; Mailin, Garriga Reyes; José Emilio, Fernández-Britto; Gilda, Martínez Fure.

2014-03-01

11

IRENA Resource [electronic resource] : your source for renewable energy information.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is an intergovernmental organisation that supports countries in their transition to a sustainable energy future, and serves as the principal platform for international cooperation, a centre of excellence, and a repository of policy, technology, resource and financial knowledge on renewable energy.

12

Bulletin of entomological research [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A journal covering agricultural entomology, medical and veterinary entomology, biological control, stored products entomology, and natural resource management. Includes taxonomic papers when relevant.

13

Marine Environment Laboratories Monaco [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A central facility for the collection, synthesis and interpretation of data on marine radioactivity in the world ocean. It stores all available data on marine radioactivity of seawater, sediments and biota. Please note: To access this resource contact the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratories Monaco.

14

Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation  

Science.gov (United States)

A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

1991-01-01

15

Using Zapier with Trello for Electronic Resources Troubleshooting Workflow  

OpenAIRE

Troubleshooting access problems is an important part of the electronic resources management workflow. This article discusses an opportunity to streamline and track troubleshooting using two web-based services: Trello and Zapier.

Meghan Finch

2014-01-01

16

Resource letter EPA-1: Electronic polymers and their applications  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on electronic polymers and their potential applications. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: (i) theories of the electronic structure and excited states of conjugated polymers, the role of electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions in determining these states, the mechanisms of charge transport, and the insulator-metal transition; (ii) information on the synthesis, structure, and morphology of representative polymers; (iii) results of transport, optical, and magnetic measurements on both conductive and semiconducting/insulating materials; and (iv) solid state device and other applications for conjugated polymers.

Blatchford, J. W.; Epstein, A. J.

1996-02-01

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Biology Resources in the Electronic Age  

CERN Document Server

How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians be certain that the information a Web site provides is accurate and age appropriate? In this unique book, experienced science educator Judith A. Bazler reviews hundreds of the most reliable biology-related Web sites. Each review discusses the most appropriate grade level of the site, analyzes its accuracy and usefulness, and provides helpful hints for getting the most out of the resource.||The Web is the first place many students look for information. Yet the Web is notoriously unreliable. How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians b

Bazler, Judith

2003-01-01

18

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-11-01

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The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

Chung-Yen Yu

2014-10-01

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Health condition of children irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the children exposed to ionizing radiation, the ones irradiated in utero constitute a group under special surveillance. The greatest sensitivity of the organism to the effects of radiative factors occurs in the neonatal period of development and the forthcoming life span with irradiation effects is the longest for these children. Children with acute exposure, with chronic exposure and control group were encompassed by this study - 1144 children altogether. 9 figs, 2 tabs

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Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

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Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

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Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Utero and Depression in Women  

OpenAIRE

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor with long-term health effects, possibly including depression, following exposure in utero. Understanding the relation between in utero DES exposure and depression will provide insight to the potential adverse effects of bisphenol A, a functionally similar and ubiquitous endocrine disruptor. The association between in utero DES exposure and depression was assessed among participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II who first reporte...

O Reilly, E?ilis J.; Mirzaei, Fariba; Forman, Michele R.; Ascherio, Alberto

2010-01-01

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Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

1999-01-01

25

Electronic Resources for Selecting and Using Children's Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This annotated list of electronic resources suggests materials for selecting and using children's literature. Highlights include children's classics, beginning reader lists, lists by genre and/or grade level, multicultural booklists, annual lists of noted children's literature, children's book awards, extending children's literature, book…

Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

2001-01-01

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Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

OpenAIRE

This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of disc...

Sanna Torma; Pertti Vakkari

2004-01-01

27

ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law  

Science.gov (United States)

The study and practice of international law can be a tough area to get a handle on, and with numerous online resources available for both areas, it can be difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Since 1997, The American Society of International Law (ASIL) has been continuously updating and revising their Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, under the able direction of Marci Hoffman and Jill Watson. Within each of its eight primary sections, users can read about various high-quality online resources for each topical area (such as international organizations and human rights), and then read brief summaries of what each online resource features in terms of its content and scope. As might be expected, the site also contains information on relevant and helpful weblogs that deal with international law.

Hoffman, Marci.

2003-01-01

28

Journals, Data and Abstracts Make an Integrated Electronic Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

Astronomy now has an integrated, Web-based information resource for research papers, data and bibliographic information. The major scholarly research journals, a comprehensive abstract service and the astronomical data centers are now linked together to provide an information resource which is not available to most other scientific disciplines. As of January, 1997, the Astrophysical Journal joins the ApJ Letters on the Web. Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements now has a page image version. Elsevier's electronic journal New Astronomy has recently made its appearance. Over forty percent of the new peer-reviewed, astronomical literature is now available electronically. The main Astronomy and Astrophysics journal, the Astronomical Journal and others will be available by 1998, at which point ninety percent of the literature will be available electronically, a figure not approached by any other scientific discipline. With so many different sources, one of the challenges has been to integrate the on-line, peer-reviewed literature into a resource which serves the astronomical community in a unified and coherent manner. Following the lead of the AAS, the major publishers have chosen to rely upon the NASA-supported Astrophysics Data System (ADS) and the astronomical data centers to provide the means by which the various separate journals can interoperate. The data centers and the ADS have developed unique identification codes for journal articles. By adopting the existing standard "bibcodes" and integrating them into their WWW links, each of the major astronomical journals are able to link to the abstracts of most of the referenced articles. Since the ADS also serves as an on-line repository for page images of the past twenty years of the major astronomical journals, the full text of many of the referenced articles are available, too. The articles in the ADS have recently been linked through their references, both forward and backward in time. With the "bibcode" providing the linking framework, papers in the electronic research journals, data and abstracts will be incorporated into the system in a routine manner. The astronomical community now has an ever-growing, operational integrated information system which fulfills today, the dream of the digital library. It remains to be seen how this electronic resource will affect the progress of research.

Boyce, P.

1996-12-01

29

Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

Shao, Fang

30

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

Thomas Groenewald

2004-11-01

31

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an Bq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors,

32

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

33

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

34

Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study  

OpenAIRE

This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

Kamble M.G; Ghante P. B.

2012-01-01

35

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - resources Eating disorders - resources Elder care - resources Epilepsy - resources Family troubles - resources Gastrointestinal disorders - resources Hearing impairment - resources ...

36

Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

2011-01-01

37

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

38

The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

2003-01-01

39

Sistema internacional sobre contaminates y residuos en alimentos [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ISICRA the Spanish version of INFOCRIS provided an ideal Internet tool to improve awareness of successful case studies. SICRA uses a common set of Divisional resources to address issues from production to consumption.

40

DIR-SIT search form (36 facilities) [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sterile Insect Mass Rearing Facilities Directory is being developed with the objective of aiding the retrieval of information on all mass rearing facilities of sterile pest insects, ticks and mites. DIR-SIT is part of IDIDAS resources.

41

IN UTERO HAEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION (IUHSCT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHSCT is a non-myeloablative approach for the prenatal treatment of genetic disorders. However, in target disorders, where there is not a selective advantage for donor cells, a useful donor-cell  chimerism  has not been achieved 

There are three  possible  barriers  to engraftment following IUHSCT :  limited space in the fetus due to host-cell competition; the large number of donor cells needed, and the immunological asset of recipient .

Animal models have shown different levels of resistance to IUHSCT engraftment.  In primate, goat, rat and mouse  the levels of engraftment that has been achieved were low and not  therapeutic.

Among 46 cases of  IUHSCT reported in humans, successful engraftment  was obtained only in cases of  X-SCID. Useful levels of chimerism has not been achieved in non-immunodeficiency diseases, and  a detectable engrafment , was  reported only in one case  of  ß-thalassemia transplanted at 12 weeks of gestation  by fetal liver cells 

In one a-thalassemia case,

Aurelio Maggio

2009-06-01

42

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

43

Electronic Resources and the Education of History Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

The transforming effects of the tremendous advances in technology that have reshaped the economy and many other elements of American society have had an equally profound impact on historical agencies. The personal computer, the Internet, and associated electronic communications developments have already transformed the museum and historical agency…

Mulligan, William H., Jr.

2001-01-01

44

Growing an Electronic Library: Resources, Utility, Marketing and Politics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the development of the ResIDe Electronic Library at the University of the West of England, Bristol. Analyzes potential of the system to increase economy, efficiency and effectiveness in library services and relates it to how the needs of sponsors and students can be met. (Author/LRW)

Dugdale, David; Dugdale, Christine

2000-01-01

45

Selection in utero contributes to the male longevity deficit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The literature offering evolutionary explanations of the male longevity deficit does not address temporal variation in the deficit. This circumstance appears attributable to the fact that natural selection intuitively explains the deficit's pervasive and persistent nature, while social processes more parsimoniously explain its temporal variability. I offer consilience of these perspectives by speculating that selection in utero, a mechanism both conserved by natural selection and affected by social processes, could induce deviations around trend in the male longevity deficit. I describe the mechanism and offer an empirical test of its possible effect among Swedes - a population with the longest continuous record of sex-specific longevity in annual birth cohorts. I replicate the test with data from England and Wales. Results support the hypothesis that selection in utero against less fit males may explain part of the difference in longevity between males and females in modern populations. PMID:21345567

Catalano, Ralph

2011-03-01

46

First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than two-fold) increased risk of congenital malformations.

Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton

2013-01-01

47

Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

48

Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother.

Vania O. Carvalho

2014-10-01

49

Early Determinants of Obesity: Genetic, Epigenetic, and In Utero Influences  

OpenAIRE

There is an emerging body of work indicating that genes, epigenetics, and the in utero environment can impact whether or not a child is obese. While certain genes have been identified that increase one's risk for becoming obese, other factors such as excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, and smoking can also influence this risk. Understanding these influences can help to inform which behaviors and exposures should be targeted if we are to decrease the prevalence of ob...

Jeanne McCaffery; Suzanne Phelan; Rhee, Kyung E.

2012-01-01

50

In utero phenotyping of mouse embryonic vasculature with MRI  

OpenAIRE

The vasculature is the earliest developing organ in mammals and its proper formation is critical for embryonic survival. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches have been used previously to analyze complex three-dimensional (3D) vascular patterns and defects in fixed mouse embryos. Extending vascular imaging to an in utero setting with potential for longitudinal studies would enable in vivo, dynamic analysis of the vasculature in normal and genetically engineered mouse embryos. In this st...

Berrios-otero, Cesar A.; Nieman, Brian J.; Parasoglou, Prodromos; Turnbull, Daniel H.

2011-01-01

51

Utero-muscular twisting and sperm storage in viperids  

OpenAIRE

suggested that females store sperm after mating and prior to ovulation/fertilization by “utero-muscular twisting” (UMT).Basically, the posterior region of the uterus becomes convoluted and contracted. Previous workers have indicated that thismechanism also occurs in temperate taxa, including Agkistrodon piscivorus, and others have suggested that UMT is an ancestralreproductive strategy of viperids. The work of these authors ignores earlier histological studies that found infundibular sper...

Siegel, Dustin S.; Sever, David M.

2006-01-01

52

In utero electroporation to study mouse brain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation is a rapid and powerful technique to study the development of many brain regions. This approach presents several advantages over other methods to study specific steps of brain development in vivo, from proliferation to synaptic integration. Here, we describe in detail the individual steps necessary to carry out the technique. We also highlight the variations that can be implemented to target different cerebral structures and to study specific steps of development. PMID:24048941

Pacary, Emilie; Guillemot, François

2014-01-01

53

The in utero correction of unilateral coronal craniosynostosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed the first in utero correction of a unilateral right coronal craniosynostosis using 70-day gestation fetal lambs. The craniosynostosis was created in eight fetuses by excising their right coronal sutures, and then placing demineralized bone powder, transforming growth factor-beta, and bone morphogenetic protein-2 into the defect. Twenty-one days later, after suture fusion had occurred, four of the eight sheep were treated with a 4 mm x 12 mm strip craniectomy to open the entire synostosed right coronal suture. The edges of the excision were wrapped with 100-microm-thick Gore-Tex (W. L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz.) sheets to prevent bony refusion. All eight lambs then progressed to term (140 days). The skulls of four normal, unoperated, term lambs were used as controls. At 140 days, all four treated lambs had a widely patent strip craniectomy site without any evidence of bone regeneration. This in utero correction led to a marked improvement in craniofacial morphology of three of four animals when compared with the uncorrected controls with significant (p cranial vault, frontal bone flattening, and shortening of the cranial base. The fourth corrected animal also showed evidence of improvement but had some abnormal calvarial changes secondary to the development of horns, which displaced the calvaria in a downward vector. We conclude that the in utero correction of craniosynostosis is feasible and provides a significant benefit by decreasing the severity of many of the associated deformities seen with this disorder. PMID:9462759

Stelnicki, E J; Vanderwall, K; Harrison, M R; Longaker, M T; Kaban, L B; Hoffman, W Y

1998-02-01

54

?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

Huang-Yu Liu

2008-03-01

55

IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, a professional group on nuclear science within the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, formed in 1949. The NPSS is composed of nine technical committees with a common interest in advancing nuclear and plasma sciences and engineering, including instrumentation, detection and measurement, particle accelerators, reactor systems, effects of radiation on materials and components, and applications. Its website provides information on the history of the society, lists its meetings and conferences, links to NPSS and IEEE publications and newsletters.

56

Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

Barbier, Patricia

2007-01-01

57

Electronic textbooks as a professional resource after dental school.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two previous studies of dental students' attitudes about the VitalSource Bookshelf, a digital library of dental textbooks, students expressed negative opinions about owning and reading electronic textbooks. With the assumption that dentists would find the digital textbooks useful for patient care, the authors surveyed recent graduates to determine if their attitude toward the VitalSource Bookshelf had changed. A brief survey was sent to 119 alumni from the classes of 2009 and 2010 of one U.S. dental school. Forty-seven (39.5 percent) completed the questionnaire. Eighteen respondents (48.3 percent) reported using the e-textbooks often or sometimes. The twenty-nine dentists who said they have not used the collection since graduation reported preferring print books or other online sources or having technical problems when downloading the books to a new computer. Only five respondents selected the VitalSource Bookshelf as a preferred source of professional information. Most of the respondents reported preferring to consult colleagues (37.8 percent), the Internet (20 percent), or hardcopy books (17.8 percent) for information. When asked in an open-ended question to state their opinion of the Bookshelf, nineteen (42.2 percent) responded positively, but almost one-third of these only liked the search feature. Six respondents reported that they never use the program. Twenty-two said they have had technical problems with the Bookshelf, including fifteen who have not been able to install it on a new computer. Many of them said they have not followed up with either the dental school or VitalSource support services to overcome this problem. Our study suggests that dentists, similar to dental students, dislike reading electronic textbooks, even with the advantage of searching a topic across more than sixty dental titles. PMID:22550109

Bates, Michael L; Strother, Elizabeth A; Brunet, Darlene P; Gallo, John R

2012-05-01

58

Dealing with diversity: hybrid libraries and the Distributed National Electronic Resource  

OpenAIRE

Over the past 5 years or so the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) working on behalf of UK Higher Education has sponsored a series of initiatives in the field of electronic information. The main aim of the paper is to illustrate how this has led through successive refinements via the idea of the hybrid library to the Distributed National Electronic Resource (the DNER). Some links with related work in Australia are mentioned.

Rusbridge, Chris

2000-01-01

59

We're All in This Together: Library Faculty and Staff and Their Reporting of Electronic Resource Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Libraries continue to shift budgets toward obtaining more electronic resources. Electronic resources can develop problems at any time when a library offers access. Staff collaboration is vital in ensuring availability to those resources. Partnering with areas in the library that work most closely with patrons can help share the load of the…

Foster, Anita; Williams, Sarah C.

2010-01-01

60

Development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors in utero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The role of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous systems is well established in adults. Cholinergic modulation of vascular functions and body fluid balance has been extensively studied. In the embryo-fetus, cholinergic receptors are widespread in the peripheral and central systems, in [...] cluding smooth muscle and the epithelial lining of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems, as well as in the brain. Fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors develop in a pattern (e.g., amount and distribution) related to gestational periods. Cholinergic mechanisms have been found to be relatively intact and functional in the control of vascular homeostasis during fetal life in utero at least during the last third of gestation. This review focuses on the development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors, and provides information indicating that central cholinergic systems are well developed in the control of fetal blood pressure and body fluid balance before birth. Therefore, the development of cholinergic systems in utero plays an important role in fetal vascular regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and urinary control.

C., Mao; J., Lv; H., Li; Y., Chen; J., Wu; Z., Xu.

2007-05-01

61

Utero-muscular twisting and sperm storage in viperids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available suggested that females store sperm after mating and prior to ovulation/fertilization by “utero-muscular twisting” (UMT.Basically, the posterior region of the uterus becomes convoluted and contracted. Previous workers have indicated that thismechanism also occurs in temperate taxa, including Agkistrodon piscivorus, and others have suggested that UMT is an ancestralreproductive strategy of viperids. The work of these authors ignores earlier histological studies that found infundibular spermstorage tubules (SSTs in old world viperids Cerastes cerastes and Viperus aspis. The SSTs in these two viperids were similar tothose of harmless snakes, including some more basal (Leptotyphlophidae and Typhlopidae and others more derived(Colubridae than the Viperidae. In addition, our studies on seasonal variation in sperm storage in Agkistrodon piscivorus showsperm in infundibular SSTs in all reproductively active females and even those with fetuses in utero, with no indication ofUMT. Our histological examination of the crotalines Sisturus miliarius and Crotalus durissus indicates that SSTs occur in theseforms as well. The evidence for UMT as a sperm storage strategy needs anatomical and physiological confirmation.

Dustin S. Siegel

2006-12-01

62

In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemicals found in the environment as industrial byproducts or pollutants as well as those that are prescribed or part of our daily lives can have multiple effects on the human body. The manner in which we are exposed, and the levels we are exposed to are significant contributing factors. Adults have the bodily defense mechanisms in place to combat exposures to adverse toxicants and general pollution at a variety of levels. However, developing organisms may not have adequate defense mechanisms, and toxicants can have a significant effect on their health and development. In this review, we take particular note of the toxicities of chemicals on the developing female reproductive system as a result of in utero exposure. Environmental and prescribed chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diethylstilbestrol, and genistein, as well as others, will be reviewed for their in utero toxicity in the neuroendocrine system, the ovary, oviduct, placenta, uterus, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland

63

The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?  

Science.gov (United States)

As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

2010-01-01

64

Implementation of an Electronic Resource Assessment System in an Academic Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a library with useful information about selection criteria for an electronic resource assessment system and practical assistance on how to implement efficiently such a system. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on literature review, desk research, and implementation experience.…

Xu, Fei

2010-01-01

65

Mouse epidermal development: effects of retinoic acid exposure in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidermal morphogenesis was studied in vivo following prenatal exposure to retinoic acid (RA). In pregnant mice, a single oral dose of RA on day 11.5 of gestation failed to induce histological changes in fetal epidermal development except in epidermal thickness. Epidermal thickness increased from 16.5 days post-coitum (dpc) onwards, and temporal and spatial epidermal modifications in keratins K5 and K14 related to proliferative activity of keratinocytes were observed. An RA effect on cell proliferation was supported by a statistically significant increase in the number of epidermal S-phase cells, containing BrdU-incorporated DNA in RA-exposed mice compared with nonexposed animals. The prolonged in utero action of RA on epidermal proliferative activity in fetuses and newborns suggests a long-term RA effect that may play a role on the development and evolution of diseases in adult skin. PMID:16412118

García-Fernández, Rosa A; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Alvarez, Javier Espinosa; Navarrete, Alex J Durán; García-Iglesias, Maria J

2006-02-01

66

Spinal neural tube defects on in utero MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spinal neural tube defects are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which remain relatively common, with a prevalence of 1–2 per 1000 live births despite advances in maternal antenatal care. They range from mild disorders with limited neurodevelopmental sequelae to extensive abnormalities with significant morbidity and mortality. The advent of in utero magnetic resonance imaging has enabled accurate anatomical characterization of an increasing number of abnormalities with increasing confidence. Recognition of the salient radiological features of these disorders and their relationship to the embryogenesis of the spinal cord and its coverings is now possible. This review describes the radiological appearances of these disorders with examples from Fetal Imaging Unit, University of Sheffield to illustrate the key anatomical and radiological features to aid the radiologist in their recognition

67

Induction of leukemia by chronic irradiation, starting in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagle dogs receiving 0.1 Gy/day continuous, whole body radiation have greatly increased radiation resistance, living up to ten times longer than beagles similarly exposed after 50 days of age. In addition, nearly 100% of the animals exposed in utero at risk in either the 0.1 or 0.04 Gy/day level develop acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemic changes. In contrast, in those animals exposed after 50 days of age, only one dog (in the 0.04 Gy/day level) developed an acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. This new leukemia model will provide large numbers of beagles which have a very high probability of presenting with radiation-induced leukemia within two to three years

68

La sanctification in utero de Joseph : une proposition gersonienne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available à partir de 1413, Jean Gerson se lance dans une véritable campagne de promotion en faveur de Joseph, l’époux de Marie, à un moment où celui-ci est très rarement considéré comme un saint, et intéresse peu les théologiens et les prédicateurs, à l’exception de quelques franciscains. Or, parmi les privilèges et les vertus que le chancelier attribue à Joseph, on est surpris de rencontrer l’idée d’une sanctification in utero, qui rappelle l’immaculée conception de Marie, pour laquelle Gerson s’était battu aux côtés de son maître Pierre d’Ailly. Cette affirmation se fait cependant avec prudence, sous la forme d’une idée à laquelle on peut « croire pieusement ». à l’occasion d’un sermon prononcé au concile de Constance, Gerson précise sa pensée en distinguant la Vierge, totalement préservée du péché originel, de Joseph sanctifié dans le sein de sa mère. La logique est celle d’une comparaison avec Jean-Baptiste, que l’on considère consacré in utero au moment de la Visitation. Comme Gerson tente d’affirmer la supériorité de Joseph sur le Baptiste, il cherche à lui attribuer une grâce au moins comparable. L’enjeu est la reconnaissance de la sainteté de Joseph, dont la définition est délicate puisqu’il est sans doute mort avant la Passion et qu’il ne peut être reconnu comme un martyr.Même si la formulation gersonienne reste très originale, son idée a sans doute été mûrie au contact d’autres admirateurs de l’époux de la Vierge, tels Pierre d’Ailly ou le célestin Pierre Pocquet. Elle s’appuie également sur des sources liturgiques orientales plus délicates à identifier. Néanmoins, sa proposition ne connaîtra pas un grand succès : reprise par quelques auteurs au cours des xve et xvie siècles, elle est finalement explicitement rejetée lorsque s’affirme le culte de Joseph et que sa sainteté n’est plus contestée.Elle reste le témoignage d’un moment particulier d’audace théologique, sur les frontières encore imprécises de l’immaculée conception, de la sanctification et de la consécration, alors que les désordres du Grand Schisme rendaient plus aigu le besoin d’une pureté inaccessible.Joseph’s in utero sanctification : a gersonian suggestionIn 1413, Jean Gerson launched what could be described as a huge campaign in favour of Joseph, at a time when Mary's spouse was seldom considered a saint and was of very little interest to theologians or predicators, with the exception of a few Franciscans. However, among the privileges and virtues ascribed to Joseph by the chancellor, lies, surprisingly, the idea of in utero sanctification, a reminder of Mary’s Immaculate Conception, a notion also staunchly defended by Gerson and his master Pierre d’Ailly. This affirmation is however carefully exposed, as something that we can “piously believe in”.On the occasion of a sermon delivered at the Constance council, Gerson exposed this idea with more clarity by making a distinction between the holy Virgin who is totally preserved from the original sin, and Joseph who was sanctified while in his mother's womb. The logic in this arises from a comparison with John the Baptist considered consecrated in utero during the Visitation episode.In an attempt to assert Joseph's superiority on John the Baptist, Gerson credits him with at least one comparable virtue. What is at stake is the recognition of Joseph's holiness, a notion whose definition is a delicate matter since he probably died before the Passion and cannot be acknowledged as a martyr.Even though the gersonian formulation remains quite original, the idea of in utero sanctification has most probably matured through his association with other admirers of the holy Virgin's spouse, such as Pierre d'Ailly or the Celestin Pierre Pocquet. It also stems from oriental liturgical sources that are more difficult to identify. However, his proposition was not widely acclaimed : taken over by a few authors of the 15th and 16th centuries, it was eventually explicitly reje

Paul Payan

2012-04-01

69

Medical Image Resource Center–making electronic teaching files from PACS  

OpenAIRE

A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and store teaching files; neither is there a standardized method for sharing such teaching images. The Medical Image Resource Center (MIRC) is a new central image repository that defines standards for dat...

Tchoyoson Lim, C. C.; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Hui, Francis

2003-01-01

70

Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

71

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

2012-09-01

72

Maternal Immunization Affects In Utero Programming of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Maternal immunization with oxidized lipoproteins prior to pregnancy protects against atherogenic in utero programming by gestational hypercholesterolemia and enhances beneficial lymphocyte-dependent immune responses in offspring. To determine whether in utero programming and immunomodulation also affect insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes, we investigated the effects of immunization on glucose and insulin responses in LDL receptor-deficient mice fed regular or 60% sucrose diets, as we...

Eberle, Claudia; Merki, Esther; Yamashita, Tomoya; Johnson, Susie; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Napoli, Claudio; Palinski, Wulf

2012-01-01

73

Effects of in utero exposure to low dose ionizing radiation on development in the rat  

OpenAIRE

Most studies of in utero effects of ionizing irradiation involve high doses and examination at postnatal intervals. Little information is available on the effects of low levels of ionizing radiation on embryogenesis. The developmental effects of in utero exposure to 50 cGy gamma radiation on gestational day-9.5 was investigated using Sprague- Dawley rats. Irradiated rats and appropriate controls were killed at prenatal intervals of 4h, 48h and 10 days after...

Bruni, J. E.; Persaud, T. V. N.; Froese, G.; Huang, W.

1994-01-01

74

Inorganic Arsenic as a Developmental Toxicant: In Utero Exposure and Alterations in the Developing Rat Lung  

OpenAIRE

In the present study we characterize the toxic effects of in utero arsenic exposure on the developing lung. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to inorganic arsenic through maternal drinking water causes altered gene and protein expression in the developing lung, indicative of downstream molecular and functional changes. From conception to embryonic day eighteen, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to 500 ppb arsenic (as arsenite) via the drinking water. Subtracted cDNA libraries compar...

Petrick, Jay S.; Blachere, Francoise M.; Selmin, Ornella; Lantz, R. Clark

2009-01-01

75

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom

2007-01-01

76

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

77

In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used non-ionic surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylate constitutes 82% of the production of all alkylphenol ethoxylates and the breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate, nonylphenol (NP) has been shown to be estrogenic in both in vitro and in vivo screening assays. To determine the potential reproductive toxicity of NP, a one-generation in utero study was conducted, Rats were dosed from gestation day 11 through 18 with NP at 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 30 mug/kg/day. DES was used as a positive control. Both substances were given orally by gavage. Male offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, or 110 and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Pup birth weight and body weight and percent motile sperm at age of 110 day were significantly reduced by DES. The absolute weight of the right epididymis was significantly reduced in the DES group. The absolute weight of the right epididymis were also significantly decreased in the animals exposed to 75 or 15 mg/kg/day NP, effects which disappeared when organ weight was related to body weight. This study showed a dose-dependent effect of nonylphenol on male reproductive development at doses of 75 and 15 mg/kg bw/day based on absolute epididymal weight.

Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken

2001-01-01

78

Increase resource power electronics module on the physics of failure method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new approach to improving resource devices for power electronics. The numerical analysis of non-uniform temperature field of power semiconductor devices. A comparison of the intensities of the failure of a power unit with the real thermal regime of the device under conditions of natural convection and obtained by using statistical data analysis. The integrated assessment of reliability based on the methods of physics failures. The necessity of taking into account the actual non-stationary temperature fields to improve the reliability of the forecast operating life of power semiconductor devices.

Kravchenko Evgeny V.

2014-01-01

79

??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER????????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

Hui-Hsin Yeh

2006-06-01

80

The Internet: A Resource in the Teaching of Economics and Beyond. [and] Promoting Interaction and Teamwork with Electronic Mail.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boldt et al. describe economic resources available on the Internet and illustrate ways to integrate the information into introductory courses. Baker shows how to use electronic mail to expand student-teacher involvement and group interaction/teamwork. (SK)

Boldt, David J.; And Others

1994-01-01

81

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment wpes of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

82

Effects of ductus arteriosus occlusion on pulmonary artery pressure during in utero ventilation in fetal sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven fetal sheep were prepared to study the short-term effects of in utero ventilation and ductus arteriosus occlusion on pulmonary artery pressure and on fetal right ventricular function assessed using the right atrial pressure-right ventricular stroke volume relationship. Nine days post-surgery (140 days gestation), blood gas and haemodynamic values were obtained before and during in utero ventilation with 100% O2, and during ventilation with the ductus arteriosus occluded. Oxygen content increased significantly from 7.2 to 14.5 ml dl-1 with ventilation and remained elevated at 14.4 ml dl-1 with ventilation with the ductus arteriosus occluded. In utero ventilation produced a left to right atrial pressure gradient and depression of the right atrial pressure-right ventricular stroke volume relationship. Ductus arteriosus occlusion during in utero ventilation reduced the left to right atrial pressure gradient, and along with a decrease in pulmonary artery pressure, resulted in an upward shift of the right atrial pressure-right ventricular stroke volume relationship, but only to the preventilation level. This study indicates that the fetal right atrial pressure-right ventricular stroke volume relationship is significantly altered, both by changes in the left to right atrial pressure gradient and by changes in pulmonary artery pressure seen with in utero ventilation and subsequent ductus arteriosus occlusion. PMID:7734132

Giraud, G D; Morton, M J; Reid, D L; Reller, M D; Thornburg, K L

1995-01-01

83

Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance. PMID:22809672

Klinich, K D; Miller, C S; Hu, J; Samorezov, J E; Pearlman, M D; Schneider, L W; Rupp, J D

2012-10-01

84

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment. PMID:21683566

Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

2011-01-01

85

Illness during Pregnancy and Bacterial Vaginosis are Associated with In Utero HIV-1 Transmission  

OpenAIRE

HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20–30% of vertical transmission events in breastfeeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in utero HIV-1 transmission (95% CI 1.2, 5.8) and bacterial vaginosis with a 3-fold increase (95% CI 1.0–7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention...

Farquhar, Carey; Mbori-ngacha, Dorothy; Overbaugh, Julie; Wamalwa, Dalton; Harris, Jennifer; Bosire, Rose; John-stewart, Grace

2010-01-01

86

In utero development of symmetric thalamic and brainstem necrosis in a preterm hydropic stillborn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focal and symmetric necrotic lesions of the brainstem are thought to result from fetal hypotension or cardiac arrest in the perinatal period and thus occur in the course of postnatal intensive care rather than in utero. Here, we report for the first time on brainstem necrosis in a preterm stillborn demonstrating that brainstem necrosis occurs already in utero. The preterm stillborn of 28 weeks gestation of a mother that suffered from HELLP-syndrome was severely affected by a fetal hydrops with bilateral pleural effusions and lung hypoplasia. Bilateral tegmental brainstem necrosis and thalamic lesions were detected. PMID:21073840

Szekessy, D P; Bamberg, C; Blechschmidt, C; Kaindl, A M; Stoltenburg-Didinger, G

2010-01-01

87

Effects of In Utero Exposure to Bisphenol A or Diethylstilbestrol on the Adult Male Reproductive System  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) induced reproductive tract abnormalities in the adult male testis. Using the C57/Bl6 mouse, we examined sex-organ weights, anogenital distance (AGD), and testis histopathology in adult males exposed in utero via oral gavage to sesame oil, 50 ?g/kg BPA, 1,000 ?g/kg BPA, or 2 ?g/kg diethylstilbestrol (DES) as a positive control from gestational days 10–16. No changes in sperm production or germ cell apop...

Larocca, Jessica; Boyajian, Alanna; Brown, Caitlin; Smith, Stuart Duncan; Hixon, Mary

2011-01-01

88

Exposure to antiepileptic drugs in utero and child development  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Purpose Antiepileptic drugs may cause congenital malformations. Less is known about the effect on development in infancy and childhood. The aim of this study was to examine whether exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy has an impact on early child development. Methods From mid-year 1999 through December 2008, children of mothers recruited at 13–17 weeks of pregnancy were studied in the ongoing prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Information on birth outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry (108,264 –children), and mothers reported on their child’s motor development, language, social skills, and autistic traits using items from standardized screening tools at 18 months (61,351 children) and 36 months of age (44,147 children). The relative risk of adverse outcomes in children according to maternal or paternal epilepsy with and without prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs was estimated as odds ratios (ORs), using logistic regression with adjustment for maternal age, parity, education, smoking, depression/anxiety, folate-supplementation, and child congenital malformation or low birth weight. Key findings A total of 333 children were exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero. At 18 months, the exposed children had increased risk of abnormal scores for gross motor skills (7.1 % vs. 2.9 %; OR, 2.0; 95 % Confidence Interval [CI], 1.1–3.7) and autistic traits (3.5 % vs. 0.9 %; OR, 2.7; CI, 1.1–6.7) compared to children of parents without epilepsy. At 36 months, the exposed children had increased risk of abnormal score for gross motor skills (7.5 % vs. 3.3 %; OR, 2.2; CI, 1.1–4.2), sentence skills (11.2 % vs. 4.8 %; OR, 2.1; CI, 1.2–3.6), and autistic traits (6.0 % vs. 1.5 %; OR, 3.4; CI, 1.6–7.0). The drug-exposed children also had increased risk of congenital malformations (6.1 % vs. 2.9 %; OR, 2.1; CI, 1.4–3.4), but exclusion of congenital malformations did not affect the risk of adverse development. Children born to women with epilepsy who did not use antiepileptic drugs had no increased risks. Children of fathers with epilepsy generally scored within the normal range. Significance Exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy is associated with adverse development at 18 and 36 months of age, measured as low scores within key developmental domains rated by mothers. Exposures to valproate, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, or multiple antiepileptic drugs were associated with adverse outcome within different developmental domains. PMID:23865818

Veiby, Gyri; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Schjølberg, Synnve; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Vollset, Stein Emil; Engelsen, Bernt A.; Gilhus, Nils Erik

2013-01-01

89

Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma diagnosed in a phetus in utero by prenatal ultrasound in a 20-year-old woman on the 22nd week of pregnancy is reported. The follow-up by fetal echography allowed to evaluate the case. Abortion was induced and the diagnosis was confirmed. The study of the mother at the Genetics Department concluded that she was carrier of tuberous sclerosis.

Adis L. Peña Cedeño

2001-01-01

90

Caring for children and adolescents with epilepsy: creating an innovative electronic educational resource.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy are managed in the community setting by general paediatricians. However, there is a paucity of practical, relevant information and standardised management documents assisting paediatricians. In the era of sub-specialisation, an electronic educational resource developed by specialists in epilepsy and paediatrics enhances the interface between tertiary and secondary/primary care. We aimed to create a website (www.pennsw.com.au) designed to optimise the care of all children and adolescents living with epilepsy and to assess its clinical usefulness. The site provides clinicians and families an aligned resource, including key information on epilepsy syndromes, medication usage and adverse effects, safety (sleep deprivation, water sports), driving, pregnancy, psychosocial impact of epilepsy and coping skills. General paediatricians and carers completed a questionnaire, utilising rating scales and open ended questions, to evaluate design, content and clinical usefulness. Forty-nine general paediatricians with a median 12 years of paediatric practice participated. Thirty-two carers participated. Epilepsy syndrome was focal in 59% of the children and generalised in 41%. The majority of participants (paediatricians: 84-100%, families: 69-100%) rated the website as well designed, practical, informative and clinically useful. General paediatricians considered the "Medication" pages and "Epilepsy Management Documents" as practically useful. Carers recorded the "Family Resources", seizure recording documents, the support information on mental health, and the "Coping with Epilepsy" segment as most informative. General paediatricians and carers highly valued the website, reflected by 120,000 page views in 12 months since its launch. PMID:24906210

Connolly, Anne M; Slade, Rob; Uppal, Preena; Bye, Ann M E

2014-10-01

91

In utero and postnatal exposure of Wistar rats to low frequency/high intensity noise depletes the tracheal epithelium of ciliated cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic exposure of men or rodents to low frequency/high intensity (LFHI) noise causes a number of systemic changes that make up the so-called vibroacoustic disease (VAD), a disorder that includes alterations of the respiratory system, namely, of its epithelial layer. We have investigated here the susceptibility of the tracheal epithelium of Wistar rats to in utero and postnatal exposure to LFHI noise by comparing its ultrastructure with that of the tracheal epithelium of control rats and of animals exposed to LFHI noise only after reaching adulthood (8 weeks of age). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the inner surface of rat trachea was used to determine the relative areas covered by ciliated and non-ciliated cells. In rats that were exposed in utero and postnatally to LFHI noise, we observed that out of 100 microm(2) of tracheal epithelium only 31 +/- 14 microm(2) were covered by cilia, whereas in control rats; ciliated cells occupied an average of 60 +/- 18 microm(2) out of 100 microm(2) of the epithelium; this difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p controls, was not found to be statistically different. We conclude that (1) the tracheal ciliated cells are damaged by exposure of rats to LFHI noise if the animals are kept under this environmental aggression during in utero and postnatal periods; (2) tracheal ciliated cells from adult rats are more resistant to the deleterious effects of LFHI noise than pleura or lung alveolar cells that were shown before to undergo marked changes upon chronic exposure of rats to LFHI noise. These findings suggest a note of caution regarding pregnant women and young children: they should be prevented from areas where LFHI noise occurs, namely, in aircraft and textile industries where this type of environmental hazard is often present. PMID:11891613

Oliveira, M J; Pereira, A S; Castelo Branco, N A; Grande, N R; Aguas, A P

2001-01-01

92

The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

Barreca, Alan I.

2010-01-01

93

Ultrasound Evaluation of Congenital Cervical Teratoma and Therapeutic Management (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment)  

OpenAIRE

The ultrasound evaluation of the fetal neck has a high importance as a key point of the airway and digestive tract. We report the case of a fetus diagnosed with a cervical teratoma by ultrasound, which generated a compressive effect on airway, requiring a surgical approach EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) to ensure the extrauterine viability.

Alfredo Perales-Marín; Vicente Diago Almela; Juan Rubio Moll; Blanca Ferri Folch; Amp Xe Rez, Amparo Sanroma P.; Pablo Padilla Iserte

2012-01-01

94

Tubacin prevents neuronal migration defects and epileptic activity caused by rat Srpx2 silencing in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic disorders with or without structural developmental alteration of the speech cortex. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the precise developmental role of SRPX2, to have a better knowledge on the consequences of its mutations, and to start addressing therapeutic issues through the design of an appropriate animal model. Using an in utero Srpx2 silencing approach, we show that SRPX2 influences neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not the mutant human SRPX2 proteins, rescued the neuronal migration phenotype caused by Srpx2 silencing in utero, and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. Following in utero Srpx2 silencing, spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded post-natally. The neuronal migration defects and the post-natal epileptic consequences were prevented early in embryos by maternal administration of tubulin deacetylase inhibitor tubacin. Hence epileptiform manifestations of developmental origin could be prevented in utero, using a transient and drug-based therapeutic protocol. PMID:23831613

Salmi, Manal; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Lozovaya, Natalia; Massacrier, Annick; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Cloarec, Robin; Tsintsadze, Timur; Watrin, Françoise; Tsintsadze, Vera; Zimmer, Céline; Villard, Claude; Lafitte, Daniel; Cardoso, Carlos; Bao, Lan; Lesca, Gaetan; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Muscatelli, Françoise; Pauly, Vanessa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Durbec, Pascale; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Burnashev, Nail; Represa, Alfonso; Szepetowski, Pierre

2013-08-01

95

EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1 1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort...

96

Airway alveolar attachment points and exposure to cigarette smoke in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The harmful effects of in utero cigarette smoke exposure include increased asthma symptoms and reduced lung function during the neonatal period, increased airway responsiveness to inhaled stimuli, and an increased risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Altered lung function may result from altered airway/lung structure. Airway dimensions, alveolar attachment points, and parenchymal elastin content were measured in 32 infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome and were grouped according to their perinatal cigarette smoke exposure. Compared with those without any exposure to cigarette smoke, the distance between alveolar attachments on airways was greater (p < 0.001) in infants exposed to cigarette smoke only in utero or both in utero and during the postnatal period but not different in those with only postnatal exposure. The percentage of elastin within the alveolar walls was similar in all the exposure groups. These findings suggest that in utero cigarette smoke exposure may result in abnormal airway function due to a reduction of the forces opposing airway narrowing. PMID:12502475

Elliot, John G; Carroll, Neil G; James, Alan L; Robinson, Philip J

2003-01-01

97

Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females. In contrast, a statistically significant increase in the mutation frequency of male mice exposed in utero to DEP was observed (2-fold; Fisher's exact p < 0.05). Thus, maternal exposure to DEP results in increased mutation in sperm during development.

Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

98

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

OpenAIRE

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

99

Effects of zearalenone on in utero development in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zearalenone (ZE), an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum or F. roseum, is one of the most common contaminants of cereal grains world-wide. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ZE on in utero development of rats. Pregnant female Charles River Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged once daily with ZE (in corn oil) at doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg/kg body weight on gestation days (GD) 6-19. All females survived to cesarean section on GD 20. At cesarean section, reproductive and developmental parameters were measured and blood was taken for hormone analysis. Dose-related decreases were seen in maternal feed consumption and body weight gain in all treated groups. Delayed fetal development was linked to maternal toxicity. Fetal body weight was significantly decreased in both sexes in all treated groups. ZE retarded skeletal ossification at 4 and 8 mg/kg. Fetal anogenital index (anogenital distance normalized for body weight) was increased in all treated groups, indicating an androgenic effect of ZE during fetal development. Fetal viability was significantly decreased at 8 mg/kg; significant decreases were observed in number of viable fetuses, and number of litters totally resorbed. At 4 and 8 mg/kg, maternal liver-body weight ratios were significantly increased and organ-brain weight ratios for weights of liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, and ovaries were significantly decreased. Gonadotropins (LH, FSH, and prolactin) and sex steroids (progesterone and estradiol) were analyzed from the blood serum obtained at cesarean section. LH in the 0, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg groups showed minimal variation, and slightly increased at 8 mg/kg. FSH was decreased in the 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg groups, but the level at 8 mg/kg was slightly higher than the control level. Prolactin level was not affected at 1 mg/kg, slightly increased at 2 and 4 mg/kg, and significantly increased at 8 mg/kg. Progesterone was decreased at 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg and the decreases were significant at 2 and 4 mg/kg. Estradiol level was not affected at 1mg/kg, but dose-related decreases were observed at 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg. Only the 8 mg/kg level of estradiol was significantly decreased. In summary, ZE was maternally toxic and fetotoxic but not teratogenic. The increased anogenital distance observed in male and female fetuses was considered a hormonal change rather than a teratologic response. The increased anogenital distance indicated an androgenic effect. Based on the dose-related maternal and fetal toxicity in all treated groups, the NOEL for reproductive and teratogenic effects was less than 1 mg/kg. PMID:16797818

Collins, Thomas F X; Sprando, Robert L; Black, Thomas N; Olejnik, Nicholas; Eppley, Robert M; Alam, Hamida Z; Rorie, James; Ruggles, Dennis I

2006-09-01

100

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality

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In utero exposure to second-hand smoke aggravates the response to ovalbumin in adult mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in utero exacerbates adult responses to environmental irritants. We tested the hypothesis that effects of in utero SHS exposure on modulating physiological and transcriptome responses in BALB/c mouse lungs after ovalbumin (OVA) challenge extend well into adulthood, and that the responses show a sex bias. We exposed BALB/c mice in utero to SHS or filtered air (AIR), then sensitized and challenged all offspring with OVA from 19 to 23 weeks of age. At the end of the adult OVA challenge, we evaluated pulmonary function, examined histopathology, analyzed bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and assessed gene expression changes in the lung samples. All groups exhibited lung inflammation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Pulmonary function testing (airway hyperresponsiveness [AHR], breathing frequency [f]) and BALF (cell differentials, Th1/Th2 cytokines) assessments showed significantly more pronounced lung responses in the SHS-OVA groups than in AIR-OVA groups (AHR, f; eosinophils, neutrophils; IFN-?, IL-1b, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, KC/CXCL1, TNF-?), with the majority of responses being more pronounced in males than in females. SHS exposure in utero also significantly altered lung gene expression profiles, primarily of genes associated with inflammatory responses and respiratory diseases, including lung cancer and lung fibrosis. Altered expression profiles of chemokines (Cxcl2, Cxcl5, Ccl8, Ccl24), cytokines (Il1b, Il6, Il13) and acute phase response genes (Saa1, Saa3) were confirmed by qRT-PCR. In conclusion, in utero exposure to SHS exacerbates adult lung responses to OVA challenge and promotes a pro-asthmatic milieu in adult lungs; further, males are generally more affected by SHS-OVA than are females. PMID:23898987

Xiao, Rui; Perveen, Zakia; Rouse, Rodney L; Le Donne, Viviana; Paulsen, Daniel B; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Penn, Arthur L

2013-12-01

102

Effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal body composition in pigs: I. Growing phase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmentally induced heat stress (HS) negatively influences production variables in agriculturally important species. However, the extent to which HS experienced in utero affects nutrient partitioning during the rapid lean tissue accretion phase of postnatal growth is unknown. Study objectives were to compare future whole-body tissue accretion rates in pigs exposed to differing in utero and postnatal thermal environments when lean tissue deposition is likely maximized. Pregnant sows were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; cyclical 15°C nighttime and 22°C daytime; n = 9) or HS (cyclical 27°C nighttime and 37°C daytime; n = 12) conditions during their entire gestation. Twenty-four offspring from in utero TN (IUTN; n = 6 gilts and 6 barrows; 30.8 ± 0.2 kg BW) and in utero HS (IUHS; n = 6 gilts and 6 barrows; 30.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were euthanized as an initial slaughter group (ISG). Following the ISG, 48 pigs from IUTN (n = 12 gilts and 12 barrows; 34.1 ± 0.5 kg BW) and IUHS (n = 12 gilts and 12 barrows; 33.3 ± 0.3 kg BW) were exposed to constant HS (34.1 ± 2.4°C) or TN (21.5 ± 2.0°C) conditions until they reached 61.5 ± 0.8 kg BW, at which point they were sacrificed and their whole-body composition was determined. Homogenized carcasses were analyzed for N, crude fat, ash, water, and GE content. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.3. Rectal temperature and respiration rate increased (P < 0.01) during postnatal HS compared to TN (39.4 vs. 39.0°C and 94 vs. 49 breaths per minute, respectively). Regardless of in utero environment, postnatal HS reduced (P < 0.01) feed intake (2.06 vs. 2.37 kg/d) and ADG (0.86 vs. 0.98 kg/d) compared to TN conditions. Postnatal HS did not alter water, protein, and ash accretion rates but reduced lipid accretion rates (198 vs. 232 g/d; P < 0.04) compared to TN-reared pigs. In utero environment had no effect on future tissue deposition rates; however, IUHS pigs from the ISG had reduced liver weight (P < 0.04; 17.9%) compared to IUTN controls. In summary, postnatal HS reduced adipose tissue accretion rates, but IUHS did not appear to impact either lean or adipose tissue accretion during this specific growth phase. PMID:25568358

Johnson, J S; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Gutierrez, N A; Patience, J F; Ross, J W; Gabler, N K; Lucy, M C; Safranski, T J; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

2015-01-01

103

ATRAZINE INCREASES DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE-INDUCED MAMMARY TUMOR INCIDENCE IN LONG EVANS OFFSPRING EXPOSED IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

ATRAZINE INCREASES DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE-INDUCED MAMMARY TUMOR INCIDENCE IN LONG EVANS OFFSPRING EXPOSED IN UTERO. SE Fenton and CC Davis Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Durham, NC, USA Recently, we found that ATR exposure during ma...

104

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

105

Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

2012-07-01

106

Prenatal immunization of the lamb to Brucella secondary antibody response in utero and at birth*  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-natal immunization has been investigated as a means of overcoming the non-reactivity of newborns to bacterial somatic antigens. Normal newborn lambs evidenced little or no antibody response to killed Brucella abortus whereas the same dose of antigen elicited relatively high levels of antibody in foetuses late in the gestation period. When foetal lambs were immunized at midgestation they responded slowly and with low levels of antibody. The response was adequate, however, to prime for a secondary one in utero and at birth. The secondary response in utero occurred at the same time and with antibody levels as high as those attained in adult sheep on secondary stimulation. When secondarily stimulated at birth, a significant percentage of the neonates responded rapidly with high levels of antibody. As customarily found in older animals, IgG immunoglobulin appeared later and regressed more slowly than IgM. PMID:5000510

Richardson, Marvis; Conner, G. H.; Beck, C. C.; Clark, D. T.

1971-01-01

107

Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 ± 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 ± 2 ?mol hg-1 min-1. (author)

108

Nutrition in-utero Administration in Pregnant Bali Cows; its effect on Metabolite Status  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to know the effect of nutrition in-utero administration on metabolite status in pregnant Bali cows. A total of 90 Bali cows were clinically examined in the present study for pregnancy status. Out of 90 cows, 33 cows were pregnant at various age of pregnancy. The remaining 57 cows did not become pregnant at the time of clinical examination. All cows were treated with nutrition inutero. Blood urea nitrogen ( BUN ) , creatinine, and glucose concentrations were measured...

Yusuf, Muhammad

2014-01-01

109

Regulatory and Ethical Issues for Phase I In Utero Gene Transfer Studies  

OpenAIRE

Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical i...

Strong, Carson

2011-01-01

110

Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father)  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates possible (re-)constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with material...

Collins, Paul M.

2010-01-01

111

The Development of Cervical and Vaginal Adenosis as a Result of Diethylstilbestrol Exposure In Utero  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to exogenous hormones during development can result in permanent health problems. In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) is probably the most well documented case in human history. DES, an orally active synthetic estrogen, was believed to prevent adverse pregnancy outcome and thus was routinely given to selected pregnant women from the 1940s to the 1960s. It has been estimated that 5 million pregnant women worldwide were prescribed with DES during this period. In the early 197...

Laronda, Monica M.; Unno, Kenji; Butler, Lindsey M.; Kurita, Takeshi

2012-01-01

112

Percutaneous angio-embolization of a post laparoscopy complex utero-adenexal vascular malformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vascular abnormalities are uncommon causes of uterine bleeding. Laparoscopic surgeries, however, require expertise and improper techniques can lead to major vascular complications. We report an unusual case of utero-adenexal arterio- venous fistula with arterio - venous malformation due to pelvic trauma caused during laparoscopic sterilisation procedure, which was treated by percutaneous embolisation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of such a complex vascular injury caused by laparoscopic sterilisation and its endovascular management

Verma Ashish

2008-01-01

113

Effect of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in utero on cognitive function in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant meltdown greatly affected several Norwegian counties. The cognitive consequences of in utero exposure to radiation from the Chernobyl accident have been intensely debated. This study examines the cognitive outcomes for those Norwegians who were exposed as fetuses to the fallout from Chernobyl. The participants, 84 adolescents who were exposed in utero to radiation from the most contaminated areas in Norway and 94 adolescents from areas not contaminated by the radiation, were tested on verbal and nonverbal IQ. Two data analyses were conducted. First, using a control-group design, the IQ scores of exposed and unexposed adolescents were compared. Second, in a timing-of-exposure design, those exposed during the most sensitive period were contrasted with those exposed later in gestation. Adolescents exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation in utero scored significantly lower in full-scale IQ than unexposed adolescents. The difference was restricted to verbal IQ and was not evident for nonverbal IQ. The effect was not observed in exposed adolescents who had passed the most sensitive gestational period prior to the accident and thus were exposed to the radiation from Chernobyl exclusively after gestational week 16. These participants performed as well as the controls. Although the results should be interpreted cautiously due to the study's nonrandomized design, the data add new and important support to the hypothesis that the Chernobyl accident may have had a subtle effect on the cognitive functioning of those exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation in utero during the most sensitive gestational period. PMID:20338021

Heiervang, Kristin Sverdvik; Mednick, Sarnoff; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn Rishovd

2010-06-01

114

Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero  

OpenAIRE

Existing knowledge of growth patterns in the living fetal human brain is based upon in utero imaging studies by MRI and ultrasound, which describe overall growth and provided mainly qualitative findings. However, formation of the complex folded cortical structure of the adult brain requires, in part, differential rates of regional tissue growth. To better understand these local tissue growth patterns, we applied recent advances in fetal MRI motion correction and computational image analysis t...

Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Corbett-detig, James; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

2011-01-01

115

Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation. CASE: This is a case presentation of a pregnant patient who received varicella vaccination during the same menstrual cycle that she became pregnant, and is supplemented by a literary review. The fe...

Anthony Al-Khan; Leslie Iffy; Vijaya Ganesh; Joseph Apuzzio

2002-01-01

116

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

OpenAIRE

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

117

In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys : a pregnancy cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. SETTING: Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. RESULTS: We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ?5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3?months (95% CI -2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9?months (95% CI -0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further.

Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise

2014-01-01

118

In utero complementation of a neural crest-derived melanocyte defect using cell directed gene transfer.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study describes an in utero approach for overexpressing genes in a cell-type directed manner. It uses an avian leukosis retroviral expression system coupled with a transgenic mouse line expressing the viral receptor tv-a from a tissue-specific promoter (RCAS-TVA system) (Federspiel et al., 1994, and reviewed in Fisher et al., 1999). A transgenic mouse line was generated expressing tv-a from the Dopachrome tautomerase promoter (DCT-tv-a) in embryonic melanocyte precursors (melanoblasts). RCAS virus encoding beta-galactosidase (RCAS-LacZ) or tyrosinase (RCAS-Tyr) was injected in utero into embryonic day 12.5 albino (tyrosinase inactive) mouse embryos. Animals were analyzed for beta-galactosidase activity or tyrosinase activity (hair pigmentation). RCAS gene expression was detected in 44% and 25% of the transgenic mice, respectively. We demonstrate the RCAS-TVA system coupled with the DCT-tv-a line of mice can be used for in utero infection. PMID:11416866

Dunn, K J; Incao, A; Watkins-Chow, D; Li, Y; Pavan, W J

2001-06-01

119

Inhibition of histone deacetylase in utero causes sociability deficits in postnatal mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to sodium valproate (VPA) in utero increases the risk of language impairment and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mice exposed to VPA while in utero have also shown postnatal social deficits. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is one of VPA's many biological effects. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that HDAC inhibition causes these behavioral outcomes following prenatal VPA exposure in mice. We exposed embryonic mice to VPA, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), or vehicle controls. TSA (1mg/kg) inhibited HDAC in embryonic tissue at a level comparable to 600 mg/kg VPA, resulting in significant increases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation, and histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation. Postnatally, decreases in ultrasonic vocalization, olfactory motivation and sociability were observed in TSA and VPA-exposed pups. Treated mice exhibited elevated digging and grooming suggestive of mild restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Olfactory social preference, social novelty and habituation were normal. Together, these data indicate that embryonic HDAC inhibition alone can cause abnormal social behaviors in mice. This result serves as a molecular understanding of infant outcomes following mild VPA exposure in utero. PMID:24103642

Moldrich, Randal X; Leanage, Gayeshika; She, David; Dolan-Evans, Elliot; Nelson, Michael; Reza, Nargis; Reutens, David C

2013-11-15

120

In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

Marrero Luis

2003-09-01

121

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

122

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR) libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the...

Shailendra Kumar; Gareema Sanaman

2013-01-01

123

‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?  

OpenAIRE

Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

2007-01-01

124

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

Soto Giselle

2008-11-01

125

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

OpenAIRE

The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection w...

Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Omeluzor, Saturday U.; Ogbuiyi, Susan U.

2012-01-01

126

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

127

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

OpenAIRE

Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

Daher, Wajeeh M.; Ali Shaqour

2010-01-01

128

Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

2013-01-01

129

Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

130

Routledge German technical dictionary [electronic resource] = Routledge Universal-Wörterbuch der Technik Englisch.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic dictionary covering over 60 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in German and English, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

131

Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation. PMID:18999300

Tao, Donghua

2008-01-01

132

Understanding Intention to Use Electronic Information Resources: A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  

OpenAIRE

This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceiv...

Tao, Donghua

2008-01-01

133

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

???89-102

???????????

2007-04-01

134

In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets. Phagocytic capacity of blood monocytes against Salmonella bacteria was investigated by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst in blood monocytes and in alveolar lung macrophages was investigated by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Decreased phagocytosis against Salmonella was found in blood monocytes from 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets compared to controls. In contrast, 2-week-old infected piglets showed phagocytic responses comparable to age matched control piglets. While oxidative burst capacity was increased in blood (PBMC) from in utero PRRSV infected piglets, the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar lung macrophages was decreased, especially in 2- and 4-week-old piglets, compared to age-matched control piglets. The present results indicate that in utero infection with PRRSV inhibits phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar macrophages. These observations indicate that PRRSV in utero infection induces at state of immunosuppression in piglets paving the way for enhanced secondary infections.

Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens

2004-01-01

135

Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

2012-12-01

136

Electronic Resources in a Next-Generation Catalog: The Case of WorldCat Local  

Science.gov (United States)

In April 2007, the University of Washington Libraries debuted WorldCat Local (WCL), a localized version of the WorldCat database that interoperates with a library's integrated library system and fulfillment services to provide a single-search interface for a library's physical and electronic content. This brief will describe how WCL incorporates a…

Shadle, Steve

2009-01-01

137

QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

2011-01-01

138

Supporting Learning and Information Sharing in Natural Resource Management with Technologies for Electronic Documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Community participation is central to achieving sustainable natural resource management. A prerequisite to informed participation is that community and stakeholder groups have access to different knowledge sources, are more closely attuned to the different issues and viewpoints, and are sufficiently equipped to understand and maybe resolve complex…

Alem, Leila; McLean, Alistair

2005-01-01

139

Feasibility and potential of in utero foetal membrane-derived cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells isolated from foetal membranes of human term placenta display multiple properties, including some features of stem/progenitor cells, together with immunomodulatory actions and the ability to secrete bioactive soluble factors. Whilst such properties support the potential applicability of these cells in transplantation settings aimed at regenerating/repairing tissues in adults, theoretically, using these cells in prenatal treatment strategies may also be achievable. To assess the feasibility of a foetal membrane-derived cell-based therapeutic treatment during foetal development, we firstly addressed the question of whether in utero transplantation using these cells was possible. To this end, we assessed postnatal microchimerism after transplantation of amniotic membrane-derived cells (a mixture of both mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and epithelial cells) in foetal sheep. Transplantation was performed with or without human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, and was followed by a postnatal booster cell injection. Lambs were euthanized 2-4 months postnatally and their organs/tissues were analysed for microchimerism through detection of human DNA. Human DNA was found in almost all tissues of all of the lambs, with the seemingly random appearance of human cells in some of the analysed tissues suggesting long-term human microchimerism and donor cell migration after in utero/postnatal booster xenotransplation. Differences in microchimerism tissue distribution between animals transplanted with different cell types are discussed. This pilot study adds to ongoing efforts by different investigators to explore the potential of in utero cellular transplantation, and warrants further investigation of using foetal membrane-derived cells for prenatal cell therapies. PMID:24150776

Caruso, Maddalena; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Zanini, Roberto; Ressel, Lorenzo; Vertua, Elsa; Bonelli, Piero; Dattena, Maria; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Wengler, Georg; Parolini, Ornella

2014-06-01

140

In Utero Electroporation: Assay System for Migration of Cerebral Cortical Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

During the development of the cerebral cortex, the majority of cortical neurons are generated in the ventricular zone (VZ) facing the lateral ventricle and then migrate toward the pial surface to form the highly organized 6-layered cerebral cortex. Detailed profiles of these processes and their molecular mechanisms had been largely unknown because of the absence of an efficient assay system. The in vivo electroporation system was initially devised for use within chick embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999; Itasaki et al., 1999; Momose et al., 1999; Muramatsu et al., 1997), and we and other groups have used that system as a basis for developing an in utero electroporation system, which allows plasmid DNA to be introduced into cortical progenitor cells in developing mouse embryos in the uterus (Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove, 2001; Saito and Nakatsuji, 2001; Tabata and Nakajima, 2001; Takahashi et al., 2002). In utero electroporation of other sites in the brain, including the hippocampus (Navarro-Quiroga et al., 2007), cerebral basal ganglia (Borrell et al., 2005; Nakahira et al., 2006), cortical hem (Takiguchi-Hayashi et al., 2004), and dorsal thalamus (Bonnin et al., 2007), has recently been reported. Introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) enables the entire processes of migration and layer formation to be visualized (Ajioka and Nakajima, 2005; Sasaki et al., 2008; Tabata and Nakajima, 2002, 2003), and the role of any gene involved in these processes can be easily assessed by overexpressing the proteins or their mutants (Ohshima et al., 2007), or by knocking down the genes by the RNA interference technique (Bai et al., 2003). Furthermore, the Tet-On/Off system and/or other plasmid- vector-based technologies will expand the potential of the analyses. In this section we review the principles and methods of gene transfer into the cortical wall of mouse embryos by means of the in utero electroporation system.

Tabata, Hidenori; Nakajima, Kazunori

141

Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is stated that induction of neoplastic transformation in vitro by x-rays and neutrons has been reported, and the authors had previously found that transformation by x-rays could be detected at doses as low as 1 R and the rate of transformation increased with dose, reaching a peak of 1% between 150 and 300 R. This frequency of neoplastic transformation in vitro is much higher than the frequency of radiation induced tumors observed after exposing animals to similar doses of radiation. Studies are here reported showing that malignant transformed cells can be obtained from embryos irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro, and that the frequency of transformation is at least tenfold lower than when the irradiations are performed in vitro, and thus closer to the incidence in animals. Hamster embryo cells were used for the studies. Questions that arise are as follows: does the host mediate in modulating transformation by radiation; is there a repair of transforming events before they can be expressed; and how significant is the state of cells during irradiation in determining the rate of transformation. It is known from in vitro studies that cell replication is required for fixation of the transformation. With the in vitro technique cells are seeded as single cells with ample opportunity to divide. In addition they are not in contact with one another, and constitute a mixture of cell types from many tissues. In utero the situation is quite different; the embryonic cells a is quite different; the embryonic cells are irradiated as tissues where there is cell to cell contact in tissue-specific arrangements, and where the rate of cell replication varies with the tissue. It remains to be seen which of these factors, if any, is responsible for the lowered yield of transformed cells characteristic of in utero as opposed to in vitro irradiation. (U.K.)

142

Effects of Selective Blockage of Utero-ovarian Anastomoses on Clinical Results of Uterine Artery Occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: We assessed the results and impact of blockage of utero-ovarian anastomoses (UOA) on clinical outcome in women treated by laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion for uterine fibroids. Methods: Between 2004 and 2005, we prospectively analyzed the clinical data for 23 laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion cases combined with blockage of utero-ovarian anastomoses (Group A) and 67 laparoscopic uterine artery occlusion cases alone (Group B). Results: Of these 23 patients with UOA (mean age, 36.7±2.8 years), 10 patients (43.4%) had anastomoses bilaterally and 13 patients (56.6%) had unilateral anastomoses. Mean fibroid size reduction after LUAO and anastomoses blockage was 32.5% from baseline (P<0.001). In patients with LUAO, the mean DF size after surgery was estimated at 38.7±19.2 mm, which translated to a mean fibroid size reduction of 30.6% from baseline (P<0.001). No case of clinical failure or recurrence was found in Group A patients with UOA (mean follow-up, 15.6 months), who were treated with combined surgery. At a mean clinical follow-up of 18.2 months (Group B), 6 patients (8.9%) elected to undergo further surgical intervention for clinical failure and recurrence, including 4 myomectomies and 2 hysterectomies. The statistical difference between groups was not significant (P=0.33). Conclusion: Laparoscopic blockage of utero-ovarian anastomoses combined with uterine artery occlusion is a safe, feasible surgical procedure in women with symptomatic fibroids. Combining the uterine artery occlusion and blockage of UO anastomoses may be a useful procedure for the decreasing rate of clinical failure and recurrence. This premise should be confirmed in a larger prospective multicenter study. PMID:17931512

Jabor, Antonin; Hendl, Jan; Lukac, Jan; Kliment, Lev; Urbanek, Stepan

2007-01-01

143

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-12-01

144

Ex utero intrapartum treatment for an infant with cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a rare disorder characterized by multiple rib abnormalities, micrognathia described as Pierre-Robin sequence, and cerebral involvement. Appropriate management of respiratory distress immediately after birth is crucial to rescue these patients. A boy, having a mother with Pierre-Robin sequence and a sister with CCMS, was diagnosed prenatally with CCMS and successfully treated with ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) at 36 weeks 6 days of gestation. EXIT would be an effective option for rescuing patients with prenatally diagnosed CCMS and preventing neonatal hypoxia. PMID:25252050

Ogasawara, Kei; Honda, Yoshinobu; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

2014-08-01

145

Complete Utero Vaginal Prolapse in a Woman with Prolapsed Submucous Fibroid  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Uterine fibroids are benign tumors of the uterus and those located beneath the uterine mucosa may present as prolapsed fibroid in the vagina. Prolapsed submucous fibroid associated with complete uterovaginal prolapse is however uncommon. Case: A case of irreducible complete utero-vaginal and infected sub-mucous fibroid prolapse, in a 45-year-old grandmultiparous woman, is reported. Bed rest and antibiotics failed to relief edema and infection of the vault. Vaginal myomectomy, followed by interval vaginal hysterectomy, and pelvic floor repair a week later resulted in a satisfactory outcome. PMID:25745583

Aniebue, UU; Nwankwo, TO

2015-01-01

146

[Interest of multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography in the diagnosis of utero-peritoneal fistulas about 4 cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report four cases of uterine fistula found with the multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography. Patients were received for suspicious of a utero-peritoneal fistula at hysterosalpingography. They were young people at childbearing age (average age of 33 years), multigravidae, two of whom were nulliparous, one primiparous and one multiparous. We noted a history of voluntary interruption of pregnancy by curettage and a cesarean section. For the opacification, we used the classic hysterography standard equipment by means of 1/5 diluted iodine with saline solution as contrast. The multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography revealed small uterine perforations including three which were located in uterine posterior face at cervico-isthmic area and corporeal area, bringing about a utero-peritoneal fistula. The multidetector CT virtual hysterosalpingography is a simple and powerful technique for the diagnosis of utero-peritoneal fistula. It is convenient and then deserves an important place in the evaluation of uterine fistula. PMID:25245887

Nouraly, H; Toure, A; Horo, A; Bedji Kouassi, A; Élogne, A; Camara, Y

2015-01-01

147

Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study  

OpenAIRE

This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

Kidd, T.

2009-01-01

148

Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

Do?an At?lgan

2009-12-01

149

National Information Infrastructure of a Science, Culture and Education: Representation of Resources of Electronic Libraries  

Science.gov (United States)

In the report are given questions concerned the choice of international standards for electronic libraries construction: - The alternative variants of choice standards on electronic catalogs and metacatalogs formats; - The alternative variants of choice standards for interlibrary loan; - The variants of choice standards for information search in online public catalogs (OPAC) and bibliographic databases; - The variants of choice standards for file representation of full text documents, vector and raster images, audio- and video-materials, text of public distributed programs. The questions for public discussion by interested organizations are intended to represent on special web site. The profile of electronic library as a total combination of standards on program interfaces and protocols may be constructed with the conceptual model of EL. This model is offered as a expansion of basic open systems environment / reference model (OSE/RM) for the area of applications to describe the Application Program Interface (APIs). Opinions of the interested organizations, which will be collected on a site by way of discussion of the questions put above, it is supposed to base on formation of a national information infrastructure of Russia for science, culture and education.

Filinov, E.; Boychenko, A.

150

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national pro...

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

2012-01-01

151

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

OpenAIRE

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is: . The code instructs the browser to suppress the con...

Dicarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

2000-01-01

152

The use of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to ameliorate the hyperactivity of rat pups induced by in utero ethanol exposure  

OpenAIRE

It has been demonstrated thatin utero ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces hyperactive behavior and learning disturbances in offspring. In order to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on these neurobehavioral dysfunctions of rat pups induced byin utero EtOH exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups depending on the type of oil added to the diet and drinking water as follows; (a) 5% safflower oil with tap water (TW/n-6), (b) 3% safflower oil and 2% DHA...

Furuya, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takahiko; Okazaki, Isao

2000-01-01

153

Factors associated with in utero or periparturient transmission of bovine leukemia virus in calves on a California dairy.  

OpenAIRE

A three-year prospective study involving 143 calves born from infected cows was undertaken on a California dairy to evaluate possible factors of the dam associated with bovine leukemia virus infection in utero or during the periparturient period. In utero or periparturient infection occurred at a rate of 4.8% and was more likely in calves born to cows with an average peripheral blood lymphocyte count during pregnancy greater than 12,000 cells/microL (p = 0.043) or in calves born to cows that ...

Lassauzet, M. L.; Thurmond, M. C.; Johnson, W. O.; Holmberg, C. A.

1991-01-01

154

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar

2013-06-01

155

Progressive mitochondrial compromise in brains and livers of primates exposed in utero to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs).  

Science.gov (United States)

Mitochondrial compromise has been documented in infants born to women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) who received nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy during pregnancy. To model these human exposures, we examined mitochondrial integrity at birth and 1 year in brain cortex and liver from offspring of retroviral-free Erythrocebus patas dams-administered human-equivalent NRTI doses for the last half (10 weeks) of gestation. Additional infants, followed for 1 year, were given the same drugs as their mothers for the first 6 weeks of life. Exposures included: no drug, Zidovudine (AZT), Lamivudine (3TC), AZT/3TC, AZT/Didanosine (ddI), and Stavudine (d4T)/3TC. In brain and liver, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities (complexes I, II, and IV) showed minimal differences between unexposed and NRTI-exposed offspring at both times. Brain and liver mitochondria from most NRTI-exposed patas, both at birth and 1 year of age, contained significant (p < 0.05) morphological damage observed by electron microscopy (EM), based on scoring of coded photomicrographs. Brain and liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) levels in NRTI-exposed patas were depleted significantly in the 3TC and d4T/3TC groups at birth and were depleted significantly (p < 0.05) at 1 year in all NRTI-exposed groups. In 1-year-old infants exposed in utero to NRTIs, mtDNA depletion was 28.8-51.8% in brain and 37.4-56.5% in liver. These investigations suggest that some NRTI-exposed human infants may sustain similar mitochondrial compromise in brain and liver and should be followed long term for cognitive integrity and liver function. PMID:20702595

Divi, Rao L; Einem, Tracey L; Fletcher, Sarah L Leonard; Shockley, Marie E; Kuo, Maryanne M; St Claire, Marisa C; Cook, Anthony; Nagashima, Kunio; Harbaugh, Steven W; Harbaugh, Jeffrey W; Poirier, Miriam C

2010-11-01

156

Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

157

Regulatory and ethical issues for phase I in utero gene transfer studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical issues. One issue not previously addressed arises in applying U.S. research regulations to such studies. Specifically, current regulations state that research involving greater than minimal risk to the fetus and no prospect of direct benefit to the fetus or pregnant woman is not permitted. Phase I studies will involve interventions such as needle insertions through the uterus, which carry risks to the fetus including spontaneous abortion and preterm birth. It is possible that these risks will be regarded as exceeding minimal. Also, some regard the probability of therapeutic benefit in phase I studies to be so low that these studies do not satisfy the regulatory requirement that they "hold out the prospect of direct benefit" to subjects. On the basis of these considerations, investigators and institutional review boards might reasonably conclude that some phase I in utero studies are not to be permitted. This paper identifies considerations that are relevant to such judgments and explores ethically acceptable ways in which phase I studies can be designed so that they are permitted by the regulations. PMID:21846200

Strong, Carson

2011-11-01

158

Sperm impairments in adult vesper mice (Calomys laucha) caused by in utero exposure to bisphenol A.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of in utero administration of bisphenol A (BPA) on semen parameters of vesper mice. Sixty female Calomys laucha were divided into six groups and received by gavage during gestation the following substances: Water (negative control), Olive Oil (vehicle control), Diethylstilbestrol (DES - positive control - 6.5 ?g kg(-1) bw) and BPA (40, 80 and 200 ?g kg(-1) bw). Male offspring were euthanised at 70 days of age, and sperm parameters were analysed. BPA reduced normal sperm morphology (water = 96.1 ± 0.65; BPA200 = 96.8 ± 2.3%), sperm membrane integrity (water = 88.8 ± 1,65; BPA200 = 70.6 ± 4,15%), sperm motility (water = 87.5 ± 1.71; BPA200 = 51.3 ±9.9%) and in vitro penetration rates (water = 55.0 ± 7.14; BPA200 = 7.47 ±2.96%), but it did not affect body weight, anogenital distance, sperm DNA integrity and acrosome integrity. In conclusion, in utero exposure to BPA caused a reduction in sperm parameters of adult C. laucha. Natural mating studies should be conducted to verify the effects of BPA on fertility of the animals. PMID:24147964

Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Silva, E F; Cardoso, T; Corcini, C D; Varela-Junior, A S; Martinez, P E; Colares, E P

2014-11-01

159

In utero Transplanted Human Hepatocytes Allows for Postnatal Engraftment of Human Hepatocytes in Pigs  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero cell transplantation (IUCT) can lead to postnatal engraftment of human cells in the xenogeneic recipient. Most reports of IUCTs have involved hematopoietic stem cells. It is unknown if human hepatocytes used for IUCT in fetal pigs will lead to engraftment of these same cells in the postnatal environment. In this study, fetal pigs received direct liver injections of 1×107 human hepatocytes in utero and were delivered by cesarean-section at term. Piglets received a second direct liver injection of 5×107 human hepatocytes 1 week postnatally. Serum was analyzed for human albumin at 2, 4, and 6 weeks post-engraftment. Piglet livers were harvested 6 weeks after transplantation and examined by immunohistochemistry, PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization for human specific sequences. Piglets receiving IUCT with human hepatocytes that were postnatally engrafted with human hepatocytes showed significant levels of human albumin production in their serum at all post-engraftment time points. Human albumin gene expression, the presence of human hepatocytes and the presence of human beta-2 microglobulin were all confirmed 6 weeks post-engraftment. IUCT in fetal pigs using human hepatocytes early in gestation allowed for engraftment of human hepatocytes, which remained viable and functional for weeks after transplantation. IUCT followed by postnatal engraftment may provide a future means for large scale expansion of human hepatocytes in genetically-engineered pigs. PMID:23280879

Fisher, James E; Lillegard, Joseph B; Mckenzie, Travis J; Rodysill, Brian R; Wettstein, Peter J; Nyberg, Scott L

2012-01-01

160

The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

161

Effects of in utero heat stress on postnatal body composition in pigs: II. Finishing phase.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on animal productivity have been well documented. However, whether in utero HS interacts with a future thermal insult to alter tissue deposition during the finishing phase of pig growth is unknown. Study objectives were to compare the subsequent rate and quantity of whole-body tissue accretion in pigs exposed to differing in utero and postnatal thermal environments. Pregnant sows were exposed to thermoneutral (TN; cyclical 15°C nighttime and 22°C daytime; n = 9) or HS (cyclical 27°C nighttime and 37°C daytime; n = 11) conditions during their entire gestation. Twenty-four offspring from in utero TN (IUTN; n = 6 gilts and 6 barrows; 62.4 ± 0.7 kg BW) and in utero HS (IUHS; n = 6 gilts and 6 barrows; 61.9 ± 0.8 kg BW) were euthanized as part of an initial slaughter group (ISG). After the ISG, 48 pigs from IUTN (n = 12 gilts and 12 barrows; 66.1 ± 1.0 kg BW) and IUHS (n = 12 gilts and 12 barrows; 63.4 ± 0.7 kg BW) were exposed to constant HS (34.4 ± 1.8°C) or TN (22.7 ± 2.5°C) conditions until they reached 80.5 ± 1.5 kg BW, at which point they were sacrificed and their whole-body composition was determined. Homogenized carcasses were analyzed for N, crude fat, ash, water, and GE content. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS 9.3. Rectal temperature and respiration rate increased during postnatal HS compared to TN (39.6 vs. 39.3°C and 92 vs. 58 breaths per minute, respectively; P < 0.01). Postnatal HS decreased (P < 0.01) feed intake (2.13 vs. 2.65 kg/d) and ADG (0.70 vs. 0.94 kg/d) compared to TN conditions, but neither variable was influenced by in utero environment. Whole-body protein and lipid accretion rates were reduced in HS pigs compared to TN controls (126 vs. 164 g/d and 218 vs. 294 g/d, respectively; P < 0.04). Independent of postnatal environments, IUHS reduced future protein accretion rates (16%; P < 0.01) and tended to increase lipid accretion rates (292 vs. 220 g/d; P < 0.07) compared to IUTN controls. The ratio of lipid to protein accretion rates increased (95%; P < 0.01) in IUHS pigs compared to IUTN controls. In summary, the future hierarchy of tissue accretion is altered by IUHS, and this modified nutrient partitioning favors adipose deposition at the expense of skeletal muscle during this specific phase of growth. PMID:25568359

Johnson, J S; Sanz Fernandez, M V; Patience, J F; Ross, J W; Gabler, N K; Lucy, M C; Safranski, T J; Rhoads, R P; Baumgard, L H

2015-01-01

162

The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

Kelly, Elaine

2011-01-01

163

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD  

Science.gov (United States)

TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...

164

Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality  

Science.gov (United States)

The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

165

E X I T (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) en linfangioma cervical fetal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se presenta un caso clínico de una embarazada primigesta de 17 años, con un feto con gran masa cervical a las 20 semanas, se diagnostica como linfangioma cervical. La evaluación prenatal concluye que existe gran riesgo de asfixia perinatal por obstrucción de la vía aérea superior, se resuelve el par [...] to mediante procedimiento EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) a las 37 semanas. Se logra realizar intubación con larin-goscopia directa, con un tiempo de by-pass uteroplacentario de 7 minutos. Se obtiene un recién nacido de 3300 g, al segundo día se opera del tumor con buenos resultados. Se revisa el protocolo del procedimiento EXIT en sus aspectos anestésicos, obstétricos, quirúrgicos y neonatológicos. Se concluye que el EXIT debe ser planteado en todo caso en que se sospeche obstrucción de la vía aérea superior y puede ser realizado en hospitales que cuenten con equipamiento habitual y un equipo médico multidisciplinario. Abstract in english We report a case of primigravida patient, 17 years old, with a fetus showing a large cervical mass at 20 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed as a cervical lymphangioma. The prenatal evaluation concludes that there exists a great risk of perinatal asphyxia due to obstruction of the upper airway and [...] therefore it is decided to perform a cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation, using an EXIT procedure (ex-utero intra-partum therapy). We perform intubation with a semi- rigid tube having a by-pass time utero-placental of 7 minutes, obtaining a newborn of 3300 g at birth. The newborn is operated two days after birth removing the cervical tumor with good results. We review the protocol of the EXIT procedure concerning aspects related to anesthesia, obstetrics, surgery and neonatal care. We conclude that EXIT should be considered in all cases in which obstruction of the upper airway is suspected, and can be performed in hospitals that have basic surgical facilities and a multidisciplinary team.

Juan Carlos, Bustos V; Vivian, González C; Francisco, Olguin C; René, Bustamante T; Américo, Hernández L; Leopoldo, Razeto W; Alejandro, Paredes W.

166

Efficient gene delivery into multiple CNS territories using in utero electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to manipulate gene expression is the cornerstone of modern day experimental embryology, leading to the elucidation of multiple developmental pathways. Several powerful and well established transgenic technologies are available to manipulate gene expression levels in mouse, allowing for the generation of both loss- and gain-of-function models. However, the generation of mouse transgenics is both costly and time consuming. Alternative methods of gene manipulation have therefore been widely sought. In utero electroporation is a method of gene delivery into live mouse embryos(1,2) that we have successfully adapted(3,4). It is largely based on the success of in ovo electroporation technologies that are commonly used in chick(5). Briefly, DNA is injected into the open ventricles of the developing brain and the application of an electrical current causes the formation of transient pores in cell membranes, allowing for the uptake of DNA into the cell. In our hands, embryos can be efficiently electroporated as early as embryonic day (E) 11.5, while the targeting of younger embryos would require an ultrasound-guided microinjection protocol, as previously described(6). Conversely, E15.5 is the latest stage we can easily electroporate, due to the onset of parietal and frontal bone differentiation, which hampers microinjection into the brain. In contrast, the retina is accessible through the end of embryogenesis. Embryos can be collected at any time point throughout the embryonic or early postnatal period. Injection of a reporter construct facilitates the identification of transfected cells. To date, in utero electroporation has been most widely used for the analysis of neocortical development(1,2,3,4). More recent studies have targeted the embryonic retina(7,8,9) and thalamus(10,11,12). Here, we present a modified in utero electroporation protocol that can be easily adapted to target different domains of the embryonic CNS. We provide evidence that by using this technique, we can target the embryonic telencephalon, diencephalon and retina. Representative results are presented, first showing the use of this technique to introduce DNA expression constructs into the lateral ventricles, allowing us to monitor progenitor maturation, differentiation and migration in the embryonic telencephalon. We also show that this technique can be used to target DNA to the diencephalic territories surrounding the 3(rd) ventricle, allowing the migratory routes of differentiating neurons into diencephalic nuclei to be monitored. Finally, we show that the use of micromanipulators allows us to accurately introduce DNA constructs into small target areas, including the subretinal space, allowing us to analyse the effects of manipulating gene expression on retinal development. PMID:21730943

Dixit, Rajiv; Lu, Fuqu; Cantrup, Robert; Gruenig, Nicole; Langevin, Lisa Marie; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Schuurmans, Carol

2011-01-01

167

In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ?500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However, additional studies are needed to clarify whether in utero exposure to I-131 at levels > = 500 mGy may be associated with increases in weight/BMI and to evaluate the confounding or modifying role of thyroid disease, past iodine deficiency, maternal and prenatal/postnatal factors. PMID:24611659

Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V; Tereschenko, Valery P; Tronko, Mykola D; Brenner, Alina V

2014-03-01

168

Quantitative evaluation of the utero-ovarian venous pattern in the adult human female cadaver with plastination.  

Science.gov (United States)

We described the anatomy of the utero-ovarian venous system in the adult postmenopausal female cadaver using casts and the von Hagen's plastination technique. To qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the uterine vein, the utero-ovarian arcade, the ovarian vein and the ramus communicans between left and right parametrium, we injected epoxy resin into the internal iliac vein and artery and the ovarian vein and artery in six cadavers. In two cases the internal genital organs were excised before injection and in the other four after the injection and polymerization of the resin. All specimens were macroscopically examined and venous diameters were digitally measured, the average values of the measured diameters being 3.38 mm for the uterine vein, 3.71 mm for the utero-ovarian arcade, 3.49 mm for the ovarian vein, and 3.71 mm for the ramus communicans. The veins were completely filled out and could be best examined in the four cases where in situ injection was performed. We could observe that the utero-ovarian arcade is an important vein with a caliber similar to that of the ovarian and uterine veins, that there is an impressive network of venous anastomoses between the left and right parametrium and that the fallopian tubes are drained by three separate veins: internal, median, and external tubal veins. Pelvic venous congestion was present in two specimens; in one of them it was located in the region of the left uterine vein and in the other one in the region of the left ovarian vein. Given the similar average diameters of the uterine vein, ovarian vein, and utero-ovarian arcade, we assume that there is no preferential uterine or ovarian venous drainage and that the veins of the internal genital organs are behaving like a venous pool. Nevertheless, congestion can affect limited sites, which can and should be treated locally. PMID:14973766

Pavkov, Mircea L; Koebke, Jürgen; Notermans, Hans-P; Brökelmann, Jost

2004-02-01

169

Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2014-05-01

170

In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for autism spectrum disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used Denmark's health and population registers to obtain information regarding prescription drugs, ASD diagnosis, and health and socioeconomic status. There were 1.5 % of cases and 0.7 % of controls exposed to SSRIs during the pregnancy period, and higher effect estimates observed with longer use. We found evidence that in utero exposure to SSRIs increases a child's risk associated with ASD. These results, while adding to the limited knowledge on prenatal pharmacological exposures as potential ASD risk factors, need to be balanced against the benefits of indicated medication use by pregnant mothers.

Gidaya, Nicole B; Lee, Brian K

2014-01-01

171

Long-term studies in children following low radiation doses in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective clinical study was started in 1967 in order to give optimal advice to parents who want to have children after radiation exposure in early pregnancy. Recommendations were elaborated, whether an interruption is necessary or not. Within this study embryologic studies after interruptio were carried out and children irradiated in utero were examined clinically and genetically. Until 1. May 1982 more than 200 cases were examined and lomg-term studies of 73 children up to 10 years of age were performed. The results of cytogenetic, biochemico-genetic, clinical and other investigations are reported. It is concluded that the recommendation to carry the child to full term if the radiation exposure was less than 0.1 Sv had been correct. (author)

172

In utero stem cell transplantation for radical treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta: perspectives and controversies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a lethal hereditary connective tissue disease that affects the synthesis of type I collagen. Current treatment options including surgical, physical, and medical treatment help to reduce pain, deformities, and rate of bone fracture. However, these choices are insufficient and are associated with many adverse effects. The development of stem cell therapy allows scientists to consider this option for radical treatment of many genetic diseases including OI. In utero stem cell transplantation provides a better opportunity for early prenatal intervention while the fetus is preimmune and before any permanent damage occurs. Few animal and human trials for treatment of OI have been published, and the results were promising but still controversial. Our objective is to review the available evidence and discuss the points of controversy including the parameters of treatment success and postnatal predictors of long-term treatment outcome. PMID:24347264

Amin, Mariam Taher Mohamed; Shazly, Sherif Abd-Elkarim Mohammed

2014-11-01

173

Utero-fetal unit and pregnant woman modeling using a computer graphics approach for dosimetry studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Potential sanitary effects related to electromagnetic fields exposure raise public concerns, especially for fetuses during pregnancy. Human fetus exposure can only be assessed through simulated dosimetry studies, performed on anthropomorphic models of pregnant women. In this paper, we propose a new methodology to generate a set of detailed utero-fetal unit (UFU) 3D models during the first and third trimesters of pregnancy, based on segmented 3D ultrasound and MRI data. UFU models are built using recent geometry processing methods derived from mesh-based computer graphics techniques and embedded in a synthetic woman body. Nine pregnant woman models have been generated using this approach and validated by obstetricians, for anatomical accuracy and representativeness. PMID:20426212

Anquez, Jérémie; Boubekeur, Tamy; Bibin, Lazar; Angelini, Elsa; Bloch, Isabelle

2009-01-01

174

Natural killer cell activity in rats exposed in utero to iodine-131  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors' efforts have been directed toward the detection of a carcinogenic exposure by demonstrating the existence of specific anti-tumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Data indicate that this phenomenon is attributable to specific T-cell education resulting in the recognition of cultured tumor cells of endodermal origin. This concept has been employed to detect exposures to ionizing radiation, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Recently the authors saw an induction of CMI in the first generation of rats exposed perinatally to iodine-131. The model consists of an in utero exposure, at days 16-18 of gestation, in the Fischer F-344 inbred rat. This study was initiated to determine if any component of this enhanced cellular immunity might be attributable to a non-specific induction of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity. Preliminary studies indicate that there is little if any NK contribution to the observed cell-mediated immunity

175

In utero and transgeneration effects and biological defence mechanism in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multicellular animals are composed of 2 types of cells; cells of the germ line, from which next generation of gametes will be derived, and the somatic cells, which form the rest of the body and leave no progeny. In a sense, somatic cells exist only to help the germ line cells survive and propagate. During development of mammals, 2 haploid cells (gametes), one large and non-motile (ovum) and the other small and motile (sperm) fuse and then diploid cells proliferate and diversify to form a complex multicellular organism in utero. During the long course of germ line and embryonic development, there are extraordinary radiation (also chemicals)-sensitive phases, some of which must be very important for animals to defense their species from radiation and chemical hazards in the environment by replacing damaged cells with un-damaged or normal totipotent reserve cells. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

176

A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or ?-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

177

Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

178

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ..beta..-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing (/sup 14/C) linoleic acid and (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid or (/sup 14/C) octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny.

Thulin, A.J.

1985-01-01

179

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ?-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing [14C] linoleic acid and [3H] palmitic acid or [14C] octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubicood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny

180

In utero therapy for congenital disorders using amniotic fluid stem cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital diseases are responsible for over a third of all pediatric hospital admissions. Advances in prenatal screening and molecular diagnosis have allowed the detection of many life-threatening genetic diseases early in gestation. In utero transplantation (IUT) with stem cells could cure affected fetuses but so far in humans, successful IUT using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), has been limited to fetuses with severe immunologic defects and more recently IUT with allogeneic mesenchymal stem cell transplantation, has improved phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta. The options of preemptive treatment of congenital diseases in utero by stem cell or gene therapy changes the perspective of congenital diseases since it may avoid the need for postnatal treatment and reduce future costs. Amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells have been isolated and characterized in human, mice, rodents, rabbit, and sheep and are a potential source of cells for therapeutic applications in disorders for treatment prenatally or postnatally. Gene transfer to the cells with long-term transgenic protein expression is feasible. Recently, pre-clinical autologous transplantation of transduced cells has been achieved in fetal sheep using minimally invasive ultrasound guided injection techniques. Clinically relevant levels of transgenic protein were expressed in the blood of transplanted lambs for at least 6 months. The cells have also demonstrated the potential of repair in a range of pre-clinical disease models such as neurological disorders, tracheal repair, bladder injury, and diaphragmatic hernia repair in neonates or adults. These results have been encouraging, and bring personalized tissue engineering for prenatal treatment of genetic disorders closer to the clinic. PMID:25566071

Ramachandra, Durrgah L.; Shaw, Steven S. W.; Shangaris, Panicos; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Guillot, Pascale V.; Coppi, Paolo De; David, Anna L.

2014-01-01

181

In utero and early childhood exposure to arsenic decreases lung function in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lung is a target organ for adverse health outcomes following exposure to As. Several studies have reported a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases in subjects highly exposed to As through drinking water; however, most studies to date has been performed in exposed adults, with little information on respiratory effects in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between urinary levels of As and its metabolites with lung function in children exposed in utero and in early childhood to high As levels through drinking water. A total of 358 healthy children were included in our study. Individual exposure was assessed based on urinary concentration of inorganic As. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Participants were exposed since pregnancy until early childhood to an average water As concentration of 152.13?µg?l(-1) . The mean urinary As level registered in the studied subjects was 141.2?µg?l(-1) and only 16.7% had a urinary concentration below the national concern level. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased in the studied population and it was negatively associated with the percentage of inorganic As. More than 57% of the subjects had a restrictive spirometric pattern. The urinary As level was higher in those children with restrictive lung patterns when compared with the levels registered in subjects with normal spirometric patterns. Exposure to As through drinking water during in utero and early life was associated with a decrease in forced vital capacity and with a restrictive spirometric pattern in the children evaluated. PMID:25131850

Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Olivas-Calderon, Edgar; Lantz, R Clark; Gandolfi, A Jay; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De

2015-04-01

182

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

183

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

184

Electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast electrons are used to produce isotopes for studying the cooper metabolism: Cu-64 in a cyclotron and Cu-67 in a linear accelerator. Localized electrons are responsible for the chemical and physiological characteristics of the trace elements. Studied are I, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe, Se, Mg. The Cu/Mo and Cu/Zn interactions are investigated. The levels of molybdenum, sulfate and zinc in the food are analysed. The role of the electrons in free radicals is discussed. The protection action of peroxidases and super oxidases against electron dangerous effect on normal physiology is also considered. Calculation of radiation damage and radiation protection is made. (author)

185

Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01). When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

2014-01-01

186

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

187

MEDLINE [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Premier bibliographic database of the National Library of Medicine. Contains over 12 million bibliographic citations and author abstracts from more than 4,600 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries dating from 1966 to current. Covers the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, health care systems, preclinical sciences. Please note: No registration or login needed.

188

Electricity auctions [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"This book presents a comprehensive overview of the international experience in electricity auctions, focusing on the procurement of long-term electricity contracts to foster new generation capacity"--from publisher's site.

189

ADAMS [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An information system that provides access to all documents made public by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since November 1, 1999 and to bibliographic records (some with abstracts and full text) that were made public up to October 1999.

190

IOPScience extra [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Access the full-text articles of 72 journals in the field of physics and related subjects published by the Institute of Physics. Browse by title or search across all journals. Coverage: 1993 to present.

191

Nature geoscience [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A monthly journal dedicated to publishing high-quality original research papers across all areas of the geosciences. The journal's content reflects all the disciplines within the geosciences, including studies of the Earth's climate system, the solid Earth and the planets.

192

Procedia chemistry [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedia Chemistry covers conferences on all topics in Chemistry, such as: analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical biology, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry and physical chemistry.

193

Plant science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides citations and some abstracts to the literature on plant science, focusing especially on pathology, symbiosis, biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology, techniques and environmental biology. Major areas of coverage include physiology;

194

Science advances [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The online-only journal seeks to publish high-quality original research in the physical, life, environmental, mathematical, engineering, computer, and social sciences that has the potential to make significant advances in any relevant field.

195

Utero-vaginal packing. Seven years review in the management of post partum hemorrhage due to placenta previa/accreta at a maternity hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES To study the effectiveness of utero-vaginal packing in the management of primary postpartum hemorrhage due to placenta previa/accreta. METHODS We conducted this study in the Maternity Hospital, Riyadh Medical Complex, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study covering 7 years from January 2001 to December 2007. Utero-vaginal packing was carried out by placing gauze soaked in normal saline solution approximately 2 meters long and 10 cm in width into the lower uter...

Al-harbi, Nawal A.; Al-abra, Eman S.; Alabbad, Nasser S.

2009-01-01

196

In Utero Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol (DES) or Bisphenol-A (BPA) Increases EZH2 Expression in the Mammary Gland: An Epigenetic Mechanism Linking Endocrine Disruptors to Breast Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) and bisphenol-A (BPA) are estrogen-like endocrine-disrupting chemicals that induce persistent epigenetic changes in the developing uterus. However, DES exposure in utero is also associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in adult women. Similarly, fetal exposure to BPA induces neoplastic changes in mammary tissue of mice. We hypothesized that epigenetic alterations would precede the increased risk of breast neoplasia after in utero exposure to endocrine disrup...

Doherty, Leo F.; Bromer, Jason G.; Zhou, Yuping; Aldad, Tamir S.; Taylor, Hugh S.

2010-01-01

197

Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

2013-01-01

198

In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV) have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Re...

Marrero Luis; Dunn Daisy; Larson Janet E; Garrett Deiadra J; Craig, Cohen J.

2003-01-01

199

A Prospective Study of In-utero Exposure to Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Childhood Obesity  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a prospective study to examine whether in-utero exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) increases the risk of childhood obesity. Participating women carried a meter measuring MF levels during pregnancy and 733 of their children were followed up to 13 years to collect clinically recorded information on growth patterns with 33 weight measurements per child on average. Prenatal exposure to high MF level was associated with increased risk of being obese in offspring than those with lower M...

De-Kun Li; Ferber, Jeannette R.; Roxana Odouli; Quesenberry Jr, Charles P.

2012-01-01

200

The orl Rat with Inherited Cryptorchidism Has Increased Susceptibility to the Testicular Effects of In Utero Dibutyl Phthalate Exposure  

OpenAIRE

Phenotype results from interactions between genetics and environment, but for most environmental chemical exposures, such interactions are theoretical. The phenotypic response of the testis to in utero dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure was compared between two strains of Long-Evans (LE) rats, the orl substrain with inherited cryptorchidism and an outbred (wt) strain. orl and wt LE rats were exposed daily between gestational day (GD) 12 and GD21 to DBP dose levels ranging from 50 to 200 mg/kg b...

Johnson, Kamin J.; Mccahan, Suzanne M.; Si, Xiaoli; Campion, Liam; Herrmann, Revital; Barthold, Julia S.

2008-01-01

201

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Impairs Nrf2-Mediated Adaptive Antioxidant Defenses and Redox Signaling in Fetal Endothelial Cells In Utero  

OpenAIRE

In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status, and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altere...

Cheng, Xinghua; Chapple, Sarah J.; Patel, Bijal; Puszyk, William; Sugden, David; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Siow, Richard C. M.; Mann, Giovanni E.

2013-01-01

202

Hypermethylation of Homeobox A10 by in Utero Diethylstilbestrol Exposure: An Epigenetic Mechanism for Altered Developmental Programming  

OpenAIRE

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that induces developmental anomalies of the female reproductive tract. The homeobox gene HOXA10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is altered after in utero DES exposure. We hypothesized that an epigenetic mechanism underlies DES-mediated alterations in HOXA10 expression. We analyzed the expression pattern and methylation profile of HOXA10 after DES exposure. Expression of HOXA10 is increased in human endometrial cells after ...

Bromer, Jason G.; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Yuping; Taylor, Hugh S.

2009-01-01

203

Serotonin Transporter Occupancy in Rats Exposed to Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors In Utero or via Breast MilkS?  

OpenAIRE

Rigorous data regarding fetal central nervous system (CNS) exposure after antidepressant exposure are sparse. The magnitude of serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) CNS exposure was measured in three groups of rats using ex vivo autoradiography of the serotonin transporter (SERT): 1) in utero, 2) postnatal clearance after birth, and 3) exposure through lactation. Rats were exposed to one of five SRI-type antidepressants (escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine) administ...

Capello, Catherine F.; Bourke, Chase H.; Ritchie, James C.; Stowe, Zachary N.; Newport, D. Jeffrey; Nemeroff, Amanda; Owens, Michael J.

2011-01-01

204

Mental and behavioural disorders in Belarusian persons exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinion, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0.01) and borderline intellectual functioning (r=0.56; P<0.05) of the same people at age 10-12.

205

In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure. PMID:18281070

Wan, Joanne; Winn, Louise M

2008-05-01

206

In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure

207

Transient in utero knockout (TIUKO of C-MYC affects late lung and intestinal development in the mouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmentally important genes often result in early lethality in knockout animals. Thus, the direct role of genes in late gestation organogenesis cannot be assessed directly. In utero delivery of transgenes was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer to pulmonary and intestinal epithelial stem cells. Thus, this technology can be used to evaluate late gestation development. Results In utero gene transfer was used to transfer adenovirus with either an antisense c-myc or a C-MYC ubiquitin targeting protein to knockout out c-myc expression in late gestation lung and intestines. Using either antisense or ubiquitin mediated knockout of C-MYC levels in late gestation resulted in similar effects. Decreased complexity was observed in both intestines and lungs. Stunted growth of villi was evident in the intestines. In the lung, hypoplastic lungs with disrupted aveolarization were observed. Conclusions These data demonstrated that C-MYC was required for cell expansion and complexity in late gestation lung and intestinal development. In addition they demonstrate that transient in utero knockout of proteins may be used to determine the role of developmentally important genes in the lungs and intestines.

Zhou Pengbo

2004-04-01

208

In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol and blood DNA methylation in women ages 40-59 years from the sister study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of non-Hispanic white women aged 40-59 years from the Sister Study, a large United States cohort study of women with a family history of breast cancer. Using questionnaire information from women and their mothers, we selected 100 women whose mothers reported taking DES while pregnant and 100 control women whose mothers had not taken DES. DNA methylation in blood was measured at 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Associations between CpG methylation and DES exposure status were analyzed using robust linear regression with adjustment for blood cell composition and multiple comparisons. Although four CpGs had p<105, after accounting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR), none reached genome-wide significance. In conclusion, adult women exposed to DES in utero had no evidence of large persistent changes in blood DNA methylation. PMID:25751399

Harlid, Sophia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P; Taylor, Jack A

2015-01-01

209

In Utero Exposure to Diethylstilbestrol and Blood DNA Methylation in Women Ages 40–59 Years from the Sister Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of non-Hispanic white women aged 40–59 years from the Sister Study, a large United States cohort study of women with a family history of breast cancer. Using questionnaire information from women and their mothers, we selected 100 women whose mothers reported taking DES while pregnant and 100 control women whose mothers had not taken DES. DNA methylation in blood was measured at 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Associations between CpG methylation and DES exposure status were analyzed using robust linear regression with adjustment for blood cell composition and multiple comparisons. Although four CpGs had p<105, after accounting for multiple comparisons using the false discovery rate (FDR), none reached genome-wide significance. In conclusion, adult women exposed to DES in utero had no evidence of large persistent changes in blood DNA methylation. PMID:25751399

Harlid, Sophia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; D’Aloisio, Aimee A.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Sandler, Dale P.; Taylor, Jack A.

2015-01-01

210

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

211

Inhibition of protein synthesis in developing mouse brain after fission neutron irradiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous investigations showed that when pregnant mice were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy fission neutrons on Day 17 +/- 2 of gestation about 40% of the newborn mice died and the body and brain weights of surviving animals decreased by 30-35%. Studies presented in this paper show that after a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation on Day 18 of pregnancy protein synthesis decreased in liver and brain of 3-week-old mice irradiated in utero. Incorporation of labeled amino acids in vivo into acid soluble nuclear proteins decreased by 15% in liver and by 40% in brain. Investigations with isolated protein synthesizing systems proved that the peptide bond formation was not impaired by irradiation. The aminoacylation of transfer-RNA, however, decreased in both liver and brain by 26-34 and 34-41%, respectively. Comparing the aminoacylation capacities in the two unirradiated organs, a much lower (about one-third) capacity was found in brain than in liver. Moreover, this low aminoacylation capacity of brain decreased further by about 40% after neutron irradiation. These results suggest that in the developing irradiated brain the reduced capacity of aminoacylation of transfer-RNA might be rate limiting for the efficiency of protein synthesis

212

In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996 and 2003. Maternal smoking was associated with a significantly elevated risk of strabismus in the child, increasing with number of cigarettes smoked per day ( or =10 cigarettes/day: RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.30). Nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with strabismus risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffeeand tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk.

Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A

2010-01-01

213

Sheep CD34+ amniotic fluid cells have hematopoietic potential and engraft after autologous in utero transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unmatched allogeneic in utero stem cell transplantation (IUSCT) produces poor engraftment unless the fetus has congenital immunodeficiency, probably because of maternal and fetal immune responses to injected cells. We studied the functional hematopoietic potential of transduced green fluorescent protein (GFP+) sheep amniotic fluid (AF) stem cells, before and after autologous IUSCT. CD34+ cells were selected from first trimester sheep AF, transduced overnight, and injected intravenously into NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice. At 3 months, primary recipient bone marrow (BM) was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the hematopoietic organs and peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients at 3 months. Autologous IUSCT (transduced GFP+CD34+AF) was performed in fetal sheep. Six months postnatally, lamb BM was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients. This confirms the hematopoietic potential of AF stem cells supporting the concept of autologous IUSCT to treat congenital hematopoietic disease. PMID:25186828

Shaw, S W Steven; Blundell, Michael P; Pipino, Caterina; Shangaris, Panicos; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Georgiades, Fanos; Boyd, Michael; Thrasher, Adrian J; Porada, Christopher D; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Cheng, Po-Jen; David, Anna L; de Coppi, Paolo

2015-01-01

214

In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.oses.

215

Fetal akinesia deformation sequence: a study of 30 consecutive in utero diagnoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

The etiology of the fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) is heterogeneous and can be the result of neurogenic and myopathic disorders, restrictive dermopathy, teratogen exposure, and intrauterine constraint. We present the prenatal and fetopathological findings in a consecutive series of 30 affected fetuses with normal chromosomal results. According to the in utero time of onset of the fetal akinesia, the severity of the phenotype varied from a severe, generalized FADS in the early-onset group to milder defects, as isolated distal arthrogryposis in the late-onset group. No more than 10% (3/30) were diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy and all presented a severe phenotype. Twenty-seven of the thirty (90%) were diagnosed after the first trimester, with a severe FADS in 15/27 and a milder phenotype of distal arthrogryposis in 12/27. In all 30 patients, extensive neuropathological studies (brain, spinal cord, and muscles) were performed. In 16 patients (53%) a specific diagnosis could be made (central nervous system abnormalities 9/16; spinal cord 1/16; primary myopathy 3/16; syndromic 3/16). In 10 others (33%), pathological neuromuscular findings were present but no definitive diagnosis was established. In 4 patients (13%), neuromuscular findings were normal, and the etiology of the FADS remained unexplained. PMID:12400062

Witters, Ingrid; Moerman, Philippe; Fryns, Jean-Pierre

2002-11-15

216

Gene delivery into mouse retinal ganglion cells by in utero electroporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural retina is a highly structured tissue of the central nervous system that is formed by seven different cell types that are arranged in layers. Despite much effort, the genetic mechanisms that underlie retinal development are still poorly understood. In recent years, large-scale genomic analyses have identified candidate genes that may play a role in retinal neurogenesis, axon guidance and other key processes during the development of the visual system. Thus, new and rapid techniques are now required to carry out high-throughput analyses of all these candidate genes in mammals. Gene delivery techniques have been described to express exogenous proteins in the retina of newborn mice but these approaches do not efficiently introduce genes into the only retinal cell type that transmits visual information to the brain, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Results Here we show that RGCs can be targeted for gene expression by in utero electroporation of the eye of mouse embryos. Accordingly, using this technique we have monitored the morphology of electroporated RGCs expressing reporter genes at different developmental stages, as well as their projection to higher visual targets. Conclusion Our method to deliver ectopic genes into mouse embryonic retinas enables us to follow the course of the entire retinofugal pathway by visualizing RGC bodies and axons. Thus, this technique will permit to perform functional studies in vivo focusing on neurogenesis, axon guidance, axon projection patterning or neural connectivity in mammals.

Herrera Eloisa

2007-09-01

217

Influence of diurnal phase on startle response in adult rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle. We speculated that this observation of increased basal startle might be influenced by diurnal phase. In the present study, adult female Sprague Dawley rats, stressed prenatally with DEX (200 ?g/kg, gestational days 14-21) and postnatally by blood sampling under restraint, were tested for the ASR during both circadian phases (light and dark). Basal startle was increased in animals tested both during the light and the dark phases of the cycle. We hereby replicated our earlier findings in a new strain and laboratory, thus strengthening the validity of our model regarding prenatal stress effects on ASR in female offspring. Our results indicate that observation of increased basal ASR is not solely dependent on diurnal phase. We found no difference in hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid receptor expression between groups.

Kjaer, S L; Hougaard, K S

2011-01-01

218

Prenatal diagnosis, prediction of outcome and in utero therapy of isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can be associated with genetic or structural anomalies with poor prognosis. In isolated cases, survival is dependent on the degree of lung hypoplasia and liver position. Cases should be referred in utero to tertiary care centers familiar with this condition both for prediction of outcome as well as timed delivery. The best validated prognostic indicator is the lung area to head circumference ratio. Ultrasound is used to measure the lung area of the index case, which is then expressed as a proportion of what is expected normally (observed/expected LHR). When O/E LHR is < 25% survival chances are < 15%. Prenatal intervention, aiming to stimulate lung growth, can be achieved by temporary fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO). A balloon is percutaneously inserted into the trachea at 26-28 weeks, and reversal of occlusion is planned at 34 weeks. Growing experience has demonstrated the feasibility and safety of the technique with a survival rate of about 50%. The lung response to, and outcome after FETO, is dependent on pre-existing lung size as well gestational age at birth. Early data show that FETO does not increase morbidity in survivors, when compared to historical controls. Several trials are currently under design. PMID:18634116

Doné, Elisa; Gucciardo, Leonardo; Van Mieghem, Tim; Jani, Jacques; Cannie, Mieke; Van Schoubroeck, Dominique; Devlieger, Roland; Catte, Luc De; Klaritsch, Philipp; Mayer, Steffi; Beck, Veronika; Debeer, Anne; Gratacos, Eduardo; Nicolaides, Kypros; Deprest, Jan

2008-07-01

219

Mapping Fetal Brain Development in utero Using MRI: The Big Bang of Brain Mapping  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from MRI have led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence, childhood and even neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Looking even earlier in development, parallel developments in clinical fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments that combine optimal fast MRI scans with techniques derived from computer vision that allow full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article will review the developments that have led us to this point, and examine the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging, motion correction and the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatio-temporal atlases will be examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2012-01-01

220

Superoxide dismutase in fetal rat cerebrum x-irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in fetal rat cerebrum was studied on gestational days (gd) 19 and 21 after X-irradiation with 100 R on gd 13 or no X-irradiation. Fetuses X-irradiated on gd 13 showed marked microcephalus on gd 19 and 21. Most of the SOD activity was found in the crude mitochondrial fraction in both groups and most of the SOD was Cu, Zn-SOD. The SOD activity increased about two times from gd 19 to 21. The mean SOD activity of the fetal rat cerebrum X-irradiated with 100 R showed no significant differences compared to that of the control group with Student's t test. But the activities in the irradiated group were widely distributed with a large standard deviation and so the chi-square test showed a significant difference in SOD activity between the two groups on gd 19. The SOD activity of adult rat cerebrum 6 and 8 days after X-irradiation with 100 R was increased compared to that 3 days after X-irradiation. It was suspected that X-irradiation in utero may have some lasting effect on the SOD activity in fetal rat cerebrum. (author)

221

Effects of in utero exposure to Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom in adult rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The toxicity of Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom is well known, but there are little data about the damage in offspring of dams that were exposed to the venom during pregnancy. The objective of this work was to determine the toxic effects of venom in adult offspring of Wistar rats exposed to venom in utero. Dams were divided into a control group, subcutaneously injected with saline solution on the 10th (GD10) and 16th (GD16) days, and two experimental groups, subcutaneously injected with venom (2.5mg/kg) on GD10 or GD16, respectively. Adult offspring were evaluated according to behavioral development and neuronal integrity in the hippocampus. Tests performed in the activity box and in the enriched environment demonstrated that males from GD10 had motor decrease. Females from GD10 showed a depressive-like state and were more anxious, as demonstrated by the forced swimming test and social interaction. The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task demonstrated that GD16 males had lower levels of anxiety. The number of neuronal cells was decreased in CA1, CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of males and females from GD10 group and in CA1 of females and CA4 of males from GD16 group. Thus, we conclude that venom exposure in pregnant dams causes subtle alteration in the behavioral and neuronal development of offspring in adult life in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:19945531

Dorce, Ana Leticia Coronado; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão

2010-01-01

222

Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing knowledge of growth patterns in the living fetal human brain is based upon in utero imaging studies by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound, which describe overall growth and provide mainly qualitative findings. However, formation of the complex folded cortical structure of the adult brain requires, in part, differential rates of regional tissue growth. To better understand these local tissue growth patterns, we applied recent advances in fetal MRI motion correction and computational image analysis techniques to 40 normal fetal human brains covering a period of primary sulcal formation (20-28 gestational weeks). Growth patterns were mapped by quantifying tissue locations that were expanding more or less quickly than the overall cerebral growth rate, which reveal increasing structural complexity. We detected increased local relative growth rates in the formation of the precentral and postcentral gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and opercula, which differentiated between the constant growth rate in underlying cerebral mantle and the accelerating rate in the cortical plate undergoing folding. Analysis focused on the cortical plate revealed greater volume increases in parietal and occipital regions compared to the frontal lobe. Cortical plate growth patterns constrained to narrower age ranges showed that gyrification, reflected by greater growth rates, was more pronounced after 24 gestational weeks. Local hemispheric volume asymmetry was located in the posterior peri-Sylvian area associated with structural lateralization in the mature brain. These maps of fetal brain growth patterns construct a spatially specific baseline of developmental biomarkers with which to correlate abnormal development in the human. PMID:21414909

Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Corbett-Detig, James; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A James; Glenn, Orit A; Studholme, Colin

2011-02-23

223

Rapid and efficient genetic manipulation of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher mammals such as primates and carnivores have highly developed unique brain structures such as the ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex, and the gyrus and outer subventricular zone of the cerebral cortex. However, our molecular understanding of the formation, function and diseases of these structures is still limited, mainly because genetic manipulations that can be applied to higher mammals are still poorly available. Results Here we developed and validated a rapid and efficient technique that enables genetic manipulations in the brain of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation. Transgene-expressing ferret babies were obtained within a few weeks after electroporation. GFP expression was detectable in the embryo and was observed at least 2?months after birth. Our technique was useful for expressing transgenes in both superficial and deep cortical neurons, and for examining the dendritic morphologies and axonal trajectories of GFP-expressing neurons in ferrets. Furthermore, multiple genes were efficiently co-expressed in the same neurons. Conclusion Our method promises to be a powerful tool for investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development, function and pathophysiology of brain structures which are unique to higher mammals.

Kawasaki Hiroshi

2012-06-01

224

Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the electronic equipment used in pulse counting and mean current radiation detection systems is described. This includes the high voltage supply, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, scalers or counters, ratemeters, single-channel pulse height analyser, multi-channel pulse height analyser, d.c. amplifiers, coincidence and anticoincidence units and gain stabilisers

225

Contribution of in utero drug exposure when interpreting hair results in young children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure. Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy. Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation. The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration), after analysis of 4 segments (irrespective of the length of the segment but longer than 1cm), it was observed the following pattern: proximal segment, 5-35% of the response; segment 2, 15-50% of the response; segment 3, 25-60% of the response; and distal segment, 100% of the response. It is proposed to consider 100% in utero contribution to the final interpretation when the ratio concentration of the proximal segment to the concentration of the distal segment is lower than 0.5. This can be applied only when the child is under 1 year old and the hair shaft length is at least 4cm (to achieve suitable segmentation). It is important, when using this cut-off to have at least 3 or 4 segments to be able to observe the variation in drug concentrations, whatever the length of each segment (>1cm). PMID:25450508

Kintz, P

2015-04-01

226

In utero gene therapy rescues microcephaly caused by Pqbp1-hypofunction in neural stem progenitor cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human mutations in PQBP1, a molecule involved in transcription and splicing, result in a reduced but architecturally normal brain. Examination of a conditional Pqbp1-knockout (cKO) mouse with microcephaly failed to reveal either abnormal centrosomes or mitotic spindles, increased neurogenesis from the neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) pool or increased cell death in vivo. Instead, we observed an increase in the length of the cell cycle, particularly for the M phase in NSPCs. Corresponding to the developmental expression of Pqbp1, the stem cell pool in vivo was decreased at E10 and remained at a low level during neurogenesis (E15) in Pqbp1-cKO mice. The expression profiles of NSPCs derived from the cKO mouse revealed significant changes in gene groups that control the M phase, including anaphase-promoting complex genes, via aberrant transcription and RNA splicing. Exogenous Apc4, a hub protein in the network of affected genes, recovered the cell cycle, proliferation, and cell phenotypes of NSPCs caused by Pqbp1-cKO. These data reveal a mechanism of brain size control based on the simple reduction of the NSPC pool by cell cycle time elongation. Finally, we demonstrated that in utero gene therapy for Pqbp1-cKO mice by intraperitoneal injection of the PQBP1-AAV vector at E10 successfully rescued microcephaly with preserved cortical structures and improved behavioral abnormalities in Pqbp1-cKO mice, opening a new strategy for treating this intractable developmental disorder. PMID:25070536

Ito, H; Shiwaku, H; Yoshida, C; Homma, H; Luo, H; Chen, X; Fujita, K; Musante, L; Fischer, U; Frints, S G M; Romano, C; Ikeuchi, Y; Shimamura, T; Imoto, S; Miyano, S; Muramatsu, S-I; Kawauchi, T; Hoshino, M; Sudol, M; Arumughan, A; Wanker, E E; Rich, T; Schwartz, C; Matsuzaki, F; Bonni, A; Kalscheuer, V M; Okazawa, H

2015-04-01

227

Effects of in utero antiretroviral exposure on mitochondrial DNA levels, mitochondrial function and oxidative stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives HIV and antiretroviral (ART) exposure in utero may have deleterious effects on the infant, but uncertainty still exists. The objective of this study was to evaluate aspects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial function and oxidative stress simultaneously in placenta, umbilical cord blood and infant blood in HIV/ART-exposed infants compared with uninfected controls. Methods HIV-1-infected pregnant women and HIV-1-uninfected healthy pregnant controls were enrolled in the study prospectively. Placenta and umbilical cord blood were obtained at delivery and infant blood was obtained within 48 h of delivery. mtDNA content was determined for each specimen. Nuclear [subunit IV of cytochrome c-oxidase (COX IV)]- and mitochondrial (COX II)-encoded polypeptides of the oxidative phosphorylation enzyme cytochrome c-oxidase were quantified in cord and infant blood. Placental mitochondria malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were measured as a marker of oxidative stress. Results Twenty HIV-positive/HIV-exposed and 26 control mother–infant pairs were enrolled in the study. All HIV-infected women and their infants received ART. Placental MDA concentration and mtDNA content in placenta and cord blood were similar between groups. The cord blood COX II:IV ratio was lower in the HIV-positive group than in the controls, whereas the infant peripheral blood mtDNA content was higher in the HIV-exposed infants, but the infant peripheral blood COX II:IV ratio was similar. No infant had clinical evidence of mitochondrial disease or acquired HIV infection. In multivariable regression analyses, the significant findings in cord and infant blood were both most associated with HIV/ART exposure. Conclusions HIV-exposed infants showed reduced umbilical cord blood mitochondrial enzyme expression with increased infant peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA levels, the latter possibly reflecting a compensatory mechanism to overcome HIV/ART-associated mitochondrial toxicity. PMID:22103263

Ross, AC; Leong, T; Avery, A; Castillo-Duran, M; Bonilla, H; Lebrecht, D; Walker, UA; Storer, N; Labbato, D; Khaitan, A; Tomanova-Soltys, I; McComsey, GA

2014-01-01

228

Maternal molecular hydrogen administration ameliorates rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by in utero ischemia-reperfusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Molecular hydrogen (H2) scavenges hydroxyl radicals. Recently, H2 has been reported to prevent a variety of diseases associated with oxidative stress in model systems and in humans. Here, we studied the effects of H2 on rat fetal hippocampal damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion (IR) on day 16 of pregnancy with the transient occlusion of the bilateral utero-ovarian arteries. Starting 2 days before the operation, we provided the mothers with hydrogen-saturated water ad libitum until vaginal delivery. We observed a significant increase in the concentration of H2 in the placenta after the oral administration of hydrogen-saturated water to the mothers, with less placental oxidative damage after IR in the presence of H2. Neonatal growth retardation was observed in the IR group, which was alleviated by the H2 administration. We analyzed the neuronal cell damage in the CA1 and CA3 areas of the hippocampus at day 7 after birth by immunohistochemical analysis of the 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine- and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins. Both oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in the IR group, which was again ameliorated by the H2 intake. Last, 8-week-old rats were subjected to a Morris water maze test. Maternal H2 administration improved the reference memory of the offspring to the sham level after IR injury during pregnancy. Overall, the present results support the idea that maternal H2 intake helps prevent the hippocampal impairment of offspring induced by IR during pregnancy. PMID:24509162

Mano, Yukio; Kotani, Tomomi; Ito, Mikako; Nagai, Taku; Ichinohashi, Yuko; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Ohno, Kinji; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

2014-04-01

229

Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ?50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy-1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy-1), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict thtandard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

230

Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant approximately 50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy(-1) (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy(-1)), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. PMID:18922822

Wakeford, Richard

2008-01-01

231

Neutron irradiation of late mouse embryos (15-19 days) in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant female C57B1/6 mice were irradiated with a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy neutrons. The F1 hybrid embryos were exposed to the neutrons in utero on Day 17+/-2 of gestation. 178/439 (40.6%) of the irradiated fetuses and 26/217 (12%) of the control mice died within 2 weeks after birth. In both irradiated and control mice, most deaths (95 and 77%, respectively) occurred within 3 days of birth: most animals in both groups died on Day 2. There was no significant difference in the number of living young born per litter (7.2) between the neutron-irradiated mothers and their unirradiated controls. The irradiated mice weighed significantly less than their controls. Several organs were weighed at regular intervals in both irradiated and control mice. Spleens and thymus glands showed no significant differences between the two groups. The livers and kidneys of the irradiated mice weighed slightly less than their controls. The brain weight of 21-day-old neutron-irradiated mice was 30-35% less than control brains. Histological analysis of the central nervous system showed pycnotic nuclei, inhibition of mitosis in neuroblasts, and cell death in the irradiated brains. The weight reduction of the brain was not due to water loss. The hypothesis is that the early mortality after birth is related to the killing of the radiation-sensitive neuroblasts. When newborn mice (1-7 days old) were irradiated in vivo with the same neutron dose of 0.5 Gy, neither the reduction ion dose of 0.5 Gy, neither the reduction in brain weight nor the early mortality was observed

232

Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2-/-) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2-/- and Folbp2+/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

233

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

234

Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários / Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciê [...] ncia da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science [...] are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

Guilherme Ataíde, Dias.

2002-09-01

235

Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers  

CERN Document Server

Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

Rajendiran, P

2006-01-01

236

Assessment of in-utero venlafaxine induced, ROS-mediated, apoptotic neurodegeneration in fetal neocortex and neurobehavioral sequelae in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venlafaxine (VEN), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor is being used as a drug of choice for treating clinical depression even during pregnancy. It is an important therapeutic option in the treatment of perinatal depression, but the effects of VEN on fetus and the newborn are uncertain. Therefore, present study was undertaken to investigate the safety of in-utero exposure to VEN in terms of developmental neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative potential by using prenatal rat model. The selected doses of VEN (25, 40 and 50mg/kg) were administered to pregnant rats from GD 5 to 19 through oral gavage. The fetal brains were dissected and processed for histopathological measurements of neocortical thickness that showed significant reduction. Considering vulnerability of immature brain to free radical injury, VEN exposed neocortices were tested for reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which were significantly increased. As ROS play important role in the initiation of apoptotic mechanisms, we explored for in situ detection of apoptosis by confocal microscopy that showed enhanced apoptosis including chromatin condensation which was further reconfirmed by electron microscopy. Substantially increased levels of pro-apoptotic protein Bax and decreased levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 as shown by western blotting also supported the increased neuro-apoptotic degeneration. For further correlation of these findings, prenatally VEN exposed young-adult rat offspring were assessed for open field exploratory behavior that showed increased anxiety-like and stereotypic responses indicating disturbed neurobehavioral pattern. The study concludes that prenatal VEN exposure may primarily enhance ROS generation that plays a key role in regulating release of proapoptotic factors from mitochondria and thereby enhancing apoptotic neurodegeneration that affect proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells, resulting in neuronal deficits manifested as long term neurobehavioral impairments. PMID:25450524

Singh, Manish; Singh, K P; Shukla, Shubha; Dikshit, Madhu

2015-02-01

237

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cevix without in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: report of two cases  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix (CCAC is usually seen in women with a history of in utero exposure to diethyl acetyl bestrol (DES. We report two cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix with no history of exposure to DES in embryonic period. "n"nCase presentation: The first case was a 14-year-old women with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. There was atypical cells in Pap Smear and a bleeding tumor with 1.5 cm in diameter was found in vagina. She was admitted with a diagnosis of CCAC of the uterine cervix stage Ib2 according to FIGO classification."n"n The second case was a 23-year-old patient with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. The results of cervical cytology was normal. Evaluation of the punch biopsy sample revealed CCAC. Her clinical exam showed stage IIb according to FIGO classification.  Both patients had no history of exposure to DES during embryonic period. The first patient treated with radical abdominal hysterectomy and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy and for the another one external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy was performed. There was no any recurrence or metastasis after an 18-24 months follow-up"n"nConclusions: Primary clear cell carcinoma of cervix could be unrelated to HPV infection or exposure to DES during embryonic period and in approach to these patients this subject should be considered.

Mousavi A

2010-05-01

238

In utero lung gene transfer using adeno-associated viral and lentiviral vectors in mice.  

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Virus-mediated gene transfer to the fetal lung epithelium holds considerable promise for the therapeutic management of prenatally diagnosed, potentially life-threatening inherited lung diseases. In this study we hypothesized that efficient and life-long lung transduction can be achieved by in utero gene therapy, using viral vectors. To facilitate diffuse entry into the lung, viral vector was injected into the amniotic sac of C57BL/6 mice on embryonic day 16 (term, ? 20 days) in a volume of 10 ?l. Vectors investigated included those based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) (serotypes 5, 6.2, 9, rh.64R1) and vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1-based lentivirus (LV). All vectors expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the transcriptional control of various promoters including chicken ?-actin (CB) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) for AAV and CMV or MND (myeloproliferative sarcoma virus enhancer, negative control region deleted) for LV. Pulmonary GFP gene expression was detected by fluorescence stereoscopic microscopy and immunohistochemistry for up to 9 months after birth. At equivalent vector doses (mean, 12 × 10(10) genome copies per fetus) three AAV vectors resulted in long-term (up to 9 months) pulmonary epithelium transduction. AAV2/6.2 transduced predominantly cells of the conducting airway epithelium, although transduction decreased 2 months after vector delivery. AAV2/9-transduced cells of the alveolar epithelium with a type 1 pneumocyte phenotype for up to 6 months. Although minimal levels of GFP expression were observed with AAV2/5 up to 9 months, the transduced cells immunostained positive for F480 and were retrievable by bronchoalveolar lavage, confirming an alveolar macrophage phenotype. No GFP expression was observed in lung epithelial cells after AAV2/rh.64R1 and VSV-G-LV vector-mediated gene transfer. We conclude that these experiments demonstrate that prenatal lung gene transfer with AAV vectors engineered to target pulmonary epithelial cells may provide sustained long-term levels of transgene expression, supporting the therapeutic potential of prenatal gene transfer for the treatment of congenital lung diseases. PMID:24660751

Joyeux, Luc; Danzer, Enrico; Limberis, Maria P; Zoltick, Philip W; Radu, Antoneta; Flake, Alan W; Davey, Marcus G

2014-06-01

239

Influence of in utero di-n-hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate on fetal testicular development in rats.  

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This study investigated the effects of di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP) and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) on male reproductive development in utero. Pregnant rats were exposed to DHP and DCHP at doses of 0 (vehicle), 20, 100 and 500mg/kg/day, by gavage, on gestational days (GD) 6-19. A significant decrease in the anogenital distance (AGD) of male fetuses was observed at all doses of DHP and DCHP. The AGD/cube root of body weight ratio in male fetuses was also significantly reduced compared to control group. The litters with resorption, percentage of resorptions and inhibin B levels increased in treatment groups. Moreover, testosterone and MIS/AMH levels in all treatment groups decreased. Although FSH and inhibin B levels of male pups exposed to DHP and DCHP increased, FSH/inhibin B ratio decreased in treatment groups. Reduced testosterone production in response to DHP and DCHP exposure appeared to be related to changes in testosterone metabolism, as shown by decreased 3?-HSD immunoexpression. The percentages of large Leydig clusters increased after exposure to DHP and DCHP in utero. Histopathological examination of the testis on GD20 revealed changes at all doses. Relative integrated immunodensities of 3?-HSD, MIS/AMH, PCNA and AR decreased after DHP and DCHP exposures. Altered fetal Sertoli cell development and function may be caused by disrupted PMC function revealed by reduced AR production in these cells in treatment groups. PMID:25637754

Aydo?an Ahbab, Müfide; Barlas, Nurhayat

2015-03-01

240

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

241

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

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For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

2012-07-01

242

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

243

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

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Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell

2001-12-01

244

Embryonic mutation as a possible cause of in utero carcinogenesis in mice revealed by postnatal treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Although in utero irradiation at early stages induced a high incidence of somatic mutations at coat color genes in the embryos of a specified tester strain (PT x HT F1) of mice, it was not carcinogenic by itself. However, in utero-irradiated animals did develop skin tumors and hepatomas (but not leukemias) by the postnatal administration of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The incidence of both tumors and embryonic mutations increased with in utero doses of X-rays. Furthermore, a large reduction of tumor incidence, about 80%, was observed by low-dose-rate irradiation, similar to the 75% reduction in spot size found for embryonic mutations. The tumor nodule size was also dramatically reduced by low-dose-rate irradiation. Consequently, the induced incidence and size of tumors produced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment parallel those which are observed for coat color mutations as expected, because somatic mutations observed in the pigment cells must similarly occur in embryonic cells of other organs. The larger the clone of mutant cells, the greater their chance of becoming tumorigenic by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate posttreatment. These results strongly support the recent epidemiological survey showing that adult types of cancers, but not leukemias, are increasing in the atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero, since humans are continuously exposed to a variety of cancer-promoting agents in contrast to experimental animals reared without sucho experimental animals reared without such exposures

245

COMBINED ENDOCRINE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGENS BUTYLBENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP) AND LINURON (LIN) ON FETAL TESTOSTERONE (T) SYNTHESIS AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT  

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COMBINED ENDOCRINE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGENS BUTYLBENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP) AND LINURON (Lin) ON FETAL TESTOSTERONE (T) SYNTHESIS AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT Parks LG , Hotchkiss AK, Ostby J, Lambright C and Gray LE, Jr. Lin and BBP are toxic...

246

Neurological deficit among the survivors exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A reassessment and new directions  

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An extensive epidemiological and experimental literature records the deleterious effects on the embryonic and fetal central nervous system of exposure to ionizing radiation; much of the human evidence stems from studies of the in utero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (orig./MG)

247

Utero-placental expression of angiotensin-(1–7 and ACE2 in the pregnant guinea-pig  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental development are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs (GP and humans share common pregnancy features including extensive trophoblast invasion, transformation of the uterine spiral arteries and a haemomonochorial placenta, the GP animal model was deemed suitable to extend our knowledge on the spatio-temporal immunoreactive expression of the vasodilator arpeptide of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1–7 [Ang-(1–7] and its main generating enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2. Methods Utero-placental units were collected in days 15, 20, 40 and 60 of a 64–67 day long pregnancy in 25 Pirbright GP. Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 expression in utero-placental units were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 were detected in the endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinthine placenta, interlobium, subplacenta, giant cells, syncytial sprouts, syncytial streamers, and myometrium throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts in spiral and mesometrial arteries expressed both factors. Immunoreactive Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 were present in decidua and in the vascular smooth muscle of spiral, myometrial and mesometrial arteries, which also express kallikrein (Kal, the bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its type 2 receptor (KDR, but no endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. In addition, the signal of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 was especially remarkable in giant cells, which also show Kal, B2R. eNOS, VEGF and KDR. Conclusions The spatio-temporal expression of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 in GP, similar to that of humans, supports a relevant evolutionary conserved function of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 in decidualization, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental flow regulation, as well as the validity of the GP model to understand the local adaptations of pregnancy. It also integrates Ang-(1–7 to the utero-placental vasodilatory network. However, its antiangiogenic effect may counterbalance the proangiogenic activity of some of the other vasodilator components.

Valdés Gloria

2013-01-01

248

The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic  

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Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

2012-11-01

249

The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

250

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactese results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

251

Study of adolescents exposed in utero: clinical and laboratory data 1958-1959, Nagasaki. Report 2. Growth and development  

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A group of 286 adolescent children, all of whom were in utero at the time of the atomic bombing in Nasasaki, were examined as part of a long-term program to determine possible differences in growth and development that might be attributable to exposure to ionizing radiation. Three comparison groups were studied: Group I, whose mothers were within 2000 m from the hypocenter; Group II, whose mothers were located between 3000 to 4999 m; Group III, whose mothers were not in the city at the time of the bomb. Group I was further subdivided into high and low dose categories as judged by direct dose estimates, whether or not the mother experienced the acute radiation syndrome, or whether she was more or less than 1500 m from the hypocenter. The age at menarche and degree of epiphyseal closure in the wrist were determined. In addition, measurements were made of head circumference, standing and sitting heights, weight, and chest circumference.

Burrow, G.N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Hrubec, Z.; Amamoto, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Fumie; Brill, A.B.

1964-04-23

252

Trends in infant leukaemia in West Germany in relation to in utero exposure due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A temporary increase in the incidence of infant leukaemia in Greece was reported by Petridou et al., which was attributed to in utero exposure to ionising radiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. We performed a similar analysis based on the data of the German Childhood Cancer Registry in order to check whether the observation could be confirmed by means of independent data. Applying the same definitions as Petridou et al., we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses, regarding areas with different contamination levels and dose rate gradients over time after the accident, showed, however, no clear trend with regard to exposure. It would therefore appear less likely that the observed effect was caused by exposure to ionising radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

253

The retro placental hematoma and fetal death in utero: About 49 cases and review of the literature  

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Full Text Available The Retro Placental Hematoma (RPH or placental abruption untimely normally inserted paroxysmal is an accident that threatens maternal and fetal prognosis. It is a major emergency obstetric pathology and remains the second leading cause of maternal mortality after postpartum haemorrhage. It is actually very difficult to have an accurate evaluation the frequency of the HRP because it requires a complete table including Pathologists; or simple macroscopic or microscopic findings; or purely clinical diagnosis for some. Its occurrence requires appropriate resuscitation and adapted care to improve the prognosis. We report our study of 49 cases the HRP hospitalized in Obstetrics and Gynecology of Instruction Military Hospital Mohamed V in Rabat, diagnosed on a suggestive clinical picture and the presence of hematoma after examining the issue. This is a descriptive and comparative retrospective study over a period of one year. This study compared two groups: with HRP feotale death in utero and HRP without fetal death in utero. This study aims to evaluate neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity related to RPH and therapeutic modalities. This pathology formerly known pathology multiparous tends to reach more and more heifer. The important blood loss and delay the expulsion worse prognosis causing severe maternal morbidity hence the need to expand the indications for cesarean of retro placental hematoma regardless of the fetal state. Our study aims to contribute to reduce mortality and morbidity Fetomaternal by improving our work is stepping up efforts for a rapid decision-making, and we must educate what especially pregnant women of the risk factors to see from the beginning of symptoms. The pregnancy monitoring, early diagnosis of RPH, an obstetrical treatment adequate, and a resuscitation well driving can improve the prognosis of this disease.

Saida Mezane

2013-06-01

254

Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections. PMID:24337316

Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

2014-02-01

255

Exposure parameters necessary for delayed puberty and mammary gland development in Long-Evans rats exposed in utero to atrazine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our studies suggested that prenatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) could delay vaginal opening (VO) and mammary development in the offspring of Long-Evans (LE) rats. To evaluate ATR exposure parameters required for pubertal delays, including mammary gland development, we used cross-fostering to determine if effects were strictly dam-mediated (via milk) or a direct effect (transplacental) on the pups. Timed-pregnant LE rats (N = 20/treatment group) were gavaged on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or vehicle (controls, C). On PND1, half of all litters were cross-fostered, creating four treatment groups: C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (dam-milk source, respectively). A significant delay in VO and increase in VO BW was seen only in the litters receiving milk from ATR-exposed dams. However, mammary glands of female offspring (two per dam) in all groups exposed to ATR (ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR) displayed significant delays in epithelial development. These changes were detected as early as PND4 and stunted development was evident through PND40. Further, at all developmental stages examined, offspring in the ATR-ATR group exhibited the least developed glands. These delays in pubertal endpoints do not appear to be related to body weight or endocrine hormone concentrations. Our data suggest that the delay in VO of ATR-exposed offspring (C-ATR lactationally, ATR-ATR lactationally and in utero) is mediated via the dam [milk], whereas brie mediated via the dam [milk], whereas brief direct exposure to ATR in utero can cause delays in mammary gland development. Our data suggest that milk-derived factors (growth factors or hormones), in addition to transplacental exposure during mammary bud outgrowth, may be involved in ATR mode of action on delayed mammary gland development

256

Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with 60Co  

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Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovateroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth

257

Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

2004-09-15

258

MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

Brenner, David J.

2009-11-17

259

Does malnutrition in utero determine diabetes and coronary heart disease in adulthood? Results from the Leningrad siege study, a cross sectional study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between decreased maternal food intake and risk factors for coronary heart disease in adult life. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SUBJECTS: 169 subjects exposed to malnutrition in utero (intrauterine group) during the siege of Leningrad (now St Petersburg) in 1941-4; 192 subjects born in Leningrad just before rationing began, before the siege (infant group); and 188 subjects born concurrently with the first two groups but outside the area of the siege (un...

Stanner, S. A.; Bulmer, K.; Andre?s, C.; Lantseva, O. E.; Borodina, V.; Poteen, V. V.; Yudkin, J. S.

1997-01-01

260

Neuronal specificity of HSV/Sleeping Beauty amplicon transduction in utero is driven primarily by tropism and cell type composition during embryogenesis  

OpenAIRE

A novel bipartite vector system consisting of the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) amplicon and the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon was previously shown to efficiently deliver a “transgenon” (integrating transgene) in utero. This vector platform facilitated long-term transgenon expression specifically within neurons and neuronal precursor cells of the rodent brain. However, the mechanism underlying the neurospecificity of the HSV/SB amplicon in the setting of mouse embryogenesis is unknown. We ...

Peterson, Elise B.; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Federoff, Howard J.; Bowers, William J.

2007-01-01

261

The roles of DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11?-HSD2 and exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero on newborn neurobehavior  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero may program infant neurobehavior via DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11?-HSD-2), two placental genes that have been implicated in perturbations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We tested the relations among prenatal exposure to maternal depression or anxiety, methylation of exon 1F of NR3C1 and 11?-HSD-2, and newborn neurobehavior. Controlling for relevant...

Conradt, Elisabeth; Lester, Barry M.; Appleton, Allison A.; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.

2013-01-01

262

In Utero Exposure to Diesel Exhaust Air Pollution Promotes Adverse Intrauterine Conditions, Resulting in Weight Gain, Altered Blood Pressure, and Increased Susceptibility to Heart Failure in Adult Mice  

OpenAIRE

Exposure to fine particulate air pollution (PM2.5) is strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Exposure to PM2.5 during pregnancy promotes reduced birthweight, and the associated adverse intrauterine conditions may also promote adult risk of cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the potential for in utero exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) air pollution, a major source of urban PM2.5, to promote adverse intrauterine conditions and influence adult susceptibility to...

Weldy, Chad S.; Liu, Yonggang; Liggitt, H. Denny; Chin, Michael T.

2014-01-01

263

Effect of in-utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol on age at onset of puberty and on postpubertal hormone levels in boys.  

OpenAIRE

A group of boys exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero who had earlier been found to have urogenital abnormalities were studied for evidence of later effects of DES on their health, physical development and hormonal status. They showed no difference in age at onset of puberty, development of sexual characteristics or hormone levels from boys of the same age who had not been exposed to DES. However, the exposed group tended to have smaller testes.

Ross, R. K.; Garbeff, P.; Paganini-hill, A.; Henderson, B. E.

1983-01-01

264

Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as 'little adults'; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahrb-1/d ('responsive') genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahrd/d ('non-responsive') siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiin utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing

265

The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. PMID:22959928

Tsang, Verne; Fry, Rebecca C; Niculescu, Mihai D; Rager, Julia E; Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S; Zeisel, Steven H; Waalkes, Michael P; Stýblo, Miroslav; Drobná, Zuzana

2012-11-01

266

There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.

Annie M. Hughes

2013-03-01

267

Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. PMID:25247662

Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

2014-01-01

268

The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53 and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child.

Mednick Sarnoff

2011-04-01

269

Leigh disease presenting in utero due to a novel missense mutation in the mitochondrial DNA-ND3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leigh syndrome can be caused by defects in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes involved in energy metabolism. Recently, an increasing number of mutations in mitochondrial DNA encoding regions, especially in NADH dehydrogenase (respiratory chain complex I) subunits, have been reported as causative of early onset Leigh syndrome. We describe a patient whose fetal brain ultrasound demonstrated periventricular pseudocyst suggestive of a possible mitochondrial disorder who presented postnatally with Leigh syndrome. A muscle biopsy demonstrated a partial decrease in complex I and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH-E1 alpha) activity. Sequencing of the PDH-E1 alpha gene did not reveal any mutation. Sequencing of the mtDNA revealed a novel heteroplasmic G10254A (D66N) mutation in the ND3 gene. This change results in a substitution of aspartic acid to asparagine in a highly conserved domain of the ND3 subunit. The mutation could not be detected in the mother's blood or urine sediment. Blue native gel electrophoresis of muscle mitochondria revealed a normal size, albeit a decreased level of complex I. The G10254A substitution in the mtDNA-ND3 gene is another cause of maternally inherited Leigh syndrome. This case demonstrates that periventricular pseudocysts may be the initial in utero presentation in patients with mitochondrial disorders. We emphasize the importance of screening the mtDNA in pediatric patients as the first step in molecular diagnosis of Leigh syndrome. PMID:20202874

Leshinsky-Silver, Esther; Lev, Dorit; Malinger, Gustavo; Shapira, Daniel; Cohen, Sarit; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Saada, Ann

2010-05-01

270

Effects of yoga on utero-fetal-placental circulation in high-risk pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Impaired placentation and inadequate trophoblast invasion have been associated with the etiology of many pregnancy complications and have been correlated with the first trimester uterine artery resistance. Previous studies have shown the benefits of yoga in improving pregnancy outcomes and those of yogic visualization in revitalizing the human tissues. Methods. 59 high-risk pregnant women were randomized into yoga (n = 27) and control (n = 32) groups. The yoga group received standard care plus yoga sessions (1 hour/day, 3 times/week), from 12th to 28th week of gestation. The control group received standard care plus conventional antenatal exercises (walking). Measurements were assessed at 12th, 20th, and 28th weeks of gestation. Results. RM-ANOVA showed significantly higher values in the yoga group (28th week) for biparietal diameter (P = 0.001), head circumference (P = 0.002), femur length (P = 0.005), and estimated fetal weight (P = 0.019). The resistance index in the right uterine artery (P = 0.01), umbilical artery (P = 0.011), and fetal middle cerebral artery (P = 0.048) showed significantly lower impedance in the yoga group. Conclusion. The results of this first randomized study of yoga in high-risk pregnancy suggest that guided yogic practices and visualization can improve the intrauterine fetal growth and the utero-fetal-placental circulation. PMID:25688304

Rakhshani, Abbas; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Mhaskar, Rita; Mhaskar, Arun; Thomas, Annamma; Gunasheela, Sulochana

2015-01-01

271

Gestational diabetes mellitus impairs Nrf2-mediated adaptive antioxidant defenses and redox signaling in fetal endothelial cells in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altered in GDM and associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, and diminished glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In GDM cells, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) failed to induce nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and mRNA and/or protein expression of Nrf2 and its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), Bach1, cystine/glutamate transporter, and glutamate cysteine ligase. Although methylation of CpG islands in Nrf2 or NQO1 promoters was unaltered by GDM, decreased DJ-1 and increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3? levels may account for impaired Nrf2 signaling. HNE-induced increases in GSH and NQO1 levels were abrogated by Nrf2 small interfering RNA in normal cells, and overexpression of Nrf2 in GDM cells partially restored NQO1 induction. Dysregulation of Nrf2 in fetal endothelium may contribute to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in offspring. PMID:23974919

Cheng, Xinghua; Chapple, Sarah J; Patel, Bijal; Puszyk, William; Sugden, David; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E

2013-12-01

272

Stable long-term mixed chimerism achieved in a canine model of allogeneic in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence supporting the efficacy of in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) in a valid large animal model is needed prior to clinical application. The objective of this study was to establish clinically relevant levels of hematopoietic chimerism in a canine model of maternal-to-fetal IUHCT. We first assessed immune and hematopoietic ontogeny relevant to IUHCT in the canine model and identified 40 days' gestation (term 63 days) as a time point at the initiation of thymic selection, and prior to bone marrow hematopoiesis, that might be optimal for IUHCT. We next determined that intravascular administration of donor cells via intracardiac injection was far more efficient and resulted in much higher levels of donor cell engraftment than intraperitoneal injection. By applying these findings, we achieved stable long-term multilineage engraftment in 21 of 24 surviving recipients with an average level of initial chimerism of 11.7% (range 3% to 39%) without conditioning or evidence of graft-versus-host disease. Donor cell chimerism remained stable for up to 2 years and was associated with donor-specific tolerance for renal transplantation. The levels of donor cell chimerism achieved in this study would be therapeutic for many hematopoietic disorders and are supportive of a clinical trial of IUHCT. PMID:24869940

Vrecenak, Jesse D; Pearson, Erik G; Santore, Matthew T; Todorow, Carlyn A; Li, Haiying; Radu, Antoneta; Bhatti, Tricia; Peranteau, William H; Johnson, Mark P; Flake, Alan W

2014-09-18

273

Induction of protein deletion through in utero electroporation to define deficits in neuronal migration in transgenic models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic deletion using the Cre-Lox system in transgenic mouse lines is a powerful tool used to study protein function. However, except in very specific Cre models, deletion of a protein throughout a tissue or cell population often leads to complex phenotypes resulting from multiple interacting mechanisms. Determining whether a phenotype results from disruption of a cell autonomous mechanism, which is intrinsic to the cell in question, or from a non-cell autonomous mechanism, which would result from impairment of that cell's environment, can be difficult to discern. To gain insight into protein function in an in vivo context, in utero electroporation (IUE) enables gene deletion in a small subset of cells within the developing cortex or some other selected brain region. IUE can be used to target specific brain areas, including the dorsal telencephalon, medial telencephalon, hippocampus, or ganglionic eminence. This facilitates observation of the consequences of cell autonomous gene deletion in the context of a healthy environment. The goal of this protocol is to show how IUE can be used to analyze a defect in radial migration in a floxed transgenic mouse line, with an emphasis on distinguishing between the cell autonomous and non-cell autonomous effects of protein deletion. By comparing the phenotype resulting from gene deletion within the entire cortex versus IUE-mediated gene deletion in a limited cell population, greater insight into protein function in brain development can be obtained than by using either technique in isolation. PMID:25650557

Svoboda, Devon S; Clark, Alysen; Park, David S; Slack, Ruth S

2015-01-01

274

In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17?ethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER expression because BPA binds to the ER?, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ER? is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ER? expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERa downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

G. Schönfelder

2002-01-01

275

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

276

Geophysical research abstracts [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geophysical Research Abstracts (GRA) is a publication of collections of short summaries (abstracts) of up-to-date research in the Earth, planetary and space sciences in separate volumes. The collections may include summaries of presentations at scientific meetings or extended summaries on well defined topics compiled by editors or organizations.

277

Oxford dictionaries online [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully searchable, completely comprehensive bilingual dictionaries, and unique study materials that provide extra help with learning and using an expanding range of languages. Languages included are English, Russian, Chinese, Arabic, Italian, German and Spanish.

278

NDT data fusion [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides detailed case studies and practical guidelines for readers wishing to explore NDT data fusion. The first book devoted exclusively to multisensor integration and data fusion applied to NDT, it offers the most compressive introduction to NDT available.

279

Cataloging & classification quarterly [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cataloging & Classification Quarterly provides an effective international forum for information and discussion in the field of bibliographic organization. It deals with both general and specific aspects of cataloging and classification for all forms of library materials in all types of collections.

280

VTT Prosessit : Ydinenergia [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the nuclear energy branch of Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, a contractor of Finnish research assignments which co-ordinates national research programmes on reactor safety, nuclear waste management, fusion technology and contributes to energy systems research. Its website provides a gateway to all VTT nuclear services, research programmes, and publications in full-text.

281

International Electrotechnical Commission [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the International Electrotechnical Commission, the international standards and conformity assessment body for all fields of electrotechnology. Includes membership information and offers access to online documents. Contains a FAQ section, a search engine, and news releases. Posts contact information for the headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, via street address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail.

282

Business source elite [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Business Source Elite provides full-text coverage of scholarly business, management and economics journals. This rich collection also includes publications covering topics such as accounting, banking, finance, international business, marketing, sales, etc.

283

HeinOnline [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides full text access to legal journals and other legal materials, from volume 1 of each title. A project in progress, it will include all indexed legal journals. Also includes a Federal Register Library, a U.S. Supreme Court Library, a U.S.

284

World Wide Words [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International English from a British viewpoint. Sections include topical words, turns of phrase, weird words: what they mean, where they came from, how they have evolved, the ways in which people sometimes misuse them; also issues of grammar, style and punctuation.

285

European Broadcasting Union [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), an organization for public service broadcasters headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Contact information via mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail. Information on membership, conferences and workshops, Eurovision programs and services, and publications, including a publication catalog. Provides EBU statistics and information on legal and technical activities. Links to broadcasting related sites.

286

LexisNexis [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents LEXIS-NEXIS, a division of Reed Elsevier, Inc. that supplies commercial online legal, news, and business information services. Notes that LEXIS-NEXIS is based in Dayton, Ohio. Provides information about the company and its information

287

European Patent Office [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the European Patent Office, which was established by the Convention on the Grant of European Patents in 1973 as part of European countries' efforts to establish a uniform patent system for the participating countries. Links to information on what's new with the office, the latest on patent information, and where to find patent information.

288

Journal impact factor [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative tool for ranking, evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals, journal impact factors measure the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period. Includes links to Essential Science Indicators and Journal and Academic Rankings.

289

Sandia National Laboratories [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram U.S. security laboratory, operated by the Sandia Corporation for the Department of Energy (DOE). Explains that the primary facilities are located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Notes that Sandia designs non-nuclear components for the nation's nuclear weapons, performs energy research and development projects, and conduct assignments that respond to national security threats. Recounts Sandia's history. Includes information about achievements, the strategic plans and objectives, and employment. Offers access to current news and information about Sandia projects and events and conferences. Posts contact information via mailing address and telephone number.

290

CERN document server [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Permits searching through the bibliographic information and the full-text of documents stored in CDS catalogues. Includes over 666,000 bibliographic records, including 320,000 full-text documents, of interest to people working in particle physics and related areas. Covers preprints, articles, books, journals, photographs, and much more.

291

Electronic Resources for Searching Health Scientific Information: Database Publication Type / Recursos Electrónicos para la Búsqueda de Información Científica en Salud: Tipos de Bases de Datos de Publicaciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A pesar de la gran cantidad de información disponible en Internet, la obtención de información científica válida y evidente puede no ser una tarea sencilla. El objetivo fue identificar las diferentes bases de datos, motores de búsqueda y bibliotecas disponibles para recuperar la información científi [...] ca publicada en ciencias de la salud. Estudio de publicación de base de datos. Se realizó una búsqueda en los metabuscadores Altavista, Google, Yahoo, Ixquick y Copérnico, y en la base de datos "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS). La estrategia de búsqueda utilizó los términos "sistemas de gestión de base de datos", "informática médica", "motor de búsqueda" y "toma de decisiones". Se creó un documento de síntesis de la información recogida. Las direcciones halladas se agruparon en: bases de datos, motores de búsqueda y bibliotecas. A partir de la búsqueda realizada se encontraron 46 fuentes electrónicas: 25 bases de datos, 8 motores de búsqueda y 13 bibliotecas. Existe una gran variedad de recursos para la búsqueda de información científica en salud. Conocer la diversidad de opciones disponibles en el acceso a la información ayuda al usuario para llevar adelante su investigación y para poder realizar la toma de decisiones relacionada con la salud. Abstract in english Despite the large amount of information available on the Internet, getting valid scientific information and evidence may not be a simple task. The aim of this study was to identify the different databases, search engines and libraries available to retrieve published scientific information in health [...] sciences Database publication type. A search on Altavista, Google and Yahoo, Ixquick and Copérnico metasearch engines and in the database "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS) was performed. The search strategy used the terms "database management systems", "medical informatics", "search engine" and "decision making". A summary document of the information collected was created. Addresses found were grouped into: databases, search engines and libraries. The search performed returned 46 electronic resources: 25 databases, 8 search engines and 13 libraries. There is a variety of resources for searching health scientific information. Knowing the diversity of available options aids the user in access to information to generate research and health-related decision-making.

Carlos, Manterola; Tamara, Otzen; Lilian, Calo.

1484-14-01

292

Quality control and statistical modeling for environmental epigenetics: A study on in utero lead exposure and DNA methylation at birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA methylation data assayed using pyrosequencing techniques are increasingly being used in human cohort studies to investigate associations between epigenetic modifications at candidate genes and exposures to environmental toxicants and to examine environmentally-induced epigenetic alterations as a mechanism underlying observed toxicant-health outcome associations. For instance, in utero lead (Pb) exposure is a neurodevelopmental toxicant of global concern that has also been linked to altered growth in human epidemiological cohorts; a potential mechanism of this association is through alteration of DNA methylation (e.g., at growth-related genes). However, because the associations between toxicants and DNA methylation might be weak, using appropriate quality control and statistical methods is important to increase reliability and power of such studies. Using a simulation study, we compared potential approaches to estimate toxicant-DNA methylation associations that varied by how methylation data were analyzed (repeated measures vs. averaging all CpG sites) and by method to adjust for batch effects (batch controls vs. random effects). We demonstrate that correcting for batch effects using plate controls yields unbiased associations, and that explicitly modeling the CpG site-specific variances and correlations among CpG sites increases statistical power. Using the recommended approaches, we examined the association between DNA methylation (in LINE-1 and growth related genes IGF2, H19 and HSD11B2) and 3 biomarkers of Pb exposure (Pb concentrations in umbilical cord blood, maternal tibia, and maternal patella), among mother-infant pairs of the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohort (n = 247). Those with 10 ?g/g higher patella Pb had, on average, 0.61% higher IGF2 methylation (P = 0.05). Sex-specific trends between Pb and DNA methylation (P < 0.1) were observed among girls including a 0.23% increase in HSD11B2 methylation with 10 ?g/g higher patella Pb. PMID:25580720

Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Sánchez, Brisa N; Dolinoy, Dana C; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Peterson, Karen E; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M

2015-01-01

293

Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: the importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as "little adults"; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahr(b-1/d) ("responsive") genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahr(d/d) ("non-responsive") siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing. PMID:18848954

Castro, David J; Löhr, Christiane V; Fischer, Kay A; Pereira, Clifford B; Williams, David E

2008-12-15

294

Characterization of placental cholesterol transport : ABCA1 is a potential target for in utero therapy of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by approximately 30%. In contrast, disruption of the Abcg1 had no effect. Treatment of pregnant C57Bl/6 female mice with TO901317, an LXR-agonist, increased both Abca1 expression and maternal-fetal cholesterol transfer to the fetus. In an SLOS mouse model (Dhcr7(-/-)), which is incapable of de novo synthesis of cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating maternal-fetal cholesterol transport has potential for in utero therapy of SLOS.

Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A

2008-01-01

295

Permanently compromised NADPH-diaphorase activity within the osmotically activated supraoptic nucleus after in utero but not adult exposure to Aroclor 1254.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stimulated vasopressin (VP) release from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) of hyperosmotic rats is inhibited by treatment with the industrial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, Aroclor 1254. Because VP responses to hyperosmotic stimulation are regulated by nitric oxide (NO) signaling, we studied NO synthase (NOS) activity in the SON of hyperosmotic rats as potential target of PCB-induced disruption of neuroendocrine processes necessary for osmoregulation. To examine PCB-induced changes in NOS activity under normosmotic and hyperosmotic conditions, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to Aroclor 1254 (30mg/kg/day) in utero and NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) activity was assessed in SON sections at three ages: postnatal day 10, early adult (3-5 months) or late adult (14-16 months). Hyperosmotic treatment increased mean NADPH-d staining density of oil hyperosmotic controls by 19.9% in early adults and 58% in late adulthood vs normosmotic controls. In utero exposure to PCBs reduced hyperosmotic-induced upregulation of NADPH-d activity to control levels in early adults and by 28% in late adults. Basal NADPH-d was reduced in postnatal rats. Rats receiving PCB exposure as early adults orally for 14 days displayed normal responses. Our findings show that developmental but not adult exposure to PCBs significantly reduces NOS responses to hyperosmolality in neuroendocrine cells. Moreover, reduced NADPH-d activity produced by in utero exposure persisted in stimulated late adult rats concomitant with reduced osmoregulatory capacity vs oil controls (375±9 vs 349±5mOsm/L). These findings suggest that developmental PCBs permanently compromise NOS signaling in the activated neuroendocrine hypothalamus with potential osmoregulatory consequences. PMID:25572879

Coburn, Cary Glenn; Watson-Siriboe, Abena; Hou, Borin; Cheetham, Chad; Gillard, Elizabeth Rachel; Lin, Lisa; León-Olea, Martha; Sánchez-Islas, Eduardo; Mucio-Ramírez, Samuel; Currás-Collazo, Margarita Concepcion

2015-03-01

296

Sex Steroid Hormone Levels and Reproductive Development of Eight-Year-Old Children following In Utero and Environmental Exposure to Phthalates  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted. PMID:25207995

Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Lin, Ching-Yi; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Wang, Shu-Li

2014-01-01

297

Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

Royo Pedro

2009-01-01

298

Library resources on the Internet  

Science.gov (United States)

Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

Buchanan, Nancy L.

1995-07-01

299

Unusual outcome of in utero infection and subsequent postnatal super-infection with different PCV2b strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

VC2002, isolated from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pig, is a mixture of two porcine circovirus genotype 2b (PCV2b) viruses, K2 and K39. Preliminary experiments disclosed short-term adverse effects of K39, but not K2, on porcine foetuses. These findings led to the hypothesis that infection of immuno-incompetent foetuses with K2 confers a status of immunotolerance, and postnatal super-infection with K39 triggers PMWS. To explore this hypothesis, nine 55-day-old foetuses were inoculated in utero (three with K2-10(4.3)TCID50, three with K39-10(4.3)TCID50 and three with medium), and foeto-pathogenicity examined. At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), K2 did not induce pathology, whereas pathological effects of K39 were evident. Twenty-four 45-day-old foetuses were subsequently inoculated to examine the long-term effect of K2, including six with K2-high dose-10(4.3)TCID50, six with K2-low dose-10(2.3)TCID50 and 12 mock-inoculated controls. Both doses resulted in five mummified foetuses and one live-born piglet each (69dpi). K2 was recovered from all mummies. K2 and K2-specific antibodies were not detected in serum of the two live-born piglets at birth, indicating full control of K2 infection. The K2-low dose-infected piglet was immunostimulated at day 2, but not the K2-high dose-infected piglet. Both non-stimulated and stimulated K2-infected piglets were super-inoculated with K39 at day 6 or 8 (taken as 0 days post super-inoculation). Low viral replication was observed in the non-stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(3.3)TCID50/g; identified as K39). In contrast, viral replication was extremely high in the stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(5.6)TCID50/g) and identified as K2, indicating that K2 infection is controlled during foetal life, but emerges after birth upon immunostimulation. However, none of the piglets showed any signs of PMWS. PMID:24950783

Saha, Dipongkor; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Huang, Liping; Geldhof, Marc; Vanhee, Merijn; Lefebvre, David J; Meerts, Peter; Ducatelle, Richard; Doorsselaere, Jan V; Nauwynck, Hans J

2014-06-01

300

Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

2004-09-15

301

Resources for the Practitioner.  

Science.gov (United States)

This list of print and electronic resources is designed to act as a springboard to assist practitioners in finding information to start implementing sustainability efforts on their campuses. The resources are listed in the following categories: general, international, K-12, policy/partnerships, campus environmental assessments, green building,…

Hackeling, Joan, Comp.

2003-01-01

302

In utero and early-life exposure of rats to a Wi-Fi signal: screening of immune markers in sera and gestational outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. Pregnant rats were exposed free-running, 2 h/day and 5 days/week to a 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi signal in a reverberation chamber at whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0, 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg (with 10, 10, 12, and 9 rats, respectively), while cage control rats were kept in the animal facility (11 rats). Dams were exposed from days 6 to 21 of gestation and then three newborns per litter were further exposed from birth to day 35 postnatal. On day 35 after birth, all pups were sacrificed and sera collected. The screening of sera for antibodies directed against 15 different antigens related to damage and/or pathological markers was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No change in humoral response of young pups was observed, regardless of the types of biomarker and SAR levels. This study also provided some data on gestational outcome following in utero exposure to Wi-Fi signals. Mass evaluation of dams and pups and the number of pups per litter was monitored, and the genital tracts of young rats were observed for abnormalities by measuring anogenital distance. Under these experimental conditions, our observations suggest a lack of adverse effects of Wi-Fi exposure on delivery and general condition of the animals. PMID:22228576

Aït-Aïssa, Saliha; Billaudel, Bernard; Poulletier de Gannes, Florence; Ruffié, Gilles; Duleu, Sébastien; Hurtier, Annabelle; Haro, Emmanuelle; Taxile, Murielle; Athané, Axel; Geffard, Michel; Wu, Tongning; Wiart, Joe; Bodet, Dominique; Veyret, Bernard; Lagroye, Isabelle

2012-07-01

303

Effects of in utero exposure to D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in the male rat: a comparison with finasteride.  

Science.gov (United States)

D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm fruits, consisting of a mixture of free fatty acids, that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. This study investigated the possible alterations due to D-004 of androgen-dependent development after exposure in utero and compared them with those due to finasteride. Rats were randomized into five experimental groups: a control group, three groups treated with D-004 at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively, and a group treated with finasteride (10 mg/kg/day). Male rats were treated 10 weeks before and during mating. Female rats were treated for 15 days prior mating, during mating, during pregnancy, and until lactation (day 21) except for those treated with finasteride, which were only administered the drug on gestational days 12-21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy after postnatal day 90. The results of the present study indicate that D-004 induced no alterations in androgen-dependent development after the exposure in utero. Also, the current study demonstrated a permanent reduction in anogenital distance and retention of nipples in adult male rats exposed to finasteride during late gestation. Significant alterations induced by exposure to finasteride were mainly in tissues dependent on dihydrotestosterone during development. PMID:21861713

Martínez, Ariadne Gutiérrez; Pardo, Balia; Gámez, Rafael; Mas, Rosa; Noa, Miriam; Marrero, Gisela; Valle, Maikel; García, Haydee; Curveco, Dayisell; Mendoza, Nilda; Goicochea, Edy

2011-12-01

304

Effect of in utero-administered coumestrol, equol, and organic selenium on biomarkers for phase 2 enzyme capacity and redox status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in utero administration of coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast on selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes, plasma hormone levels, and markers for redox status in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The test compounds were administered via the diet to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. Within 24 h following delivery dams and offspring were sacrificed, and blood, liver and reproductive organs were sampled. Coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast did not significantly affect hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR), or RBC glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) in the offspring, whereas significant increases in GST QR, and GP(x) activities in dams were observed following administration of selenium-enriched yeast. The level of 17beta-estradiol in offspring from coumestrol-exposed dams was significantly increased compared with the control. The present results indicate that selenium-enriched yeast, coumestrol, andequol affect selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes and GP(x) in RBC in dams, whereas the offspring in general were refractive to the employed treatments. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the observed in utero effects imposed by the selected plant compounds confer permanent alterations on the health status of the animal resulting in an altered resistance to cancer.

Kramer, F.; Jensen, P. S.

2003-01-01

305

Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data

306

Biochemical analysis of cerebrum of fetal rats X-irradiated in utero - content and composition of DNA, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero and biochemical analysis of the cerebrum was performed. The cerebral weight was significantly lower in the irradiated group on gestational day (gd) 13 with 100R than in the control group from gd 19 to postnatal day (pd) 15. In the isolation step for cerebral DNA on gd 21, decreased DNA contents of the homogenate and isolated nuclei and an increase in the ratio of protein to DNA in nuclei and isolated DNA were observed on X-irradiation. Analysis of the nucleoside composition of isolated DNA showed the radiation resistivity of dAdo. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was extremely low in fetal cerebrum. The lipid peroxide (LP) level of the cerebrum in the irradiated group was increased compared to that in the control group. Administration of vitamin E during pregnancy resulted in an increased cerebral weight and a decreased cerebral LP level in the irradiated fetuses. The low activity of SOD may be one of the factors which cause the vulnerability of the fetal brain to irradiation. The study on vitamin E supplementation showed evidence of the possibility of the prevention of microcephaly induced by X-irradiation in utero. (orig.)

307

Human Specimen Resources | Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pathology Investigation and Resources Branch support programs that collect and distribute human biospecimens programs through grant funding. These programs make high-quality tissue and associated data available to the research community. Listed below is a description of current PIRB supported programs.

308

Routledge French technical dictionary [electronic resource] : French-English, English-French = Dictionnaire technique anglais : Français-Anglais, Anglais-Français.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic dictionary of over 75 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in English and French, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

309

Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate  

Science.gov (United States)

Several phthalate esters have been linked to the Phthalate Syndrome, affecting male reproductive development when administered to pregnant rats during in utero sexual differentiation. The goal of the current study was to enhance understanding of this class of compounds in the Spr...

310

INDUCTION OF CYP1A1 AD CYP1B1 AND FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN C57BL/6, BALB/C, AND F1 MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3¿m...

311

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a [...] consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT), masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea. Abstract in english Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anestheti [...] c considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia) by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Juan Camilo, Ospina-García; Carolina, Wuesthoff-Prieto; Santiago, Eslava-Cerón.

2012-06-01

312

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT, masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea.Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anesthetic considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Juan Camilo Ospina-García

2012-06-01

313

Cataloging Internet resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of resources available on the Internet continues to expand exponentially, but finding appropriate resources is still a fragmented, hit-or-miss operation. Traditional library expertise in bibliographic description and access should be applied to the management of this emerging body of material. In the process, catalogers will be able to assess the adequacy of current tools (e.g., cataloging codes, machine-readable cataloging formats, integrated library systems) for providing access to Internet resources and will contribute credibly to design or redesign of access tools. This paper outlines the major issues that must be considered in cataloging electronic resources. PMID:7599587

Flannery, M R

1995-04-01

314

Comunidades científicas e infra-estrutura tecnológica no Brasil para uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação na pesquisa / Scientific communities and technological infrastructure in Brazil for use of electronic resources of communication and information in research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Estudo do uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação por pesquisadores brasileiros, na geração de novos conhecimentos. A análise abrange a freqüência de participação na rede, fatores intervenientes, finalidades de uso e o grau de relevância dessa tecnologia. No acesso e uso da informaçã [...] o científica e técnica, são comparados os recursos eletrônicos/digitais e os impressos/ tradicionais. A partir dos resultados, são identificadas percepções e perspectivas, entre as quais a aproximação entre comunicação científica e divulgação científica, a confluência dos processos de comunicação e informação e o crescente interesse pela temática da pesquisa, inclusive no Brasil. Pela importância dos recursos eletrônicos para pesquisa, há necessidade de sua expansão e atualização constantes, com investimento das instituições e sua inserção nas políticas públicas nacionais. Abstract in english Usage study of communication and information electronic resources by Brazilian researchers in the generation of new knowledge. The analysis encompasses the frequency of participation in the network as well as the intervenient factors, usage aims and the relevance of this technology. Electronic resou [...] rces and traditional printed ones are compared in scientific and technical information usage and access. Results identified perceptions and perspectives, among which the coming together of scientific communication and scientific divulgation, the confluence of communication and information processes and the growing interest for research in the area, including Brazil. Considering the importance of electronic resources for research, there is a need for its constant expansion and updating, which implies investments by Brazilian institutions and its insertion in the national public policies.

Lena Vania Ribeiro, Pinheiro.

2003-12-01

315

E Resources  

OpenAIRE

The E- Resources have become very popular in Libraries & Information Centers. This paper deals with the concept of E- Resources, its Features and types as well as Use of e-resources in libraries and selection cum evaluation of e-resources It also reveals the significance of E- resources.

Dalve, Daya B.; Tekale, R. B.

2012-01-01

316

Intellectual development of children exposed to radioactive iodine in utero and up to the age of 1.5 years old as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of intellectual development of 235 children who were irradiated with radioiodine in utero and within the first year of life was performed in 1998-1999. The control group consisted of 105 children examined in ecologically clean zone. The study of intelligence was performed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - WISC-III UK. In the group exposed to radiation prenatally (mean thyroid dose = 18.77 cGy, SD=28.77), comparisons of test scores didn't show statistically significant differences as compared with the control group. In the group exposed to radiation after birth (mean thyroid dose = 83.02 cGy, SD=66.05), significantly lower scores of the subtests Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and level of Performance IQ as compared to the controls were detected

317

Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

Christian, Carol A.

318

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

319

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

2004-09-15

320

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects bone tissue in rhesus monkeys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone tissue is one of the target tissues for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on bone tissue in rhesus monkey, the most human-like experimental model available. Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; age 4-10 years) were exposed to TCDD with a total dose of 40.5-42.0 or 405-420 ng/kg bodyweight by repeated subcutaneous injections starting at gestational day 20 and followed by injections every 30 days until 90 days after delivery. At a mean age of 7 years the offspring were sacrificed and the femur bone dissected. Results from peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) analyses of the metaphyseal part of the femur bones in female offspring showed significant increases in trabecular bone mineral content (BMC; +84.6%, p < 0.05, F-value (F) = 5.9) in the low-dose treatment group compared with the controls. In the same animals, analysis of the mid-diaphyseal part revealed increases in total BMC (+21.3%, p < 0.05, F = 5.2) and cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; +16.4%, p < 0.01, F = 7.4) compared with the controls. In males, changes in biomechanical properties indicating more fragile bone were observed. Displacement at failure were significantly increased in the male low-dose group compared to the controls (+38.0%, p < 0.05, F = 11). The high dose of TCDD did not induce any significant changes in bone morphology. In conificant changes in bone morphology. In conclusion, in utero and lactational low-dose, but not high-dose exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced disruption of bone tissue development in rhesus monkey, a result suggesting that similar effects might occur in humans also

321

In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

Russo Irma H

2011-01-01

322

Antiandrogen exposure in utero disrupts expression of desert hedgehog and insulin-like factor 3 in the developing fetal rat testis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testicular development is an androgen-dependent process, and fetal exposure to antiandrogens disrupts male sexual differentiation. A variety of testicular disorders may result from impaired development of fetal Leydig and Sertoli cells. We hypothesized that antiandrogenic exposure during fetal development interferes with desert hedgehog (Dhh) signaling in the testis and results in impaired Leydig cell differentiation. Fetal rats were exposed in utero to the antiandrogen flutamide from 10.5 d post conception (dpc) until they were killed or delivery. Fetal testes were isolated at different time points during gestation and gene expression levels of Dhh, patched-1 (Ptc1), steroidogenic factor 1 (Sf1), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (Hsd3b1), and insulin-like factor 3 (Insl3) were analyzed. To study direct effects of hedgehog signaling on testicular development, testes from 14.5 dpc fetuses were cultured for 3 d in the presence of cyclopamine, sonic hedgehog, or vehicle, and gene expression levels and testosterone secretion were analyzed. Organ cultures were also analyzed histologically, and cleaved-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry was performed to assess apoptosis. In utero exposure to flutamide decreased expression levels of Dhh, Ptc1, Sf1, P450scc, Hsd3b1, and Insl3, particularly from 17.5 dpc onward. Inhibition of hedgehog signaling in testis cultures resulted in similar effects on gene expression levels. Apoptosis in Wolffian ducts was increased by cyclopamine compared with sonic hedgehog- or vehicle-treated cultures. We conclude that exposure to the antiandrogen flutamide interferes with Dhh signaling resulting in an impaired differentiation of the fetal Leydig cells and subsequently leading to abnormal testicular development and sexual differentiation. PMID:18772241

Brokken, Leon J S; Adamsson, Annika; Paranko, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma

2009-01-01

323

Integração e interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos em C&T: a proposta da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira / Integration and interoperability in accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Descreve as opções tecnológicas e metodológicas para atingir a interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos, disponíveis na Internet, no âmbito do projeto da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira em Ciência e Tecnologia, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e [...] Tecnologia (IBICT). Destaca o impacto da Internet sobre as formas de publicação e comunicação em C&T e sobre os sistemas de informação e bibliotecas. São explicitados os objetivos do projeto da BDB de fomentar mecanismos de publicação pela comunidade brasileira de C&T, de textos completos diretamente na Internet, sob a forma teses, artigos de periódicos, trabalhos em congressos, literatura "cinzenta", ampliando sua visibilidade e acessibilidade nacional e internacional, e também de possibilitar a interoperabilidade entre estes recursos informacionais brasileiros em C&T, heterogêneos e distribuídos, através de acesso unificado via um portal, sem a necessidade de o usuário navegar e consultar cada recurso individualmente. Abstract in english This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Techn [...] ical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web on publishing and communication in science and technology and also on information systems and libraries. The work stresses the two main objectives of BDL project: promoting electronic publishing of different full text materials - theses, journal articles, papers in events, "grey" literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a gateway, interoperability among those heterogeneous electronic information resources available in the Web, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query those resources one by one separately.

Carlos Henrique, Marcondes; Luís Fernando, Sayão.

2001-12-01

324

Managing Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

325

Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes. PMID:24937292

Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

2014-01-01

326

Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

Scott Marsalis

2008-12-01

327

What Can Electrons Do? Electron Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

From the NanoEd Resource Portal, this course aims to "educate students about important roles of electron microscopy in nanoscience and nanotechnology." Topics covered here include "electrons, principles of electron microscopy, applications of electron microscopy in characterizing nano-scale materials, and the development of electron microscopy to meet challenges in nanotechnology." Here, visitors will find the lecture notes of Dr. Jian-Guo Zheng from Northwestern University as pdf forms of PowerPoint presentations, which illustrate each topic. This is a helpful and ready-to-use lecture for any educator in a nanotechnology classroom to help students understand electron microscopy.

Zheng, Jian-Guo

328

Merge of terminological resources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects.

Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

2012-01-01

329

Depression - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

330

Evolução de 58 fetos com meningomielocele e o potencial de reparo intra-útero Fetal myelomeningocele and the potential in-utero repair: follow-up of 58 fetuses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico pré natal da meningomielocele (MM permite melhor planejamento de sua abordagem e, mais recentemente , um possível reparo intra-útero. OBJETIVO: Descrição da evolução perinatal de fetos com MM, acompanhados em um centro de referência em Medicina Fetal, identificando os possíveis fetos candidatos à cirurgia intra-uterina. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva descritiva de 58 casos de MM fetal, atendidos no CAISM-UNICAMP, de janeiro de 1997 a dezembro de 2001, identificando-se os casos cuja indicação de cirurgia fetal seria possível. RESULTADOS: Média da idade gestacional ao diagnóstico de 29 semanas (17-39; nível da lesão acima da região sacral em 85%; associação com hidrocefalia em 86%; taxa de complicações cirúrgicas de 39%. Na evolução, 98% apresentaram bexiga neurogênica e 60% deficiência neuro-mental. O potencial reparo intra-útero foi de 42%. CONCLUSÃO: MM está associada a graves e frequentes sequelas. Quase um terço dos nossos casos poderiam ter tido a cirurgia fetal como opção terapêutica.INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MM allows planning its management and, recently, a possible in utero repair. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perinatal outcome of fetuses with MM, in a Fetal Medicine Unit, identifying possible candidates for the in utero surgical repair. METHODO: Retrospective and descriptive study of 58 cases of prenatally diagnosed MM, at CAISM-UNICAMP, from January 1997 to December 2001, identifying possible fetal candidates for in utero repair. RESULTS: the diagnosis mean gestacional age was 29 weeks (17-39; level of lesions was above sacral region in 85%, association with hydrocephaly in 86%. Surgical complications were present in 39% of the neonates. During follow-up, 98% presented neurogenic bladder and 60% neurological/mental handicap. Twenty eight fetuses (42% could have indication of in utero repair. CONCLUSION: MM is associated with severe and frequent poor results. Almost one third of our cases could had fetal repair as a treatment choice.

Lourenço Sbragia

2004-06-01

331

Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

332

Internet Reference Resources in Language and Literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes Internet reference resources in language and literature. Includes general literature sites; language dictionaries; language resources; electronic text collections; author information and criticism; poetry; folklore and mythology; and children's literature. (AEF)

Day, Pam

1997-01-01

333

The roles of DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11?-HSD2 and exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero on newborn neurobehavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero may program infant neurobehavior via DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ( 11?-HSD-2), two placental genes that have been implicated in perturbations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We tested the relations among prenatal exposure to maternal depression or anxiety, methylation of exon 1F of NR3C1 and 11?-HSD-2, and newborn neurobehavior. Controlling for relevant covariates, infants whose mothers reported depression during pregnancy and showed greater methylation of placental NR3C1 CpG2 had poorer self-regulation, more hypotonia, and more lethargy than infants whose mothers did not report depression. On the other hand, infants whose mothers reported anxiety during pregnancy and showed greater methylation of placental 11?-HSD-2 CpG4 were more hypotonic compared with infants of mothers who did not report anxiety during pregnancy. Our results support the fetal programming hypothesis and suggest that fetal adjustments to cues from the intrauterine environment, in this case an environment that could be characterized by increased exposure to maternal cortisol, may lead to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24135662

Conradt, Elisabeth; Lester, Barry M; Appleton, Allison A; Armstrong, David A; Marsit, Carmen J

2013-12-01

334

Maternal human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) genetic variants associate with in utero mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Black South Africans.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 14-bp insertion/deletion (indel) within the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) that affects HLA-G expression has been associated with HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). However, other 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence HLA-G mRNA stability have been described but not analysed in the context of MTCT, and little is known about the role of HLA-G alleles. We examined HLA-G alleles and 3'UTR SNPs, including the 14-bp indel, in 216 mother-infant pairs from Johannesburg, South Africa. Mother-infant pairs were classified as HIV-1 non-transmitting (NT, n=144) or HIV-1 transmitting (TR, n=72) with either intrapartum (IP, n=29) or in utero (IU, n=19) infected infants. We found HLA-G allele, G(?)01:01:02 (in strong linkage disequilibrium with the 14-bp insertion) and +3187G SNP were significantly over-represented in IU-TR mothers compared to NT mothers (P=0.036, OR=2.26; P=0.011, OR=2.96, respectively). These findings suggest that maternal HLA-G alleles and/or SNPs that might alter expression of HLA-G potentially influence IU HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:25541520

Hong, Heather A; Paximadis, Maria; Gray, Glenda E; Kuhn, Louise; Tiemessen, Caroline T

2015-03-01

335

Successful EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure in a fetus diagnosed prenatally with congenital high-airway obstruction syndrome due to laryngeal atresia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital high-airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is due to rare malformations and has been reported previously in only few cases. If the diagnosis can be made prenatally, the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure may be life-saving. A healthy 28-year old nulli-para was referred because of isolated ascites found at gestational week 16 during routine ultrasound scan. Repeated scans showed overdistended hyperechogenic lungs with inverted diaphragm and a dilated trachea, which was interpreted as a CHAOS resulting from laryngeal atresia. The ascites eventually disappeared. An EXIT procedure was performed at 35 weeks of gestation. Anesthesia of the mother was induced with thiopental, succinylcholine and fentanyl followed by intubation, and maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide. A low abdominal midline incision was performed followed by a low transverse incision of the uterus. The fetal head, right arm and shoulder were delivered and intramuscular anesthesia was administered to the fetus. Immediate laryngoscopy confirmed the diagnosis and a tracheostomy was therefore performed. Surfactant was given after a few minutes of ventilation. Compliance improved and when the fetus was easy to ventilate, it was delivered. The baby is developing normally at 18 months of age. Surgical correction of the malformation will be performed after two years of age. It is concluded that some fetuses with a prenatal diagnosis of CHAOS can benefit from the EXIT procedure at delivery. This necessitates a multidisciplinary management team. PMID:11194545

Bui, T H; Grunewald, C; Frenckner, B; Kuylenstierna, R; Dahlgren, G; Edner, A; Granström, L; Selldén, H

2000-10-01

336

Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Nitrate after In Utero Exposure in Rats and of Nitrate and Nitrite in the H295R and T-Screen Assay  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studies of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in vitro assays, the H295R assay and T-screen. There were no consistent indications that nitrate induces anti-androgenic effects in male fetuses or that prenatal nitrate exposure affected the thyroid axis. However, a more comprehensive study with long-term exposure before and during pre- and postnatal development would be relevant to sufficiently address the concerns based on the indications for endocrine disrupting effects in adult animals.

Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla

2009-01-01

337

Surgery and postoperative brachytherapy for treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer: an alternative to the standard association of utero vaginal brachytherapy + surgery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. -Evaluate the results of the treatment of small uterine cervix cancer with the association of surgery and postoperative vaginal brachytherapy, without unfavourable prognostic factors. Patients and methods. -After radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy, 29 women (mean age: 44 years) with carcinoma < 25 mm (26 stage IB1, 3 IIA, mean size: 15 mm) were treated by post-operative prophylactic vaginal brachytherapy using low dose rate. Ovarian transposition was performed at the surgical time in 14 young women (mean age 35 years). Results. - The actuarial specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 90% respectively, with a mean follow-up 75 months. Only one local recurrence was observed. The rate of grade 1 post-operative complication was 7%. The conservation rate of the ovarian function was 85% for young women. Conclusion. -Treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer using first surgery and post-operative vaginal brachytherapy is a reliable therapeutic option. The results in terms of specific survival and complications are the same with those after standard association of preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy and surgery. (authors)

338

Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 ?g/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17?-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. PMID:24213843

Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

2014-02-01

339

Water Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

340

Electronics and electronic systems  

CERN Document Server

Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

Olsen, George H

1987-01-01

341

Veterinary Medicine Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Iowa State University's libraries have been compiling electronic subject guides for a number of years, and this is one such guide that users in the field of veterinary medicine will want to bookmark. Organized thematically, the resources are contained within one single list, and they are divided into categories such as websites, electronic journals, online abstracts, and basic pet care and health resources. Some of the gateway sites are quite helpful, particularly the link to the animal diseases database offered by the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. Both potential veterinarian technicians and laypersons will appreciate the pet care links, which include links to the Healthy Pet site created by the American Animal Hospital Association and an overview to animal care created by the American Veterinary Medical Association.

342

DiscoveryResources.org  

Science.gov (United States)

An interesting site that is packed full of up-to-date info, discoveryresources.org is "where you will find the most up-to-date information, resources and news available about electronic discovery...(the site) offers much needed resources for legal professionals who seek to understand the many new technological and legal challenges associated with electronic discovery." As fast as the technology revolution is booming, so too is are all of the legal strings attached. This site seeks to provide professionals in the field with a means to stay up on discovery news. With links to Legal News, Featured Articles, a weblog, and a Reading Room, there is lots of useful information on this unique site.

343

The Electronic Zoo  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Zoo: A List of Animal-Related Computer Resources (Internet/Bitnet Mailing Lists, Gophers, World Wide Web Sites, Mail Servers, Usenet Newsgroups, FTP Archives, Commercial Online Services, and Bulletin Board Systems.)

Boschert, Ken.

344

Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM  

Science.gov (United States)

This website is from Boston Museum of Science and is an introduction to Scanning Electron Micrscope (SEM). It contains an image gallery of insects, plants and other items as seen with an SEM. A slide show and a movie explains how the microsope works. Teacher resources offer guidance on building your own microscope and setting up a lab, including wet mounts and staining cells. Information on how the Museum uses the scope, and additional electronic resources, completes the site.

345

Transition Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a site for teachers that work with students with disabilities at the secondary level. This site is broken down into categories to help you with the transition aspect of the IEP. The categories are as follows: Employment/Training, For Students - Career Exploration and Profiles, Independent Living, Learning Styles & Trainings, Level 1 Assessments, Self-Determination, and Transition Resources. All of the resources included in this site are free! TRANSITION RESOURCES: 1.) Adult Career and Continuing Education Services (ACCES-VR) This website takes you directly to the ACCES-VR website, where you can find information about vocational rehabilitation and the referral process. 2,) Guide to Quality Individualized Education Program (IEP) Development and Implementation Created by the New York State Special Education Department to help answer questions regarding the New IEP. Great resource! Gives examples!! 3.) Indicator 13 Checklist Use this ...

Transition

2011-11-23

346

Maximising resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper describes how the company's Jenbacher gas, configured for operating on methane gas from coal mines, landfills and organic waste, engines are helping China make the most out of its coal resources. 2 refs., 3 figs.

Pirker, G. [GE Energy (Austria)

2008-06-15

347

Arthritis - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation - www.arthritis.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

348

Mangrove Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

349

Infant cynomolgus monkeys exposed to denosumab in utero exhibit an osteoclast-poor osteopetrotic-like skeletal phenotype at birth and in the early postnatal period.  

Science.gov (United States)

RANKL is a key regulator of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. Denosumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that inhibits bone resorption by binding and inhibiting the activity of RANKL. To determine the effects of denosumab on pre- and postnatal skeletal growth and development, subcutaneous injections of 0 (control) or 50 mg/kg/month denosumab were given to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from approximately gestation day (GD) 20 until parturition (up to 6 doses). For up to 6 months postpartum (birth day [BD] 180/181), evaluation of the infants included skeletal radiographs, bone biomarkers, and oral examinations for assessment of tooth eruption. Infant bones were collected at necropsy for densitometry, biomechanical testing, and histopathologic evaluation from control and denosumab-exposed infants on BD1 (or within 2 weeks of birth) and BD181, and from infants that died or were euthanized moribund from BD5 to BD69. In all denosumab-exposed infants, biomarkers of bone resorption and formation were markedly decreased at BD1 and BD14 and slightly greater at BD91 vs. control, then similar to control values by BD181. Spontaneous long bone fractures were detected clinically or radiographically in 4 denosumab-exposed infants at BD28 and BD60, with evidence of radiographic healing at ?BD60. In BD1 infants exposed to denosumab in utero, radiographic evaluations of the skeleton revealed decreased long bone length; a generalized increased radio-opacity of the axial and appendicular skeleton and bones at the base of the skull with decreased or absent marrow cavities, widened growth plates, flared/club-shaped metaphysis, altered jaw/skull shape, and reduced jaw length; and delayed development of secondary ossification centers. Densitometric evaluations in these infants demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density at trabecular sites, but cortical bone mineral density was decreased. Histologically, long bone cortices were attenuated and there was an absence of osteoclasts. Bones with active endochondral ossification consisted largely of a dense network of retained primary spongiosa with reduced marrow space consistent with an osteopetrotic phenotype. A minimal increase in growth plate thickness largely due to the expansion of the hypertrophic zone was present. Retained woven bone was observed in bones formed by intramembranous ossification, consistent with absence of bone remodeling. These changes in bone tissue composition and geometry were reflected in reduced biomechanical strength and material properties of bones from denosumab-exposed infants. Material property changes were characterized by increased tissue brittleness reflected in reductions in calculated material toughness at the femur diaphysis and lack of correlation between energy and bone mass at the vertebra; these changes were likely the basis for the increased skeletal fragility (fractures). Although tooth eruption was not impaired in denosumab-exposed infants, the reduced growth and increased bone density of the mandible resulted in dental abnormalities consisting of tooth malalignment and dental dysplasia. Radiographic changes at BD1 persisted at BD28, with evidence of resumption of bone resorption and remodeling observed in most infants at BD60 and/or BD90. In 2 infants euthanized on BD60 and BD69, there was histologic and radiographic evidence of subphyseal/metaphyseal bone resorption accompanied by multiple foci of ossification in growth plates that were markedly increased in thickness. In infants necropsied at BD181, where systemic exposure to denosumab had been below limits of quantitation for approximately 3months, there was largely full recovery from all bone-related changes observed earlier postpartum, including tissue brittleness. Persistent changes included dental dysplasia, decreased bone length, reduced cortical thickness, and decreased peak load and ultimate strength at the femur diaphysis. In conclusion, the skeletal and secondary dental effects observed in infant monkeys exposed in utero to denosumab are consistent with the anticipat

Boyce, Rogely W; Varela, Aurore; Chouinard, Luc; Bussiere, Jeanine L; Chellman, Gary J; Ominsky, Michael S; Pyrah, Ian T

2014-07-01

350

Fetal mitochondrial heart and skeletal muscle damage in Erythrocebus patas monkeys exposed in utero to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.  

Science.gov (United States)

3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) is given to pregnant women positive for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to reduce maternal-fetal viral transmission. To explore fetal mitochondrial consequences of this exposure, pregnant Erythrocebus patas monkeys were given daily doses of 1.5 mg (21% of the human daily dose) and 6.0 mg (86% of the human daily dose) of AZT/kg body weight (bw), for the second half of gestation. At term, electron microscopy of fetal cardiac and skeletal muscle showed abnormal and disrupted sarcomeres with myofibrillar loss. Some abnormally shaped mitochondria with disrupted cristae were observed in skeletal muscle myocytes. Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme assays showed dose-dependent alterations. At the human-equivalent dose of AZT (6 mg of AZT/kg bw), there was an approximately 85% decrease in the specific activity of NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) and three- to sixfold increases in specific activities of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II) and cytochrome-c oxidase (complex IV). Furthermore, a dose-dependent depletion of mitochondrial DNA levels was observed in both tissues. The data demonstrate that transplacental AZT exposure causes cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial myopathy in the patas monkey fetus. PMID:10791874

Gerschenson, M; Erhart, S W; Paik, C Y; St Claire, M C; Nagashima, K; Skopets, B; Harbaugh, S W; Harbaugh, J W; Quan, W; Poirier, M C

2000-05-01

351

Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after birth cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchial lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Technically, by flow cytometry we were able to measure gamma interferon (gamma-IFN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-8 levels. In general, we found increases in the percentages of IL-4-, gamma-IFN-, and TNF-alpha-producing lymphocytes in the infected piglets compared to the percentages in the uninfected control animals, while there was a decrease in the percentage of IL-8-producing monocytes. We believe that these findings reflect a general lymphocyte activation stage that is created due to the infection and that occurs in combination with impairment of the monocyte function, possibly due to the ongoing viral replication in these cells. Single-cell bronchial lymph node preparations exhibited very much the samecytokine profiles as peripheral blood mononuclear cells except for a lack of IL-8 production. When the levels of the individual cytokines in the three groups of PRRSV-infected piglets were compared, the levels of cytokine expression at 4 weeks diverged from those at 2 and 6 weeks, in that there was a significant decrease in the numbers of lymphocytes producing gamma-IFN and TNF-alpha. This tendency was also observed among blood monocytes and lymph node macrophages. Possible reasons for this temporary immunosuppression in the piglets at 4 weeks are discussed.

Aasted, B.; Bach, P.

2002-01-01

352

In utero exposure to prepregnancy maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet impair regulators of mitochondrial dynamics in rat placenta and offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proportion of pregnant women who are obese at conception continues to rise. Compelling evidence suggests the intrauterine environment is an important determinant of offspring health. Maternal obesity and unhealthy diets are shown to promote metabolic programming in the offspring. Mitochondria are maternally inherited, and we have previously shown impaired mitochondrial function in rat offspring exposed to maternal obesity in utero. Mitochondrial health is maintained by mitochondrial dynamics, or the processes of fusion and fission, which serve to repair damaged mitochondria, remove irreparable mitochondria, and maintain mitochondrial morphology. An imbalance between fusion and fission has been associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and reproduction complications. In the present study, we examined the influence of maternal obesity and postweaning high-fat diet (HFD) on key regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission in rat offspring at important developmental milestones which included postnatal day (PND)35 (2 wk HFD) and PND130 (?16 wk HFD). Our results indicate HFD-fed offspring had reduced mRNA expression of presenilin-associated rhomboid-like (PARL), optic atrophy (OPA)1, mitofusin (Mfn)1, Mfn2, fission (Fis)1, and nuclear respiratory factor (Nrf)1 at PND35, while OPA1 and Mfn2 remained decreased at PND130. Putative transcriptional regulators of mitochondrial dynamics were reduced in rat placenta and offspring liver and skeletal muscle [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC1)?, PGC1?, and estrogen-related receptor (ERR)?], consistent with indirect calorimetry findings revealing reduced energy expenditure and impaired fat utilization. Overall, maternal obesity detrimentally alters mitochondrial targets that may contribute to impaired mitochondrial health and increased obesity susceptibility in later life. PMID:25336449

Borengasser, Sarah J; Faske, Jennifer; Kang, Ping; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Shankar, Kartik

2014-12-01

353

Lymphoid tissue tropism of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication during persistent infection of pigs originally exposed to virus in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to establish a persistent infection is the principal contributing factor to the world-wide spread of the disease. Several studies have documented the course of viral infection in postnatally infected pigs; however, very little is known regarding sites of virus replication during persistent infection of pigs exposed to PRRSV in utero. In this study, virus replication and PRRSV-specific antibody were followed for several hundred days in a group of pigs derived from three sows infected at 90 days of gestation with PRRSV isolate VR-2332. Eighty-four percent of pigs were born viremic with a mortality of 54% within 21 days after birth. At approximately 60 days sera from pigs were negative for virus by virus isolation. Analysis of virus replication in the tissues of pigs randomly sacrificed between 63 and 132 days showed no evidence of virus in lung and other non-lymphoid organs. However, virus was easily recovered from tonsil and lymph nodes and in situ hybridization identified these tissues as sites of virus replication. Even though replication was at a low level, virus was easily transmitted to sentinel pigs. By 260 days pigs became seronegative and did not transmit virus to sentinel pigs. Sacrifice of remaining pigs after 300 days showed no evidence of virus in blood and tissues. This study shows that congenital PRRSV-infected pigs can support virus replication for an extended period during which virus replication is primarily restricted to tonsil and lymph nodes. PMID:14559170

Rowland, Raymond R R; Lawson, Steven; Rossow, Kurt; Benfield, David A

2003-10-30

354

In utero and lactational exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants detected in Canadian Arctic human populations alters retinoid levels in rat offspring with low margins of exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctic inhabitants are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP), which may produce adverse health effects. This study characterized alterations in tissue retinoid (vitamin A) levels in rat offspring and their dams following in utero and lactational exposure to the Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM), a mixture of 27 contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), present in maternal blood of the Canadian Arctic Inuit population. Further, effect levels for retinoid system alterations and other endpoints were compared to the Arctic Inuit population exposure and their interrelationships were assessed. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed with NCM from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were obtained from offspring on PND35, PND77, and PND350 and their dams on PND30 for analysis of tissue retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes, and serum thyroid hormones. Benchmark doses were established for all endpoints, and a partial least-squares regression analysis was performed for NCM treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, CYP enzyme induction, and thyroid hormone levels, as well as body and liver weights. Hepatic retinoid levels were sensitive endpoints, with the most pronounced effects at PND35 though still apparent at PND350. The effects on tissue retinoid levels and changes in CYP enzyme activities, body and liver weights, and thyroid hormone levels were associated and likely driven by dioxin-like compounds in the mixture. Low margins of exposure were observed for all retinoid endpoints at PND35. These findings are important for health risk assessment of Canadian Arctic populations and further support the use of retinoid system analyses in testing of endocrine-system-modulating compounds. PMID:24588224

Elabbas, Lubna E; Esteban, Javier; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Viluksela, Matti; Borg, Daniel; Håkansson, Helen

2014-01-01

355

Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell prolifeion of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis

356

Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

PeterKochunov

2010-05-01

357

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Peter Goodhew

358

Sustainable materials and technologies [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SM&T publishes original full-length research articles and reviews in applied or fundamental science of nano-, micro-, meso-, and macro-scale aspects of materials and technologies for sustainable development with special attention to contributions that reduce the knowledge gap between materials and system designs.

359

National Technical Reports Library [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

NTRL offers access to a large number of U.S. Government sponsored research reports and studies in the physical sciences, technology, engineering, biological sciences, medicine and health sciences, agriculture and social sciences.

360

IEEE Xplore digital library [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content in IEEE Xplore comprises over 160 journals, over 1,200 conference proceedings, more than 3,800 technical standards, over 1,000 eBooks and over 300 educational courses. Approximately 25,000 new documents are added to IEEE Xplore each month.

361

Magyar Tudományos Akadémia, Kémiai Kutatóközpont [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Website of the Chemical Research Center of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, which incorporates the former Central Research Institute for Chemistry, the Institute of Isotopes, and the Research Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry. Principal research interests include the development of new functional materials, such as medicines, polymers, catalysts, nanostructured materials with specific properties and isotopes for labeling molecules.

362

Turkey & Turkish foreign policy [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consists of approximately 16,000 pages and hundreds of tables, diagrams and pictures. Features information on Turkish history, economy, social and cultural life, foreign policy, plus texts of bilateral and multilateral agreements and samples of Turkish music.

363

Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new seventh edition of the world-famous classic provides you with unrivaled, state-of-the art coverage of all aspects of chemical engineering, from the fundamentals to details on computer applications and control. Definitive reference for chemical and process engineers.

364

Handbook of hazardous chemical properties [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides chemical specific information pertinent to safe handling and transportation of chemicals, worker protection, emergency response information to address spills, explosions on fire situations, and chemical stability/reactivity data.

365

European Free Trade Association [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Lists the member states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland. Discusses the responsibilities of the EFTA Secretariat, Surveillance Authority, and Court. Links to EFTA legal texts and publications, including its annual report.

366

Association of Caribbean States [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), which works to harness, utilize, and develop the collective capabilities of the Caribbean region to achieve sustained cultural, economic, social, scientific and technological advancement. Discusses member countries, activities, and historical background.

367

International Chamber of Commerce [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the International Chamber of Commerce, a non-governmental organization of over 7000 companies and business associations in 140 countries which present ICC views to their governments. Posts contact information via mailing address, e-mail, and telephone and fax numbers. Highlights the activities of the ICC Commissioners and ICC services, such as the International Court of Arbitration, the International Bureau of Chambers of Commerce, ICC conferences, the ICC Commercial Crime Services. Access to ICC's news archives; membership information.

368

North Atlantic Treaty Organization [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Website of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Provides access to information on NATO's policies and structures, member countries, partnerships with neighbouring countries. Full-texts of official documents, press releases, speeches and publications, including the NATO handbook, NATO review.

369

Analytical quality control services (AQCS) [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial efforts of AQCS focused on the preparation of environmental RMs containing anthropogenic radionuclides for use by those laboratories employing nuclear analytical techniques. These RMs were characterised for their radionuclide content through intercomparison runs (IC) involving a core group of some 10 to 20 specialist laboratories. The success of these early exercises led AQCS to extend its activities to encompass both terrestrial and marine RMs containing primordial radionuclides and trace elements.

370

European Chamber of International Business [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the European Chamber of International Business, an imports promotion organization in the European Union, which aids development of trade, industry and tourism. ECIB was created in December 1995 to satisfy an increasing demand from European buyers for discovering new and more competitive suppliers from all over the world. The main originality of the chamber that it is the first to be conceived and initiated throughout the Internet.

371

National Research Centre : Kurchatov Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kurchatov Institute was founded in Moscow in 1943 in order to solve a defence issue of the development of nuclear weapon. It was known under a name of "Laboratory B-2 of the USSR Academy of Sciences". Since 1960 it was named Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. The Institute got the status of the Russian Research Centre in 1991 and in 2010 it became the National Research Centre (NRC "Kurchatov Institute").

372

Middle East Research Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

MERI is an independent, not-for-profit organisation, focused on policy issues relating to the people, the land and the system of governance in the Middle East in general, and Kurdistan and Iraq in particular. It is based in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq.

373

On Korea [electronic resource] : academic paper series.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KEI commissions 10 papers per year with diverse perspectives on original subjects of current interest to Korea watchers. This year-long program provides both leading Korea scholars and new voices from around the world to speak and write on trends and events affecting the Korean peninsula.

374

Energy conservation through energy storage [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The R&D programme Efficient Energy End-Use Technologies contains 14 different Implementing Agreements (IAs) of which one is the IA on energy storage (Energy Conservation through Energy Storage : ECES IA)

375

Global Legal Information Network [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A database of laws, regulations, judicial decisions, and other complementary legal sources contributed by governmental agencies and international organizations. These GLIN members contribute the official full texts of published documents to the database in their original language. Each document is accompanied by a summary in English and subject terms selected from the multilingual index to GLIN.

376

Uranium cost data service [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CRU's Uranium Mining Cost Data Service, is a detailed study of the of uranium mining costs around the world. The report analyses the evolution of mining costs over the next two decades breaking down costs by year, by company and country.

377

European Court of Human Rights [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), based in Strasbourg, France. Discusses the historical background of the court, its organization, procedures before the court, admissibility procedure, judgements, and advisory opinions. Details pending cases, judgements, and decisions.

378

Los Alamos National Laboratory [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Los Alamos National Laboratory, a multidisciplinary institution operated by the University of California for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Dept. of Energy. Website includes news releases, a science feature, the Science and Technology Base (STB) Program Office, the Bradbury Science Museum, education programs, laboratory organization, community, research library, and opportunities information.

379

Los Alamos research quarterly [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos research quarterly highlights ongoing work to enhance global security by ensuring the safety and reliability of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile, developing technical solutions to reduce the threat of weapons of mass destruction, and

380

Electronics - Simple Circuits  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a free 9:55 minute video posted on Teacher Tube about Electronics: Simple Circuits. It covers an introduction to basic electronics such as Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Law, simple circuits, series and parallel circuits. The presentation is easy to follow and offers good examples of simple circuitry. The video is a great resource for any technology classroom.

381

Entomology Index of Internet Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Entomology Department at Iowa State University maintains the Entomology Index of Internet Resources, a comprehensive page of entomology pointers in over 20 categories, ranging from beekeeping to Usenet. WWW, gopher, FTP, electronic mailing lists, and Usenet news resources are included. While the resource is aimed mainly at the higher education community, the K-12 Educator Recommended Resources page contains nearly 50 pointers. The site has also recently established a new checklist category that contains pointers to seven insect checklists at this time. Most of the site is searchable.

1998-01-01

382

Evolução de 58 fetos com meningomielocele e o potencial de reparo intra-útero / Fetal myelomeningocele and the potential in-utero repair: follow-up of 58 fetuses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico pré natal da meningomielocele (MM) permite melhor planejamento de sua abordagem e, mais recentemente , um possível reparo intra-útero. OBJETIVO: Descrição da evolução perinatal de fetos com MM, acompanhados em um centro de referência em Medicina Fetal, identificando os poss [...] íveis fetos candidatos à cirurgia intra-uterina. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva descritiva de 58 casos de MM fetal, atendidos no CAISM-UNICAMP, de janeiro de 1997 a dezembro de 2001, identificando-se os casos cuja indicação de cirurgia fetal seria possível. RESULTADOS: Média da idade gestacional ao diagnóstico de 29 semanas (17-39); nível da lesão acima da região sacral em 85%; associação com hidrocefalia em 86%; taxa de complicações cirúrgicas de 39%. Na evolução, 98% apresentaram bexiga neurogênica e 60% deficiência neuro-mental. O potencial reparo intra-útero foi de 42%. CONCLUSÃO: MM está associada a graves e frequentes sequelas. Quase um terço dos nossos casos poderiam ter tido a cirurgia fetal como opção terapêutica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MM) allows planning its management and, recently, a possible in utero repair. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perinatal outcome of fetuses with MM, in a Fetal Medicine Unit, identifying possible candidates for the in utero surgical repair. METHODO: Re [...] trospective and descriptive study of 58 cases of prenatally diagnosed MM, at CAISM-UNICAMP, from January 1997 to December 2001, identifying possible fetal candidates for in utero repair. RESULTS: the diagnosis mean gestacional age was 29 weeks (17-39); level of lesions was above sacral region in 85%, association with hydrocephaly in 86%. Surgical complications were present in 39% of the neonates. During follow-up, 98% presented neurogenic bladder and 60% neurological/mental handicap. Twenty eight fetuses (42%) could have indication of in utero repair. CONCLUSION: MM is associated with severe and frequent poor results. Almost one third of our cases could had fetal repair as a treatment choice.

Lourenço, Sbragia; Isabela Nelly, Machado; Carlos Eduardo Braidos, Rojas; Helder, Zambelli; Márcio Lopes, Miranda; Maria Otília, Bianchi; Ricardo, Barini.

2004-06-01

383

Screening by microarray analysis for genes that alter prostate development in C57BL/6J mice exposed in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats and mice leads to a disruption of prostate development in the male offspring. Although it is not clear if this phenomenon occurs in human populations exposed to TCDD, the observed effect level is low among the various endpoints of TCDD developmental toxicity in animal studies. Clarification of the mechanism by which the effect is produced at the molecular level would help substantiate male reproductive toxicity caused by in utero TCDD exposure as a model for human health risk assessment. In both rats and mice, a critical window for TCDD disruption of prostate development in late pregnancy has been illustrated. The primary alteration in gene expression that presumably causes this phenomenon depends on the fetal aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene being expressed in the fetal urogenital sinus from which the outgrowth of prostatic buds occurs. In the male offspring of mice exposed to TCDD on gestation day 13 (GD 13), severe inhibitory developmental effects were found on ventral prostate development. These effects were significantly lower when in utero TCDD exposure occurred after GD 16 than GD 13. Upon administration of TCDD to the dam on GD 13, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 were induced in the urogenital complex of the male offspring on postnatal day 14. Thus, ''dioxin biomarker genes'' are responsive to in utero and lactational TCDD exposure during the neonatal stage of development. This suggests that key TCDD responsive genes involved in disrupting prostate development would be genes other than CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In the present study we administered a single dose of TCDD to mouse dams during the critical window (GD 13 or GD 14) for impairing prostate development, or later during a less TCDD sensitive period (GD 17). Microarray techniques were then used to compare gene expression profiles of the fetus versus the urogenital sinus in order to identify genes involved in disruption of prostate development caused by in utero TCDD exposure.

Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Lin, Tienmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ. (United States); Suzuki, Junko S.; Wu, Qing; Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan)

2004-09-15

384

Transparent electronics  

CERN Document Server

First monograph on transparent electronicsA technological perspective rather than a scientific focusAlso of interest to researchers in printed electronics, large-area electronics, low-cost electronics and disposable electronics

Wager, John F; Presley, Rick E

2007-01-01

385

Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

386

Resource Notebook.  

Science.gov (United States)

Designed especially for school personnel, this notebook provides an easy reference for those interested in locating materials, organizations, information, and general resources related to the achievement of sex equity and the implementation of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Services are listed under such topics as sex equity…

Shaffer, Susan Morris, Comp.; Gordon, Barbara J. A., Comp.

387

Related Resources  

Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

related resources metadata made simpler: a guide for libraries. gail hodge. 2001. (www.niso.org) dublin core (dublincore.org) dublin core metadata element set (std.) (www.niso.org) crossref and reference linking (www.crossref.org) digital object identifier (www.doi.org) ...

388

Utero-vaginal high dose rate multi-fractionated curie therapy in one implant with the standard indications of exclusive curie-therapy or in addition to radiotherapy: a feasibility study; Curietherapie uterovaginale multifractionnee de haut debit de dose en un implant dans les indications standard de curietherapie exclusive ou completant la radiotherapie: etude de faisabilite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss data and results obtained while performing 200 utero-vaginal low dose rate curie-therapies and 5 utero-vaginal high dose rate curie-therapies. The procedure comprises a radiotherapy followed by a curie-therapy, a dosimetric MRI, and a definition of the macroscopic tumour volume and of high and medium risk planning target volumes on different parts of the digestive tract, a three-dimensional dosimetry, a control of dosimetric constraints, a manual optimization of these constraints, and fractionated irradiations. The passage from low dose rate to high dose rate curie-therapy did not raise any problem. Short communication

Guerif, S.; Berger, A.; Pinel, B.; Regneaux, P.; Magnien, G.; Bensadoun, R.J. [CHU, 86 - Poitiers (France)

2010-10-15

389

Effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to physical or chemical teratogens are expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins when embryonic hearts are cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to get more insight into the effects of teratogens on developing embryos, we investigated the protein synthesis patterns of the target organs isolated from teratogen-treated embryos. Rat embryos were either irradiated in utero with either 252Cf fission neutrons or 60Co gamma rays on day 8 of gestation or treated in utero with a bis(dichloroacetyl)diamine (a chemical teratogen) on days 9 and 10. Hearts were removed from the embryos on day 12 and were incubated in vitro at 37 degrees C in the presence of [35S]methionine for up to 8 hr. The newly synthesized labeled proteins were then analyzed qualitatively by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Enhanced and prolonged induction of a family of heat-shock (stress) proteins with a molecular weight of about 70,000 (SP70s) was observed as compared with those of controls. Among the teratogen-treated hearts, those with gross malformations already detectable at this early stage showed especially higher inductions of SP70s than did the others. The abnormal expression of SP70s observed in the present study appears to be a reflection of persisting cellular (tissue) damage inflicted by the teratogens, and the extent of the induction may be indicative of the degree and/or type of the damage. Such persisting defects in surviving cells, manifested by abnormal induction of SP70s in the present study, might be related to malformation of embryonic hearts

390

Favorite Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Please find the links to many websites used by students and staff. Moodle-Login Michigan eLibrary MeL: The Michigan eLibrary Visit Michigan eLibrary for an array of resources including: LearningExpressLibrary 3.0-first time users after 2013 - If you already have an account \\set up before 2014 - go to ACT Test Preparation - When you get to LearningExpressLibrary Username: your student ID number Password: ...

Ms. Schultz

2007-04-03

391

Teacher Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources for Preschool Teachers in the classroom. This link will have emotion faces and a tool to create a solution box for student use. Behavior This is the home page to Positive Behavior Intervention System PBIS Entering data for check points Creative Curriculum NAYEC national page along with the IA page NAEYC IA AEYC Dr. Jean's main page with some YouTube songs Dr. Jean ...

Heather Miller

2011-12-13

392

Water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concernstic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

393

Energy resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the availability of energy raw materials in the critical transition phase and on the necessity of system analytical availability investigations. An energy policy of consumer countreis with an eye to the future must adapt itself to the fact that the coming decades will be a critical transition phase regarding energy raw material supplies. Supplier and consumer countries will be confronted by a resource crisis in a wide and serious sense of the word during this critical transition phase. The energy policy of a country depending to a large and increasing extent on imports of energy raw materials, such as West Germany, is urgently in need of a realistic estimate of the resources problem. The complex and wide ranging problems of the critical transition phase require crossing of interdisciplinary boundaries and analysis of greater dimensions for their investigation. After available experience in system analysis in the energy field, there is no doubt that a solution of the resources problem is possible using system analytical availability investigations. (orig.)

394

The Nuclear Receptor Resource Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have expanded the original Glucocorticoid Receptor Resource (GRR) database to include several individual resources as part of a larger project called the Nuclear Receptor Resource (NRR). In addition to the GRR, the NRR currently features the Thyroid Hormone Receptor Resource, the Androgen Receptor Resource, the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Resource, the Vitamin D Receptor Resource, and the Steroid Receptor Associated Proteins Resource. The goal of the NRR project is to provide a comprehensive resource for information on the nuclear receptor superfamily, and to provide a forum for the dissemination and discussion of both published and unpublished material on these proteins. Although the individual resources are managed from different servers, all the files are integrated and can be accessed through the project's Home Page, housed at http://nrr. georgetown.edu/nrr.html. In the near future, we hope to expand the project to contain information on other nuclear receptors and to better our electronic publication system. To accomplish this, we encourage the involvement of nuclear receptor investigators in the NRR. PMID:9016529

Martinez, E; Moore, D D; Keller, E; Pearce, D; Robinson, V; MacDonald, P N; Simons, S S; Sanchez, E; Danielsen, M

1997-01-01

395

The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research  

OpenAIRE

The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development...

Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy

2010-01-01

396

Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

397

Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects.

Gupta, C.K. [BARC, Materials Group, Mumbai (India); Singh, H. [BARC, REDS and OSD-IREL, Mumbai (India)

2003-07-01

398

Progression angeborener Herzfehler in utero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herzfehler sind mit 0,8-1 % die häufigste Organfehlbildung bei Neugeborenen und damit 6,5mal häufiger als Chromosomenanomalien und 4mal häufiger als Neuralrohrdefefekte [1]. Sie sind für ca. 20 % der perinatalen Todesfälle verantwortlich. Die Beobachtung des natürlichen postnatalen Verlaufs von Herzfehlern hat gezeigt, daß nur wenige Vitien, wie z. B. der kleine Ventrikelseptumdefekt, im Laufe der Zeit eine Verbesserung im Sinne einer Verkleinerung zeigen und sich spontan sogar ganz verschließen können. Die große Mehrzahl der Herzfehler allerdings zeigt einen stetig progredienten Verlauf, der ohne Intervention zu vorzeitigen Problemen wie Rhythmusstörungen oder Herzinsuffizienz führt.

Tulzer G

2002-01-01

399

Annelid Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Polychaetologist Dr. Geoff Read of New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) provides this stupendous resource on Annelid worms. Full of content-rich, research-driven information, this resource serves as a major hub for experts and students interested in annelids. In the Research section, users will find current information on Polychaetes, Oligochaetes/ leeches, and annelid-allies, in addition to useful software and "some miscellaneous taxonomy links." The Taxonomy section covers background information including geographical faunal lists of Annelid species as well as Annelida phylogenies, with a link to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for those wishing to query Annelida taxonomic hierarchy. The Field Trips section provides external links to sites from Polychaete researchers and research labs, in addition to a series of interesting (and less-scientific) links to field sites featuring curious fauna, such as Vent and Seep fauna. In addition, Dr. Read maintains and moderates the ANNELIDA mailing list, the only annelid-related list, archived and searchable at the URL above.

400

Hard electronics; Hard electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

401

Gravidez Gemelar com Morte Fetal de Um dos Gêmeos: Avaliação Neurológica dos Gemelares Sobreviventes Neurological Evaluation of the Surviving Twin When One Dies In Utero  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar as intercorrências pré e perinatais e a evolução neurológica de crianças de gestações gemelares em que um dos fetos apresentou óbito intra-uterino. Métodos: foram avaliados 14 casos de gestações gemelares ocorridas no período de 1988 a 1994 com óbito de um dos fetos, acompanhadas no Setor de Patologia Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP. Dados do acompanhamento pré e perinatal, bem como de autópsia dos fetos mortos, foram obtidos. As crianças foram convocadas no ano de 1996 para exame neurológico, sendo avaliados dados evolutivos e sinais patológicos nas áreas motoras, sensitivas, sensoriais e funções corticais superiores, incluindo linguagem, praxias e agnosias. Resultados: do total de 14 casos, 10 retornaram para a avaliação neurológica tardia. Destas, apenas uma criança apresentou alteração no exame neurológico, cursando com paresia espástica de MIE de grau leve, tendo apresentado Apgar 0 no primeiro minuto e 5 no quinto minuto. A avaliação da placentação e idade gestacional mostrou 5 casos (35,7% com placentação monocoriônica e um caso com monoamniótica, 8 casos de pré-termo e 6 casos a termo. O óbito de um dos fetos ocorreu no segundo trimestre em 6 casos (42,8% e os demais no terceiro trimestre. Conclusões: o problema neurológico constatado em um único feto pode ser atribuído às intercorrências perinatais que este recém-nascido apresentou. Não tivemos como resultado outros RN com seqüelas provavelmente pela opção da conduta conservadora, tendo-se resolvido as gestações após a 32ª semana com diminuição das complicações do parto pré-termo extremo.Purpose: to analyze the effects of prenatal and perinatal complications and the neurological development of surviving twins when the other had died in utero. Methods: fourteen cases of twin pregnancies where one of the twins had died during the pregnancy were analyzed. These patients gave birth between 1988 and 1994 and were subsequently followed-up by the Department of Obstetrics, Pathology Division, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Data from prenatal and perinatal records as well as findings from the deceased twins' autopsies were analyzed. In 1996, requests were made for the children to have a neurological examination as part of the study. The examination included developmental assessment and pathological signs in the motor, sensory and sensitivy areas and superior cortical functions such as praxis and agnosia. Results: ten of the fourteen contacted subjects complied with the request for neurological examination. Of the ten examined children only one had abnormal neurological findings, presenting a light degree of spastic paresis of the left leg. The pregnancy evaluation showed five cases of monochorionic placenta and one case of monoamnionic pregnancy; six of the fourteen cases reached full-term. In six cases (42.8% one of the fetus died during the second trimester and in the other they died during the third trimester. Only one newborn, who had Apgar 0 at the first minute, developed neurological sequelae. Conclusion: the neurological problem of one fetus may be a consequence of the perinatal complications that this fetus developed. The other newborns did not develop sequelae, possibly because of the conservatory management, trying to make the pregnancy reach 32 weeks or more, thus decreasing the complications of preterm delivery.

Carolina Araújo Rodrigues Funayama

2002-03-01

402

Gravidez Gemelar com Morte Fetal de Um dos Gêmeos: Avaliação Neurológica dos Gemelares Sobreviventes / Neurological Evaluation of the Surviving Twin When One Dies In Utero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar as intercorrências pré e perinatais e a evolução neurológica de crianças de gestações gemelares em que um dos fetos apresentou óbito intra-uterino. Métodos: foram avaliados 14 casos de gestações gemelares ocorridas no período de 1988 a 1994 com óbito de um dos fetos, acompanhadas [...] no Setor de Patologia Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP. Dados do acompanhamento pré e perinatal, bem como de autópsia dos fetos mortos, foram obtidos. As crianças foram convocadas no ano de 1996 para exame neurológico, sendo avaliados dados evolutivos e sinais patológicos nas áreas motoras, sensitivas, sensoriais e funções corticais superiores, incluindo linguagem, praxias e agnosias. Resultados: do total de 14 casos, 10 retornaram para a avaliação neurológica tardia. Destas, apenas uma criança apresentou alteração no exame neurológico, cursando com paresia espástica de MIE de grau leve, tendo apresentado Apgar 0 no primeiro minuto e 5 no quinto minuto. A avaliação da placentação e idade gestacional mostrou 5 casos (35,7%) com placentação monocoriônica e um caso com monoamniótica, 8 casos de pré-termo e 6 casos a termo. O óbito de um dos fetos ocorreu no segundo trimestre em 6 casos (42,8%) e os demais no terceiro trimestre. Conclusões: o problema neurológico constatado em um único feto pode ser atribuído às intercorrências perinatais que este recém-nascido apresentou. Não tivemos como resultado outros RN com seqüelas provavelmente pela opção da conduta conservadora, tendo-se resolvido as gestações após a 32ª semana com diminuição das complicações do parto pré-termo extremo. Abstract in english Purpose: to analyze the effects of prenatal and perinatal complications and the neurological development of surviving twins when the other had died in utero. Methods: fourteen cases of twin pregnancies where one of the twins had died during the pregnancy were analyzed. These patients gave birth betw [...] een 1988 and 1994 and were subsequently followed-up by the Department of Obstetrics, Pathology Division, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Data from prenatal and perinatal records as well as findings from the deceased twins' autopsies were analyzed. In 1996, requests were made for the children to have a neurological examination as part of the study. The examination included developmental assessment and pathological signs in the motor, sensory and sensitivy areas and superior cortical functions such as praxis and agnosia. Results: ten of the fourteen contacted subjects complied with the request for neurological examination. Of the ten examined children only one had abnormal neurological findings, presenting a light degree of spastic paresis of the left leg. The pregnancy evaluation showed five cases of monochorionic placenta and one case of monoamnionic pregnancy; six of the fourteen cases reached full-term. In six cases (42.8%) one of the fetus died during the second trimester and in the other they died during the third trimester. Only one newborn, who had Apgar 0 at the first minute, developed neurological sequelae. Conclusion: the neurological problem of one fetus may be a consequence of the perinatal complications that this fetus developed. The other newborns did not develop sequelae, possibly because of the conservatory management, trying to make the pregnancy reach 32 weeks or more, thus decreasing the complications of preterm delivery.

Carolina Araújo Rodrigues, Funayama; Diva de Amorim, Novaes; Fabrício da Silva, Costa; Ricardo de Carvalho, Cavalli; Geraldo, Duarte; Sérgio Pereira da, Cunha.

2002-03-01

403

Electron radiography  

Science.gov (United States)

A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

2005-05-17

404

Hard electronics; Hard electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

NONE

1997-03-01

405

Electronic Commerce Research Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Commerce Research Center, created by CIO magazine, "examines the current state and future directions of conducting commerce on the Net." The report consists of full-text articles dealing with aspects of ecommerce from the pages of CIO magazine. Dating from 1995 to the present, articles are annotated and indexed by subjects such as Case Studies, Business to Business, and Electronic Data Interchange. Also included are links to online resources that also deal with the same subjects.

406

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

407

Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f(1) sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f(2) generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out. PMID:16740287

Rowlands, J C; Budinsky, R A; Aylward, L L; Faqi, A S; Carney, E W

2006-10-01

408

The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

2011-02-01

409

Scanning Electron Microscope  

Science.gov (United States)

This site from the Museum of Science features an introduction to scanning electron microscopy and is suitable for high school or introductory college audiences. It includes resources for teachers, an image gallery, a self paced tour, links, and a QuickTime animation.

Science Learning Network

410

Emerging Electronic Library Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussion of electronic library services and information and resource sharing highlights cooperative ventures between Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Pittsburgh, and the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Computer networks are described, online catalogs are explained, hardware and software are discussed, and future possibilities are…

Woodsworth, Anne

1990-01-01

411

Electron detector  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

412

DW3 Classical Music Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This site, hosted by the Duke University Music Library, is a sizable and well-organized metasite for classical music resources. Sections include Composer Homepages, Chronologies and Necrologies, National and Regionally Oriented Pages, Organizations and Centers for Scholarly Research, Electronic Journals and Newsletters, Genre-Specific Pages, and Databases (over 40). With the exception of the Chronologies and Necrologies and Databases sections, the featured links are not annotated. An internal search engine is also provided.

413

Electron/electron acoustic instability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

414

Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

Lawal, Ibironke O.

2007-01-01

415

Anestesia para tratamento intraparto extraútero (EXIT) em fetos com diagnóstico pré-natal de malformações cervical e oral: relato de casos Anestesia para el tratamiento intraparto extraútero (EXIT) en fetos con diagnóstico prenatal de malformaciones cervical y oral: relato de casos Anesthesia for ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure) in fetus with prenatal diagnosis of oral and cervical malformations: case reports  

OpenAIRE

JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O feto com diagnóstico pré-natal de massa cervical, ou qualquer outra doença que obstrua as vias aéreas, não deve ser abordado de forma convencional por apresentar dois desafios ao médico assistente logo após o parto: o tempo limitado para se estabelecer o acesso a vias aéreas potencialmente difíceis e a ausência de anestesia do neonato caso seja necessária instrumentação das vias aéreas. O procedimento EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment - EXIT proce...

Daniel Corrêa Helfer; Jefferson Clivatti; Américo Massafuni Yamashita; Antonio Fernades Moron

2012-01-01

416

DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST TO MEASURE E-RESOURCES KNOWLEDGE (ERKT) OF HIGHER SECONDARY TEACHERS  

OpenAIRE

-An electronic resource (E- Resource) is any information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format. E-Resource consist of e-books,e-journals,e-thesis, e-library, edatabases, e-portfolio, etc.. In this research paper an attempt has been made to construct and standardize the E- Resources Knowledge Test to measure E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers, as there is no suitable questionnaire available to measure the E- Resources knowledge of highe...

Selvam, P.; Naga Subramani, P. C.

2014-01-01

417

Age of Asia: Resources for Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Maintained by Kristina Kade Troost, the East Asian Librarian at Duke University, this site was created as a resource for student research projects in a business school course entitled Age of Asia. Some of the resources listed are located at Duke but the majority are freely accessible to anyone. At the site, users will find information on the course, country profiles, book and periodical databases, links to Asian newspapers, electronic databases, government sources and several special topics. Either as a stand-alone resource or as a model for an instructor's research/resource page, this site is a welcome addition to courses on Asia.

1998-01-01

418

Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Protein restriction in utero may give rise to re-stricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suit-ability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P < 0.05), and retained less nitrogen (0.3 vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P < 0.05) than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05). LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001) and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001) than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

Vesterdorf, Kristine HØvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul

2012-01-01

419

Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein restriction in utero may give rise to restricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suitability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001 but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P < 0.05, and retained less nitrogen (0.3 vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P < 0.05 than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05. LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001 and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001 than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

Kristine Vesterdorf

2012-01-01

420

Vacuum electronics  

CERN Document Server

Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

Eichmeier, Joseph A

2008-01-01

421

Integrated water resources management.  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays, the highest priority issue of water resources management is supply of increasing water demand with limited water resources. Water resources are a basis of sustainable development, so sustainable approach should be based on usage and management of water resources. In the twenty first century, the world is faced with a major water crisis. And the problems are originated from deficiencies and errors in the management of water resources. Thus, sustainable use of water resources is cruci...

EM?N TA?

1995-01-01

422

Basic electronics  

CERN Document Server

Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

Holbrook, Harold D

1971-01-01

423

Solar radiation resource assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

1990-11-01

424

Electron Tree  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled.

Appelt, Ane L; RØnde, Heidi S

425

Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction in 2-, 4-, and 6-week-old piglets, respectively. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA was detected in all piglets, while IL-10 was upregulated in 2-week-old piglets, was at normal levels in 4-week-old piglets, and elevated again in 6-week-old piglets. IL-12 was weakly elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV.

Johnsen, C. K.; BØtner, Anette

2002-01-01

426

Uranium resource processing: Secondary resources, India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the primary resources of uranium are the main contributors to the industrial uranium production, the secondary resources are becoming important from the viewpoint of eco-friendliness and resource conservation. The secondary resources include uraniferous phosphates processed by the fertiliser industry monazite, which is processed for rare earths elements, uraniferous carbonaceous materials and ultimately seawater. A significant advantage of the secondary resources is that the major cost of mining and processing is borne by the parent valuable content and only the incremental cost of uranium recovery needs to be considered. A second major advantage results from the radiation safety requirements. The primary sources, because of higher uranium content, are associated with higher levels of radioactive daughter products of uranium, which leads to imposition of strict radiological safety norms to mining and processing personnel, industry and environment. Secondary resources, by contrast, require very little additional safety engineering features to be incorporated. (author)

427

Electronic Commerce Institute  

Science.gov (United States)

The Board of Trade of Metropolitan Montreal created the Electronic Commerce Institute (ECI) in 1990 in order to promote and foster the growth of ecommerce applications within the Montreal business community. The ECI Website offers basic information about the Institute and about its courses, events, and services. Along with an excellent ecommerce guide for small businesses, Web reference resources and a suppliers directory are provided. Users should be aware that several sections and links are in French.

428

Electronics Communications: Course Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This course provided by eSyst describes electronics communications. An introduction explains the traditional view and systems view of this topic. The course includes numerous instructor presentations and student guides. Topics for these include Serial Digital Interface and Bluetooth as well as labs on Transmission Line Measurements and Short Range Wireless Experimentation. A detailed course outline, student learning outcomes, and links to additional online resources are also provided. Users must create a free, quick login in order to download the materials.

429

Electronic Recruitment at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

2004-01-01

430

Resources, Instruction, and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Many researchers who study the relations between school resources and student achievement have worked from a causal model, which typically is implicit. In this model, some resource or set of resources is the causal variable and student achievement is the outcome. In a few recent, more nuanced versions, resource effects depend on intervening…

Cohen, David K.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg

2003-01-01

431

The electron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

432

Resolved Electron  

OpenAIRE

Advantages of introducing the electron structure function in electron induced processes are demonstrated. At present energies the same experiment gives more precise description of the electron than photon structure. The momentum scales entering the process are better controlled. At very high momenta probabilistic (partonic) interpretation can be preserved despite strong \\gamma -Z interference. The ``virtual photon'' structure can also be reformulated in terms of more physica...

Slominski, W.; Szwed, J.

1998-01-01

433

Micropower electronics  

CERN Document Server

Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

Keonjian, Edward

1964-01-01

434

Trade in mineral resources  

OpenAIRE

This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

Davis, Graham A.

2010-01-01

435

Polymer electronics  

CERN Document Server

Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

Hsin-Fei, Meng

2013-01-01

436

Resource Letter: MesP-1: Mesoscopic physics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on mesoscopic electron physics of solids. Journal articles, conference proceedings, and books are cited for the following topics: conductance fluctuations in disordered and quantum-chaotic systems, conductance quantization, conduction of a Luttinger liquid, electron noise in mesoscopic devices, mesoscopic superconductivity, electron-electron interactions in mesoscopic systems and the Coulomb blockade phenomenon, and Kondo effect in quantum dots.

Glazman, L. I.

2002-04-01

437

The electron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs.

Hestenes, David (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Physics); Weingartshofer, Antonio (Saint Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia (Canada). Department of Physics, Laser-Electron Interactions Laboratory) (eds.)

1991-01-01