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  1. Electronic Resources Management : An Update

    Medeiros, Norm

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews the Digital Library Federation’s (DLF) Electronic Resource Management Initiative (ERMI) guidelines, finalized in August 2004. The specifications are reviewed in light of the electronic resource (e-resource) management needs of academic libraries. The piece reflects on comments made by Tim Jewell and Adam Chandler in an earlier “On the Dublin Core Front” column. A review of commercial e-resource management system development is also included.

  2. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  3. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  4. TERMS: Techniques for electronic resources management

    Emery, Jill; Stone, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Librarians and information specialists have been finding ways to manage electronic resources for over a decade now. However, much of this work has been an ad hoc and learn-as-you-go process. The literature on electronic resource management shows this work as being segmented into many different areas of traditional librarian roles within the library. In addition, the literature show how management of these resources has driven the development of various management tools in the market as well a...

  5. Digital Preservation of Electronic Resources

    Ramesh C. Gaur,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge advances in information communication technologies (ICTs, there has been an astronomicalgrowth of e-resourcese-journals, e-books, online databases and so on; libraries spend phenomenally onacquisition of these e- resources as these are very popularly used by the students and researchers.Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by many threats. Digital content (of the e- resources is fragile andnot durable. Its accessibility and use by future generations depends on technology which very rapidly evolvesand changes. Hence, ensuring access of e-resources for future generation of users is a big challenge forlibraries. The present paper highlights various problems of digital content and elaborates how digital preservationis more demanding and challenging than preserving print copies of journals. It also gives a birds eye viewof various projects initiated for archiving digital content of scholarly journals.

  6. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS) Initiatives

    John Paul Anbu K.; Sanjay Kataria; Shri Ram,

    2013-01-01

    Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources) in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the s...

  7. Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software

    Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

    2012-01-01

    The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

  8. Techniques in Electronic Resource Management (TERMS)

    Stone, Graham; Emery, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Two decades after the advent of electronic journals and databases, librarians are still grappling with ways to best manage these resources in conjunction with their print resources. In addition, economic pressures at many institutions of Higher Education are resulting in librarians having to justify their spending on collections and resource management. Furthermore, ebooks are becoming yet another stream of purchasing and management with the added complexity of patron driven acquisitions. All...

  9. Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management

    Tull, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, Ohio State University along with the University of Washington, the University of Western Australia, Washington State University, and Glasgow University entered into a development partnership with Innovative Interfaces. The goal was to develop a module to manage electronic resources, integrated into Innovatives Millennium library system. The product, Electronic Resource Management (ERM), became available in 2004 and is based on the work of the Digital Library Federation E...

  10. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS Initiatives

    John Paul Anbu K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the specific resource from the gamut of other resources followed by acquisition of the specific resource into the library realm and then felicitating access to the users and then the follow-up of studying the usage of the resource for further continuation of those resources. In between these processes there is the cumbersome chore of going through the licensing agreements and keeping the records correct. All these processes are time consuming and involve a lot of work. These relentless arrays of work have made librarians to look for systems which can save their time and energy and provide efficient management of e-resources. This paper looks at the origin of the ERMS (E-resource Management Systems and the available ERMS in the library digital landscape.

  11. Dynamics of Managing Electronic Resources: Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS Initiatives

    John Paul Anbu K.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Even after two decades of digital presence in libraries and proliferation of electronic resources (e-resources in terms of production, acquisition and usage the management of e-resources remains a cumbersome process. The process involved in the management of e-resources has often overwhelmed the library personnel. The life cycle of e-resources, especially in the academic institutions begin with the discovery and identification of the resource and moves on to the trial access, selecting the specific resource from the gamut of other resources followed by acquisition of the specific resource into the library realm and then felicitating access to the users and then the follow-up of studying the usage of the resource for further continuation of those resources. In between these processes there is the cumbersome chore of going through the licensing agreements and keeping the records correct. All these processes are time consuming and involve a lot of work. These relentless arrays of work have made librarians to look for systems which can save their time and energy and provide efficient management of e-resources. This paper looks at the origin of the ERMS (E-resource Management Systems and the available ERMS in the library digital landscape.http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/djlit.33.4885

  12. Radium uptake in utero

    This is a summary of information on a stillborn girl and her mother who had been a radium watch dial painter. Although many dial painters bore children, this is the only example of simultaneous radioactivity determinations in mother and child prior to normal delivery. This case provides an opportunity to assess the degree of transfer of radium to the fetus in utero and may be unique in the study of the placental transfer of radium in humans. Until now only measurements were known of the radium contents of fetuses and unrelated adults. 12 refs.; 3 tabs

  13. Semantic Web and Electronic Information Resources

    Radovanovic, Danica

    2003-01-01

    The usage of electronic resources depends on good possibilities of searching and the Semantic Web concept can be convenient solution for information retrieval (IR). WWW (World Wide Web) enables, with the help of search engines and huge number of available (meta)information, data that can satisfy user's need for information, but only at some extent. At the same time, there are more and more research efforts to increase the efficiency for IR until one gets as much as possible rel...

  14. Free online electronic information resources on applied science and technology

    Ghosh, T B.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses free online electronic information resources and different means of collection of the resources. The online electronic information resources on Applied Science and Technology are compiled and linked at URL: http://www.geocities.com/ghosh_svrec and described the different free Internet resource like online electronic journals, online electronic books, online databases, organizations, virtual libraries on Applied Science and Technology and special page on earthquake inform...

  15. Constructing a dental electronic information resource (DEIR).

    Lang, W P

    1994-04-01

    This paper discusses the construction of a dental electronic information resource (DEIR). Development is based on the Internet gopher client/server model. Information is organized in a series of hierarchical menus. A DEIR can be browsed by traversing the menu hierarchy or by performing keyword searches. Searches can result in a menu of found items from across the Internet. Initially, contents of the DEIR will be text files. Electronic copy will be given to an editorial board that will review submissions for conformity to publication standards. A current estimate for electronic storage costs of a DEIR is $1.25/Mb per year. There will be additional costs associated with any purchases of data (e.g. Current Contents), production of data (e.g. development time), and editorial and managerial activities. The DEIR will be accessible from any computer or terminal that can connect to the Internet. Primary user groups will be faculty, staff, and students of dental schools. However, access to the DEIR will be free, and an extensive user community will be encouraged, including practicing dentists, dental associations, public health agencies, and dental insurance companies. PMID:8005714

  16. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these collections efficiently. Not only libraries, but also the negotiators of Alliance and National Licences need a software application which helps them to handle these complex licences efficiently. The project presented in this paper aims at developing a national Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS. It is funded by the German Research Foundation/Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG. The project partners are the North Rhine-Westphalian Library Service Centre (hbz, the University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg Frankfurt, the Head Office of the Gemeinsamer Bibliotheksverbund (GBV and the Freiburg University Library. The projected ERMS  will provide a software system with a central knowledge base which supports a unified overview of licence data with a local, regional and national scope. In the current state of development, the focus is on data and function modelling and on designing concepts for rights management, cooperative data management, implementation of interface standards and the intended services such as statistical analyses.

  17. Techniques for Electronic Resource Management: Crowdsourcing for Best Practices

    Emery, Jill; Stone, Graham

    2013-01-01

    TERMS: Techniques for Electronic Resource Management has been a crowdsourcing experiment to get librarians from Europe and the U.S. to share their best practices and workflows of electronic resource management freely to interested librarians via social media venues such as Facebook, Twitter and Tumblr. You will be participating in the development of the next steps of capturing the best practices of electronic resources management

  18. "Have I Learnt It?" Evaluating Skills for Resource-based Study Using Electronic Resources.

    Macdonald, Janet; Heap, Nick; Mason, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of electronic information resources and information literacy in higher education focuses on the information handling skills students need and the factors influencing their acquisition in two networked resource-based courses at the United Kingdom Open University. Offers guidelines for course designers incorporating electronic resources.

  19. Effectiveness Analysis of Electronic Resources at the Hacettepe University

    E. Cosgun; A. Küyük; Karabulut, E; E. Karaagaoglu

    2011-01-01

    It is important to collect and analyze the usage data of electronic databases and periodicals in order to make policies regarding the composition, improvement and more extensive utilization of electronic resources of libraries. The aim of this study is to investigate how efficiently the full text accessible electronic resources of Hacettepe University Libraries are used. For this purpose the usage data obtained from COUNTER Software regarding the electronic databases to which Hacettepe Univer...

  20. Online electronic information resources on business management

    Ghosh, T. B.

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the Post Graduate Management Institutes in South Gujarat and the problems of their libraries. The author has described the freely available Internet resources on Business management like E-journals, business databases, stock exchanges, management virtual libraries etc. and has also started to compile the links of these free internet resources at URL http://www.geocities.com/ghoshtbin to integrate the resources in a uniform location for the benefit of the Management faculti...

  1. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  2. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the

  3. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  4. In utero. Turvatunderuumid / Kristina Viin

    Viin, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Lput "In utero" on phijoones munakuju meenutav interaktiivne kunstiobjekt, mis oma funktsioonilt lheneb pigem teraapilisele ruumile, pakkudes turvatunnet ja relaksatsiooni, et saavutada "emasatunnetus", vabastades inimest painetest ning meenutades talle algset, prenataalset olemist. Projekt kujutab endast nii osalusskulptuuri kui ka relaksatsioonikambrit. Ka emaihalusest pshhoanalsis, munast kui loomise arhetpsest smbolist kosmogoonias, muna ja emasa kujutamisest lo Soosteri ja Hieronymus Boschi jt. kunstis

  5. Use of electronic information resources in goverment libraries

    Simona Omahen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the use of electronic information resources in government libraries in Slovenia. It starts with the definition of government libraries and electronic publications. On a selected sample of government libraries, the state of the usage of electronic information resources in government libraries was studied. On the basis of interviews, carried out in five government libraries, it was established that government libraries mostly do not focus on, or even think about, the use of electronic information resources. What they have and use seems self-evident to them.

  6. TERMS: Techniques for electronic resource management

    Stone, Graham; Emery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Graham Stone, University of Huddersfield, and Jill Emery, Portland State University, have set up TERMS, a project looking at each of the stages in the e-resources cycle. They are inviting review and comment on the blog.

  7. Electronic Media: A Motif for Shared Resources.

    Lightner, Stanley L.; Johnson, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of trade and industrial education supervisors from 10 states determined the degree of use of electronic education methods. Instructors in these states used presentation software and web-based exercises most often; fewer used video, CD-ROM, and distance technologies; 70% had been taught electronic presentation methods in preservice or…

  8. In utero electroporation in mice.

    Wang, Chunlei; Mei, Lin

    2013-01-01

    In utero electroporation has been extensively used to study a variety of developmental questions in the developing brain. This protocol aims to provide the basic knowledge for a beginner to get familiar with the technique. Basically, by electroporating a DNA construct into a subpopulation of progenitor cells in the ventricular zone of embryonic brain, the progenitor cells carrying the DNA will undergo neurogenesis, migration, and final differentiation to become mature neurons positioned in distinct cortical layers according to their birth date. In addition, by controlling the direction of electroporation, a specific cortical area can be targeted. Thus, in utero electroporation allows gene modification in a specific cortical layer in a specific cortical area. PMID:23681626

  9. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  10. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  11. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  12. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  13. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  14. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  15. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  16. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  17. Programacin in utero: un desafo / In utero programming: a challenge

    Nuris, Rodrguez Vargas; Tania P, Martnez Prez; Rolando, Martnez Garca; Mailin, Garriga Reyes; Jos Emilio, Fernndez-Britto; Gilda, Martnez Fure.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduccin: recientemente, mediante estudios epidemiolgicos realizados en distintas poblaciones se ha llegado a la conclusin de que la situacin nutricional durante las etapas prenatal y posnatal puede influir en la susceptibilidad del adulto a padecer intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensin, en [...] fermedad coronaria y obesidad. Actualmente, la teora de que los factores medioambientales en el feto, y en particular la nutricin de la madre, influyen en la susceptibilidad a padecer determinadas enfermedades en el adulto, ha logrado amplio apoyo y muy especialmente, cuando el tema se ha ido trasladando al terreno de la biologa molecular. Los cambios bioqumicos que ocurren durante la vida intrauterina y la etapa prenatal implican el continuo aporte de sustratos plsticos y energticos de la madre, as como su integracin. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear que una mala nutricin materna, ambiental, as como malas condiciones al nacer y durante la infancia, pueden condicionar riesgo de padecer aterosclerosis en el adulto. Mtodos: se realiz una revisin exhaustiva del tema programacin in utero, aadida al conocimiento en factores de riesgo aterosclertico por investigaciones realizadas y los conocimientos adquiridos y lgicos en esta materia. Desarrollo: la relacin descrita entre medidas corporales al nacer y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de la edad gestacional en los diferentes estudios desarrollados en Sheffield. Este problema puede ser bien confirmado no solo por la malnutricin por defecto de la madre sino tambin por otros factores bien conocidos que causan el bajo peso al nacer; adems del estado nutricional de la madre existen factores intrnsecos del embarazo como la gemelaridad, anomalas cromosmicas, malformaciones congnitas, y otros asociadas a los maternos como edad, paridad, entre otros. Conclusiones: los factores macrodeterminantes y microdeterminantes in utero durante la gestacin son causantes de factores de riesgo aterosclertico no solo en la adultez, sino desde la edad escolar, esto ocurre por injurias durante las etapas embriognica, fetal y de la infancia y no as por la medicin corporal al nacer. Abstract in english Introduction : recent epidemiological studies of different populations have shown that pre- and postnatal nutrition may influence adult susceptibility to suffer from glucose intolerance, hypertension, coronary heart disease and obesity. The theory that fetal environmental factors and in particular m [...] aternal nutrition exert an influence upon the susceptibility to suffer from certain conditions in adulthood, has achieved great support, especially because the topic has gradually gained space in molecular biology. The biochemical changes occurring during the intrauterine and prenatal stages of life involve a continuous supply by the mother of plastic and energy substrates, as well as their integration. Poor maternal nutrition, a deficient environment, and bad conditions at birth and during childhood, may result in the risk to suffer from atherosclerosis in adulthood. Methods: Based on knowledge about in utero programming obtained from an exhaustive review, data about atherosclerotic risk factors drawn from research previously conducted, and information acquired about the topic. Development: The relationship described between body measurements at birth and coronary heart disease was irrespective of gestational age in the various studies conducted in Sheffield. This problem may be confirmed not only by maternal malnutrition, but other well-known factors as well, cause low weight at birth. Alongside the mother's nutritional status, other pregnancy-related factors should also be considered, such as multiple births, chromosomal anomalies, congenital malformations, maternal age, parity and others. Conclusions: In utero macro- and microdetermining factors during pregnancy cause atherosclerotic risk factors not only in adulthood, but since school age. Body measurement at birth is not determining if no injury o

  18. A Pioneering Spirit: Using Administrative Metadata to Manage Electronic Resources

    Medeiros, Norm

    2003-01-01

    This article describes administrative metadata, and its use in managing electronic resources. The focus of the article is an interview with Tim Jewell, Head of Collection Management Services at the University of Washington and Adam Chandler, Information Technology Librarian at Cornell University.

  19. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  20. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  1. Evaluating the appropriateness of electronic information resources for learning

    Nolan, Nathanial S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Current US medical students have begun to rely on electronic information repositoriessuch as UpToDate, AccessMedicine, and Wikipediafor their pre-clerkship medical education. However, it is unclear whether these resources are appropriate for this level of learning due to factors involving information quality, level of evidence, and the requisite knowledgebase. This study evaluated appropriateness of electronic information resources from a novel perspective: amount of mental effort learners invest in interactions with these resources and effects of the experienced mental effort on learning. Methods Eighteen first-year medical students read about three unstudied diseases in the above-mentioned resources (a total of fifty-four observations). Their eye movement characteristics (i.e., fixation duration, fixation count, visit duration, and task-evoked pupillary response) were recorded and used as psychophysiological indicators of the experienced mental effort. Post reading, students' learning was assessed with multiple-choice tests. Eye metrics and test results constituted quantitative data analyzed according to the repeated Latin square design. Students' perceptions of interacting with the information resources were also collected. Participants' feedback during semi-structured interviews constituted qualitative data and was reviewed, transcribed, and open coded for emergent themes. Results Compared to AccessMedicine and Wikipedia, UpToDate was associated with significantly higher values of eye metrics, suggesting learners experienced higher mental effort. No statistically significant difference between the amount of mental effort and learning outcomes was found. More so, descriptive statistical analysis of the knowledge test scores suggested similar levels of learning regardless of the information resource used. Conclusions Judging by the learning outcomes, all three information resources were found appropriate for learning. UpToDate, however, when used alone, may be less appropriate for first-year medical students' learning as it does not fully address their information needs and is more demanding in terms of cognitive resources invested. PMID:26807049

  2. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  3. Maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer.

    Ryan, T. D.; Kidd, G M

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer. DESIGN--Retrospective study of 190 consecutive cases over two years. SETTING--Liverpool Maternity Hospital. PATIENTS--190 Pregnant women were transferred to the hospital under the in utero transfer arrangements from district general hospitals both within and outside the Mersey region. The women admitted were divided into two categories: those in threatened or established uncomplicated preterm labour an...

  4. An electronic approach to evaluating healthcare Web resources.

    Hodson-Carlton, K; Dorner, J L

    1999-01-01

    Information literacy skills, which include the ability to evaluate electronic healthcare sites, are critical to the decision-making responsibilities of students and professionals. The authors describe the experiences of nursing and library services faculty in the development and implementation of a Web-delivered module for the evaluation of healthcare Web resources. A range of electronic tools was used for both the collaborative creation of the module as well as the instructional delivery of the content. Evaluation of the module revealed its usefulness to the students and the potential of the collaborative development model for other content areas. PMID:10795251

  5. Public libraries and the consortium purchase of electronic resources

    Ball, David

    2003-01-01

    This paper embodies research on the purchasing of electronic resources by public libraries. It sought to identify what works well and what is problematic with respect to the management of commercial products. Views were also sought on future development, and how procurement could best be managed. The main concerns identified were the lack of a national dimension and strategy, and of expertise in individual authorities and consortia, particularly with licences. Purchasers were felt to be r...

  6. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

  7. Chromosomal aberrations in individuals exposed in utero

    Full text: Experiments revealed high sensitivity of the developing embryo and fetus to ionizing radiation. The epidemiological studies suggest that the risks per unit dose to the developing embryo and fetus may be considerably larger than to an adult, typically by factors ranging from 3 to 10. There are only three large populations of individuals exposed in-utero: individuals exposed in-utero from radiological examinations, the in-utero exposed A-bomb survivors, and individuals exposed in utero from 1949 onward at the Mayak Production Association, a Soviet nuclear weapons complex. The conclusions of our preliminary study are that intra-chromosomal aberrations represent a sensitive, long-lived, quantitative, low-background biomarker of densely-ionizing radiation exposure in human populations exposed many years earlier.In the present study we propose to use the mFISH technique to score chromosomal aberrations in healthy individuals exposed in-utero to gamma-ray doses in the range 5 to 20 cGy. At SUBI, a cohort of about 72,000 individuals who were born in Ozyorsk in 1948-1988 was established to evaluate various health outcomes, with an emphasis on cancer (under Dr. N.A. Koshurnikova). Within the in-utero cohort, there are 553 individuals currently living locally in Ozyorsk who were exposed in-utero only to chronic gamma-rays (Dr. A.V. Kurbatov). Within the in-utero cohort there are 97 individuals whose mothers were occupationally exposed to radiation only during pregnancy. The mean uterine gamma-ray dose in this group is 11 cGy, with a range from 1 to 218 cGy. The study we propose enables us to measure the yield of chromosomal aberrations per unit dose in individuals exposed in-utero to chronic gamma-rays in comparison with matched unexposed control individuals (same age, same gender) and individuals exposed to the same doses, but as young adults. The additional question we will address is whether the chromosomal aberrations we see are clonal, originating from one cell which was damaged in utero, or due to chromosomal instability, or due to other reasons

  8. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  9. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  10. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  11. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  12. Congenital (in utero, teratogenic) effects of ionizing radiation

    This chapter deals with the congenital, or teratogenic, effects on the individual irradiated while the individual is in utero. The chapter is divided into 2 sections: the first examines the nonstochastic in utero effects on the central nervous system, skeleton and organ development; the second section examines the stochastic in utero induction of cancer and leukemia

  13. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  14. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  15. Harnessing electronic information resources through prospective consortia approach: a national necessity

    Vasishta, Seema; Dhingra, Navjyoti

    2007-01-01

    Earlier information resources were considered physical entities but now these have evolved from traditional print documents to electronically stored information resources. In this time of lessening finances, myriad forms of resources and rising expectations of user community, libraries face many challenges to operate competently. The demand to provide more electronic information resources often results in a need to find creative ways to get the most out of our limited financial resources. Pre...

  16. Developmental Delay and in Utero Phenytoin Exposure

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Psychomotor development was assessed in preschool children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AED) in utero as part of a population-based longitudinal follow-up study of children born to women with meticulously treated epilepsy during pregnancy at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

  17. Developmental Delay and in Utero Phenytoin Exposure

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development was assessed in preschool children exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AED in utero as part of a population-based longitudinal follow-up study of children born to women with meticulously treated epilepsy during pregnancy at the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

  18. Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows

    Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

    2012-01-01

    Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

  19. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    P?nar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  20. First trimester in utero exposure to methylphenidate.

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Aagaard, Lise; Damkier, Per

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom, four children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than twofold) increased risk of congenital malformations. PMID:23136875

  1. Health condition of children irradiated in utero

    Among the children exposed to ionizing radiation, the ones irradiated in utero constitute a group under special surveillance. The greatest sensitivity of the organism to the effects of radiative factors occurs in the neonatal period of development and the forthcoming life span with irradiation effects is the longest for these children. Children with acute exposure, with chronic exposure and control group were encompassed by this study - 1144 children altogether. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  2. eFG: an electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum.

    Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Luonan; Zhao, Xing-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen, which causes crop diseases and further leads to huge economic damage worldwide in past decades. Recently, the accumulation of different types of molecular data provides insights into the pathogenic mechanism of F. graminearum, and might help develop efficient strategies to combat this destructive fungus. Unfortunately, most available molecular data related to F. graminearum are distributed in various media, where each single source only provides limited information on the complex biological systems of the fungus. In this work, we present a comprehensive database, namely eFG (Electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum), to the community for further understanding this destructive pathogen. In particular, a large amount of functional genomics data generated by our group is deposited in eFG, including protein subcellular localizations, protein-protein interactions and orthologous genes in other model organisms. This valuable knowledge can not only help to disclose the molecular underpinnings of pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum but also help the community to develop efficient strategies to combat this pathogen. To our best knowledge, eFG is the most comprehensive functional genomics database for F. graminearum until now. The eFG database is freely accessible at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ with a user-friendly and interactive interface, and all data can be downloaded freely. DATABASE URL: http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ PMID:23798489

  3. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  4. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  5. Central nervous system injury in utero: selected entities.

    Naidich, Thomas P; Griffiths, Paul D; Rosenbloom, Lorne

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the syndrome of amnionic bands, anencephaly, schizencephaly and hydranencephaly, four entities whose pathogenesis includes significant injury to the fetus in utero. PMID:26346151

  6. What Do Libraries Really Do with Electronic Resources? The Practice in 2003

    Shorten, Jay

    2005-01-01

    One hundred fourteen academic libraries in the United States and Canada are surveyed for the organization of electronic resources within their home page and their cataloguing practice. The majority provide access to databases, electronic resources, subject guides, ready reference, and their own catalogue both on their home page and within their

  7. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  8. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  9. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  10. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  11. Cataloguing the Chameleon: A Guide to Electronic Resources

    Cox, Joseph P.; Dekker, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    This manual was created to bridge the gap in guidelines for describing internet resources during the long period when AACR2 was updating its rules for cataloguing. Librarians needed interim procedures and Cataloguing the Chameleon was a set of guidelines recommended by the Cataloguing Internet Resources Project based at the University of Toronto's Faculty of Information Studies.

  12. "Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days

    Pan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

  13. In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

    Derderian, S Christopher; Jeanty, Cerine; Walters, Mark C; Vichinsky, Elliott; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-01-01

    In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCTx) is a promising strategy to circumvent the challenges of postnatal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. The goal of IUHCTx is to introduce donor cells into a nave host prior to immune maturation, thereby inducing donor-specific tolerance. Thus, this technique has the potential of avoiding host myeloablative conditioning with cytotoxic agents. Over the past two decades, several attempts at IUHCTx have been made to cure numerous underlying congenital anomalies with limited success. In this review, we will briefly review the history of IUHCTx and give a perspective on alpha thalassemia major, one target disease for its clinical application. PMID:25628564

  14. Collection Development of Electronic Information Resources in Turkish University Libraries

    Tonta, Yaşar

    2001-01-01

    The number of information sources available through both printed and electronic media are ever increasing. Even libraries with sizable collection development budgets are having difficulties in coping with this increase. Yet with the development of new technologies, the possibilities of innovative interlibrary cooperation projects emerge: libraries combining their efforts through various consortia are trying to get access to electronic information sources more economically. In this paper, we b...

  15. Electronic Engineering Library In Sweden: A Quality Assessed Internet Resource from the Swedish Technological University Libraries

    Lager, Gunnar; Nordlander, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    A status report of the plans and issues under discussion in creating this cooperative electronic national resource to support engineering education in Sweden. An opportunity to preview what is currently under construction for the EELS.

  16. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  17. NRC Clients' Perceptions of Electronic Resources and Use of CISTI's Virtual Library.

    Belzile, Sylvie; Kneale, Jean; Young, Ian; Summers, Randy; Colbourne, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses a study of use of the Web-based virtual library at CISTI (Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information) by NRC (National Research Council of Canada). Results indicate that NRC staff is favorably inclined toward electronic resources and that a positive correlation exists between use of digital resources and perception and

  18. An Evaluation of Electronic Product Design Education Using Hypermedia-Resourced Learning Environments

    Page, Tom; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2006-01-01

    The work outlined here provides a comprehensive report and formative observations of the development and implementation of hypermedia resources for learning and teaching used in conjunction with a managed learning environment (MLE). These resources are used to enhance teaching and learning of an electronics module in product design at final year

  19. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  20. Electronic Information Resources in Undergraduate Education: An Exploratory Study of Opportunities for Student Learning and Independence.

    McDowell, Liz

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative interview-based study examines lecturer perspectives on the roles of electronic information resources in undergraduate education. Highlights include electronic academic libraries; changes toward more constructivist approaches to learning; information quality on the Web; plagiarism; information use; information literacy; and…

  1. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  2. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

  3. Using the Internet Gopher Protocol to link a computerized patient record and distributed electronic resources.

    Hales, J. W.; Low, R. C.; Fitzpatrick, K T

    1993-01-01

    At Duke University Medical Center, we are developing a prototype clinical application for automated patient care plans with integrated links to electronic documents and other electronic resources. These links are implemented using the Internet Gopher Protocol, an emerging standard for distributed document search and retrieval. Use of this protocol permits storage of electronic documents in an open, nonproprietary manner. This paper discusses the architecture of the link mechanism and presents...

  4. In utero Undernutrition Programs Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Metabolism

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero under...

  5. Tracheoesophageal fistula in utero: 22 cases

    A retrospective review of 22 infants born with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) detected on in utero US was performed. In addition, ten cases reported in the literature were reviewed. TEF or esophageal atresia should be considered when there is polydramnios and the stomach is not fluid filled; these findings were seen in 32% of the cases. Amniotic fluid flows freely through some TEFs, resulting in a normal amount of amniotic fluid and a fluid-filled stomach (6 of 22 cases), while in other cases the fluid does not traverse the fistula easily and polyhydramnios results. Polyhdramnios was present in 62% of the cases we reviewed and was the most common sonographic finding. The earliest age at which polyhdramnios was diagnosed was 24 weeks. Associated abnormalities are seen in 50%-70% of cases of TEF and are a major contributing factor to morbidity and mortality. Sonography will continue to miss many cases of TEF; however, when TEF is suspected from fetal US (i.e., polyhdramnios and no fluid-filled stomach, or polyhdramnios with no etiology identified), an improved outcome is expected

  6. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  7. Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.

    Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs. PMID:22023919

  8. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  9. Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing

    Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

  10. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on real world learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education. PMID:26309211

  11. Dealing with diversity: hybrid libraries and the Distributed National Electronic Resource

    Rusbridge, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 5 years or so the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) working on behalf of UK Higher Education has sponsored a series of initiatives in the field of electronic information. The main aim of the paper is to illustrate how this has led through successive refinements via the idea of the hybrid library to the Distributed National Electronic Resource (the DNER). Some links with related work in Australia are mentioned.

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Electronic Information Resources: An Evaluation of the Middle East Technical University Library

    Batı, Hacer

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid transition from print to electronic resources. Significant amount of library budgets are allocated for licensing electronic resources. Identifying and analyzing the benefits and costs of this new trend is therefore important for academic libraries. In this presentation experiences of METU (Middle East Technical University) Library on licensing and usage of electronic resources is evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and ...

  13. The diagnosis of hemimegalencephaly using in utero MRI

    Aim: To review our experience of diagnosing hemimegalencephaly (HME) using in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: The MRI database in the Academic Unit of Radiology, University of Sheffield was searched using “hemimegalencephaly” and “in utero MR” as search terms. The antenatal histories and reports of ultrasound imaging were reviewed as well as the in utero MRI images. Results: Nine cases of foetal HME were located. One case was referred after ultrasound with the diagnosis of HME, one as a “complex brain malformation”, and one as a “mass lesion”. The other six were referred as “unilateral ventriculomegaly”. A common finding in foetuses imaged in the second trimester was disruption of the normal “transient structures” found in the developing cerebral hemispheres. Conclusion: HME is a difficult diagnosis to make using antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI should be considered in cases of unilateral ventriculomegaly diagnosed at ultrasound. Disruption of the transient structures of the cerebral hemispheres is a common finding on in utero MRI and can sometimes produce mass-like appearances in the region of the germinal matrix/ganglionic eminence. - Highlights: • We discuss the embryology of hemimegalencephaly. • We discuss the role of iuMR in diagnosis of HME. • We present 8 cases of HME diagnosed on iuMR. • We compare ultrasound to MRI

  14. Specific Features of Development of Electronic Information and Education Resources for the Distant Learning Systems ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????-??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????

    Sergienko Yelena A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is analyzed the features of distance learning and forms of its realization, is devoted to research existing technologies and tools of distance learning, as well as their possible applications in modern education system. Presents the potential for electronic information-educational resources for distance education systems.? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????- ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.

  15. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  16. Use of Electronic Information Resources among Research Scholars in the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan

    Amjad, Anam; Ahmed, Shamshad; Bin Naeem, Salman

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of electronic resources among academic scholars of The Islamia University of Bahawalpur (IUB), Punjab, Pakistan. A quantitative survey was found most convenient and useful for this study. The total population of the study was 169 research students in IUB. The response rate was 79% and 133 utilizable responses were coded…

  17. A Mid-infrared Digital Electronic Camera System for Assessing Natural Resources

    Water strongly absorbs mid-infrared (1300-2500 nm) radiation, resulting in this region of the spectrum being sensitive to the water content within features. Little information is available on using an electronic digital camera filtered to this region of the spectrum to assess natural resources. Th...

  18. A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China

    Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project" universities…

  19. What Do Community College Libraries Do with Electronic Resources? The Practice in 2003

    Shorten, Jay

    2004-01-01

    One hundred fourteen community college libraries in the United States and Canada are surveyed for the organization of electronic resources within their home page and their cataloguing practice. The majority provide access to databases, ready reference, and their own catalogue both on their home page and within their web site. They do not usually

  20. In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice

    Derderian, S. Christopher; Togarrati, P. Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W.; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-01-01

    In utero injection of an antibody against the c-Kit receptor can effectively deplete host HSCs in mice.In utero depletion of host HSCs leads to significantly increased engraftment after neonatal congenic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

  1. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. PMID:24720944

  2. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  3. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  4. IN UTERO HAEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION (IUHSCT

    Aurelio Maggio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHSCT is a non-myeloablative approach for the prenatal treatment of genetic disorders. However, in target disorders, where there is not a selective advantage for donor cells, a useful donor-cell  chimerism  has not been achieved 

    There are three  possible  barriers  to engraftment following IUHSCT :  limited space in the fetus due to host-cell competition; the large number of donor cells needed, and the immunological asset of recipient .

    Animal models have shown different levels of resistance to IUHSCT engraftment.  In primate, goat, rat and mouse  the levels of engraftment that has been achieved were low and not  therapeutic.

    Among 46 cases of  IUHSCT reported in humans, successful engraftment  was obtained only in cases of  X-SCID. Useful levels of chimerism has not been achieved in non-immunodeficiency diseases, and  a detectable engrafment , was  reported only in one case  of  ß-thalassemia transplanted at 12 weeks of gestation  by fetal liver cells 

    In one a-thalassemia case, where a-globin-dependent hemoglobin production and anemia are present during fetal period, microchimerism  and tolerance were suggested .

    To overcome the IUHSCT engraftment barriers , it is necessary to develop strategies to improve the competitive capacity of donor cells and  to define the gestational age of the possible immunological “window of opportunity” in the human fetus.

    In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHSCT is a non-myeloablative promising approach for the prenatal treatment of a variety of genetic disorders and  could be an alternative  option to therapeutical abortion in some congenital diseases like haematological hereditary  syndromes.

  5. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM) of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote; Kitsiri Chochiang

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM) of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent), employee engagement (55 percent), organizational file structure (10 percent), idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent) and assess...

  6. Increase resource power electronics module on the physics of failure method

    Kravchenko Evgeny V.; Kuznetsov Geniy V.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to improving resource devices for power electronics. The numerical analysis of non-uniform temperature field of power semiconductor devices. A comparison of the intensities of the failure of a power unit with the real thermal regime of the device under conditions of natural convection and obtained by using statistical data analysis. The integrated assessment of reliability based on the methods of physics failures. The necessity of taking into account the actual non-stationary t...

  7. PROJECT VERITY: virtual and Electronic Resources for Information Skills Training for Young People

    Παπάζογλου, Αλεξάνδρα

    1999-01-01

    Introduces VERITY (Virtual and Electronic Resources for Information Skills Training for Young People) and its Virtual Librarian to help young people with their information seeking process. VERITY, funded by the Libraries sector under the European Union's Telematics Applications Programme, aims to explore new ways of providing virtual library services that are creative, stimulating and educational for young people in the 13-19 age group. It will be developed in parallel in five languages (Engl...

  8. ENABLING CLOSED RESOURCE LOOPS IN ELECTRONICS: UNDERSTANDING CONSUMER DISPOSAL BEHAVIOUR USING INSIGHTS FROM DIFFUSION MODELS

    Sinha Khetriwal, Deepali; First, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores consumer disposal behaviour, especially in the context of durable electronic products. The purpose of the research is to understand why, how and when consumers dispose of their durable products. The research aims to provide policy makers, waste managers and product marketers new insights on consumer disposal behaviour that will help improve policy, encourage better resource management and incentivise product designs that maximise environmental and social benefits. We apply ...

  9. Potential resource and toxicity impacts from metals in waste electronic devices.

    Woo, Seung H; Lee, Dae Sung; Lim, Seong-Rin

    2016-04-01

    As a result of the continuous release of new electronic devices, existing electronic devices are quickly made obsolete and rapidly become electronic waste (e-waste). Because e-waste contains a variety of metals, information about those metals with the potential for substantial environmental impact should be provided to manufacturers, recyclers, and disposers to proactively reduce this impact. This study assesses the resource and toxicity (i.e., cancer, noncancer, and ecotoxicity) potentials of various heavy metals commonly found in e-waste from laptop computers, liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors, LCD TVs, plasma TVs, color cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs, and cell phones and then evaluates such potentials using life cycle impact-based methods. Resource potentials derive primarily from Cu, Sb, Ag, and Pb. Toxicity potentials derive primarily from Pb, Ni, and Hg for cancer toxicity; from Pb, Hg, Zn, and As for noncancer toxicity; and from Cu, Pb, Hg, and Zn for ecotoxicity. Therefore, managing these heavy metals should be a high priority in the design, recycling, and disposal stages of electronic devices. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:364-370. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:27017840

  10. Postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of scientific information databases and electronic resources

    Azami, Mohammad; Khajouei, Reza; Rakhshani, Safiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The significance and validity of web-based scientific databases are increasing dramatically in the scientific community. Moreover, a great number of students use these resources without having sufficient and accurate knowledge and understanding. In order for students to use these databases and electronic resources optimally, identifying the factors that affect the understanding and acceptance of these resources seems necessary. The aim of this study was to determine postgraduate medical students’ acceptance and understanding of these resources. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 postgraduate medical students from Kerman University of Medical Science (KMU) in 2013. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire, and the data were analyzed using SPSS. In order to design the model (i.e., the interaction between study variables and to determine the relationships between them in an integrated pattern), LISREL version 8.7 and a structural equation model were used. Descriptive statistics and t-tests also were used in data analysis. Results The results showed that the average components of the perception of usefulness, perception of ease of use, attitude towards use, decision to use, using to perform duties, and using to increase knowledge were 4.31, 4.14, 4.24, 16.27, 20.85, and 16.13 respectively. Accordingly, the average of all these indicators was significantly higher than the assumed amount (p easy to use, the more they are used. Therefore, designers of databases and electronic resources can design systems that are both useful and easy to learn by considering the components of the research model. PMID:27123213

  11. Integrating electronic information resources for NHS Glasgow staff at the point of need: a model of interlibrary collaboration and resource sharing.

    Davies, S; Wales, A

    2001-12-01

    The Glasgow NHS Libraries Consortium has harnessed the political imperative of collaboration and the capability of electronic information resources to address inequalities in access to the knowledge base across NHS Glasgow. They have negotiated consortium arrangements to an extensive range of electronic databases and journals which no single Glasgow NHS library could afford independently. A Project Officer was appointed to undertake the administration, technical work and promotion required to build a Web-based electronic library to deliver resources to all NHS Glasgow staff on an equitable basis. Close partnership with online content providers enabled the Project Officer to find solutions to problems caused by authentication systems and license restrictions. These efforts have culminated in the production of a fully integrated virtual library--the NHS Glasgow e-Library--delivering 11 major electronic databases, 440 full-text electronic journals, 48 electronic textbooks and over 5000 journal contents pages. The NHS Glasgow e-Library is without precedent within the NHS in terms of its wealth of resources, and it provides a model for Scotland-wide access to the knowledge base. The sustainability and transferability of the resource is dependent on a number of key areas-maintenance, user training, evaluation, IT infrastructure and ongoing collaboration and unification. Ongoing research will monitor how far the NHS Glasgow e-Library has strengthened the connection between research evidence and clinical practice. PMID:11791863

  12. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  13. Onychomycosis by Fusarium oxysporum probably acquired in utero

    Vania O. Carvalho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium oxysporum has been described as a pathogen causing onychomycosis, its incidence has been increasing in immunocompetent and disseminated infection can occur in immunosuppressed individuals. We describe the first case of congenital onychomycosis in a child caused by Fusarium oxysporum. The infection being acquired in utero was proven by molecular methods with the identification of the fungus both in the nail and placenta, most probably as an ascending contamination/infection in a HIV-positive, immunosuppressed mother.

  14. Early Determinants of Obesity: Genetic, Epigenetic, and In Utero Influences

    Jeanne McCaffery; Suzanne Phelan; Rhee, Kyung E.

    2012-01-01

    There is an emerging body of work indicating that genes, epigenetics, and the in utero environment can impact whether or not a child is obese. While certain genes have been identified that increase one’s risk for becoming obese, other factors such as excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, and smoking can also influence this risk. Understanding these influences can help to inform which behaviors and exposures should be targeted if we are to decrease the prevalence of ob...

  15. Increase resource power electronics module on the physics of failure method

    Kravchenko Evgeny V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to improving resource devices for power electronics. The numerical analysis of non-uniform temperature field of power semiconductor devices. A comparison of the intensities of the failure of a power unit with the real thermal regime of the device under conditions of natural convection and obtained by using statistical data analysis. The integrated assessment of reliability based on the methods of physics failures. The necessity of taking into account the actual non-stationary temperature fields to improve the reliability of the forecast operating life of power semiconductor devices.

  16. Aufwand und Nutzen des Electronic Resource Management Systems RMS an der UB Kassel

    Tobias Pohlmann

    2016-01-01

    Die Verwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen stellt für Bibliotheken eine wichtige und zugleich nicht einfache Aufgabe dar. Sie müssen den Überblick behalten über heterogene Informationen, die sich mit herkömmlichen Bibliothekssystemen nur bedingt abbilden lassen. Die UB Kassel verwendet daher seit August 2014 das webbasierte Electronic Resource Management System RMS von SemperTool. Dieser Beitrag stellt die Funktionalitäten des Systems vor und schätzt den erforderlichen Arbeitsaufwand ab, ...

  17. ??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project

    Hui-Hsin Yeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER????????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

  18. AWARENESS AND USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN DEGREE COLLEGES OF KODAGU DISTRICT.

    Muthamma A.R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A study with a view to survey awareness and use of electronic information resources by social science research scholar and the library professionals, a random sampling techniques were used. About 200 questionnaire were distributed for data collection 180 filled questionnaire was received giving a responds rate of 90%.Simple frequency counting and percentage were used in reporting and finding. The paper suggests for an improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more eresources by the academic college Libraries in Kodagu.

  19. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  20. In utero Undernutrition Programs Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Metabolism

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease. PMID:26779032

  1. Cancer risk among in utero-exposed survivors

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) continues to conduct a follow-up study initiated some years ago of cancer mortality and incidence among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki exposed in utero. Although only 18 incident cases of cancer were identified in the years 1950-1984 (of which 5 cases were in the 0 dose group), cancer risk appears to increase significantly as maternal uterine dose increases. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these individuals in the first 14 years of life; both had been exposed to ≥0.30 Gy. All other cases developed cancer in adulthood, and the cancers they developed are, in the main, the ones known to be elevated in frequency among the postnatally exposed survivors. The estimated relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy (uterine dose) is 3.77. The results suggest that the in utero group may have a higher risk than seen among exposed adults because the individuals exposed in utero have not reached the major cancer prone age. However, since the observed cases are too few to allow a site-specific review, further follow-up studies are required to determine if the observed increased cancer risk can definitely be attributed to A-bomb radiation, although there appears to be a significant dose-related cancer response. (author)

  2. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy ∼ 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner

  3. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  4. Assessment of accepting rate of Electronic Information Resources (EIR by Iranian Knowledge and Information Science faculty members

    Afshin Hamdipour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR play an important role in the process of education and research. The aim of this study was to analyze the status of adoption of electronic information resources (EIR by Iranian Knowledge and Information Science (KIS faculty members. This applied- descriptive survey was carried out on Iranian KIS Faculty Members in 2012. The number of participants was determined based on the Cochran's sample size table. Of the 170 Faculty Members, 122 individuals were randomly selected. Data collection tool was an Electronic questionnaire, and its validity was confirmed by professionals. The reliability of the questionnaire was verified after a pilot study. By using IBM SPSS 20 software and through exploratory factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and inferential tests the data were analyzed. Results showed that, there is significant difference between the mean of adoption rate of electronic information resources (EIR by people with different levels of education. In addition, the Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between mean of adoption rate and the faculty’s teaching experience and age. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test showed that the curve of adoption rate of electronic information resources among the sample is normal, and thus, the adoption rate of resources over time, is S-shaped. Ultimately, this study confirmed The Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovation Theory (2003 in context of Adaptor categories of electronic information resources (EIR, and S-shaped curve, among faculty members in departments of knowledge and Information science in Iran.

  5. Relationship between Human Resources Management Practices, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Sharing on Innovation in Iranian Electronic Industry

    Mahmoud Manafi; Indra Devi Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Electronic industry needs innovation to survive, and also to compete internationally. This study examines factors that can enhance technical innovation of companies in the electronic industry of Iran. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between human resource management practices, transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and innovation of the large and major electronic companies.More specifically, the research attempts to examine whether knowledge sharing medi...

  6. Usage of Electronic Resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University: A Case Study

    S. Thanuskodi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has thrown a new challenge to the libraries. The technology has shown a great impact on the services of the libraries. Libraries use IT for better services and satisfying diverse user needs. Libraries have transformed into digital and virtual libraries where books, journals, and magazines have changed into e-books, e-journals, and e-zines. This has increased the global dissemination of information. Electronic resources (e-resources are easily accessible in the remote areas. The e-resources solve storage problems and control the flood of information. Print sources are being digitised. There is a great need to study the use of e-resources and investigate the factors that are a hindrance to their use. The present study is an attempt to examine the usage of electronic resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University. Study revealed that MPhil students respondents took the first position in their overall methods of searching e-resources, postgraduate student respondents the second position, PhD Scholar respondents the last position. The study confirmed that respondents were aware of the e-resources and various types of e-resources, e-database, and e-journals. The study recommended the improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more e-resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University.

  7. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  8. Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

  9. Caring for children and adolescents with epilepsy: creating an innovative electronic educational resource.

    Connolly, Anne M; Slade, Rob; Uppal, Preena; Bye, Ann M E

    2014-10-01

    The majority of children and adolescents with epilepsy are managed in the community setting by general paediatricians. However, there is a paucity of practical, relevant information and standardised management documents assisting paediatricians. In the era of sub-specialisation, an electronic educational resource developed by specialists in epilepsy and paediatrics enhances the interface between tertiary and secondary/primary care. We aimed to create a website (www.pennsw.com.au) designed to optimise the care of all children and adolescents living with epilepsy and to assess its clinical usefulness. The site provides clinicians and families an aligned resource, including key information on epilepsy syndromes, medication usage and adverse effects, safety (sleep deprivation, water sports), driving, pregnancy, psychosocial impact of epilepsy and coping skills. General paediatricians and carers completed a questionnaire, utilising rating scales and open ended questions, to evaluate design, content and clinical usefulness. Forty-nine general paediatricians with a median 12 years of paediatric practice participated. Thirty-two carers participated. Epilepsy syndrome was focal in 59% of the children and generalised in 41%. The majority of participants (paediatricians: 84-100%, families: 69-100%) rated the website as well designed, practical, informative and clinically useful. General paediatricians considered the "Medication" pages and "Epilepsy Management Documents" as practically useful. Carers recorded the "Family Resources", seizure recording documents, the support information on mental health, and the "Coping with Epilepsy" segment as most informative. General paediatricians and carers highly valued the website, reflected by 120,000 page views in 12 months since its launch. PMID:24906210

  10. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements. PMID:14700333

  11. The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    Ojokuku, R. M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents randomly sampled from five purposively selected branches of First Bank Plc. Chi-square test was applied for data analysis. Result showed among other things that introduction of electronic banking has impacted positively on the bank's HR performance, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by bank personnel. Bank-customer relationship and customers satisfaction was also found to have been greatly enhanced. Hence, Government should lower the tariff on information technology-aided tools and equipment imported and possibly subsidized the cost.

  12. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  13. A study of lawyers’ information behaviour leading to the development of two methods for evaluating electronic resources

    Makri, S

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we examine the information behaviour displayed by a broad cross-section of academic and practicing lawyers and feed our findings into the development of the Information Behaviour (IB) methods - two novel methods for evaluating the functionality and usability of electronic resources. We captured lawyers’ information behaviour by conducting naturalistic observations, where we asked participants to think aloud whilst using existing resources to ‘find information required for t...

  14. In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females

    Chemicals found in the environment as industrial byproducts or pollutants as well as those that are prescribed or part of our daily lives can have multiple effects on the human body. The manner in which we are exposed, and the levels we are exposed to are significant contributing factors. Adults have the bodily defense mechanisms in place to combat exposures to adverse toxicants and general pollution at a variety of levels. However, developing organisms may not have adequate defense mechanisms, and toxicants can have a significant effect on their health and development. In this review, we take particular note of the toxicities of chemicals on the developing female reproductive system as a result of in utero exposure. Environmental and prescribed chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diethylstilbestrol, and genistein, as well as others, will be reviewed for their in utero toxicity in the neuroendocrine system, the ovary, oviduct, placenta, uterus, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland

  15. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  16. In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken; Vinggaard, Anne; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    reduced in the DES group. The absolute weight of the right epididymis were also significantly decreased in the animals exposed to 75 or 15 mg/kg/day NP, effects which disappeared when organ weight was related to body weight. This study showed a dose-dependent effect of nonylphenol on male reproductive....... To determine the potential reproductive toxicity of NP, a one-generation in utero study was conducted, Rats were dosed from gestation day 11 through 18 with NP at 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 30 mug/kg/day. DES was used as a positive control. Both substances were given orally...... by gavage. Male offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, or 110 and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Pup birth weight and body weight and percent motile sperm at age of 110 day were significantly reduced by DES. The absolute weight of the right epididymis was significantly...

  17. In utero transmission of porcine torque teno viruses.

    Pozzuto, Tanja; Mueller, Bettina; Meehan, Brian; Ringler, Susan S; McIntosh, Kathleen A; Ellis, John A; Mankertz, Annette; Krakowka, Steven

    2009-06-12

    Sera and selected tissue homogenates collected from gnotobiotic swine never exposed to the environment or other swine tissues were tested for the presence of porcine torque teno virus (TTV) DNAs by nested and non-nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using primers specific for the untranslated region of porcine genogroups (g) 1 and 2. Twenty-three of 105 (21.9%) gnotobiotic piglets were g1- and/or g2-TTV DNA positive. Twenty-three of 27 (85.2%) sow sera, collected at the time of Caesarian derivation of the litters contained either or both TTV genogroup DNAs. These data demonstrate that porcine TTV may be transmitted to piglets by the in utero route and that the incidence of fetal infection is high. PMID:19282113

  18. Neurobehavioral changes in mice exposed to fast neutrons in utero.

    Ishida, Yuka; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Takai, Nobuhiko; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Ogiu, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Tetsu; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that radiation causes brain development abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Rat and mouse studies have also shown that prenatal exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation induces developmental brain anomalies. Because the effects of prenatal irradiation on adult behavior patterns remain largely unknown, the present study investigated the effects of neutron exposure in utero on postnatal behavior patterns in mice. [C57BL/6J C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-0.2 Gy) or Cs-137 gamma-rays (0.2-1.5 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5. At 5.5-8 months of age, the neurobehavior of male offspring was examined by Rota-rod treadmill and locomotor activity. The accumulation of radio-labeled drug at muscarinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in mice from control and neutron-irradiated groups was determined by the tracer method. Locomotor activity during the dark period increased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. Furthermore, at 5.5 months of age, tracer binding in vivo to the muscarinic acetylcholine increased and to the serotonin receptors decreased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. In conclusion, the present study reveals that a certain "low-dose window" may exist for radiation-induced changes in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors, because there was correlation in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group though there was not correlation in the neutron-irradiated groups more than 0.05 Gy. PMID:21422737

  19. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  20. Visual Fields in Mothers and Children Exposed in Utero to Vigabatrin

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-01-01

    Three mothers with 4 children exposed to vigabatrin in utero (but not breast fed) underwent perimetry and imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) at the University Hospital of Wales and School of Optometry, Cardiff, UK.

  1. Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology

    According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

  2. Visual Fields in Mothers and Children Exposed in Utero to Vigabatrin

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Three mothers with 4 children exposed to vigabatrin in utero (but not breast fed underwent perimetry and imaging of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL at the University Hospital of Wales and School of Optometry, Cardiff, UK.

  3. MOIST VAGINAL PACKING FOR UTERO-VAGINAL PROLAPSE-A CLINICAL STUDY

    Manidip; De, Soma

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : Utero-vaginal prolapse is a common condition in ag ed women and often they come to us with decubitus ulcer. Prolong ed vaginal packing not only will heal the decubitus ulcer but also it may help in returning th e normal rugosity of the vaginal skin. AIMS: To assess the role of prolonged moist vaginal packing in utero-vaginal prolpase. SETTINGS & DESIGN: It was an OPD based prospective study conducted at t he gynecology OPD of Colle...

  4. Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library

    Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

  5. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  6. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    Begley, D A; Krupke, D M; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J T; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tu...

  7. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Saturday U. Omeluzor; Susan U. Ogbuiyi

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was...

  8. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system. PMID:26351732

  9. Long-term consequences of low-level irradiation of rats in utero

    Pregnant rats were irradiated on gestational day 15 with whole-body doses of 25, 50, 75, or 100 rads of either 250 KVP X-rays or Cs-137 γ-rads. Postnatal growth and preweaning behavior rate delayed in a dose-dependent manner. Pituitary cells show enlarged nuclei and cell diameters in both acidophils and basophils. Electron microscopy of pituitary cells shows vesiculated cytoplasm and dilated endoplasmic reticulum characteristic of hypersecretory activity. Changes in the ovaries were detectable at 4 months after high radiation doses. Large cystic follicles and a reduction in the number of smaller follicles were observed. More atresia was seen after large doses than after small doses. Multiple sets of corporalutea were observed indicating ovarian cyclicity. The authors conclude that in utero irradiation of rats produces significant, dose-dependent changes in growth and development. Doses as low as 25 rads result in demonstrable effects in all animals studied. The low doses required and the consistent nature of the lesions observed implies that the long-term effects of fetal irradiation are not only due to the loss of a few cells during fetal development, but also to an overall perturbation of the hormonal regulatory systems responsible for growth and development

  10. Initial pathological events in renal dysplasia with urinary tract obstruction in utero.

    Shibata, S; Shigeta, M; Shu, Y; Watanabe, T; Nagata, M

    2001-10-01

    Multicystic dysplastic kidneys (MCDK) and obstructive renal dysplasia (ORD) are two different phenotypes of dysplasia commonly associated with urinary tract obstruction. However, the mechanisms whereby obstruction in the developing kidney leads to each dysplasia are unknown. In the present study, 16 fetal MCDKs and 3 fetal ORDs (18-35 weeks of gestation) were analyzed with light microscopy, point-counting morphometry, immunohistochemistry with a podocyte marker, and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, reconstructions of dysplastic nephrons were done via serial section analysis. Early stages of MCDK and ORD similarly revealed numerous cyst formations, predominantly in the subcapsular nephrogenic zone. Occasionally, glomerular tuft remnants with mature podocyte phenotypes were observed in cysts, suggesting the acquisition of filtration. Three dimensionally, basic nephron structures were installed in the cystic nephrons, namely the macula densa with a primary loop structure. Cysts developed in the once-induced nephrons due to fluid retention in both MCDK and ORD. In utero urinary tract obstruction may cause urine retention in functioning nephrons and lead to glomerular cysts in the nephrogenic zone. These findings were common to MCDK and ORD, albeit at different sites of obstruction. Expansion of glomerular cysts with tubular dilatation (cysts) disturbs the subsequent nephrogenesis and may contribute to the misdevelopment of fetal kidneys. PMID:11710644

  11. In utero preeclampsia exposure, milk intake and pubertal development.

    Schraw, Jeremy Michals; Øgland, Bjorn; Dong, Yong Quan; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Forman, Michele R

    2015-07-01

    Cord blood insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations are lower in preeclamptic (PE) than normotensive (NT) pregnancies. PE offspring have increased risk of cardiovascular disease and decreased risk of some cancers including breast. We examined the effects of PE exposure in utero, infant feeding and childhood diet at 3-5 years on IGF-1 and breast development in 194 female offspring who were followed from birth until follow-ups at 10.8 and 12.9 years. Diet was not associated with serum IGF-1 levels at 10.8 years. PE exposure was associated with reduced odds of thelarche at 10.8 years only among exclusively breastfed girls. Milk, butter and ice cream consumption at 3-5 years was inversely related to the OR of breast development at 10.8 years. Child's weight and maternal overweight were positively associated with breast development at 10.8 years; child's height and weight were positively associated with breast development at 12.9 years. PMID:25511106

  12. In utero oxcarbazepine and a withdrawal syndrome, anomalies, and hyponatremia.

    Rolnitsky, Asaph; Merlob, Paul; Klinger, Gil

    2013-06-01

    Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic agent that has been used during pregnancy, although its safety during pregnancy has not been sufficiently established. This article presents an infant born with renal and cardiac malformations who developed a withdrawal syndrome and hyponatremia following in utero exposure to oxcarbazepine. The infant was born at 35 weeks' gestation by urgent cesarean section to a mother in status epilepticus who had been treated with oxcarbazepine throughout her pregnancy. Evaluation for congenital anomalies identified mild aortic stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus, and severe left hydronephrosis due to left ureteropelvic junction stenosis. On the third day of life the infant developed clinical signs of a withdrawal syndrome, which peaked on day 7 and resolved by day 12. Transient hyponatremia resolved by day 8 of life. Follow-up showed normal development at 15 months. The association of a withdrawal syndrome with oxcarbazepine exposure has not been previously reported. The hyponatremia is consistent with adult reports. The possible association of oxcarbazepine with renal and cardiac malformations requires further confirmation. PMID:23668873

  13. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  14. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  15. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,

  16. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  17. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  18. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    Begley, D. A.; Krupke, D. M.; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J. T.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tumor data from different scientific research areas and facilitates integration of molecular, genetic, and pathologic data. Current status of MTB, search capabilities, data types, and future enhancements are detailed in this article. PMID:21282667

  19. Searching Electronic Resources on Internet : Tools for Researchers And Library Professional

    Lokhande, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    In this Internet Era Libraries & Information Centers increasingly being called upon to provide more relevant, up-to-date and timely information to a wide range of users. To satisfy the varied needs, they require availability and accessibility to a variety of information resources and formats ( such as digital, full text, sound, graphics, images, multimedia & hypertext as well as printed documents). To cope with the new technology library professionals and the researchers should developed hims...

  20. Anesthesia for ex utero intrapartum treatment: renewed insight on a rare procedure

    Miguel Vieira Marques

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ex utero intrapartum treatment is a rare surgical procedure performed in cases of expected postpartum fetal airway obstruction. The technique lies on a safe establishment of a patent airway during labor in anticipation of a critical respiratory event, without interrupting maternal-fetal circulation. Anesthetic management is substantially different from that regarding standard cesarean delivery and its main goals include uterine relaxation, fetal anesthesia and preservation of placental blood flow. We present the case of an ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure performed on a fetus with a large cervical lymphangioma and prenatal evidence of airway compromise. Modifications to the classic ex utero intrapartum treatment management strategies were successfully adopted and will be discussed in the following report.

  1. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  2. In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets

    Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets...

  3. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation on neurons of cerebral cortex of irradiated in utero

    Effect of gamma-radiation (137Cs, 1 Gy dose, 5.5 Gy/s dose rate) on cerebral cortex neurons of little rats exposed to in utero external gamma-radiation was studied to evaluate the possibility to predict the effect of ionizing radiation on the progeny within various periods following irradiation. Development of destructive processes of diffusion nature resulting in destruction of certain portion of cells, in cytoarchitecture changes, in reduction of glyoneuronal index was detected. The central nervous system of little rats was characterized by higher radiation sensitivity in contrast to adult rats. The structural changes of neurons of in utero irradiated little rats might result in functional disorders

  5. Illness during Pregnancy and Bacterial Vaginosis are Associated with In Utero HIV-1 Transmission

    Farquhar, Carey; MBORI-NGACHA, DOROTHY; OVERBAUGH, Julie; WAMALWA, Dalton; Harris, Jennifer; BOSIRE, ROSE; JOHN-STEWART, GRACE

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20–30% of vertical transmission events in breastfeeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in utero HIV-1 transmission (95% CI 1.2, 5.8) and bacterial vaginosis with a 3-fold increase (95% CI 1.0–7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of ...

  6. "Sustainable management" of commercial electronic research resources and of its use in bibliometrics

    Regolini, A.; Gentilini, E.; Baligand, M.P.; Jannès-Ober, E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the pertinence of Bradford’s law applied to a set of electronic periodical collections in a given discipline. This study applied Bradford’s law using citations rather than articles from a theme, thus ensuring the pertinence of the periodicals cited. Concentrating on citations in articles focuses on the stage following research rather than prior stages. The sources are actually used because they have been cited. The study demonstrates the data cent...

  7. The Space Shuttle Orbiter's advanced display designs and an analysis of its growth capabilities [electronic resource

    Tranthien, Baoquoc.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the growth capability of the Space Shuttle Orbiter's Multifunction Electronic Display Subsystem (MEDS). MEDS is a new "glass cockpit" system, using Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) to replace the existing Orbiter cockpit instruments. The primary goals were to analyze the MEDS growth capabilities and to propose advanced Orbiter displays using the MEDS. Analysis of the Orbiter state vectors resulted in designs for real-time graphical displays for use during the...

  8. In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome##

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phen...

  9. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  10. Tubacin prevents neuronal migration defects and epileptic activity caused by rat Srpx2 silencing in utero.

    Salmi, Manal; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Lozovaya, Natalia; Massacrier, Annick; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Cloarec, Robin; Tsintsadze, Timur; Watrin, Françoise; Tsintsadze, Vera; Zimmer, Céline; Villard, Claude; Lafitte, Daniel; Cardoso, Carlos; Bao, Lan; Lesca, Gaetan; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Muscatelli, Françoise; Pauly, Vanessa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Durbec, Pascale; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Burnashev, Nail; Represa, Alfonso; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic disorders with or without structural developmental alteration of the speech cortex. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the precise developmental role of SRPX2, to have a better knowledge on the consequences of its mutations, and to start addressing therapeutic issues through the design of an appropriate animal model. Using an in utero Srpx2 silencing approach, we show that SRPX2 influences neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not the mutant human SRPX2 proteins, rescued the neuronal migration phenotype caused by Srpx2 silencing in utero, and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. Following in utero Srpx2 silencing, spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded post-natally. The neuronal migration defects and the post-natal epileptic consequences were prevented early in embryos by maternal administration of tubulin deacetylase inhibitor tubacin. Hence epileptiform manifestations of developmental origin could be prevented in utero, using a transient and drug-based therapeutic protocol. PMID:23831613

  11. Caregiver Characteristics Associated with Infant Cognitive Status in In-Utero Drug Exposed Infants.

    Butz, Arlene M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; O'Brien, Eileen; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lears, Mary Kathleen; Miller, Deborah; Kaufmann, Walter; Royall, Richard

    2002-01-01

    In a study of 66 in-utero drug exposed (IUDE) infants, evaluated infant cognitive status, caregiver-infant interaction, and caregiver cognitive functioning (IQ) to determine which caregiver variables were associated with infant cognitive status. Analysis indicated that caregiver IQ was the only statistically significant coefficient in the model

  12. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature

  13. The effects of in utero bisphenol A exposure on reproductive capacity in several generations of mice

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet, E-mail: zivgal1@illinois.edu; Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Zhou, Changqing, E-mail: czhou27@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2015-05-01

    In utero bisphenol A (BPA) exposure affects reproductive function in the first generation (F1) of mice; however, not many studies have examined the reproductive effects of BPA exposure on subsequent generations. In this study, pregnant mice (F0) were orally dosed with vehicle, BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg/day) or diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg/day) daily from gestation day 11 until birth. F1 females were used to generate the F2 generation, and F2 females were used to generate the F3 generation. Breeding studies at the ages of 3, 6, and 9 months were conducted to evaluate reproductive capacity over time. Further, studies were conducted to evaluate pubertal onset, litter size, and percentage of dead pups; and to calculate pregnancy rate, and mating, fertility, and gestational indices. The results indicate that BPA exposure (0.5 and 50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. Both DES (0.05 μg/kg/day) and BPA (50 μg/kg/day) significantly delayed the age at first estrus in the F3 generation compared to vehicle control. BPA exposure reduced gestational index in the F1 and F2 generations compared to control. Further, BPA exposure (0.5 μg/kg/day) compromised the fertility index in the F3 generation compared to control. Finally, in utero BPA exposure reduced the ability of female mice to maintain pregnancies as they aged. Collectively, these data suggest that BPA exposure affects reproductive function in female mice and that some effects may be transgenerational in nature. - Highlights: • In utero BPA delayed vaginal opening in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA delayed estrus in the F3 generation compared to control. • In utero BPA reduced the ability of F1 and F2 female mice to maintain pregnancies. • In utero BPA compromised the ability of F3 female mice to become pregnant. • Some effects of in utero BPA may be transgenerational in nature.

  14. Validation of in utero tractography of human fetal commissural and internal capsule fibers with histological structure tensor analysis

    Christian Mitter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and tractography offer the unique possibility to visualize the developing white matter macroanatomy of the human fetal brain in vivo and in utero and are currently under investigation for their potential use in the diagnosis of developmental pathologies of the human central nervous system. However, in order to establish in utero DTI as a clinical imaging tool, an independent comparison between macroscopic imaging and microscopic histology data in the same subject is needed. The present study aimed to cross-validate normal as well as abnormal in utero tractography results of commissural and internal capsule fibers in human fetal brains using postmortem histological structure tensor (ST analysis. In utero tractography findings from two structurally unremarkable and five abnormal fetal brains were compared to the results of postmortem ST analysis applied to digitalized whole hemisphere sections of the same subjects. An approach to perform ST-based deterministic tractography in histological sections was implemented to overcome limitations in correlating in utero tractography to postmortem histology data. ST analysis and histology-based tractography of fetal brain sections enabled the direct assessment of the anisotropic organization and main fiber orientation of fetal telencephalic layers on a micro- and macroscopic scale, and validated in utero tractography results of corpus callosum and internal capsule fiber tracts. Cross-validation of abnormal in utero tractography results could be achieved in four subjects with agenesis of the corpus callosum and in two cases with malformations of internal capsule fibers. In addition, potential limitations of current DTI-based in utero tractography could be demonstrated in several brain regions. Combining the three-dimensional nature of DTI-based in utero tractography with the microscopic resolution provided by histological ST analysis may ultimately facilitate a more complete morphologic characterization of axon guidance disorders at prenatal stages of human brain development.

  15. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  16. ‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?

    Makri, S; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other resources. Although we...

  17. Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology; Protocolo y resultados de las estimaciones de dosis equivalente en utero en 500 exploraciones de radiodiagnostico

    Gago Gomez, P.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.; Gomez Cores, S.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Gomez Calvar, R.; Herranz Crespo, R.

    2011-07-01

    According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Niels Rathlev, MD; Reda Almomen, MD; Ashley Deutsch, MD; Howard Smithline, MD; Haiping Li, MD; Paul Visintainer, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED) use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1) opioid use di...

  19. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  20. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  1. Induction of cross-reactive serum neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus in calves after in utero administration of bovine rotavirus.

    Wyatt, R G; Kapikian, A Z; Mebus, C A

    1983-01-01

    Sera from calves infected in utero or postnatally with bovine rotavirus NCDV or postnatally with human rotavirus D (serotype 1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization assay for antibody to bovine rotavirus and to three serotypes of human rotavirus. Homologous antibody developed in all animals, but antibody to heterologous rotaviruses developed mainly in animals exposed in utero to bovine rotavirus. The development of heterologous antibody may explain the immunological implications for...

  2. Prospect of Nutrition in-Utero on Improvement of Reproductive Performance in Bali Cows Kept under Smallholder Farms

    Yusuf, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to know the future prospect of reproductive performance in Bali cows after treating with nutrition in-utero at different stages of reproductive physiology status. A total of 90 Bali cows were used in the study. All cows were scoring for body condition (BCS; scale 1 - 9) and clinically examined for reproductive function and status. The reproductive statuses were pregnant, cyclic, and anestrous. All cows were treated with nutrition in-utero. Blood urea nit...

  3. Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Becher, Georg; Haug, Line Småstuen; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Background: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern. Objectives: We investigated whether in utero exposure to PFOA and PFOS affects semen quality, testic...

  4. Fetal lung compliance in premature and term lambs after two methods of in utero repair of diaphragmatic hernia.

    D. W. Parsons; Ford, W. D.; Cool, J. C.; Martin, A.J.; Staugas, R E; Kennedy, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In utero surgery was used to correct a surgically induced model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in premature and term lambs, resulting in an improvement in lung mechanics at birth. METHODS--The differences between the in utero "patch" repair method and the "silo" repair method were assessed in 55 lambs by measuring the static respiratory system compliance (CST,RS) at birth in term (approximately 145 day) and in premature (128 day) animals. RESULTS--Both methods resulted i...

  5. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

  6. Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation

    Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech; Hougaard, Karin S.; Wallin, Håkan; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Yauk, Carole L.

    The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants...... (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates...... of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to...

  7. Glucose metabolism of fetal rat brain in utero, measured with labeled deoxyglucose

    Mammals have low cerebral metabolic rates immediately after birth and, by inference, also before birth. In this study, we extended the deoxyglucose method to the fetal rat brain in utero. Rate constants for deoxyglucose transfer across the maternal placental and fetal blood-brain barriers, and lumped constant, have not been reported. Therefore, we applied a new method of determining the lumped constant regionally to the fetal rat brain in utero. The lumped constant averaged 0.55 0.15 relative to the maternal circulation. On this basis, we determined the glucose metabolic rate of the fetal rat brain to be one third of the corresponding maternal value, or 19 2 ?mol hg-1 min-1. (author)

  8. First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Aagaard, Lise; Damkier, Per

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been...... published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The...... Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy...

  9. Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.

    Adis L. Peña Cedeño

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma diagnosed in a phetus in utero by prenatal ultrasound in a 20-year-old woman on the 22nd week of pregnancy is reported. The follow-up by fetal echography allowed to evaluate the case. Abortion was induced and the diagnosis was confirmed. The study of the mother at the Genetics Department concluded that she was carrier of tuberous sclerosis.

  10. Exposure to Maternal Diabetes in Utero and DNA Methylation Patterns in the Offspring.

    West, Nancy A; Kechris, Katerina; Dabelea, Dana

    2013-03-01

    Perturbations in early life environments, including intrauterine exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM), are hypothesized to lead to metabolic imprinting resulting in increased risk of cardiometabolic outcomes later in life. We aimed to 1) identify candidate genes and biological pathways associated with differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in relation to exposure to GDM in utero and, 2) using mediation analysis, more definitively investigate the potential for mediation of the effect of exposure to maternal diabetes in utero on cardiometabolic traits in childhood risk through our identified DMRs. Genome-wide methylation analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell's DNA was conducted in 21 healthy children, ages 8-12 years. P-values from multiple linear regression analyses for >27,000 CpG sites were ranked to identify DMRs between the exposure groups. Among the top 10 ranked DMRs, we identified several genes, including NPR1, PANK1, SCAND1, and GJA4, which are known to be associated with cardiometabolic traits. Gene enrichment analysis of the top 84 genes, each with pmethylation of PYGO1 and CLN8 had the greatest relative mediation effect (RME = 87%, p=0.005 and RME=50%, p=0.01) on the impact of exposure to maternal diabetes in utero on VCAM-1 levels in the offspring. Multiple candidate genes and the UPS were identified for future study as possible links between exposure to maternal gestational diabetes in utero and adverse cardiometabolic traits in the offspring. In particular, increased methylation of PYGO1 and CLN8 may be biological links between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and significantly increased VCAM-1 levels in the offspring. PMID:23741625

  11. Percutaneous angio-embolization of a post laparoscopy complex utero-adenexal vascular malformation

    Verma Ashish

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular abnormalities are uncommon causes of uterine bleeding. Laparoscopic surgeries, however, require expertise and improper techniques can lead to major vascular complications. We report an unusual case of utero-adenexal arterio- venous fistula with arterio - venous malformation due to pelvic trauma caused during laparoscopic sterilisation procedure, which was treated by percutaneous embolisation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of such a complex vascular injury caused by laparoscopic sterilisation and its endovascular management

  12. Regulatory and Ethical Issues for Phase I In Utero Gene Transfer Studies

    Strong, Carson

    2011-01-01

    Clinical gene transfer research has involved adult and child subjects, and it is expected that gene transfer in fetal subjects will occur in the future. Some genetic diseases have serious adverse effects on the fetus before birth, and there is hope that prenatal gene therapy could prevent such disease progression. Research in animal models of prenatal gene transfer is actively being pursued. The prospect of human phase I in utero gene transfer studies raises important regulatory and ethical i...

  13. In utero therapy for congenital disorders using amniotic fluid stem cells.

    Ramachandra, Durrgah L.; Shaw, Steven S. W.; Shangaris, Panicos; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Guillot, Pascale V.; De Coppi, Paolo; David, Anna L.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diseases are responsible for over a third of all pediatric hospital admissions. Advances in prenatal screening and molecular diagnosis have allowed the detection of many life-threatening genetic diseases early in gestation. In utero transplantation (IUT) with stem cells could cure affected fetuses but so far in humans, successful IUT using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), has been limited to fetuses with severe immunologic defects and more recently IUT with allogeneic me...

  14. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality

  15. The effects of in utero vitamin D deficiency on airway smooth muscle mass and lung function.

    Foong, Rachel E; Bosco, Anthony; Jones, Anya C; Gout, Alex; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H; Zosky, Graeme R

    2015-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass and airway hyperresponsiveness in whole-life vitamin D-deficient female mice. In this study, we aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms contributing to altered lung structure and function. RNA was extracted from lung tissue of whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete female mice, and gene expression patterns were profiled by RNA sequencing. The data showed that genes involved in embryonic organ development, pattern formation, branching morphogenesis, Wingless/Int signaling, and inflammation were differentially expressed in vitamin D-deficient mice. Network analysis suggested that differentially expressed genes were connected by the hubs matrix metallopeptidase 9; NF-? light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells inhibitor, ?; epidermal growth factor receptor; and E1A binding protein p300. Given our findings that developmental pathways may be altered, we investigated if the timing of vitamin D exposure (in utero vs. postnatal) had an impact on lung health outcomes. Gene expression was measured in in utero or postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice, as well as whole-life vitamin D-deficient and -replete mice at 8 weeks of age. Baseline lung function, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation were measured and lungs fixed for lung structure assessment using stereological methods and quantification of ASM mass. In utero vitamin D deficiency was sufficient to increase ASM mass and baseline airway resistance and alter lung structure. There were increased neutrophils but decreased lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage. Expression of inflammatory molecules S100A9 and S100A8 was mainly increased in postnatal vitamin D-deficient mice. These observations suggest that in utero vitamin D deficiency can alter lung structure and function and increase inflammation, contributing to symptoms in chronic diseases, such as asthma. PMID:25867172

  16. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Karagas, Margaret R. [Children' s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH 03756 (United States); Chen, Yu, E-mail: yu.chen@nyumc.org [Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality.

  17. MOIST VAGINAL PACKING FOR UTERO-VAGINAL PROLAPSE-A CLINICAL STUDY

    Manidip

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND : Utero-vaginal prolapse is a common condition in ag ed women and often they come to us with decubitus ulcer. Prolong ed vaginal packing not only will heal the decubitus ulcer but also it may help in returning th e normal rugosity of the vaginal skin. AIMS: To assess the role of prolonged moist vaginal packing in utero-vaginal prolpase. SETTINGS & DESIGN: It was an OPD based prospective study conducted at t he gynecology OPD of College of Medicine & JNM Hospital, WBUHS, Kalyani, Nadia, West Bengal and Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Sciences, Porompat, Imphal, Manipur. METHODS & MATERIAL: Hundred (100 patients of utero-vaginal prolapse with decubitus ulce r were studied. After initial staging (POP- Q staging, daily moist (5% povidone-iodine solution soaked gauze vaginal packing at home was advised. After 2 weeks, re-examination done for decubitus ulcer healing. Packing continued till operation (interval 1- 1 month. Preoperative s taging and modification of operation were noted. On follow up complication (mainly recurrence was noted. RESULTS: Initial staging was stage 3 - 39%, stage 4 - 61%. Preoperative scoring r evealed stage 3 became stage 2 in 54% cases and stage 4 became stage 3 in 49% cases. This improv ement helped us to avoid excessive excision of vaginal mucosa. CONCLUSION: Prolonged pre-operative moist gauze vaginal packing may improve the outcome of the disease.

  18. In Utero Bisphenol A Exposure Induces Abnormal Neuronal Migration in the Cerebral Cortex of Mice

    Ling, Wenting; Endo, Toshihiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Nakajima, Kazunori; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been known to have endocrine-disrupting activity to induce reproductive and behavioral abnormalities in offspring of laboratory animal species. However, morphological basis of this abnormality during brain development is largely unknown. Cerebral cortex plays a crucial role in higher brain function, and its precisely laminated structure is formed by neuronal migration. In the present study, transfecting a plasmid (pCAG-mCherry) by in utero electroporation (IUE), we visualized developing neurons and investigated the possible effects of in utero BPA exposure on neuronal migration. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA by osmotic pump at estimated daily doses of 0, 40 (BPA-40), or 400 (BPA-400) μg/kg from embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) to E18.5. IUE was performed at E14.5 and neuronal migration was analyzed at E18.5. Compared with the control group, neuronal migration in the cortical plate was significantly decreased in the BPA-40 group; however, there was no significant difference in the BPA-400 group. Among several neuronal migration-related genes and cortical layer-specific genes, TrkB in the BPA-400 group was found significantly upregulated. In conclusion, in utero exposure to low BPA dose was found to disrupt neuronal migration in the cerebral cortex in a dose-specific manner. PMID:26869994

  19. In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates

    Marrero Luis

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

  20. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in female mouse offspring

  1. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  2. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ► In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ► In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ► An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  3. In utero bisphenol A exposure disrupts germ cell nest breakdown and reduces fertility with age in the mouse

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: weiwang2@illinois.edu; Hafner, Katlyn S., E-mail: katlynhafner@gmail.com; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2014-04-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a known reproductive toxicant in rodents. However, the effects of in utero BPA exposure on early ovarian development and the consequences of such exposure on female reproduction in later reproductive life are unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of in utero BPA exposure during a critical developmental window on germ cell nest breakdown, a process required for establishment of the finite primordial follicle pool, and on female reproduction. Pregnant FVB mice (F0) were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-striped corn oil (vehicle), diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0.05 μg/kg, positive control), or BPA (0.5, 20, and 50 μg/kg) from gestational day 11 until birth. Ovarian morphology and gene expression profiles then were examined in F1 female offspring on postnatal day (PND) 4 and estrous cyclicity was examined daily after weaning for 30 days. F1 females were also subjected to breeding studies with untreated males at three to nine months. The results indicate that BPA inhibits germ cell nest breakdown via altering expression of selected apoptotic factors. BPA also significantly advances the age of first estrus, shortens the time that the females remain in estrus, and increases the time that the females remain in metestrus and diestrus compared to controls. Further, F1 females exposed to low doses of BPA exhibit various fertility problems and have a significantly higher percentage of dead pups compared to controls. These results indicate that in utero exposure to low doses of BPA during a critical ovarian developmental window interferes with early ovarian development and reduces fertility with age. - Highlights: • In utero BPA exposure inhibits germ cell nest breakdown in female mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure alters expression of apoptosis regulators in the ovaries of mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure advances first estrus age and alters cyclicity in mouse offspring. • In utero BPA exposure causes various fertility problems in female mouse offspring.

  4. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter Ellekilde; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum......,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in...

  5. Paracetamol exposure in utero or during infancy: no increase in asthma.

    2012-07-01

    The increasing incidence of asthma among children, and the increase in paracetamol exposure, suggested a possible link between the two. Most relevant data concern wheezing episodes in infants rather than asthma. About 20 epidemiological studies have been published. Due to numerous biases, particularly the possible link between the use of paracetamol and respiratory disorders that preceded the diagnosis of asthma, these studies fail to show that paracetamol exposure in utero or during the first year of life causes persistent asthma. These data do not challenge the known harm-benefit balance of paracetamol during pregnancy and infancy. Paracetamol remains the analgesic and antipyretic drug of choice in both situations. PMID:22852294

  6. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    : 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffeeand tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through......, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....

  7. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    : 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffee and tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely......In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through......, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk....

  8. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  9. Bisphenol-A exposure in utero leads to epigenetic alterations in the developmental programming of uterine estrogen response

    Bromer, Jason G.; Yuping ZHOU; Taylor, Melissa B.; Doherty, Leo; Taylor, Hugh S

    2010-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. The homeobox gene Hoxa10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is affected by in utero BPA exposure. We hypothesized that an epigenetic mechanism underlies BPA-mediated alterations in Hoxa10 expression. We analyzed the expression pattern and methylation profile of Hoxa10 after in utero BPA exposure. Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with BPA (5 mg/kg IP) or vehicle control on d 916 of pregnancy. Ho...

  10. Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging

    Bui, T.; Daire, J.L.; Chalard, F.; Sebag, G. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Zaccaria, I.; Alberti, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Clinical Epidemiology; Elmaleh, M.; Garel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Univ. of Paris-7 (France). Faculty of Medicine; Luton, D. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Blanc, N. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Neurology Service

    2006-11-15

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37{sup +3} weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract.

  11. Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI

    Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2011-03-01

    Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout in the mouse brain using in utero electroporation.

    Shinmyo, Yohei; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tsunoda, Shinichi; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Tajima, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently been adapted for generating knockout mice to investigate physiological functions and pathological mechanisms. Here, we report a highly efficient procedure for brain-specific disruption of genes of interest in vivo. We constructed pX330 plasmids expressing humanized Cas9 and single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) against the Satb2 gene, which encodes an AT-rich DNA-binding transcription factor and is responsible for callosal axon projections in the developing mouse brain. We first confirmed that these constructs efficiently induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) in target sites of exogenous plasmids both in vitro and in vivo. We then found that the introduction of pX330-Satb2 into the developing mouse brain using in utero electroporation led to a dramatic reduction of Satb2 expression in the transfected cerebral cortex, suggesting DSBs had occurred in the Satb2 gene with high efficiency. Furthermore, we found that Cas9-mediated targeting of the Satb2 gene induced abnormalities in axonal projection patterns, which is consistent with the phenotypes previously observed in Satb2 mutant mice. Introduction of pX330-NeuN using our procedure also resulted in the efficient disruption of the NeuN gene. Thus, our procedure combining the CRISPR/Cas9 system and in utero electroporation is an effective and rapid approach to achieve brain-specific gene knockout in vivo. PMID:26857612

  13. Spatiotemporal molecular approach of in utero electroporation to functionally decipher endophenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders

    Sharon Margriet Kolk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We have only just begun to decipher the complexity of our brain including its maturation. Correct brain development and communication among brain areas are crucial for proper cognitive behavior. Brain area-specific genes expressed within a particular time window direct neurodevelopmental events such as proliferation, migration, axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. These genes can pose as susceptibility factors in neurodevelopmental disorders eventually resulting in area-specific cognitive deficits. Therefore, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer can aid in creating valuable animal models in which the regionality and time of expression can be restricted for the targeted gene(s. Moreover, through the use of cell-type specific molecular constructs, expression can be altered in a particular neuronal subset within a distinct area such that we are now able to causally link the function of that gene in that brain region to the etiology of the disorder. Thus, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer is an attractive molecular technique to spatiotemporally address the developmental aspects of gene function in relation to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated endophenotypes.

  14. Ebstein's anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia: prognosis after diagnosis in utero.

    Barre, E; Durand, I; Hazelzet, T; David, N

    2012-12-01

    Tricuspid valve malformation is a rare congenital heart disease. Prenatal diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly (EA) and tricuspid valve dysplasia (TVD) is associated with high mortality. There are conflicting reports concerning accurate prognostication after diagnosis in utero. The aim of our study was to assess prognostic factors based on our experience. We reviewed 37 fetuses between 1984 and June 2010 comprising 26 cases of EA and 11 cases of TVD. There were 10 terminations, 5 intrauterine deaths, 8 neonatal deaths, and 14 survivors. We found that the major prognostic factor for outcome was the flow pattern through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram. Retrograde flow was strongly correlated with fetal or neonatal death (p = 8 10(-5)), and anterograde flow predicted good outcome (p = 8 10(-5)). In contrast, cardiothoracic indexes, right to left-ventricular ratio, and Celermajer index were not useful prognostic markers. The Simpson Andrews Sharland score, which was more complex, was well correlated with our series. Flow through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram is a simple and excellent prognostic factor when major tricuspid valve disease is diagnosed in utero. Fetuses should be monitored throughout pregnancy, particularly those with retrograde ductus arteriosus, because several hemodynamic factors may worsen the prognosis. PMID:22639000

  15. The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero

    Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

  16. Ethanol in utero induces epithelial cell damage and altered kinetics in the developing rat intestine.

    Estrada, G; Del Rio, J A; García-Valero, J; López-Tejero, M D

    1996-11-01

    The effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on the intestinal maturation of rat fetuses was investigated to understand the nutritional alterations found in the offspring of alcoholic mothers. Female Wistar rats were maintained on solid diet and 25% ethanol solution as drinking fluid during pregnancy, and non-alcoholic isocaloric pregnant mothers were used as controls. At birth, intestines from unsuckled pups were removed for study. The weight and length of the intestine decreased significantly when ethanol was present in utero. Ultrastructural evaluation of the epithelium revealed loss of contact between neighboring enterocytes and abnormal dilation of the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus in ethanol-exposed pups. Further, increased lysosome-like vesiculation and enhanced lysosomal beta-galactosidase activity was observed in these neonates. The total number of absorptive enterocytes in the epithelium was reduced by 30% in ethanol-exposed neonates as compared to controls, due to altered cell growth and death during fetal life. Ethanol in utero stimulated epithelial cell migration which compensated cell loss, as demonstrated by 5'-Bromodeoxyuridine labeling. These findings could have important implications for the assimilation of nutrients and failure to thrive in infants with fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:9035346

  17. Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany

    A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

  18. Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm2) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37+3 weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 μm2/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 μm2/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 μm2/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract

  19. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    1500 children who were born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Study Groups 1 and 2) were identified from lists of children undergoing mandatory surveillance in the Minsk Chernobyl Dispensary. During pregnancy mothers of these children lived in highly contaminated territories in several areas of three Belarus Regions - Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest. Children in Study Group 1 were born between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. The mothers of these children during their pregnancy period were exposed both to radiocesium and radioiodine. Children in Study Group 2 were born between February 1, 1987 and December 31, 1987. The mothers of children from Study Group 2 lived in the same areas as the mothers of children from Study Group 1, but during their pregnancy period were mainly exposed to radiocesium. The Control Group consists of children born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987, to mothers living throughout pregnancy in the uncontaminated Vitebsk Region. These children were randomly selected from medical records of family-practice clinics, and were matched to Study Groups 1 and 2 by age and sex. To assess the health effects of in utero radiation exposure among the cohort, the specific protocol for annual health examination was developed in 1988. The study protocol included collection of data on family history; history of mothers pregnancy and delivery; head circumference at birth; annual measurements of standing height and weight; examination by neurologist; clinical thyroid evaluation, and ultrasound examination of the thyroid; annual measurements of levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies in children's blood (i.e. thyrotropin (TSH), total and free thyroxin (T4), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroglobulin (TG) and TG autoantibodies, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and anti-TPO (thyroid microsomal )assay; annual blood count; analyses of the components of the immune system (T- cells, B-cells, immunoglobulins, complement, etc.); and data on general health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation of the thyroid dose to the fetus was calculated using the model developed by Johnson. This model presents thyroid-dose calculations per unit intake of radioiodine by the mother as a function of fetal age. The dosimetry calculations include the age dependence of the uptake and retention of iodine in the fetal thyroid. Future work. Although I 131 intake was responsible for most of thyroid doses in the majority of children exposed in utero after the Chernobyl accident, exposures from other radionuclides also contributed. These exposures are internal exposure from intake of short-lived radioiodine and of Te 132; internal exposure from the intake of long-lived Cs 137; external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground. Short-lived radionuclides from Chernobyl fallout can possibly affect the induction of thyroid cancer and other thyroid abnormalities among children exposed to radiation in utero. Due to this fact, we plan to perform an in utero thyroid-dose reconstruction from short-lived radioiodine for those children whose mothers during pregnancy were exposed through inhalation within one week following the accident. A dose reconstruction will also be performed for all children from Study Groups 1 and 2. At the conclusion of these tasks, the epidemiological data obtained during examination of in utero exposed children will be analyzed in relation with reconstructed individual thyroid doses (authors)

  20. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure

    Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

  1. Infant Head Growth and Cognitive Status at 36 Months in Children with In-Utero Drug Exposure

    Butz, Arlene M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Leppert, Mary; Donithan, Michele; Zeger, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of children with in-utero drug exposure (IUDE) raise concerns that decreased head circumference (HC) at birth increases the child's risk for later compromised cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to determine if HC at birth and HC growth change are associated with cognitive functioning (IQ) at 36 months of age in…

  2. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  3. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

  4. Infant Head Growth and Cognitive Status at 36 Months in Children with In-Utero Drug Exposure

    Butz, Arlene M.; Pulsifer, Margaret; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Leppert, Mary; Donithan, Michele; Zeger, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of children with in-utero drug exposure (IUDE) raise concerns that decreased head circumference (HC) at birth increases the child's risk for later compromised cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to determine if HC at birth and HC growth change are associated with cognitive functioning (IQ) at 36 months of age in

  5. The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children

    Kelly, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of

  6. Organizing Internet Resources

    Hsueh-Hua Chen

    1996-01-01

    Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading sys...

  7. In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.

    Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V; Tereschenko, Valery P; Tronko, Mykola D; Brenner, Alina V

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ≥500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However, additional studies are needed to clarify whether in utero exposure to I-131 at levels > = 500 mGy may be associated with increases in weight/BMI and to evaluate the confounding or modifying role of thyroid disease, past iodine deficiency, maternal and prenatal/postnatal factors. PMID:24611659

  8. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  9. Electronics

    Bishop, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

  10. In utero and transgeneration effects and biological defence mechanism in mice

    Multicellular animals are composed of 2 types of cells; cells of the germ line, from which next generation of gametes will be derived, and the somatic cells, which form the rest of the body and leave no progeny. In a sense, somatic cells exist only to help the germ line cells survive and propagate. During development of mammals, 2 haploid cells (gametes), one large and non-motile (ovum) and the other small and motile (sperm) fuse and then diploid cells proliferate and diversify to form a complex multicellular organism in utero. During the long course of germ line and embryonic development, there are extraordinary radiation (also chemicals)-sensitive phases, some of which must be very important for animals to defense their species from radiation and chemical hazards in the environment by replacing damaged cells with un-damaged or normal totipotent reserve cells. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

  11. In Utero Exposure to Compounds with Dioxin-like Activity and Birth Outcomes

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Pedersen, Marie; Besselink, Harrie; Chatzi, Leda; Fthenou, Eleni; Fleming, Sarah; Hardie, Laura J; Wright, John; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Sunyer, Jordi; Carreras, Ramon; Brunborg, Gunnar; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Nygaard, Unni C; Løvik, Martinus; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Segerbäck, Dan; Merlo, Domenico F; Kleinjans, Jos C; Vrijheid, Martine; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds may affect fetal growth and development. We evaluated the association between in utero dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study. METHODS: We measured dioxin-like activity in maternal and...... cord blood plasma samples collected at delivery using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX) bioassay in 967 mother-child pairs, in Denmark, Greece, Norway, Spain, and England. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the associations with birth...... weight, gestational age, and head circumference. RESULTS: Plasma dioxin-like activity was higher in maternal sample than in cord samples. Birth weight was lower with medium (-58 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -176 to 62]) and high (-82 g [-216 to 53]) tertiles of exposure (cord blood) compared with...

  12. In utero exposure to carcinogens: Epigenetics, developmental disruption and consequences in later life.

    Waring, R H; Harris, R M; Mitchell, S C

    2016-04-01

    The uterine environment is often viewed as a relatively safe haven, being guarded by the placenta which acts as a filter, permitting required materials to enter and unwanted products to be removed. However, this defensive barrier is sometimes breached by potential chemical hazards to which the mother may be subjected. Many of these toxins have immediate and recognisable deleterious effects on the embryo, foetus or neonate, but a few are insidious and leave a legacy of health issues that may emerge in later life. Several substances, falling into the categories of metals and metalloids, endocrine disruptors, solvents and other industrial chemicals, have been implicated in the development of long-term health problems in the offspring following maternal and subsequent in utero exposure. The mechanisms involved are complex but often involve epigenetic changes which disrupt normal cell processes leading to the development of cancers and also dysregulation of biochemical pathways. PMID:26921930

  13. Physical growth and psychomotor development of infants exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero

    Arulmozhi T

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluates the physical growth and psychomotor development of infants born to women with epilepsy on regular Anti Epileptic Drugs (AEDs. Setting: Govt. Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Tertiary care referral centre, Chennai. Design: Open prospective cohort study with a control group. Materials and Methods: Consecutive women with epilepsy who were on regular anticonvulsants were followed up from their first trimester. Their babies were examined at birth and anthropometric measurements including anterior fontanelle size were noted. They were followed up till one year and periodically evaluated at 1st, 6th and 12th month of age. Development testing using Griffith scale was done at 2nd, 6th and 12th month. An equal number of control babies were also studied using the same scale for one year at the specified intervals. The results in both the groups were compared. Results : 30 babies were enrolled in the case and control group. The AEDs received by the mothers with epilepsy were Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, and Sodium valproate. At birth and 1st month the weight, head circumference and length of case and control babies were equal. At 6th and 12th month reduction in the above 3 parameters were noted in the case babies ( P P P P monotherapy had a negative impact on sitting progression. Conclusion : Among infants exposed to AEDs in utero physical growth was equal to that of control at birth but reduced at 6th and 12th month probably due to extraneous factors. The Locomotor scores showed reduction in all areas in 2nd, 6th and 12th month except prone progression which alone improved by 12th month. Phenytoin exposure in utero resulted in large AF and it had a negative impact on sitting progression in comparison with Carbamazepine and Sodium valproate.

  14. Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig

    Thulin, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ..beta..-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing (/sup 14/C) linoleic acid and (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid or (/sup 14/C) octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny.

  15. Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig

    In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ?-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing [14C] linoleic acid and [3H] palmitic acid or [14C] octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny

  16. Effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, methylmercury, and polyunsaturated fatty acids on birth size.

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Ito, Sachiko; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nakajima, Tamie; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-11-15

    The adverse effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or methylmercury (MeHg), and the beneficial effects of nutrients from maternal fish intake might have opposing influences on fetal growth. In this study, we assessed the effects of in utero exposure to PCBs and MeHg on birth size in the Japanese population, which is known to have a high frequency of fish consumption. The concentrations of PCBs and polyunsaturated fatty acids in maternal blood, and the total mercury in hair (as a biomarker of MeHg exposure) were measured during pregnancy and at delivery. Maternal intakes of fish (subtypes: fatty and lean) and shellfishes were calculated from a food frequency questionnaire administered at delivery. Newborn anthropometric measurement data were obtained from birth records. The associations between chemical exposures and birth size were analyzed by using multiple regression analysis with adjustment for confounding factors among 367 mother-newborn pairs. The birth weight was 307337 g (meanSD). The incidence of babies small for gestational age (SGA) by weight was 4.9%. The median concentrations of total PCBs and hair mercury were 108 ng/g lipid and 1.41 ?g/g, respectively. There was no overall association between mercury concentrations and birth weight, birth length, chest circumference, and head circumference. We observed that the risk of SGA by weight decreased with increasing mercury concentration in regression analyses with adjustment for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Our results suggest that the beneficial effect of essential nutrition may mask the adverse effects of MeHg on birth size. The concentrations of PCBs had no association with birth size. PMID:26172592

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Microinjection into the Mouse Forebrain In Utero at E9.5

    Pierfelice, Tarran J.; Gaiano, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    In utero survival surgery in mice permits the molecular manipulation of gene expression during development. However, because the uterine wall is opaque during early embryogenesis, the ability to target specific parts of the embryo for microinjection is greatly limited. Fortunately, high-frequency ultrasound imaging permits the generation of images that can be used in real time to guide a microinjection needle into the embryonic region of interest. Here we describe the use of such imaging to guide the injection of retroviral vectors into the ventricular system of the mouse forebrain at embryonic day (E) 9.5. This method uses a laparotomy to permit access to the uterine horns, and a specially designed plate that permits host embryos to be bathed in saline while they are imaged and injected. Successful surgeries often result in most or all of the injected embryos surviving to any subsequent time point of interest (embryonically or postnatally). The principles described here can be used with slight modifications to perform injections into the amnionic fluid of E8.5 embryos (thereby permitting infection along the anterior posterior extent of the neural tube, which has not yet closed), or into the ventricular system of the brain at E10.5/11.5. Furthermore, at mid-neurogenic ages (~E13.5), ultrasound imaging can be used direct injection into specific brain regions for viral infection or cell transplantation. The use of ultrasound imaging to guide in utero injections in mice is a very powerful technique that permits the molecular and cellular manipulation of mouse embryos in ways that would otherwise be exceptionally difficult if not impossible. PMID:21113114

  18. Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA

    Jamie E. Jennings-Gee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis. The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.

  19. La sanctification in utero de Joseph : une proposition gersonienne

    Paul Payan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available à partir de 1413, Jean Gerson se lance dans une véritable campagne de promotion en faveur de Joseph, l’époux de Marie, à un moment où celui-ci est très rarement considéré comme un saint, et intéresse peu les théologiens et les prédicateurs, à l’exception de quelques franciscains. Or, parmi les privilèges et les vertus que le chancelier attribue à Joseph, on est surpris de rencontrer l’idée d’une sanctification in utero, qui rappelle l’immaculée conception de Marie, pour laquelle Gerson s’était battu aux côtés de son maître Pierre d’Ailly. Cette affirmation se fait cependant avec prudence, sous la forme d’une idée à laquelle on peut « croire pieusement ». à l’occasion d’un sermon prononcé au concile de Constance, Gerson précise sa pensée en distinguant la Vierge, totalement préservée du péché originel, de Joseph sanctifié dans le sein de sa mère. La logique est celle d’une comparaison avec Jean-Baptiste, que l’on considère consacré in utero au moment de la Visitation. Comme Gerson tente d’affirmer la supériorité de Joseph sur le Baptiste, il cherche à lui attribuer une grâce au moins comparable. L’enjeu est la reconnaissance de la sainteté de Joseph, dont la définition est délicate puisqu’il est sans doute mort avant la Passion et qu’il ne peut être reconnu comme un martyr.Même si la formulation gersonienne reste très originale, son idée a sans doute été mûrie au contact d’autres admirateurs de l’époux de la Vierge, tels Pierre d’Ailly ou le célestin Pierre Pocquet. Elle s’appuie également sur des sources liturgiques orientales plus délicates à identifier. Néanmoins, sa proposition ne connaîtra pas un grand succès : reprise par quelques auteurs au cours des xve et xvie siècles, elle est finalement explicitement rejetée lorsque s’affirme le culte de Joseph et que sa sainteté n’est plus contestée.Elle reste le témoignage d’un moment particulier d’audace théologique, sur les frontières encore imprécises de l’immaculée conception, de la sanctification et de la consécration, alors que les désordres du Grand Schisme rendaient plus aigu le besoin d’une pureté inaccessible.Joseph’s in utero sanctification : a gersonian suggestionIn 1413, Jean Gerson launched what could be described as a huge campaign in favour of Joseph, at a time when Mary's spouse was seldom considered a saint and was of very little interest to theologians or predicators, with the exception of a few Franciscans. However, among the privileges and virtues ascribed to Joseph by the chancellor, lies, surprisingly, the idea of in utero sanctification, a reminder of Mary’s Immaculate Conception, a notion also staunchly defended by Gerson and his master Pierre d’Ailly. This affirmation is however carefully exposed, as something that we can “piously believe in”.On the occasion of a sermon delivered at the Constance council, Gerson exposed this idea with more clarity by making a distinction between the holy Virgin who is totally preserved from the original sin, and Joseph who was sanctified while in his mother's womb. The logic in this arises from a comparison with John the Baptist considered consecrated in utero during the Visitation episode.In an attempt to assert Joseph's superiority on John the Baptist, Gerson credits him with at least one comparable virtue. What is at stake is the recognition of Joseph's holiness, a notion whose definition is a delicate matter since he probably died before the Passion and cannot be acknowledged as a martyr.Even though the gersonian formulation remains quite original, the idea of in utero sanctification has most probably matured through his association with other admirers of the holy Virgin's spouse, such as Pierre d'Ailly or the Celestin Pierre Pocquet. It also stems from oriental liturgical sources that are more difficult to identify. However, his proposition was not widely acclaimed : taken over by a few authors of the 15th and 16th centuries, it was eventually explicitly rejected when the worshipping and the sanctity of Joseph was no longer questioned.However it remains as a testimony of strong theological audacity, in a time the still unclear borders of the Immaculate Conception, sanctification and consecration, when the disruptions of the Great Schism made the need for inaccessible purity more acute.

  20. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  1. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  2. LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.

    Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

  3. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  4. Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Olsen, Sjurdur Fródi; Secher, Niels Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and the risk of stillbirth and infant death in a cohort of 25,102 singleton children of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, from September 1989 to August 1996. Exposure to...... tobacco smoke in utero was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.9), and infant mortality was almost doubled in children born to women who had smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmokers (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence...... interval: 1.3, 2.6). Among children of women who stopped smoking during the first trimester, stillbirth and infant mortality was comparable with that in children of women who had been nonsmokers from the beginning of pregnancy. Conclusions were not changed after adjustment in a logistic regression model...

  5. Mental and behavioural disorders in Belarusian persons exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0.01) and borderline intellectual functioning (r=0.56; P<0.05) of the same people at age 10-12.

  6. Fetal distress and in utero pneumonia in perinatal dolphins during the Northern Gulf of Mexico unusual mortality event.

    Colegrove, Kathleen M; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Litz, Jenny; Kinsel, Michael J; Terio, Karen A; Fougeres, Erin; Ewing, Ruth; Pabst, D Ann; McLellan, William A; Raverty, Stephen; Saliki, Jeremiah; Fire, Spencer; Rappucci, Gina; Bowen-Stevens, Sabrina; Noble, Lauren; Costidis, Alex; Barbieri, Michelle; Field, Cara; Smith, Suzanne; Carmichael, Ruth H; Chevis, Connie; Hatchett, Wendy; Shannon, Delphine; Tumlin, Mandy; Lovewell, Gretchen; McFee, Wayne; Rowles, Teresa K

    2016-04-12

    An unusual mortality event (UME) involving primarily common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus of all size classes stranding along coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama, USA, started in early 2010 and continued into 2014. During this northern Gulf of Mexico UME, a distinct cluster of perinatal dolphins (total body length Gulf of Mexico UME, bottlenose dolphins were particularly susceptible to late-term pregnancy failures and development of in utero infections including brucellosis. PMID:27068499

  7. Quantifying circulating hypoxia-induced RNA transcripts in maternal blood to determine in utero fetal hypoxic status

    Whitehead, Clare; Teh, Wan Tinn; Walker, Susan P.; Leung, Cheryl; Mendis, Sonali; Larmour, Luke; Tong, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia in utero can lead to stillbirth and severe perinatal injury. While current prenatal tests can identify fetuses that are hypoxic, none can determine the severity of hypoxia/acidemia. We hypothesized a hypoxic/acidemic fetus would up-regulate and release hypoxia-induced mRNA from the fetoplacental unit into the maternal circulation, where they can be sampled and quantified. Furthermore, we hypothesized the abundance of hypoxia induced mRNA in the maternal circulation would co...

  8. Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus)

    Chacón Cecilia; Erices Rafaela; Valdés Gloria; Corthorn Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of...

  9. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  10. X-ray exposure in utero and school performance: a population-based study of X-ray pelvimetry

    Aim: To investigate the association between exposure to ionising radiation from pelvimetric examinations in utero and school performance. Material and methods: This was a population-based cohort study comprising 46,066 children born in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, from 1980 through 1990. Through record linkage between Swedish registers, children exposed in utero to X-ray pelvimetry examination were compared to other children born in the same county during the study period, as well as to their unexposed siblings. Outcome variable was primary school grades, expressed in centiles and calculated through linear regression. Results: In the univariate analysis, children exposed to X-ray pelvimetry in utero had higher school grades compared to unexposed children (point estimate 3 centiles, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5 to 4.6). When sex, mother's education and income, birth order, and birth position were included in the analysis; however, the difference was reduced and the association was no longer statistically significant (PE 1.4, 95% CI: –0.1 to 2.8). Comparing exposed children with their siblings showed no statistical difference in univariate analysis or in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: No suggestion was found of a negative effect on school performance from in utero exposure of diagnostic X-ray pelvimetry. -- Highlights: •Pelvimetric examinations expose fetus to low levels of radiation. •No detectable effect on childrens final primary school grades from pelvimetric examinations. •Pelvimetric examinations is a safe procedure for the fetus regarding shool performance

  11. Undernourishment in utero Primes Hepatic Steatosis in Adult Mice Offspring on an Obesogenic Diet; Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Keiko Muramatsu-Kato; Hiroaki Itoh; Yukiko Kohmura-Kobayashi; Urmi J. Ferdous; Naoaki Tamura; Chizuko Yaguchi; Toshiyuki Uchida; Kazunao Suzuki; Koshi Hashimoto; Takayoshi Suganami; Yoshihiro Ogawa; Naohiro Kanayama

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the possible involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the developmental origins of hepatic steatosis associated with undernourishment in utero, we herein employed a fetal undernourishment mouse model by maternal caloric restriction in three cohorts; cohort 1) assessment of hepatic steatosis and the ER stress response at 9 weeks of age (wks) before a high fat diet (HFD), cohort 2) assessment of hepatic steatosis and the ER stress response on a HFD at 17 wks, ...

  12. The Perils of Climate Change: In Utero Exposure to Temperature Variability and Birth Outcomes in the Andean Region

    Molina, Oswaldo; Saldarriaga, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The discussion on the effects of climate change on human activity has primarily focused on how increasing temperature levels can impair human health. However, less attention has been paid to the effect of increased climate variability on health. We investigate how in utero exposure to temperature variability, measured as the fluctuations relative to the historical local temperature mean, affects birth outcomes in the Andean region. Our results suggest that exposure to a temperate one standard...

  13. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero or as young children, October 1950 - May 1992

    Cancer mortality for the period from October 1950 through May 1992 was analyzed in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Risk estimates for this group were also compared to those for survivors who were less than 6 years old at the time of exposure. The cohorts studied include 807 in utero survivors and 5,545 persons exposed during childhood with all members of both groups having estimated doses of at least 0.01 Sv. The comparison group includes 10,453 persons with little (<0.01 Sv) or no exposure. Analyses were limited mainly to cancer deaths occurring between the ages of 17 and 46. Only 10 cancer deaths were observed among persons exposed in utero. However, there is a significant dose response with an estimate of excess relative risk per sievert (ERR/Sv) of 2.1 (90% confidence interval of 0.2 to 6.0). This estimate does not differ significantly from that for survivors exposed during the first 5 years of life. The cancer deaths among those exposed during the first 5 years of life. 23 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  14. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

  15. In utero exposure to A-bomb radiation and mental retardation; a reassessment

    The prevalence of mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been re-evaluated in reference to gestational age and tissue dose in the fetus. There was no risk at 0-8 weeks post-conception. The highest risk of forebrain damage occurred at 8-15 weeks of gestational age, the time when the most rapid proliferation of neuronal elements and when most, if not all, neuroblast migration to the cerebral cortex from the proliferative zones is occurring. Overall, the risk is five or more times greater in these weeks than in subsequent ones. In the critical period, damage expressed as the frequency of subsequent mental retardation appears to be linearly related to the dose received by the fetus. A linear model is not equally applicable to radiation-related mental retardation after the 15th week, the observed values suggesting that there a threshold may exist. The data are consistent with a probability of occurrence of mental retardation of 0.40% per cGy or 40% per gray. (author)

  16. In Utero Exposure to Diethylhexyl Phthalate Affects Rat Brain Development: A Behavioral and Genomic Approach

    Han Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is one of the most widely utilized phthalate plasticizers. Previous studies have demonstrated that gestational or postnatal DEHP exposure induced adverse effects on rat brain development and function. In this study, we investigated the effects of gestational DEHP exposure on gene expression profiling in neonatal rat brain and cognitive function change at adulthood. Adult Sprague Dawley dams were orally treated with 10 or 750 mg/kg DEHP from gestational day 12 to 21. Some male pups were euthanized at postnatal day 1 for gene expression profiling, and the rest males were retained for water maze testing on postnatal day (PND 56. DEHP showed dose-dependent impairment of learning and spatial memory from PND 56 to 63. Genome-wide microarray analysis showed that 10 and 750 mg/kg DEHP altered the gene expression in the neonatal rat brain. Ccnd1 and Cdc2, two critical genes for neuron proliferation, were significantly down-regulated by DEHP. Interestingly, 750 mg/kg DEHP significantly increased Pmch level. Our study demonstrated the changed gene expression patterns after in utero DEHP exposure might partially contribute to the deficit of cognitive function at adulthood.

  17. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells

    Xiaoheng Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP is one of the phthalate plasticizers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of DCHP on fetal Leydig cell distribution and function as well as testis development. Female pregnant Sprague Dawley dams orally received vehicle (corn oil, control or DCHP (10, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day from gestational day (GD 12 to GD 21. At GD 21.5, testicular testosterone production, fetal Leydig cell number and distribution, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. DCHP administration produced a dose-dependent increase of the incidence of multinucleated gonocytes at ≥100 mg/kg. DCHP dose-dependently increased abnormal fetal Leydig cell aggregation and decreased fetal Leydig cell size, cytoplasmic size, and nuclear size at ≥10 mg/kg. DCHP reduced the expression levels of steroidogenesis-related genes (including Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 and testis-descent related gene Insl3 as well as protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1 and insulin-like 3 (INSL3 at ≥10 mg/kg. DCHP significantly inhibited testicular testosterone levels at ≥100 mg/kg. The results indicate that in utero exposure to DCHP affects the expression levels of fetal Leydig cell steroidogenic genes and results in the occurrence of multinucleated gonocytes and Leydig cell aggregation.

  18. Effects of in Utero Exposure to Dicyclohexyl Phthalate on Rat Fetal Leydig Cells

    Li, Xiaoheng; Chen, Xiaomin; Hu, Guoxin; Li, Linxi; Su, Huina; Wang, Yiyan; Chen, Dongxin; Zhu, Qiqi; Li, Chao; Li, Junwei; Wang, Mingcang; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) is one of the phthalate plasticizers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of DCHP on fetal Leydig cell distribution and function as well as testis development. Female pregnant Sprague Dawley dams orally received vehicle (corn oil, control) or DCHP (10, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day) from gestational day (GD) 12 to GD 21. At GD 21.5, testicular testosterone production, fetal Leydig cell number and distribution, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. DCHP administration produced a dose-dependent increase of the incidence of multinucleated gonocytes at ≥100 mg/kg. DCHP dose-dependently increased abnormal fetal Leydig cell aggregation and decreased fetal Leydig cell size, cytoplasmic size, and nuclear size at ≥10 mg/kg. DCHP reduced the expression levels of steroidogenesis-related genes (including Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3) and testis-descent related gene Insl3 as well as protein levels of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD3B1) and insulin-like 3 (INSL3) at ≥10 mg/kg. DCHP significantly inhibited testicular testosterone levels at ≥100 mg/kg. The results indicate that in utero exposure to DCHP affects the expression levels of fetal Leydig cell steroidogenic genes and results in the occurrence of multinucleated gonocytes and Leydig cell aggregation. PMID:26907321

  19. MRI-based methods to detect placental and fetal brain abnormalities in utero.

    Girardi, Guillermina

    2016-04-01

    There are very few methods for screening women for pregnancy complications. Identification of pregnancies at risk would be of enormous clinical significance as would influence decisions made about pregnancy management and delivery. Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and preterm birth (PTB), characterized by placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development, in mice and humans have been associated with activation of inflammatory pathways, in particular the complement cascade. Recently, antibodies against C3 activation products conjugated with contrast agent ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles were used to detect non-invasively sites of inflammation within the placenta and the fetal brain in mouse models of APS and PTB. In utero, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with signs of placental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction. In both models, fetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), another non invasive method, is used to identify metabolic abnormalities to predict fetal brain abnormalities. This review describes the recent development of preclinical MRI-based methods for the detection of inflammatory markers of placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development and metabolism to predict pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26187242

  20. Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates.

    Donald, Kirsten A; Fouche, J P; Roos, Annerine; Koen, Nastassja; Howells, Fleur M; Riley, Edward P; Woods, Roger P; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions. However, the temporal specificity of such changes and their behavioral consequences are less known. Here we explore the brain structure of infants with in utero exposure to alcohol shortly after birth. T2 structural MRI images were acquired from 28 alcohol-exposed infants and 45 demographically matched healthy controls at 2-4weeks of age on a 3T Siemens Allegra system as part of large birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Neonatal neurobehavior was assessed at this visit; early developmental outcome assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III at 6months of age. Volumes of gray matter regions were estimated based on the segmentations of the University of North Carolina neonatal atlas. Significantly decreased total gray matter volume was demonstrated for the alcohol-exposed cohort compared to healthy control infants (p?infant age, gender, ethnicity and maternal smoking status. Both early neurobehavioral and developmental adverse outcomes at 6months across multiple domains were significantly associated with regional volumes primarily in the temporal and frontal lobes in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure during the prenatal period has potentially enduring neurobiological consequences for exposed children. These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs. PMID:26616173

  1. Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero

    A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μCi HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

  2. Congenital malformations in sheep resulting from in utero inoculation of Cache Valley virus.

    Chung, S I; Livingston, C W; Edwards, J F; Gauer, B B; Collisson, E W

    1990-10-01

    Serologic evidence indicated that an episode of congenital abnormalities in sheep was caused by Cache Valley virus (CVV), a bunyavirus indigenous to the United States. To determine the teratogenic potential of CVV in sheep, fetuses were infected in utero between 27 and 54 days of gestation with an isolate (CK-102) obtained in 1987 from a sentinel sheep in San Angelo, Texas. The dams of these fetuses were euthanatized between 28 and 75 days after inoculation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Twenty-eight of 34 fetuses had congenital abnormalities, including arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, mummification, reabsorption, and oligohydroamnion. Virus was isolated from the allantoic fluid of 11 of 17 fetuses euthanatized at less than 70 days of gestation. The virus-positive fetuses, which were all negative for CVV-neutralizing antibody, had lesions ranging from none to severe arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Virus was not recovered from the allantoic fluid of fetuses after 76 days' gestation when CVV-specific antibody could be detected in 5 of 8 fetuses examined. The 2 fetuses infected on days 50 and 54 of gestation appeared normal and 1 had antibody to CVV. PMID:2122779

  3. Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.

    Studholme, Colin

    2011-08-15

    The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

  4. A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver

    Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or α-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

  5. Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2-/-) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2-/- and Folbp2+/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

  6. Sheep CD34+ amniotic fluid cells have hematopoietic potential and engraft after autologous in utero transplantation.

    Shaw, S W Steven; Blundell, Michael P; Pipino, Caterina; Shangaris, Panicos; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Ramachandra, Durrgah L; Georgiades, Fanos; Boyd, Michael; Thrasher, Adrian J; Porada, Christopher D; Almeida-Porada, Graa; Cheng, Po-Jen; David, Anna L; de Coppi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Unmatched allogeneic in utero stem cell transplantation (IUSCT) produces poor engraftment unless the fetus has congenital immunodeficiency, probably because of maternal and fetal immune responses to injected cells. We studied the functional hematopoietic potential of transduced green fluorescent protein (GFP+) sheep amniotic fluid (AF) stem cells, before and after autologous IUSCT. CD34+ cells were selected from first trimester sheep AF, transduced overnight, and injected intravenously into NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice. At 3 months, primary recipient bone marrow (BM) was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the hematopoietic organs and peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients at 3 months. Autologous IUSCT (transduced GFP+CD34+AF) was performed in fetal sheep. Six months postnatally, lamb BM was injected into secondary NSG recipients. GFP+ cells were detected in the peripheral blood of primary and secondary recipients. This confirms the hematopoietic potential of AF stem cells supporting the concept of autologous IUSCT to treat congenital hematopoietic disease. PMID:25186828

  7. In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice.

    Derderian, S Christopher; Togarrati, P Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-08-01

    Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders. PMID:24879814

  8. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006): 653‐9.

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-01-01

    Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Par...

  9. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.

  10. Library resources on the Internet

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  11. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia

    Vessires, Emilie; Dib, Abdallah; Bourreau, Jennifer; Lelivre, Eric; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Lelivre-Pgorier, Martine; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel; Fassot, Cline

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO) and control mother offspring (CMO) aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine)-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life. PMID:26756337

  12. The adult incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms by passive smoking in utero or in childhood

    T. Duelien

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pre- or postnatal passive smoking on the adult incidence of asthma have not been reported previously. Between 1985 and 1996/1997, we conducted an 11-year community cohort study on the incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in Western Norway. The cohort included 3,786 subjects aged 15 to 70 years, of which 2,819 were responders at both baseline and follow-up. The incidence of asthma and five respiratory symptoms by self-reported exposure to maternal smoking in utero and in childhood, as well as smoking by other household members in childhood, was examined. After adjustment for sex, age, education, hay fever, personal smoking, and occupational exposure, maternal smoking was associated with asthma, phlegm cough, chronic cough, dyspnoea grade 2, attacks of dyspnoea, and wheezing, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CI] of 3.0 (1.6, 5.6, 1.7 (1.1, 2.6, 1.9 (1.2, 3.0, 1.9 (1.2, 3.0, 2.0 (1.3, 3.0, and 1.4 (0.9, 2.2, respectively. The adjusted attributable fractions (95% CI of the adult incidence of asthma were 17.3% (5.2, 27.9 caused by maternal smoking and 9.3% (23.2, 33.2 caused by smoking by other household members. Exposure to pre- and postnatal smoking carries a substantial risk for developing adult asthma and respiratory symptoms.

  13. In utero copper treatment for Menkes disease associated with a severe ATP7A mutation

    Haddad, Marie Reine; Macri, Charles J.; Holmes, Courtney S.; Goldstein, David S.; Jacobson, Beryl E.; Centeno, Jose A.; Popek, Edwina J.; Gahl, Willam A.; Kaler, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Early postnatal treatment with copper injections often improves clinical outcomes in affected infants. While Menkes disease newborns appear normal neurologically, analyses of fetal tissues including placenta indicate abnormal copper distribution and suggest a prenatal onset of the metal transport defect. In an affected fetus whose parents found termination unacceptable and who understood the associated risks, we began in utero copper histidine treatment at 31.5 weeks gestational age. Copper histidine (900 ?g per dose) was administered directly to the fetus by intramuscular injection (fetal quadriceps or gluteus) under ultrasound guidance. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling enabled serial measurement of fetal copper and ceruloplasmin levels that were used to guide therapy over a four-week period. Fetal copper levels rose from 17 ?g/dL prior to treatment to 45 ?g/dL, and ceruloplasmin levels from 39 mg/L to 122 mg/L. After pulmonary maturity was confirmed biochemically, the baby was delivered at 35.5 weeks and daily copper histidine therapy (250 ?g sc b.i.d.) was begun. Despite this very early intervention with copper, the infant showed hypotonia, developmental delay, and electroencephalographic abnormalities and died of respiratory failure at 5.5 months of age. The patients ATP7A mutation, which severely disrupted mRNA splicing, resulted in complete absence of ATP7A protein on Western blots. These investigations suggest that prenatally initiated copper replacement is inadequate to correct Menkes disease caused by severe loss-of-function mutations, and that postnatal ATP7A gene addition represents a rational approach in such circumstances. PMID:22695177

  14. Long Lasting Microvascular Tone Alteration in Rat Offspring Exposed In Utero to Maternal Hyperglycaemia.

    Vessires, Emilie; Dib, Abdallah; Bourreau, Jennifer; Lelivre, Eric; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Lelivre-Pgorier, Martine; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel; Fassot, Cline

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is not only determined by conventional risk factors in adulthood, but also by early life events which may reprogram vascular function. To evaluate the effect of maternal diabetes on fetal programming of vascular tone in offspring and its evolution during adulthood, we investigated vascular reactivity of third order mesenteric arteries from diabetic mother offspring (DMO) and control mother offspring (CMO) aged 3 and 18 months. In arteries isolated from DMO the relaxation induced by prostacyclin analogues was reduced in both 3- and 18-month old animals although endothelium (acetylcholine)-mediated relaxation was reduced in 18-month old DMO only. Endothelium-independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxation was not affected. Pressure-induced myogenic tone, which controls local blood flow, was reduced in 18-month old CMO compared to 3-month old CMO. Interestingly, myogenic tone was maintained at a high level in 18-month old DMO even though agonist-induced vasoconstriction was not altered. These perturbations, in 18-months old DMO rats, were associated with an increased pMLC/MLC, pPKA/PKA ratio and an activated RhoA protein. Thus, we highlighted perturbations in the reactivity of resistance mesenteric arteries in DMO, at as early as 3 months of age, followed by the maintenance of high myogenic tone in older rats. These modifications are in favour of excessive vasoconstrictor tone. These results evidenced a fetal programming of vascular functions of resistance arteries in adult rats exposed in utero to maternal diabetes, which could explain a re-setting of vascular functions and, at least in part, the occurrence of hypertension later in life. PMID:26756337

  15. Imaging activity in astrocytes and neurons with genetically encoded calcium indicators following in utero electroporation

    J. Michael Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Complex interactions between networks of astrocytes and neurons are beginning to be appreciated, but remain poorly understood. Transgenic mice expressing fluorescent protein reporters of cellular activity, such as the GCaMP family of genetically encoded calcium indicators, have been used to explore network behavior. However, in some cases, it may be desirable to use long-established rat models that closely mimic particular aspects of human conditions such as Parkinsons disease and the development of epilepsy following status epilepticus. Methods for expressing reporter proteins in the rat brain are relatively limited. Transgenic rat technologies exist but are fairly immature. Viral-mediated expression is robust but unstable, requires invasive injections, and only works well for fairly small genes (< 5 kb. In utero electroporation offers a valuable alternative. IUE is a proven method for transfecting populations of astrocytes and neurons in the rat brain without the strict limitations on transgene size. We built a toolset of IUE plasmids carrying GCaMP variants 3, 6s or 6f driven by CAG and targeted to the cytosol or the plasma membrane. Because low baseline fluorescence of GCaMP can hinder identification of transfected cells, we included the option of co-expressing a cytosolic tdTomato protein. A binary system consisting of a plasmid carrying a piggyBac inverted terminal repeat-flanked CAG-GCaMP-IRES-tdTomato cassette and a separate plasmid encoding for expression of piggyBac transposase was employed to stably express GCaMP and tdTomato. The plasmids were co-electroporated on embryonic days 13.5-14.5 and astrocytic and neuronal activity was subsequently imaged in acute or cultured brain slices prepared from the cortex or hippocampus. Large spontaneous transients were detected in slices obtained from rats of varying ages up to 127 days. In this report, we demonstrate the utility of this toolset for interrogating astrocytic and neuronal activity in the rat brain.

  16. Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth

    A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ∼50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy-1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy-1), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

  17. In utero gene therapy rescues microcephaly caused by Pqbp1-hypofunction in neural stem progenitor cells.

    Ito, H; Shiwaku, H; Yoshida, C; Homma, H; Luo, H; Chen, X; Fujita, K; Musante, L; Fischer, U; Frints, S G M; Romano, C; Ikeuchi, Y; Shimamura, T; Imoto, S; Miyano, S; Muramatsu, S-i; Kawauchi, T; Hoshino, M; Sudol, M; Arumughan, A; Wanker, E E; Rich, T; Schwartz, C; Matsuzaki, F; Bonni, A; Kalscheuer, V M; Okazawa, H

    2015-04-01

    Human mutations in PQBP1, a molecule involved in transcription and splicing, result in a reduced but architecturally normal brain. Examination of a conditional Pqbp1-knockout (cKO) mouse with microcephaly failed to reveal either abnormal centrosomes or mitotic spindles, increased neurogenesis from the neural stem progenitor cell (NSPC) pool or increased cell death in vivo. Instead, we observed an increase in the length of the cell cycle, particularly for the M phase in NSPCs. Corresponding to the developmental expression of Pqbp1, the stem cell pool in vivo was decreased at E10 and remained at a low level during neurogenesis (E15) in Pqbp1-cKO mice. The expression profiles of NSPCs derived from the cKO mouse revealed significant changes in gene groups that control the M phase, including anaphase-promoting complex genes, via aberrant transcription and RNA splicing. Exogenous Apc4, a hub protein in the network of affected genes, recovered the cell cycle, proliferation, and cell phenotypes of NSPCs caused by Pqbp1-cKO. These data reveal a mechanism of brain size control based on the simple reduction of the NSPC pool by cell cycle time elongation. Finally, we demonstrated that in utero gene therapy for Pqbp1-cKO mice by intraperitoneal injection of the PQBP1-AAV vector at E10 successfully rescued microcephaly with preserved cortical structures and improved behavioral abnormalities in Pqbp1-cKO mice, opening a new strategy for treating this intractable developmental disorder. PMID:25070536

  18. In utero copper treatment for Menkes disease associated with a severe ATP7A mutation.

    Haddad, Marie Reine; Macri, Charles J; Holmes, Courtney S; Goldstein, David S; Jacobson, Beryl E; Centeno, Jose A; Popek, Edwina J; Gahl, Willam A; Kaler, Stephen G

    2012-09-01

    Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Early postnatal treatment with copper injections often improves clinical outcomes in affected infants. While Menkes disease newborns appear normal neurologically, analyses of fetal tissues including placenta indicate abnormal copper distribution and suggest a prenatal onset of the metal transport defect. In an affected fetus whose parents found termination unacceptable and who understood the associated risks, we began in utero copper histidine treatment at 31.5 weeks gestational age. Copper histidine (900 μg per dose) was administered directly to the fetus by intramuscular injection (fetal quadriceps or gluteus) under ultrasound guidance. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling enabled serial measurement of fetal copper and ceruloplasmin levels that were used to guide therapy over a four-week period. Fetal copper levels rose from 17 μg/dL prior to treatment to 45 μg/dL, and ceruloplasmin levels from 39 mg/L to 122 mg/L. After pulmonary maturity was confirmed biochemically, the baby was delivered at 35.5 weeks and daily copper histidine therapy (250 μg sc b.i.d.) was begun. Despite this very early intervention with copper, the infant showed hypotonia, developmental delay, and electroencephalographic abnormalities and died of respiratory failure at 5.5 months of age. The patient's ATP7A mutation (Q724H), which severely disrupted mRNA splicing, resulted in complete absence of ATP7A protein on Western blots. These investigations suggest that prenatally initiated copper replacement is inadequate to correct Menkes disease caused by severe loss-of-function mutations, and that postnatal ATP7A gene addition represents a rational approach in such circumstances. PMID:22695177

  19. Abnormal emotional learning in a rat model of autism exposed to valproic acid in utero

    Jonathan Eric Ploski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are complex neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by repetitive behavior and impaired social communication and interactions. Apart from these core symptoms, a significant number of ASD individuals display higher levels of anxiety and some ASD individuals exhibit impaired emotional learning. We therefore sought to further examine anxiety and emotional learning in an environmentally induced animal model of ASD that utilizes the administration of the known teratogen, valproic acid (VPA during gestation. Specifically we exposed dams to one of two different doses of VPA (500 and 600 mg/kg or vehicle on day 12.5 of gestation and examined the resultant progeny. Our data indicate that animals exposed to VPA in utero exhibit enhanced anxiety in the open field test and normal object recognition memory compared to control animals. Animals exposed to 500 mg/kg of VPA displayed normal acquisition of auditory fear conditioning, and exhibited reduced extinction of fear memory and normal litter survival rates as compared to control animals. We observed that animals exposed to 600 mg/kg of VPA exhibited a significant reduction in the acquisition of fear conditioning, a significant reduction in social interaction and a significant reduction in litter survival rates as compared to control animals. VPA (600 mg/kg exposed animals exhibited similar shock sensitivity and hearing as compared to control animals indicating the fear conditioning deficit observed in these animals was not likely due to sensory deficits, but rather due to deficits in learning or memory retrieval. In conclusion, considering that progeny from dams exposed to rather similar doses of VPA exhibit striking differences in emotional learning, the VPA model may serve as a useful tool to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms that contribute to not only ASD, but also emotional learning.

  20. Histological studies in developing brain after 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation in utero

    Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy neutrons on day 13, 15 or 18 of gestation. There was no significant difference in number of living young born per litter between in neutron irradiated mice and controls. Mortality of irradiated offspings increased in the first 3 days after birth. The brain weight of 21-day old animals after neutron irradiation averaged only 55, 56 and 69% of controls, resp. At six hours after irradiation morphological analysis showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system. On day 13 the telencephalon was severely affected. The 30% cells were pyknotic in the wall of the cerebral hemisphere and 20% of cells in corpus striatum. In the metencephalon marked pyknosis was established in the tectal lamina of mesencephalon (16%) and in the cerebellar anlage (21%). The olfactory plate (24%), the ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere (30%) and colliculus ganglionaris were damaged mostly (40%) after radiation on day 15 of gestation. The tectum of the mesencephali and in metencephalon the external granular layer of cerebellum and area of the rhombic lip were affected by irradiation (17-20%). The telencephalon found pyknotic but to a less extent in group irradiated on day 18 than it was on day 15. In the olfactory bulb 10% of pyknotic cells were seen and 16% of primary cortex of cerebral hemisphere more over 30% of nucleus caudatus/putamen were affected. In metencephalon 19% of external granular layer of cerebellum and 13% of trigonum cerebelli were pyknotic. In general, lesions of irradiation were rather mild in diencephalon and myelencephalon at all examined ages. Histological examinations support that defined parts of brain are damaged after neutron irradiation in utero and it may lead to the described physiological18-20 and biochemical consequences20,23. (orig.)

  1. In Utero Exposure to Low-Dose Alcohol Induces Reprogramming of Mammary Development and Tumor Risk in MMTV-erbB-2 Transgenic Mice

    Zhikun Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that prenatal exposure to environmental factors may modify breast cancer risk later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol on mammary development and tumor risk. Pregnant MMTV-erbB-2 mice were exposed to alcohol (6 g/kg/day between day 13 and day 19 of gestation, and the female offspring were examined for tumor risk. Whole mount analysis indicated that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induced significant increases in ductal extension at 10 weeks of age. Molecular analysis showed that in utero alcohol exposure induced upregulation of ERα signaling and activation of Akt and Erk1/2 in pubertal mammary glands. However, enhanced signaling in the EGFR/erbB-2 pathway appeared to be more prominent in 10-week-old glands than did signaling in the other pathways. Interestingly, tumor development in mice with in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol was slightly delayed compared to control mice, but tumor multiplicity was increased. The results indicate that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induces the reprogramming of mammary development by mechanisms that include altered signaling in the estrogen receptor (ER and erbB-2 pathways. The intriguing tumor development pattern might be related to alcohol dose and exposure conditions, and warrants further investigation.

  2. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  3. Licensing principles for electronic resources

    Kyrillidou, Martha

    1998-01-01

    Copyright law provisions have traditionally protected reproduction of materials for the purposes of research and teaching in universities and libraries through library exceptions and the fair use provisions. Technological developments, however, have introduced yet easier ways for reproducing information, making the owners of copyrightable material more sensitive to reproduction technologies. There is a fervor of activity at the international level, through international treaties and European ...

  4. Electronic medical record systems, data quality and loss to follow-up: survey of antiretroviral therapy programmes in resource-limited settings

    Mathieu Forster

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the electronic medical databases used in antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes in lower-income countries and assess the measures such programmes employ to maintain and improve data quality and reduce the loss of patients to follow-up. METHODS: In 15 countries of Africa, South America and Asia, a survey was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007 on the use of electronic medical record systems in ART programmes. Patients enrolled in the sites at the time of the survey but not seen during the previous 12 months were considered lost to follow-up. The quality of the data was assessed by computing the percentage of missing key variables (age, sex, clinical stage of HIV infection, CD4+ lymphocyte count and year of ART initiation. Associations between site characteristics (such as number of staff members dedicated to data management, measures to reduce loss to follow-up (such as the presence of staff dedicated to tracing patients and data quality and loss to follow-up were analysed using multivariate logit models. FINDINGS: Twenty-one sites that together provided ART to 50 060 patients were included (median number of patients per site: 1000; interquartile range, IQR: 72-19 320. Eighteen sites (86% used an electronic database for medical record-keeping; 15 (83% such sites relied on software intended for personal or small business use. The median percentage of missing data for key variables per site was 10.9% (IQR: 2.0-18.9% and declined with training in data management (odds ratio, OR: 0.58; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.37-0.90 and weekly hours spent by a clerk on the database per 100 patients on ART (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.90-0.99. About 10 weekly hours per 100 patients on ART were required to reduce missing data for key variables to below 10%. The median percentage of patients lost to follow-up 1 year after starting ART was 8.5% (IQR: 4.2-19.7%. Strategies to reduce loss to follow-up included outreach teams, community-based organizations and checking death registry data. Implementation of all three strategies substantially reduced losses to follow-up (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.15-0.20. CONCLUSION: The quality of the data collected and the retention of patients in ART treatment programmes are unsatisfactory for many sites involved in the scale-up of ART in resource-limited settings, mainly because of insufficient staff trained to manage data and trace patients lost to follow-up.

  5. Comparison of high-capacity and first-generation adenoviral vector gene delivery to murine muscle in utero.

    Bilbao, R; Reay, D P; Wu, E; Zheng, H; Biermann, V; Kochanek, S; Clemens, P R

    2005-01-01

    In utero gene delivery could offer the advantage of treatment at an early stage for genetic disorders such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) in which the inevitable process of muscle degeneration is already initiated at birth. Furthermore, treatment of fetal muscle with adenoviral (Ad) vectors is attractive because of a high density of Ad receptors, easy vector accessibility due to immaturity of the basal lamina and the possibility of treating stem cells. Previously, we demonstrated the efficient transduction of fetal muscle by high-capacity Ad (HC-Ad) vectors. In this study, we compared HC-Ad and first-generation Ad (FG-Ad) vectors for longevity of lacZ transgene expression, toxicity and induction of immunity after direct vector-mediated in utero gene delivery to fetal C57BL/6 mice muscle 16 days after conception (E-16). The total amount of beta-galactosidase (betagal) expressed from the HC-Ad vector remained stable for the 5 months of the study, although the concentration of betagal decreased due to muscle growth. Higher survival rates that reflect lower levels of toxicity were observed in those mice transduced with an HC-Ad vector as compared to an FG-Ad vector. The toxicity induced by FG-Ad vector gene delivery was dependent on mouse strain and vector dose. Animals treated with either HC-Ad and FG-Ad vectors developed non-neutralizing antibodies against Ad capsid and antibodies against betagal, but these antibodies did not cause loss of vector genomes from transduced muscle. In a mouse model of DMD, dystrophin gene transfer to muscle in utero using an HC-Ad vector restored the dystrophin-associated glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that long-term transgene expression can be achieved by HC-Ad vector-mediated gene delivery to fetal muscle, although strategies of vector integration may need to be considered to accommodate muscle growth. PMID:15483668

  6. In utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses resulting from maternal ingestion of strontium isotopes from the Techa river

    Reliable estimates of tissue doses to individuals exposed as a result of radioactive releases to the Techa River are essential prerequisites for epidemiological analyses. This paper describes progress made in collaborative studies, sponsored by the European Union, between the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and the UK Health Protection Agency to provide dose estimates to Techa River populations following in utero exposures and infant exposures resulting from breast-feeding. Studies have concentrated on the assessment of internal doses from 90Sr as the main contributor to internal doses to the Techa River populations. (authors)

  7. Mapping transcriptome profiles of in vitro iPSC-derived cardiac differentiation to in utero heart development

    Xing Li; Campbell, Katherine A; Sherri M. Biendarra; Andre Terzic; Nelson, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    The dataset includes microarray data (Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array) from WT and Nos3−/− mouse embryonic heart ventricular tissues at 14.5 days post coitum (E14.5), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from WT and Nos3−/− mouse tail tip fibroblasts, iPSC-differentiated cardiomyocytes at Day 11, and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and differentiated cardiomyocytes as positive controls for mouse iPSC differentiation. Both in utero (using embryonic heart tissues) and in vitr...

  8. In utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses resulting from maternal ingestion of strontium isotopes from the Techa river

    Shagina, N.B.; Tolstykh, E.I.; Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D.; Phipps, A.W. [Radiation Protection Division, Health Protection Agency, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Reliable estimates of tissue doses to individuals exposed as a result of radioactive releases to the Techa River are essential prerequisites for epidemiological analyses. This paper describes progress made in collaborative studies, sponsored by the European Union, between the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and the UK Health Protection Agency to provide dose estimates to Techa River populations following in utero exposures and infant exposures resulting from breast-feeding. Studies have concentrated on the assessment of internal doses from {sup 90}Sr as the main contributor to internal doses to the Techa River populations. (authors)

  9. Electronic Resources for Searching Health Scientific Information: Database Publication Type / Recursos Electrnicos para la Bsqueda de Informacin Cientfica en Salud: Tipos de Bases de Datos de Publicaciones

    Carlos, Manterola; Tamara, Otzen; Lilian, Calo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la gran cantidad de informacin disponible en Internet, la obtencin de informacin cientfica vlida y evidente puede no ser una tarea sencilla. El objetivo fue identificar las diferentes bases de datos, motores de bsqueda y bibliotecas disponibles para recuperar la informacin cientfi [...] ca publicada en ciencias de la salud. Estudio de publicacin de base de datos. Se realiz una bsqueda en los metabuscadores Altavista, Google, Yahoo, Ixquick y Coprnico, y en la base de datos "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS). La estrategia de bsqueda utiliz los trminos "sistemas de gestin de base de datos", "informtica mdica", "motor de bsqueda" y "toma de decisiones". Se cre un documento de sntesis de la informacin recogida. Las direcciones halladas se agruparon en: bases de datos, motores de bsqueda y bibliotecas. A partir de la bsqueda realizada se encontraron 46 fuentes electrnicas: 25 bases de datos, 8 motores de bsqueda y 13 bibliotecas. Existe una gran variedad de recursos para la bsqueda de informacin cientfica en salud. Conocer la diversidad de opciones disponibles en el acceso a la informacin ayuda al usuario para llevar adelante su investigacin y para poder realizar la toma de decisiones relacionada con la salud. Abstract in english Despite the large amount of information available on the Internet, getting valid scientific information and evidence may not be a simple task. The aim of this study was to identify the different databases, search engines and libraries available to retrieve published scientific information in health [...] sciences Database publication type. A search on Altavista, Google and Yahoo, Ixquick and Coprnico metasearch engines and in the database "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS) was performed. The search strategy used the terms "database management systems", "medical informatics", "search engine" and "decision making". A summary document of the information collected was created. Addresses found were grouped into: databases, search engines and libraries. The search performed returned 46 electronic resources: 25 databases, 8 search engines and 13 libraries. There is a variety of resources for searching health scientific information. Knowing the diversity of available options aids the user in access to information to generate research and health-related decision-making.

  10. Resources for the Practitioner.

    Hackeling, Joan, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This list of print and electronic resources is designed to act as a springboard to assist practitioners in finding information to start implementing sustainability efforts on their campuses. The resources are listed in the following categories: general, international, K-12, policy/partnerships, campus environmental assessments, green building,…

  11. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cevix without in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: report of two cases

    Mousavi A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix (CCAC is usually seen in women with a history of in utero exposure to diethyl acetyl bestrol (DES. We report two cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix with no history of exposure to DES in embryonic period. "n"nCase presentation: The first case was a 14-year-old women with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. There was atypical cells in Pap Smear and a bleeding tumor with 1.5 cm in diameter was found in vagina. She was admitted with a diagnosis of CCAC of the uterine cervix stage Ib2 according to FIGO classification."n"n The second case was a 23-year-old patient with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. The results of cervical cytology was normal. Evaluation of the punch biopsy sample revealed CCAC. Her clinical exam showed stage IIb according to FIGO classification. Both patients had no history of exposure to DES during embryonic period. The first patient treated with radical abdominal hysterectomy and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy and for the another one external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy was performed. There was no any recurrence or metastasis after an 18-24 months follow-up"n"nConclusions: Primary clear cell carcinoma of cervix could be unrelated to HPV infection or exposure to DES during embryonic period and in approach to these patients this subject should be considered.

  12. Screening of thyroid status in children exposed to ionizing radiation in utero and at the first year of life as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    The aim of this study to investigate peculiarities of thyroid pathology development of children exposed to radiation in utero and within the first year of life. In 1998, the 12 years after the Chernobyl accident, two cohorts of children aged 11-14 in Khoiniki region and Braslav region were screened. Minimum average dose to the thyroid was in children exposed in utero - 36 cGy. Maximum average thyroid dose was registered in children exposed at 0-1.5 years old on mixed nutrition - 110 cGy

  13. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  14. Ten-year observations on health status of Children irradiated in utero as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    The health status dynamics of 1104 children exposed to radiation in utero was estimated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The thyroid doses ranged from 0.00 to 3340.00 mg y, and total body doses from 1.00 to 376.00 mZv. The decrease in child adaptation capacity was observed with general somatic pathology and higher incidence of thyroid haemoglobin levels were rare in children irradiated in utero. The leucopenias with blood cells ultrastructure surficial architectonics alterations were more frequent. The metabolism of hemopoietic elements during early, post-accident years was peculiar with energy production activation through all paths of energy reception. During further years, all the intracellular enzymes activity decreased. energy depots exhaustion accompanied with ultrastructural changes, neutrophyles functional capacity and specific functions depression were revealed. The PC analysis of data obtained enabled to determine the presence of interconnection between some body systems disorders, radiation effects phenomenon and health status as a whole, and to reveal the further deterioration risk level. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Statistical model of laminar structure for atlas-based segmentation of the fetal brain from in utero MR images

    Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Chandramohan, Dharshan; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

    2009-02-01

    Recent advances in MR and image analysis allow for reconstruction of high-resolution 3D images from clinical in utero scans of the human fetal brain. Automated segmentation of tissue types from MR images (MRI) is a key step in the quantitative analysis of brain development. Conventional atlas-based methods for adult brain segmentation are limited in their ability to accurately delineate complex structures of developing tissues from fetal MRI. In this paper, we formulate a novel geometric representation of the fetal brain aimed at capturing the laminar structure of developing anatomy. The proposed model uses a depth-based encoding of tissue occurrence within the fetal brain and provides an additional anatomical constraint in a form of a laminar prior that can be incorporated into conventional atlas-based EM segmentation. Validation experiments are performed using clinical in utero scans of 5 fetal subjects at gestational ages ranging from 20.5 to 22.5 weeks. Experimental results are evaluated against reference manual segmentations and quantified in terms of Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The study demonstrates that the use of laminar depth-encoded tissue priors improves both the overall accuracy and precision of fetal brain segmentation. Particular refinement is observed in regions of the parietal and occipital lobes where the DSC index is improved from 0.81 to 0.82 for cortical grey matter, from 0.71 to 0.73 for the germinal matrix, and from 0.81 to 0.87 for white matter.

  16. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  17. [In utero exposure to benzodiazepine. Is there a risk for anal atresia with lorazepam?].

    Bonnot, O; Vollset, S-E; Godet, P-F; d'Amato, T; Dalery, J; Robert, E

    2003-01-01

    Drugs of the Benzodiazepine family are among the most frequently prescribed in France. Since anxiety disorders, for which these substances are mostly indicated, affect 10% of pregnant women, it is very likely that such a treatment could expose many foetuses to BZD during the first three Months of pregnancy. We know that the teratologic effect is not necessarily based on dose rate, but that it is associated with fetal drug exposure during the first 12 weeks of gestation, when organ formation occurs. Most epidemiologists concur that the baseline incidence of congenital damage is 2-2,5% in Europe. The results from a large number of stu-dies on associations between the use of BZDs in pregnancy and congenital malformations are conflicting. An in-depth analysis of existing literature shows results that are hardly comparable, if not contradictory, due to extreme differences in methodological approaches. In a recent meta-analysis case-control studies and cohort studies were analyzed separately. Among the case-control studies significant associations were found between BZD exposure and both, major malformations and oral clefts, whereas the cohort studies showed no association between BZD and any kind of malformation. The purpose of our study is to search for a specific teratogenic effect of this class of drugs, using data collected (1976-1997) by the French Central-East (FCE) registry of congenital malformations, member of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) located in Lyon, France. This registry monitor malformations among 100,000 births per Year. We analyzed 13,703 cases where information is available on whether or not the mother took a drug during her first trimester of pregnancy. Among them, 3,603 (28%) actually took a drug, and 262 (6.8%) took some sort of benzodiazepine (BDZ). BZD were divided into 9 categories, 8 being the most frequently present, plus one broad category of "others". Malformations were divided into ten categories: congenital anomalies of heart, cleft lip and/or cleft palate, neural tube defects, other anomalies of central nervous system, hypospadias, urinary malformations, anal atresia, other digestive anomalies, limb reduction defects, and genetic anomalies, including chromosome aberrations and monogenic conditions. Other malformations were grouped in an eleventh category. The interesting aspect of this study is that it takes into account the BZD metabolism. It is worth noting that the hepatic catabolism of benzodiazepine is a very complex one, because it leads to derived molecules which are sometimes active and/or present in the common metabolic route of major commercial drugs. Our hypothesis is that if one BZD is associated specifically to a certain type of congenital defect, we may find this BZD to be overrepresented, as compared with other BZDs, in newborns exhibiting some type of congenital defect. The analysis was run according to a case-control approach. Odd ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression with adjustment for maternal age and parity. When one category of defects was considered, infants having the corresponding malformation were considered as cases, while infants with other malformations were considered as controls. In a similar way infants having being exposed to a given drug were considered as exposed, while infants exposed to any other drug were considered as unexposed. The analysis then was run in 4 steps. Step 1: full sample. With 13,703 cases. We observed no increased risk for any specific malformation type associated with use of BZD. Step 2: further defining drug exposure as a specific BZD, and all others unexposed, a significant association was seen between lorazepam and anal atresia. OR=6.2 (95% CI2.4-15.7, p=0.01). Step 3: this finding was upheld and no other emerged when exposure was defined as the drug or any of its active metabolites. This step was performed because hepatic catabolism of BDZs leads to derived molecules that are sometimes active and/or present in the common metabolic route of major marketed BZDs. Step 4: similarly, the lorazepam/anal atresia finding was upheld when the analysis was restricted to the 262 malformed infants exposed to BZDs in utero. Six cases of anal atresia were found among all newborns exposed to BZD in utero, and five of them were exposed to lorazepam, representing a hypothesis to be tested in further. We are not aware of other reports of this association, and it should be regarded as preliminary until confirmed in other data sets. PMID:15029090

  18. Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure

    PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

  19. The Fetal Cleft Palate: IV. Midfacial Growth and Bony Palatal Development following In Utero and Neonatal Repair of the Congenital Caprine Model

    A Spanish goat model was developed to ascertain the mechanism of action of lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”. This goat model is now being used to study new treatments and improved intervention in the treatment of cleft palate in children. We previously demonstrated that in utero palatoplasty...

  20. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    Nielsen, J.; Bøtner, Anette; Tingstedt, J. E.; Aasted, B.; Johnsen, C. K.; Riber, U.; Lind, P.

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero...

  1. Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    Aasted, B.; Bach, P.; Nielsen, Jens; Lind, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after birth cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchial lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Technically, by flow cytometry...

  2. Effects of in utero JP-8 jet fuel exposure on the immune systems of pregnant and newborn mice.

    Harris, D T; Sakiestewa, D; He, X; Titone, D; Witten, M

    2007-10-01

    The US Air Force has implemented the widespread use of JP-8 jet fuel in its operations, although a thorough understanding of its potential effects upon exposed personnel is unclear. Previous work has reported that JP-8 exposure is immunosuppressive. In the present study, the effects of in-utero JP-8 jet fuel exposure in mice were examined to ascertain any potential effects of jet fuel exposure on female personnel and their offspring. Exposure by the aerosol route (at 1000 mg/m3 for 1 h/day; similar to exposures incurred by flight line personnel) commencing during the first (d7 to birth) or last (d15 to birth) trimester of pregnancy was analyzed. It was observed that even 6-8 weeks after the last jet fuel exposure that the immune system of the dams (mother of newborn mice) was affected (in accordance with previous reports on normal mice). That is, thymus organ weights and viable cell numbers were decreased, and immune function was depressed. A decrease in viable male offspring was found, notably more pronounced when exposure started during the first trimester of pregnancy. Regardless of when jet fuel exposure started, all newborn mice (at 6-8 weeks after birth) reported significant immunosuppression. That is, newborn pups displayed decreased immune organ weights, decreased viable immune cell numbers and suppressed immune function. When the data were analyzed in relation to the respective mothers of the pups the data were more pronounced. Although all jet fuel-exposed pups were immunosuppressed as compared with control pups, male offspring were more affected by jet fuel exposure than female pups. Furthermore, the immune function of the newborn mice was directly correlated to the immune function of their respective mothers. That is, mothers showing the lowest immune function after JP-8 exposure gave birth to pups displaying the greatest effects of jet fuel exposure on immune function. Mothers who showed the highest levels of immune function after in-utero JP-8 exposure gave birth to pups displaying levels of immune function similar to controls animals that had the lowest levels of immune function. These data indicated that a genetic component might be involved in determining immune responses after jet fuel exposure. Overall, the data showed that in-utero JP-8 jet fuel exposure had long-term detrimental effects on newborn mice, particularly on the viability and immune competence of male offspring. PMID:18681240

  3. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ► We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ► We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ► iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ► Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ► We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

  4. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ► We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ► We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ► iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ► Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ► We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

  5. Glutamatergic synapse protein composition of wild-type mice is sensitive to in utero MTHFR genotype and the timing of neonatal vigabatrin exposure.

    Zuckerman, Chava; Blumkin, Elinor; Melamed, Osnat; Golan, Hava M

    2015-10-01

    The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) is part of the homocysteine and folate metabolic pathways. In utero, Mthfr-deficient environment has been reported as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and neural tube defects. Neonatal disruption of the GABAergic system is also associated with behavioral outcomes. The interaction between Mthfr deficiency and neonatal exposure to the GABA-potentiating drug vigabatrin (GVG) in mice alters anxiety, memory, and social behavior in a gender-dependent manner. In addition, a gender-dependent enhancement of proteins implicated in excitatory synapse plasticity in the cerebral cortex was shown. Here we show that in utero MTHFR deficiency is sufficient to alter the levels of glutamate receptor subunits GluR1, GluR2, and NR2B in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of adult offspring with a WT genotype. In addition, FMRP1, CAMKII ? and ?, and NLG1 levels in WT offspring were vulnerable to the in utero genotype. These effects depend on brain region and the cellular compartment tested. The effect of in utero MTHFR deficiency varies with the age of neonatal GVG exposure to modify GluR1, NR2A, reelin, CAMKII ?, and NLG1 levels. These changes in molecular composition of the glutamatergic synapse were associated with increased anxiety-like behavior. Complex, multifactorial disorders of the nervous system show significant association with several genetic and environmental factors. Our data exemplify the contribution of an in utero MTHFR-deficient environment and early exposure to an antiepileptic drug to the basal composition of the glutamatergic synapses. The robust effect is expected to alter synapse function and plasticity and the cortico-hippocampal circuitry. PMID:26235956

  6. Heavy in utero ethanol exposure is associated with the use of other drugs of abuse in a high-risk population.

    Shor, Sarit; Nulman, Irena; Kulaga, Vivian; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Many ethanol dependent women also use other drugs of abuse that may affect pregnancy outcome and long-term child neurodevelopment. This study investigated the association between drugs of abuse and concurrent use of ethanol in pregnancy. A study cohort of neonates with FAEE levels above 2 nmol per gram meconium, indicative of heavy in utero ethanol exposure, was identified (n=114). Meconium and hair analyses for the presence of other drugs of abuse were obtained for some of these neonates and the rates of drug exposure were compared with the rates in a cohort of neonates who were tested negative (FAEE below 2 nmol per gram meconium) for ethanol exposure (n=622). Odds ratios (ORs) for various drugs were calculated with ethanol exposure. A 15.5% positive rate for intrauterine ethanol exposure was detected. A high rate of in utero drug exposure was detected in neonates with and without in utero ethanol exposure, 60.5% versus 62.7% respectively. Neonates with heavy in utero ethanol exposure were almost twice as likely to be exposed to narcotic opiates (OR=1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.20) and 3.3 times as likely to be exposed to amphetamine (OR=3.30; 95% CI 1.06-10.27) when compared to neonates with no ethanol exposure. Exposure to cannabinoids predicted less likely exposure to ethanol (OR=0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.98) and no significant difference was noted in the exposure to cocaine (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 0.81-1.91). Neonates suspected of heavy in utero ethanol exposure should be tested for other drugs of abuse and vice versa. Early detection of drug exposures can facilitate early intervention to both the neonate and the mother, thus decreasing the risk of long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for the child, including secondary disabilities associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:20031369

  7. Management of Electronic Information.

    Breaks, Michael

    This paper discusses the management of library collections of electronic information resources within the classical theoretical framework of collection development and management. The first section provides an overview of electronic information resources, including bibliographic databases, electronic journals, journal aggregation services, and…

  8. State of the most important body systems in children exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident

    Evaluation of the functional state of the most important body systems in children exposed in utero to radiation following the ChNPP accident is carried out. It is shown that reliable changes at certain indices in the liver function and mineral exchange relative to the control are observed 10 year after the irradiation. The reverse correlation relationship between the levels of the total bilirubin, AcAT, AlAT in the serum and the absorbed dose or the fetus thyroid gland (r ≥ 0.8; p ≤ 0.05) is identified. The dynamics of changes in the indices corresponds to model (p ≤ 0.05). The relationship between the annual effective equivalent dose formed due to residence at the radionuclide contaminated areas the levels of cesium isotopes content in the body and the indices under investigation is not revealed

  9. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Sabroe, Svend; Rothman, Kenneth J; Gillman, Matthew W; Fischer, Peer

    1999-01-01

    . #ENTITYSTARTX02022;SUBJECTS: 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973 and 1975. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: MEAN SCORE IN THE BOERGE PRIEN TEST OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION: score is the number of correct answers to 78 questions and correlates with the full scale intelligence quotient. #ENTITYSTARTX02022......#ENTITYSTARTX02022;OBJECTIVE: To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;DESIGN: Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service......;RESULTS: The mean Boerge Prien score was similar for those exposed (n=1011) to uterotonic drugs and those not exposed (n=3289), 43.1 versus 42.9 after adjustment for confounders. #ENTITYSTARTX02022;CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that exposure to uterotonic drugs does not affect cognitive function 20 years...

  10. Historical cohort study of in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs and cognitive function in young adult life

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Fischer, Peer; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    and 1975. Main outcome measures Mean score in the Boerge Prien test of cognitive function: score is the number of correct answers to 78 questions and correlates with the full scale intelligence quotient. Results The mean Boerge Prien score was similar for those exposed (n=1011) to uterotonic drugs and......Objective To examine whether in utero exposure to uterotonic drugs effects cognitive performance in draft-age men. Design Historical cohort study based on birth registry data and cognitive function measured during evaluations for military service. Subjects 4300 Danish conscripts born between 1973...... those not exposed (n=3289), 43.1 versus 42.9 after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Our data indicate that exposure to uterotonic drugs does not affect cognitive function 20 years later....

  11. Exposure parameters necessary for delayed puberty and mammary gland development in Long-Evans rats exposed in utero to atrazine

    Our studies suggested that prenatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) could delay vaginal opening (VO) and mammary development in the offspring of Long-Evans (LE) rats. To evaluate ATR exposure parameters required for pubertal delays, including mammary gland development, we used cross-fostering to determine if effects were strictly dam-mediated (via milk) or a direct effect (transplacental) on the pups. Timed-pregnant LE rats (N = 20/treatment group) were gavaged on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or vehicle (controls, C). On PND1, half of all litters were cross-fostered, creating four treatment groups: C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (dam-milk source, respectively). A significant delay in VO and increase in VO BW was seen only in the litters receiving milk from ATR-exposed dams. However, mammary glands of female offspring (two per dam) in all groups exposed to ATR (ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR) displayed significant delays in epithelial development. These changes were detected as early as PND4 and stunted development was evident through PND40. Further, at all developmental stages examined, offspring in the ATR-ATR group exhibited the least developed glands. These delays in pubertal endpoints do not appear to be related to body weight or endocrine hormone concentrations. Our data suggest that the delay in VO of ATR-exposed offspring (C-ATR lactationally, ATR-ATR lactationally and in utero) is mediated via the dam [milk], whereas brief direct exposure to ATR in utero can cause delays in mammary gland development. Our data suggest that milk-derived factors (growth factors or hormones), in addition to transplacental exposure during mammary bud outgrowth, may be involved in ATR mode of action on delayed mammary gland development

  12. In utero azathioprine exposure and increased utilization of special educational services in children born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Marder, Wendy; Ganser, Martha A; Romero, Vivian; Hyzy, Margaret A; Gordon, Caroline; McCune, WJ; Somers, Emily C

    2012-01-01

    Objective Azathioprine (AZA) is recognized among immunosuppressive medications as relatively safe during pregnancy for women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) requiring aggressive treatment. This pilot study aimed to determine whether SLE therapy during pregnancy was associated with developmental delays in offspring. Methods This cohort study included SLE patients with at least one live birth post-diagnosis. Medical histories were obtained via interviews and chart review. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between SLE therapy during pregnancy and maternal report of special educational (SE) requirements (as proxy for developmental delays) among offspring. Propensity scoring (incorporating corticosteroid use, lupus flare, and lupus nephritis) was used to account for disease severity. Results Of 60 eligible offspring from 38 mothers, 15 required SE services, the most common indication for which was speech delay. 7 of the 13 (54%) children with in utero AZA exposure utilized SE services versus 8 of 47 (17%) non-exposed (p<0.05). After adjustment for pregnancy duration, small for gestational age, propensity score, maternal education and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, AZA was significantly associated with SE utilization occurring from age 2 onward (OR 6.6, 95% CI 1.0, 43.3), and bordered significance for utilization at any age or age <2 years. Conclusions AZA exposure during SLE pregnancy was independently associated with increased SE utilization in offspring, after controlling for confounders. Further research is indicated to fully characterize developmental outcomes among offspring with in utero AZA exposure. Vigilance and early interventions for suspected developmental delays among exposed offspring may be warranted. PMID:23139238

  13. Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia

    Eltayb M. Abuelzein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

  14. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with 60Co

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth

  15. In utero exposure to second-hand smoke activates pro-asthmatic and oncogenic miRNAs in adult asthmatic mice.

    Xiao, Rui; Noël, Alexandra; Perveen, Zakia; Penn, Arthur L

    2016-04-01

    Exposures to environmental pollutants contribute to dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles, which have been implicated in various diseases. Previously, we reported aggravated asthmatic responses in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged adult mice that had been exposed in utero to second-hand smoke (SHS). Whether in utero SHS exposure dysregulates miRNA expression patterns in the adult asthma model has not been investigated. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed (days 6-19 of pregnancy) to SHS (10 mg/m(3) ) or HEPA-filtered air. All offspring were sensitized and challenged with OVA (19-23 weeks) before sacrifice. RNA samples extracted from lung homogenates, were subjected to RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). RNA-seq identified nine miRNAs that were most significantly up-regulated by in utero SHS exposure. Among these nine, miR-155-5p, miR-21-3p, and miR-18a-5p were also highly correlated with pro-asthmatic Th2 cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Further analysis indicated that these up-regulated miRNAs shared common chromosome locations, particularly Chr 11C, with pro-asthmatic genes. These three miRNAs have also been characterized as oncogenic miRNAs (oncomirs). We cross-referenced miRNA-mRNA expression profiles and identified 16 tumor suppressor genes that were down-regulated in the in utero-exposed offspring and that are predicted targets of the up-regulated oncomirs. In conclusion, in utero SHS exposure activates pro-asthmatic genes and miRNAs, which colocalize at specific chromosome locations, in OVA-challenged adult mice. The oncogenic characteristics of the miRNAs and putative miRNA-mRNA regulatory networks suggest that the synergistic effect of in utero SHS exposure and certain adult irritants may promote an oncogenic milieu in mouse lungs via inhibition of miRNA-regulated tumor suppressor genes. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:190-199, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26859758

  16. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  17. Merge of terminological resources

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration or...... merging of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in...

  18. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

  19. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

  20. Effect of in utero-administered coumestrol, equol, and organic selenium on biomarkers for phase 2 enzyme capacity and redox status

    Kramer, F.; Jensen, P. S.; Vinggaard, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Breinholt, V. M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in utero administration of coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast on selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes, plasma hormone levels, and markers for redox status in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The test compounds were administered......-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR), or RBC glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) in the offspring, whereas significant increases in GST QR, and GP(x) activities in dams were observed following administration of selenium-enriched yeast. The level of 17beta-estradiol in offspring from coumestrol-exposed dams was...... investigate whether the observed in utero effects imposed by the selected plant compounds confer permanent alterations on the health status of the animal resulting in an altered resistance to cancer....

  1. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats

    Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

  2. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied the...... association between birth-order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Method: Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3/CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on...... activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of CD4+CD25+ cord blood T cells was independent of birth-order. Conclusion: First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero ‘birth-order’ T cell...

  3. MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-11-17

    Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

  4. Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of infants with a birth weight?>?97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. Methods This historical cohort study (n?=?3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from???37weeks to???38weeks+ 6 days (n?=?199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n?=?2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. Results The mean birth weight was 4012g??421g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR?=?0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. Conclusions A policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus among women without diabetes does not reduce maternal morbidity. PMID:24885981

  5. Autism-Like Behavior and Epigenetic Changes Associated with Autism as Consequences of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Pollutants in a Mouse Model

    Denise S. Hill; Robert Cabrera; Deeann Wallis Schultz; Huiping Zhu; Wei Lu; Finnell, Richard H; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to heavy metals increases autism-like behavioral phenotypes in adult animals and induces epigenetic changes in genes that have roles in the etiology of autism. Mouse dams were treated with cadmium, lead, arsenate, manganese, and mercury via drinking water from gestational days (E) 1–10. Valproic acid (VPA) injected intraperitoneally once on (E) 8.5 served as a positive control. Young male offspring were tested for behavioral deficits using four ...

  6. Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report

    Royo Pedro; Manero Manuel; Olartecoechea Begoa; Alczar Juan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3) presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and th...

  7. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

  8. Cortex-, Hippocampus-, Thalamus-, Hypothalamus-, Lateral Septal Nucleus- and Striatum-specific In Utero Electroporation in the C57BL/6 Mouse.

    Baumgart, Jan; Baumgart, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    In utero electroporation is a widely used technique for fast and efficient spatiotemporal manipulation of various genes in the rodent central nervous system. Overexpression of desired genes is just as possible as shRNA mediated loss-of-function studies. Therefore it offers a wide range of applications. The feasibility to target particular cells in a distinct area further increases the range of potential applications of this very useful method. For efficiently targeting specific regions knowledge about the subtleties, such as the embryonic stage, the voltage to apply and most importantly the position of the electrodes, is indispensable. Here, we provide a detailed protocol that allows for specific and efficient in utero electroporation of several regions of the C57BL/6 mouse central nervous system. In particular it is shown how to transfect regions the develop into the retrosplenial cortex, the motor cortex, the somatosensory cortex, the piriform cortex, the cornu ammonis 1-3, the dentate gyrus, the striatum, the lateral septal nucleus, the thalamus and the hypothalamus. For this information about the appropriate embryonic stage, the appropriate voltage for the corresponding embryonic stage is provided. Most importantly an angle-map, which indicates the appropriate position of the positive pole, is depicted. This standardized protocol helps to facilitate efficient in utero electroporation, which might also lead to a reduced number of animals. PMID:26862715

  9. A Resource Manual for the Development and Evaluation of Special Programs for Exceptional Students. Volume III-F: Electronic Communication Devices for Visually Impaired Students.

    Broward County Schools, Fort Lauderdale, FL.

    Part of a series on special educaton procedures in Florida, the manual presents information for teachers of visually impaired students regarding the use of electronic communication devices. Each of four types of devices is profiled: closed circuit television (CCTV), compressed speech devices, typewriter attachments for the Optacon (a device that

  10. Gestational diabetes mellitus impairs Nrf2-mediated adaptive antioxidant defenses and redox signaling in fetal endothelial cells in utero.

    Cheng, Xinghua; Chapple, Sarah J; Patel, Bijal; Puszyk, William; Sugden, David; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E

    2013-12-01

    In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altered in GDM and associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, and diminished glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In GDM cells, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) failed to induce nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and mRNA and/or protein expression of Nrf2 and its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), Bach1, cystine/glutamate transporter, and glutamate cysteine ligase. Although methylation of CpG islands in Nrf2 or NQO1 promoters was unaltered by GDM, decreased DJ-1 and increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β levels may account for impaired Nrf2 signaling. HNE-induced increases in GSH and NQO1 levels were abrogated by Nrf2 small interfering RNA in normal cells, and overexpression of Nrf2 in GDM cells partially restored NQO1 induction. Dysregulation of Nrf2 in fetal endothelium may contribute to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in offspring. PMID:23974919

  11. Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic--the battle of prevention starts in utero--the FIGO challenge.

    Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. PMID:25248554

  12. Construction of a fetal spatio-temporal cortical surface atlas from in utero MRI: Application of spectral surface matching.

    Wright, R; Makropoulos, A; Kyriakopoulou, V; Patkee, P A; Koch, L M; Rutherford, M A; Hajnal, J V; Rueckert, D; Aljabar, P

    2015-10-15

    In this study, we construct a spatio-temporal surface atlas of the developing cerebral cortex, which is an important tool for analysing and understanding normal and abnormal cortical development. In utero Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of 80 healthy fetuses was performed, with a gestational age range of 21.7 to 38.9 weeks. Topologically correct cortical surface models were extracted from reconstructed 3D MRI volumes. Accurate correspondences were obtained by applying a joint spectral analysis to cortices for sets of subjects close to a specific age. Sulcal alignment was found to be accurate in comparison to spherical demons, a state of the art registration technique for aligning 2D cortical representations (average Fréchet distance≈0.4 mm at 30 weeks). We construct consistent, unbiased average cortical surface templates, for each week of gestation, from age-matched groups of surfaces by applying kernel regression in the spectral domain. These were found to accurately capture the average cortical shape of individuals within the cohort, suggesting a good alignment of cortical geometry. Each spectral embedding and its corresponding cortical surface template provide a dual reference space where cortical geometry is aligned and a vertex-wise morphometric analysis can be undertaken. PMID:26070259

  13. Mortality of in-utero children exposed to the A-bomb and of offspring of A-bomb survivors

    A cohort-type follow-up study has been carried out by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the mortality of children exposed to A-bomb radiation while in utero. The mortality increased with tissue dose during the first year of life and did not increase during the following nine years, but an increase with dose was again suggested during 10-32 years of age. A detailed analysis of infant mortality revealed that the dose-associated excess in mortality among those under one year of age, especially within one month after birth, was attributable partly to the mechanical injury of the mother, but this does not provide the whole explanation. There was no increase of mortality from cancer including leukaemia with dose. As the number of cancer deaths is at present only five, further careful follow-up on this cohort is necessary to determine the state of radiation-induced cancer among this cohort. The continuing study on mortality rates among children born to A-bomb survivors has been updated to 1976. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the offspring (average age 24 years) could be demonstrated either by a contingency chi2-type of analysis or regression analysis. (author)

  14. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Ex-Utero intrapartum procedure for congenital high airway obstruction syndrome in a neonate: First case in Alexandria

    Youssef Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Large fetal neck masses can present a major challenge for securing an airway at birth with associated risks of hypoxia, brain injury and death. Teratomas of the oropharynx are rare, presenting 3% of teratomas in childhood, and are treated by surgical excision. If respiratory distress accompanies the lesion, priority must be given to the securing of the airway. Case History: We present a case of an infant who was diagnosed antenatally as having a huge oropharyngeal teratoma. The anaesthetic, surgical and neonatology teams were ready to perform surgical excision depending on the placental circulation immediately after securing the airway. The tumour weighed 1591 g and was 20 x 22 x 12 cm. The patient was a male and weighed 715 g. Histopathology showed Grade II teratoma. Conclusion: Large fetal neck masses can present a major challenge for securing an airway at birth with associated risks of hypoxia, brain injury and death. A multidisciplinary team approach combined with an accurate prenatal diagnosis obtained through fetal ultrasound is the key to a successful outcome. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT that is based on the placental blood during intubation, tracheostomy or surgical excision is the standard procedure.

  17. Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero

    Moriah E. Thomason

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development.

  18. Human neural crest cells contribute to coat pigmentation in interspecies chimeras after in utero injection into mouse embryos.

    Cohen, Malkiel A; Wert, Katherine J; Goldmann, Johanna; Markoulaki, Styliani; Buganim, Yosef; Fu, Dongdong; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    The neural crest (NC) represents multipotent cells that arise at the interphase between ectoderm and prospective epidermis of the neurulating embryo. The NC has major clinical relevance because it is involved in both inherited and acquired developmental abnormalities. The aim of this study was to establish an experimental platform that would allow for the integration of human NC cells (hNCCs) into the gastrulating mouse embryo. NCCs were derived from pluripotent mouse, rat, and human cells and microinjected into embryonic-day-8.5 embryos. To facilitate integration of the NCCs, we used recipient embryos that carried a c-Kit mutation (W(sh)/W(sh)), which leads to a loss of melanoblasts and thus eliminates competition from the endogenous host cells. The donor NCCs migrated along the dorsolateral migration routes in the recipient embryos. Postnatal mice derived from injected embryos displayed pigmented hair, demonstrating differentiation of the NCCs into functional melanocytes. Although the contribution of human cells to pigmentation in the host was lower than that of mouse or rat donor cells, our results indicate that hNCCs, injected in utero, can integrate into the embryo and form mature functional cells in the animal. This mouse-human chimeric platform allows for a new approach to study NC development and diseases. PMID:26811475

  19. Partial rescue of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII mice with a lifelong engraftment of allogeneic stem cells in utero.

    Ihara, Norimasa; Akihiro, Umezawa; Onami, Naoko; Tsumura, Hideki; Inoue, Eisuke; Hayashi, Satoshi; Sago, Haruhiko; Mizutani, Shuki

    2015-02-01

    In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) has been performed in Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VII (MPSVII) mice, but a lifelong engraftment of allogeneic donor cells has not been achieved. In this study, we sought to confirm a lifelong engraftment of allogeneic donor cells immunologically matched to the mother and to achieve partial rescue of phenotypes in the original MPSVII strain through IUHCT by intravenous injection. We performed in vitro fertilization in a MPSVII murine model and transferred affected embryos to ICR/B6-GFP surrogate mothers in cases where fetuses receiving IUHCT were all homozygous. Lineage-depleted cells from ICR/B6-GFP mice were injected intravenously at E14.5. Chimerism was confirmed by flow cytometry at 4 weeks after birth, and β-glucuronidase activity in serum and several phenotypes were assessed at 8 weeks of age or later. Donor cells in chimeric mice from ICR/B6-GFP mothers were detected at death, and were confirmed in several tissues including the brains of sacrificed chimeric mice. Although the serum enzyme activity of chimeric mice was extremely low, the engraftment rate of donor cells correlated with enzyme activity. Furthermore, improvement of bone structure and rescue of reproductive ability were confirmed in our limited preclinical study. We confirmed the lifelong engraftment of donor cells in an original immunocompetent MPSVII murine model using intravenous IUHCT with cells immunologically matched to the mother without myeloablation, and the improvement of several phenotypes. PMID:25421592

  20. Mapping transcriptome profiles of in vitro iPSC-derived cardiac differentiation to in utero heart development

    Xing Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dataset includes microarray data (Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array from WT and Nos3−/− mouse embryonic heart ventricular tissues at 14.5 days post coitum (E14.5, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs derived from WT and Nos3−/− mouse tail tip fibroblasts, iPSC-differentiated cardiomyocytes at Day 11, and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs and differentiated cardiomyocytes as positive controls for mouse iPSC differentiation. Both in utero (using embryonic heart tissues and in vitro (using iPSCs and differentiated cells microarray datasets were deposited to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database. The deposited data in GEO include raw microarray data, metadata for sample source information, experimental design, sample and data processing, and gene expression matrix. The data are available under GEO Access Number GSE69317 (GSE69315 for tissue sample microarray data, GSE69316 for iPSCs microarray data, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc= GSE69317.

  1. [Two Cases of Fetuses with Difficult Airway that Survived by the EXIT (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment) Procedure].

    Kai, Tetsuya; Ishibe, Natsuki; Soeda, Yuji; Tanaka, Mariko; Hoka, Sumio

    2015-04-01

    We successfully managed two fetuses complicated with suspected airway obstruction after birth by the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure, whose placental circulation was maintained till their airway was secured during the cesarean section. The first fetus was suspected to have airway obstruction due to a large neck mass. At 36 weeks of gestation, the EXIT procedure was undertaken performing the tracheal intubation successfully by laryngoscope. The second fetus with micrognathia was expected to have airway obstruction after birth. The EXIT procedure was undertaken at 35 weeks of gestation. The tracheal intubation by laryngoscope or by stylet scope was impossible, and the airway was secured by tracheostomy. The direct roles of anesthesiologists in the EXIT procedure are to let the uterus relax enough, deal with bleeding, and manage the fetal airway. The EXIT procedure is a specialized operation in which various specialists are involved, and a variety of judgments are necessary within a short time. Therefore, all concerned personnel should discuss previously to make a concensus on the processes during the procedure. The organization may be also an important role of the anesthesiologists in the EXIT procedure. PMID:26419098

  2. In Utero Exposure to Low Doses of Bisphenol A Lead to Long-term Deleterious Effects in the Vagina

    G. Schönfelder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The origins of the “endocrine disrupter hypothesis” may be traced to reports on adolescent daughters born to women who had taken the highly potent synthetic estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, while pregnant, and who developed a rare form of vaginal cancer and adenocarcinoma. Bisphenol A (BPA is an estrogenic chemical that is highly employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products. Some observational studies have suggested that the amounts of BPA to which we are exposed could alter the reproductive organs of developing rodents. We examined the influence of BPA at low doses to address the questions of (a whether in utero exposure affects the vagina of the offspring and (b which mechanisms cause the toxic effects. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered either 0.1 (low dose or 50 mg/kg per day BPA, the no observed effect level, or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17αethinyl estradiol by gavage. Striking morphological changes were observed in the vagina of postpubertal offspring leading us to examine vaginal estrogen receptor (ER expression because BPA binds to the ERα, which is important for growth of the vaginal epithelium. We show that the full-length ERα is not expressed during estrus in the vagina of female offspring exposed to either dose of BPA when compared to the control group, whereas ERα expression does not differ from the control group during the diestrus stage. ERa downregulation seems to be responsible for the observed altered vaginal morphology.

  3. Water Resources

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  4. Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.

    Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

    2014-01-01

    Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes. PMID:24937292

  5. Energy resources

    Cuba, like most island nations, lacks a large energy resource base and satisfies most of its energy needs with imported fossil fuels. The evaluation of the availability of domestic energy reserves and resources, as well as their future extraction potential, is a necessary task in an assessment of sustainable energy development. When estimates of potential availability of fossil fuels are carried out, a distinction is made between reserves and resources. In this study, reserves are known quantities that can be extracted with current technology at current prices. Resources are either less certain as to their existence or known to be technically or economically unfeasible or both. In the case of renewables, the concept of resources needs to be modified. Renewable resources are part of a natural flow that can be regenerated in a time frame that is suitable for human activities. For this reason, it is necessary to refer to renewable energy potential rather than resources. Both resources and reserves change as new technologies become available or due to changes in the market. This is another reason to distinguish between resources, reserves and energy potential

  6. Electronic collection management

    Mcginnis, Suzan D

    2013-01-01

    Build and manage your collection of digital resources with these successful strategies! This comprehensive volume is a practical guide to the art and science of acquiring and organizing electronic resources. The collections discussed here range in size from small college libraries to large research libraries, but all are facing similar problems: shrinking budgets, increasing demands, and rapidly shifting formats. Electronic Collection Management offers new ideas for coping with these issues. Bringing together diverse aspects of collection development, Electronic Collection

  7. Operable stages IB and 2 cervical carcinomas: a retrospective study comparing between preoperative utero vaginal brachytherapy and postoperative radiation therapy

    Purpose. -To identify prognostic factors and treatment toxicity in a series of operable stages IB and II cervical carcinomas. Patients and methods. - Between May 1972 and January 1994, 414 patients (pts) with cervical carcinoma staged according to the 1995 FIGO staging system underwent radical hysterectomy with (n=380) or without (n=34) bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Lateral ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function was performed on 12 pts. The methods of radiation therapy (RT) were not randomized and depended on the usual practices of the surgical teams. Group I:168 pts received postoperative RT (64 pts received vaginal brachytherapy alone (mean total dose (MD): 50 Gy], 93 pts had external beam pelvis RT (EBPRT) [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] followed by vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 20 Gy], and 11 pts had EBPRT alone [MD: 50 Gy over 6 weeks]. Group II: 246 pts received preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 65 Gy], and 32 of theses 246 pts also received postoperative EBPRT [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] delivered to the parametric and the pelvic lymph nodes with a midline pelvic shield. The mean follow-up was 106 months. Results. - The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 80%. From 75 recurrences, 35 were isolated locoregional. Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors decreasing the probability of DFS were: both exo and endo-cervical tumour site (p=0.047), lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.041), age ? 51 yr (p=0.013), 1995 FIGO staging system (stage IB1 vs stage IIA, p=0.004, stage IB1 vs stage IB2, p=0.0009, and stage IB1 vs stage IIB with 1/3 proximal parametrical infiltration, p=0.00002), and histological pelvic involved lymph nodes (p=0.00009). Methods of adjuvant RT did not influence the probability of DFS (group I vs group II, p=0.10). The postoperative complication rate was 10.2% in group I and 8.9% in group II (p=0.7) but the postoperative urethral complication rate necessitating surgical intervention with re-implantation was lower in group I than in group II (0.6% vs 2.3%, respectively, p=0.03). The 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications according to the LENT-SOMA scoring system was 10.4%. EPRT significantly increased the 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications (yes vs no: 22% vs 7%, respectively, p=0.0002). Conclusion. - In our series, the methods of adjuvant RT (primary surgery vs preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy) do not seem to influence the prognosis of the stage IB, IIA, and IIB - (with 1/3 proximal parametrical involvement only) cervical carcinomas. The postoperative EPRT applied according to histopathological risk factors after surgical treatment increases the risk of late radiation complications. (author)

  8. In utero exposure to bisphenol A alters the development and tissue organization of the mouse mammary gland.

    Markey, C M; Luque, E H; Munoz De Toro, M; Sonnenschein, C; Soto, A M

    2001-10-01

    Exposure to estrogens throughout a woman's life, including the period of intrauterine development, is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. The increased incidence of breast cancer noted during the last 50 years may have been caused, in part, by exposure of women to estrogen-mimicking chemicals that are released into the environment. Here, we investigated the effects of fetal exposure to one such chemical, bisphenol A (BPA), on development of the mammary gland. CD-1 mice were exposed in utero to low, presumably environmentally relevant doses of BPA (25 and 250 microg/kg body weight), and their mammary glands were assessed at 10 days, 1 mo, and 6 mo of age. Mammary glands of BPA-exposed mice showed differences in the rate of ductal migration into the stroma at 1 mo of age and a significant increase in the percentage of ducts, terminal ducts, terminal end buds, and alveolar buds at 6 mo of age. The percentage of cells that incorporated BrdU was significantly decreased within the epithelium at 10 days of age and increased within the stroma at 6 mo of age. These changes in histoarchitecture, coupled with an increased presence of secretory product within alveoli, resemble those of early pregnancy, and they suggest a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and/or misexpression of developmental genes. The altered relationship in DNA synthesis between the epithelium and stroma and the increase in terminal ducts and terminal end buds are striking, because these changes are associated with carcinogenesis in both rodents and humans. PMID:11566746

  9. Diabetes - resources

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes : American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  10. Hemophilia - resources

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  11. Depression - resources

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  12. Lack of effects for low dose levels of bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on the prostate gland of CF1 mice exposed in utero.

    Ashby, J; Tinwell, H; Haseman, J

    1999-10-01

    vom Saal et al. (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94, 2056-2061, 1997) have reported that low dose exposure (0.02-2 microg/kg/day) of CF1 mice to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero led to increases in the prostate gland weight when the pups reached 8 months of age. Nagel et al. (Environ. Health Perspect. 105, 70-76, 1997) reported similar effects in CF1 mice at 6 months of age after exposure in utero to low dose levels (2 and 20 microg/kg/day) of bisphenol A (BPA). vom Saal et al. (Toxicol. Indust. Health 14(1/2) 239-260, 1998) subsequently reported reduced sperm efficiency (daily sperm production per gram testes) in a subset of the BPA animals for which enlarged prostates had been observed. These three experiments have been repeated in a single experiment that was terminated when the offspring reached 6 months of age. No statistically significant effects on prostate weight or sperm efficiency were recorded for offspring of animals exposed to either DES (0.2 microg/kg/day) or BPA (2 and 20 microg/kg/day) in utero. Significant dam effects were seen for several of the assay parameters indicating that the litter, as opposed to the individual, should be considered as the statistical unit in such experiments. A statistically significant increase in body weight was recorded for the low dose BPA male offspring. Females from the study underwent normal sexual maturation and showed no significant differences in reproductive tissue weights at termination and the mean day of vaginal opening. The possible reasons for this failure to confirm the earlier reported effects for DES and BPA at these low doses are discussed. PMID:10536110

  13. Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure

    The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as 'little adults'; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahrb-1/d ('responsive') genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahrd/d ('non-responsive') siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing

  14. Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Nitrate after In Utero Exposure in Rats and of Nitrate and Nitrite in the H295R and T-Screen Assay

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad; Boberg, Julie; Kiersgaard, Maria Kristina; Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Hass, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and...... 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in...

  15. Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report

    Royo Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

  16. Fine structural lesions and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C. C.

    1980-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions of thyroid follicular cells and a reduction in serum levels of thyroid hormones in neonatal (0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age) Osborne-Mendel rats exposed to 50 or 500 ppm PCB in utero and by the milk. Litter size was decreased significantly in rats fed 500 ppm PCB. Body weights at 21 days of age were reduced in rats exposed to 50 and 500 ppm PCB. The ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells were dose- and age-dependent but were ...

  17. Improved acceptance of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids after weaning is caused by in utero exposure during late but not early pregnancy

    Vu Hai, P.; Schonewille, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Tien, D.; Everts, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073713694; Hendriks, W H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current experiment was to study the effect of the phase of pregnancy on in utero learning of Chromonaela odorata by the goat kids by comparing mid pregnancy (day 5099, MP) with late pregnancy (day 100145, LP). It was hypothesized that kids born to dams fed C. odorata during late pregnancy (day 100145) would show an improved post-weaning consumption of this plant. Twenty four female goats (Co breed) were synchronized, inseminated and divided randomly into 4 equal groups. All ...

  18. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  19. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research

  20. Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian language

    Ludmila Dimitrova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Multilingual digital resources with Bulgarian languageThe paper presents in brief Bulgarian language resources as a part of multilingual digital resources developed in the frame of some international projects, among them parallel annotated and aligned corpora, comparable corpora, morpho-syntactic specifications for corpora annotation and dictionaries encoding, lexicons, lexical databases, and electronic dictionaries.

  1. Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus

    Chacón Cecilia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of the signals in placenta and syncytial streamers was digitally analysed. Flt1 and eNOS content of placental homogenates was determined by western blotting. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Results In the subplacenta, placental interlobium and labyrinth VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were expressed in all stages of pregnancy. Syncytial streamers in all stages of gestation, and cytotrophoblasts surrounding myometrial arteries in early and mid pregnancy – and replacing the smooth muscle at term – displayed immunoreactivity for VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, eNOS and B2R. In partly disrupted mesometrial arteries in late pregnancy cytotrophoblasts and endothelial cells expressed VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS. Sections incubated in absence of the first antibody, or in presence of rabbit IgG fraction and mouse IgG serum, yielded no staining. According to the digital analysis, Flt-1 increased in the placental interlobium in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.016, and in the labyrinth in day 60 as compared to days 20 and 40 (P = 0.026, while the signals for VEGF, KDR, B2R, and eNOS showed no variations along pregnancy. In syncytial streamers the intensity of VEGF immunoreactivity was increased in day 40 in comparison to day 20 (P = 0.027, while that of B2R decreased in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.011; VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS expression showed no variations. Western blots for eNOS and Flt-1 in placental homogenates showed no significant temporal differences along pregnancy. Conclusion The demonstration of different angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the same cellular protagonists of angiogenesis and invasion in the pregnant guinea-pig, supports the presence of a functional network, and strengthens the argument that this species provides an adequate model to understand human pregnancy.

  2. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

  3. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    Jessica D. Tenenbaum; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim(School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, U.K); Noy, Natasha; NYULAS, CSONGOR; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development...

  4. Normal mammary gland morphology in pubertal female mice following in utero and lactational exposure to genistein at levels comparable to human dietary exposure.

    Fielden, Mark R; Fong, Cora J; Haslam, Sandra Z; Zacharewski, Tim R

    2002-07-21

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0, 0.1, 1, 10 microg/kg/day) on the mammary gland was also examined as a positive estrogenic control. Pregnant females were treated by daily gavage from gestational day 12 to postnatal day (PND) 20. Female offspring were weaned on PND21 and mammary gland whole mounts were examined for growth (length and area of the epithelial tree), proliferation (number of terminal end buds (TEBs)), and differentiation (density of alveolar buds (ABs)) on PND49. The highest dose of DES induced a significant increase in mammary gland growth (Pmammary gland morphology at any dose. These results suggest that in utero and lactational exposure to genistein at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures do not adversely affect mammary gland development in pubertal female B6D2F1 mice. PMID:12119126

  5. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    Ovacik, Meric A. [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Division of Human Food Safety, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States); Ierapetritou, Marianthi G. [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Androulakis, Ioannis P., E-mail: yannis@rci.rutgers.edu [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  6. Autism-Like Behavior and Epigenetic Changes Associated with Autism as Consequences of In Utero Exposure to Environmental Pollutants in a Mouse Model

    Hill, Denise S.; Cabrera, Robert; Wallis Schultz, Deeann; Zhu, Huiping; Lu, Wei; Finnell, Richard H.; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J.

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in utero exposure to heavy metals increases autism-like behavioral phenotypes in adult animals and induces epigenetic changes in genes that have roles in the etiology of autism. Mouse dams were treated with cadmium, lead, arsenate, manganese, and mercury via drinking water from gestational days (E) 1–10. Valproic acid (VPA) injected intraperitoneally once on (E) 8.5 served as a positive control. Young male offspring were tested for behavioral deficits using four standardized behavioral assays. In this study, in utero exposure to heavy metals resulted in multiple behavioral abnormalities that persisted into adulthood. VPA and manganese induced changes in perseverative/impulsive behavior and social dominance behavior, arsenic caused changes only in perseverative/impulsive behavior, and lead induced abnormalities in social interaction in comparison to the control animals. Brain samples from Mn, Pb, and VPA treated and control animals were evaluated for changes in CpG island methylation in promoter regions and associated changes in gene expression. The Chd7 gene, essential for neural crest cell migration and patterning, was found to be hypomethylated in each experimental animal tested compared to water-treated controls. Furthermore, distinct patterns of CpG island methylation yielded novel candidate genes for further investigation. PMID:26586927

  7. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data

  8. Biochemical analysis of cerebrum of fetal rats X-irradiated in utero - content and composition of DNA, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide

    Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero and biochemical analysis of the cerebrum was performed. The cerebral weight was significantly lower in the irradiated group on gestational day (gd) 13 with 100R than in the control group from gd 19 to postnatal day (pd) 15. In the isolation step for cerebral DNA on gd 21, decreased DNA contents of the homogenate and isolated nuclei and an increase in the ratio of protein to DNA in nuclei and isolated DNA were observed on X-irradiation. Analysis of the nucleoside composition of isolated DNA showed the radiation resistivity of dAdo. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was extremely low in fetal cerebrum. The lipid peroxide (LP) level of the cerebrum in the irradiated group was increased compared to that in the control group. Administration of vitamin E during pregnancy resulted in an increased cerebral weight and a decreased cerebral LP level in the irradiated fetuses. The low activity of SOD may be one of the factors which cause the vulnerability of the fetal brain to irradiation. The study on vitamin E supplementation showed evidence of the possibility of the prevention of microcephaly induced by X-irradiation in utero. (orig.)

  9. Resource Economics

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  10. RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO

    Ernesto Hurel M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las clulas mesenquimticas que van a derivar en msculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los nios, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera dcada. Se clasifican en forma histolgica en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomrficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican segn la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres resultados se evala la sobrevida a los 2 aos (90% de mortalidad a los dos aos. A continuacin presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patolgico se demostr un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de teroRabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade. They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

  11. Space Resources

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging op

  12. Water resources

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Interactive Technologies in Electronic Educational Resources

    Anisimova, Tatyana Ivanovna; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    Modern professional education in the transition to a tiered system of specialists training is focused not on the transfer of ready knowledge but on teaching to find this knowledge and to apply them in situations close to the professional conditions. The educational process, relying on use of interactive methods of teaching, which is organized with…

  14. Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate

    Several phthalate esters have been linked to the Phthalate Syndrome, affecting male reproductive development when administered to pregnant rats during in utero sexual differentiation. The goal of the current study was to enhance understanding of this class of compounds in the Spr...

  15. INDUCTION OF CYP1A1 AD CYP1B1 AND FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN C57BL/6, BALB/C, AND F1 MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE

    Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3?m...

  16. Energy resources

    Simon, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  17. Intellectual development of children exposed to radioactive iodine in utero and up to the age of 1.5 years old as a result of the Chernobyl accident

    Study of intellectual development of 235 children who were irradiated with radioiodine in utero and within the first year of life was performed in 1998-1999. The control group consisted of 105 children examined in ecologically clean zone. The study of intelligence was performed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - WISC-III UK. In the group exposed to radiation prenatally (mean thyroid dose = 18.77 cGy, SD=28.77), comparisons of test scores didn't show statistically significant differences as compared with the control group. In the group exposed to radiation after birth (mean thyroid dose = 83.02 cGy, SD=66.05), significantly lower scores of the subtests Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and level of Performance IQ as compared to the controls were detected

  18. Electronics and electronic systems

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  19. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  20. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects bone tissue in rhesus monkeys

    Bone tissue is one of the target tissues for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on bone tissue in rhesus monkey, the most human-like experimental model available. Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; age 4-10 years) were exposed to TCDD with a total dose of 40.5-42.0 or 405-420 ng/kg bodyweight by repeated subcutaneous injections starting at gestational day 20 and followed by injections every 30 days until 90 days after delivery. At a mean age of 7 years the offspring were sacrificed and the femur bone dissected. Results from peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) analyses of the metaphyseal part of the femur bones in female offspring showed significant increases in trabecular bone mineral content (BMC; +84.6%, p < 0.05, F-value (F) = 5.9) in the low-dose treatment group compared with the controls. In the same animals, analysis of the mid-diaphyseal part revealed increases in total BMC (+21.3%, p < 0.05, F = 5.2) and cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; +16.4%, p < 0.01, F = 7.4) compared with the controls. In males, changes in biomechanical properties indicating more fragile bone were observed. Displacement at failure were significantly increased in the male low-dose group compared to the controls (+38.0%, p < 0.05, F = 11). The high dose of TCDD did not induce any significant changes in bone morphology. In conclusion, in utero and lactational low-dose, but not high-dose exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced disruption of bone tissue development in rhesus monkey, a result suggesting that similar effects might occur in humans also

  1. In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats

    Russo Irma H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

  2. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  3. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys

    Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

  4. Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects of active and passive maternal tobacco smoke exposure on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus

    Grant Stephen G

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced mutagenesis in utero is likely to have life-long repercussions for the exposed fetus, affecting survival, birth weight and susceptibility to both childhood and adult-onset diseases, such as cancer. In the general population, such exposures are likely to be a consequence of the lifestyle choices of the parents, with exposure to tobacco smoke one of the most pervasive and easily documented. Previous studies attempting to establish a direct link between active smoking and levels of somatic mutation have largely discounted the effects of passive or secondary exposure, and have produced contradictory results. Methods Data from three studies of possible smoking effects on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus were compiled and reanalyzed, alone and in combination. Where possible, passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was considered as a separate category of exposure, rather than being included in the non-smoking controls. Molecular spectra from these studies were reanalyzed after adjustment for reported mutation frequencies from the individual studies and the entire data set. Results A series of related studies on mutation at the X-linked HPRT locus in human newborn cord blood samples has led to the novel conclusion that only passive maternal exposure to tobacco mutagens has a significant effect on the developing baby. We performed a pooled analysis of the complete data from these studies, at the levels of both induced mutation frequency and the resulting mutational spectrum. Conclusion Our analysis reveals a more commonsensical, yet no less cautionary result: both active maternal smoking and secondary maternal exposure produce quantitatively and qualitatively indistinguishable increases in fetal HPRT mutation. Further, it appears that this effect is not perceptibly ameliorated if the mother adjusts her behavior (i.e. stops smoking when pregnancy is confirmed, although this conclusion may also be affected by continued passive exposure.

  5. Two types of congenital hydrocephalus induced in rats by X-irradiation in utero: electron microscopic study on the telencephalic wall

    Stage-specific incidences of congenital hydrocephalus induced by X-irradiation of pregnant rats showed a bimodal distribution. At a dose level of 200 R, 100% hydrocephalic offspring were obtained by irradiation at embryonic days 11 and 14. When pregnant rats were subjected to 200 R X-irradiation at embryonic day 11, numerous ventricular cells of the telencephalic wall of the embryo became necrotic during the first 2 hours post-irradiation, but the paraventricular cell-to-cell interconnexions made up of zonulae adhaerentes were less affected. Mitosis took place in the surviving paraventricular surface cells throughout subsequent development. The full-term fetus exhibited little change in the cytoarchitectural arrangement of neural cells and neuropils, although it was only about half the thickness of the untreated control. After 200 R X-irradiation at embryonic day 14, most of the ventricular cells became necrotic within 6 hours. The paraventricular cell-to-cell interconnexions were completely destroyed, and never repaired in subsequent development. Mitosis took place either freely in cell clusters, or in rosettes which formed randomly in the telencephalic wall between 48 and 72 hours post-irradiation. The resulting telencephalic wall of the full-term fetus was also about half the thickness of the control. In the outer part of the tissue, the cortical plate made up of differentiating neuroblasts was hypoplastic, but the inner half was filled with numerous heterotopic masses of pleomorphic cells and bundles of primitive axons. The ependymal layer at the paraventricular surface was never formed. Whether the paraventricular zonulae adhaerentes were destroyed or not by X-irradiation was considered to be an important factor in the determination of the subsequent cytoarchitectural organization of the telencephalic wall. (author)

  6. Mineral resources

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  7. Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

    2012-12-12

    This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

  8. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  9. Roget's Thesaurus: a Lexical Resource to Treasure

    Jarmasz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the steps involved in creating an electronic lexical knowledge base from the 1987 Penguin edition of Roget's Thesaurus. Semantic relations are labelled with the help of WordNet. The two resources are compared in a qualitative and quantitative manner. Differences in the organization of the lexical material are discussed, as well as the possibility of merging both resources.

  10. Navigating physician resources on the Internet.

    Ellenberger, B

    1995-01-01

    By providing everything from electronic mail to "virtual patients," computer technology and the Internet have made enormous resources available to physicians. Science writer Beth Ellenberger gives an overview of the different levels of Internet access, as well as the e-mail addresses of some medical resources that will be useful to physicians.

  11. Electronic Information and Applications in Musicology and Music Theory.

    Duggan, Mary Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes electronic publishing and information resources in the field of music. Topics addressed include bibliographic citations of books, journal articles, scores, and sound recordings; bibliographic utilities; computer network resources; electronic music applications; tutorial and laboratory projects; interactive multimedia publications; and…

  12. Electronic Information and Applications in Musicology and Music Theory.

    Duggan, Mary Kay

    1992-01-01

    Describes electronic publishing and information resources in the field of music. Topics addressed include bibliographic citations of books, journal articles, scores, and sound recordings; bibliographic utilities; computer network resources; electronic music applications; tutorial and laboratory projects; interactive multimedia publications; and

  13. Introduction to power electronics

    Chappell, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    The subject of power electronics is concerned with solid state devices for the control and conversion of electrical power. These silicon devices are designed mainly for switching the transfer current from one part of an electrical circuit to another. Power electronics has a wide range of applications from the small systems used in electrical appliances to very large systems for the supply and distribution of electricity.Although it can be difficult to completely define where the boundary lies between electronics and power electronics, this resource succeeds at breaking down the discipline. Con

  14. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  15. Power Electronics

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.

    2008-01-01

    The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is an urgent demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that the power capacity has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of energy should be as efficient as possible and incentives to save...... energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is...... to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss...

  16. Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth

    This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

  17. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  18. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Mahidol, Chulabhorn [Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Phayathai, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (∼ 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (∼ 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  19. Adaptation of the ICRP models for the Techa River populations to estimate in utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses from ingested strontium isotopes

    Full text: Reliable estimation of tissue doses for exposed individuals is very important in epidemiological studies. Long-term cohort studies of the Techa River populations exposed in the early 1950s due to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Southern Urals, Russia) are unique in allowing the quantification of risks from low-level chronic exposure of the general population and providing information on risks for persons exposed in utero. Strontium isotopes were the most important contributors to haemopoietic tissue doses for people living in the riverside settlements. Large-scale monitoring of the exposed population has provided a comprehensive database, including post mortem and in vivo measurements of 90Sr in bones and whole body, for use in the estimation of doses. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to members of the public, including doses from in utero exposures and from intakes with breast milk. However, the ICRP models as applied to Sr required modification to provide best estimates of doses to Techa River residents. Adaptations were made to the ICRP model for Sr in children and adults to take account of population-specific features relating to bone mineral turnover and to model age and gender differences in strontium retention. Refinements in the ICRP model for Sr uptake and retention in the fetus were made to improve the treatment of discrimination against Sr, relative to Ca, in transfer from maternal to foetal blood and to take account of population-specific data on the calcium content of the maternal and fetal skeleton. Modification of the ICRP model for Sr transfer in breast-milk included adaptations relating to changes in maternal mineral metabolism during lactation and consideration of population-specific features of breast feeding in the rural population. The improved models were successfully validated using data on 90Sr in humans compiled at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine. The models will be used to provide best estimates of doses resulting from ingestion of Sr isotopes as a result of the Techa River contamination, an essential prerequisite to analyses of health risks from protracted low-level exposure of this population. (author)

  20. Automotive electronics

    Basshuysen, R. van (ed.)

    2004-03-01

    Electronic systems in motor cars are getting increasingly innovative and complex. The consumption of resources of electronic systems increased from about 1 MB to about 90 MB per vehicle during the past decade. This is due to increasing demands on software, which is a key element of electronic systems in motor cars. Electronic systems provide higher safety without being noticed by the driver. Software reliability and quality must remain a point of focus as well as further cost reduction and ever shorter developing times. One option for achieving this is the automatic generation of program codes from the functional models developed. Code generation is accompanied by standardization of modular software architectures. The BCE project (Bertrand Competence Electronic, a universal control platform for individualized use with customer-specific applications), which was first presented at the IAA 2003, showed how development times can be shortened without impairing the software quality. (orig.) [German] Die Elektronik hat sich als Innovationstreiber im Automobil etabliert. Damit einher geht eine zunehmende Komplexitaet. So hat sich beispielsweise der Ressourcenbedarf elektronischer Systeme in den letzten zehn Jahren von rund 1 MB auf 90 MB pro Fahrzeug erhoeht. Dieser Entwicklung liegen steigende Anforderungen an die Aufgaben der Software zugrunde, die als wesentlicher Teil der Elektronik eine entscheidende Schluesselrolle einnimmt. Verdeutlichen laesst sich dies zum Beispiel am Bereich Fahrzeugsicherheit. Elektronische Assistenzsysteme bieten dem Fahrer in vielen Situationen ein Plus an Sicherheit. Diese Funktionalitaeten nimmt er in der Regel nicht aktiv wahr, da er auf sie vertraut. Um diesem Vertrauen gerecht zu werden, muss die Zuverlaessigkeit und Qualitaet der Software bei gleichzeitiger Reduzierung von Kosten und einer Verkuerzung der Entwicklungszeiten weiterhin im Fokus bleiben. Eine Moeglichkeit zur Verkuerzung der Entwicklungszeiten bietet die automatische Erzeugung von Programmcodes aus den entwickelten Funktionsmodellen. Die Codegenerierung geht einher mit der Standardisierung modular aufgebauter Software-Architekturen. Die Erfahrungen im Zusammenhang mit dem auf der Internationalen Automobil-Austellung 2003 vorgestellten BCE-Projekt (Bertrandt Competence Electronic: universelle Steuergeraete-Plattform, die individuell mit kundenspezifischen Applikationen bestueckt werden kann) zeigen, wie sich Entwicklungszeiten bei gleichzeitiger Absicherung der geforderten Qualitaet sinnvoll verkuerzen lassen. (orig.)

  1. In utero exposure of mice to diesel exhaust particles affects spatial learning and memory with reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor expression in the hippocampus of male offspring.

    Yokota, Satoshi; Sato, Akira; Umezawa, Masakazu; Oshio, Shigeru; Takeda, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Diesel exhaust consists of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) and gaseous compounds. Previous studies reported that in utero exposure to diesel exhaust affects the central nervous system. However, there was no clear evidence that these effects were caused by diesel exhaust particles themselves, gaseous compounds, or both. Here, we explored the effects of in utero exposure to DEPs on learning and memory in male ICR mice. DEP solutions were administered subcutaneously to pregnant ICR mice at a dose of 0 or 200 μg/kg body weight on gestation days 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18. We examined learning and memory in 9-to-10-week-old male offspring using the Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. Immediately after the behavioral tests, hippocampi were isolated. Hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NR) expression was also measured by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Mice exposed to DEPs in utero showed deficits in the Morris water maze test, but their performance was not significantly different from that of control mice in the passive avoidance test. In addition, DEP-exposed mice exhibited decreased hippocampal NR2A expression. The present results indicate that maternal DEP exposure disrupts learning and memory in male offspring, which is associated with reduced hippocampal NR2A expression. PMID:26291742

  2. Targeted in vivo genetic manipulation of the mouse or rat brain by in utero electroporation with a triple-electrode probe.

    Szczurkowska, Joanna; Cwetsch, Andrzej W; Dal Maschio, Marco; Ghezzi, Diego; Ratto, Gian Michele; Cancedda, Laura

    2016-03-01

    This protocol is an extension to:Nat. Protoc. 1, 1552-1558 (2006); doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.276; published online 9 November 2006This article describes how to reliably electroporate with DNA plasmids rodent neuronal progenitors of the hippocampus; the motor, prefrontal and visual cortices; and the cerebellum in utero. As a Protocol Extension article, this article describes an adaptation of an existing Protocol and offers additional applications. The earlier protocol describes how to electroporate mouse embryos using two standard forceps-type electrodes. In the present protocol, additional electroporation configurations are possible because of the addition of a third electrode alongside the two standard forceps-type electrodes. By adjusting the position and polarity of the three electrodes, the electric field can be directed with great accuracy to different neurogenic areas. Bilateral transfection of brain hemispheres can be achieved after a single electroporation episode. Approximately 75% of electroporated embryos survive to postnatal ages, and depending on the target area, 50-90% express the electroporated vector. The electroporation procedure takes 1 h 35 min. The protocol is suitable for the preparation of animals for various applications, including histochemistry, behavioral studies, electrophysiology and in vivo imaging. PMID:26844428

  3. Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin

    Montoya Rebecca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

  4. Surgery and postoperative brachytherapy for treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer: an alternative to the standard association of utero vaginal brachytherapy + surgery

    Purpose. -Evaluate the results of the treatment of small uterine cervix cancer with the association of surgery and postoperative vaginal brachytherapy, without unfavourable prognostic factors. Patients and methods. -After radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy, 29 women (mean age: 44 years) with carcinoma < 25 mm (26 stage IB1, 3 IIA, mean size: 15 mm) were treated by post-operative prophylactic vaginal brachytherapy using low dose rate. Ovarian transposition was performed at the surgical time in 14 young women (mean age 35 years). Results. - The actuarial specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 90% respectively, with a mean follow-up 75 months. Only one local recurrence was observed. The rate of grade 1 post-operative complication was 7%. The conservation rate of the ovarian function was 85% for young women. Conclusion. -Treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer using first surgery and post-operative vaginal brachytherapy is a reliable therapeutic option. The results in terms of specific survival and complications are the same with those after standard association of preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy and surgery. (authors)

  5. Impact of Maternal Diet on the Epigenome during In Utero Life and the Developmental Programming of Diseases in Childhood and Adulthood

    Ho-Sun Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to environmental factors in early life can influence developmental processes and long-term health in humans. Early life nutrition and maternal diet are well-known examples of conditions shown to influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, in adulthood. It is increasingly accepted that environmental compounds, including nutrients, can produce changes in the genome activity that, in spite of not altering the DNA sequence, can produce important, stable and, in some instances, transgenerational alterations in the phenotype. Epigenetics refers to changes in gene function that cannot be explained by changes in the DNA sequence, with DNA methylation patterns/histone modifications that can make important contributions to epigenetic memory. The epigenome can be considered as an interface between the genome and the environment that is central to the generation of phenotypes and their stability throughout the life course. To better understand the role of maternal health and nutrition in the initiation and progression of diseases in childhood and adulthood, it is necessary to identify the physiological and/or pathological roles of specific nutrients on the epigenome and how dietary interventions in utero and early life could modulate disease risk through epigenomic alteration.

  6. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  7. A Guide to Internet Resources in Language Arts.

    Homme, John, Comp.; And Others

    This paper presents a list of 154 Internet resources (listservs, freenets, telnet sites, gophers, etc.) dealing with language arts. Each entry in the list includes the name of the resource, and subscription and electronic mail addresses. Some of the entries in the list include a brief description of the resource. The paper lists 17 language arts…

  8. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Electronic technology

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  10. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    focus on the Icelandic and Faroese experiences with marine resources and renewable energy resources in geothermal, hydro, tidal and wind power. Iceland and the Faroe Islands are selected because they are examples of very small Arctic societies, which particularly well illustrate how the combination of......Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...... human capital and marine resources and renewable energy can contribute to socio-economic and political-constitutional development....

  11. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. The Electron

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  13. Trade in mineral resources

    Davis, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  14. Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation

    We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis

  15. Mapping primary gyrogenesis during fetal development in primate brains: high-resolution in utero structural MRI study of fetal brain development in pregnant baboons

    PeterKochunov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The global and regional changes in the fetal cerebral cortex in primates were mapped during primary gyrification (PG; weeks 17-25 of 26 weeks total gestation. Studying pregnant baboons using high-resolution MRI in utero, measurements included cerebral volume, cortical surface area, gyrification index and length and depth of ten primary cortical sulci. Seven normally developing fetuses were imaged in two animals longitudinally and sequentially. We compared these results to those on PG that from the ferret studies and analyzed them in the context of our recent studies of phylogenetics of cerebral gyrification. We observed that in both primates and non-primates, the cerebrum undergoes a very rapid transformation into the gyrencephalic state, subsequently accompanied by an accelerated growth in brain volume and cortical surface area. However, PG trends in baboons exhibited some critical differences from those observed in ferrets. For example, in baboons, the growth along the long (length axis of cortical sulci was unrelated to the growth along the short (depth axis and far outpaced it. Additionally, the correlation between the rate of growth along the short sulcal axis and heritability of sulcal depth was negative and approached significance (r=-0.60;p<.10, while the same trend for long axis was positive and not significant (p=0.3;p=0.40. These findings, in an animal that shares a highly orchestrated pattern of PG with humans, suggest that ontogenic processes that influence changes in sulcal length and depth are diverse and possibly driven by different factors in primates than in non-primates.

  16. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 μg benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  17. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  18. Utero-placental vascularisation in normal and preeclamptic and intra-uterine growth restriction pregnancies: third trimester quantification using 3D power Doppler with comparison to placental vascular morphology (EVUPA): a prospective controlled study

    Duan, Jie; Chabot-Lecoanet, Anne-Claire; Perdriolle-Galet, Estelle; Christov, Christophe; Hossu, Gabriela; Cherifi, Aboubaker; Morel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (PE) and intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) are two major pregnancy complications related to chronic utero-placental hypoperfusion. Three-dimensional power Doppler (3DPD) angiography has been used for the evaluation of utero-placental vascularisation and three vascular indices have been calculated: the vascularisation index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularisation-FI (VFI). However, several technical endpoints hinder the clinical use of 3DPD as physical characteristics and machine settings may affect 3DPD indices, and so its clinical significance is not yet clear. Objectives The primary objective is to better understand the clinical significance of 3DPD indices by evaluating the relationship between these indices and placental morphometry. Secondary objectives are (i) to determine the impact of machine settings and physical characteristics on 3DPD indices, and (ii) to evaluate physio-pathological placental vascularisation patterns. Methods and analysis This is a prospective controlled study. We expect to include 112 women: 84 with normal pregnancies and 28 with PE and/or IUGR (based on our former cohort study on 3DPD indices for PE and/or IUGR prediction (unpublished data)). Within 72 h before planned or semi-urgent caesarean section, utero-placental 3DPD images with five different machine settings will be acquired. Placentas will be collected and examined after surgery and stereological indices (volume density, surface density, length density) calculated. The 3DPD indices (VI, FI and VFI) of the placenta and adjacent myometrium will be calculated. Correlation between Doppler and morphological indices will be evaluated by Pearson or Spearman tests. Agreement between 3DPD indices and morphological indices will be assessed by Bland and Altman plots. The impact of Doppler settings and maternal characteristics on 3DPD indices will be evaluated with a multivariate linear regression model. Ethics The study and related consent forms have been approved by the French Ethics Committee (CPP, Comité de Protection des Personnes) Est III on 4 March 2014. PMID:27033959

  19. Screening by microarray analysis for genes that alter prostate development in C57BL/6J mice exposed in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Lin, Tienmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ. (United States); Suzuki, Junko S.; Wu, Qing; Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats and mice leads to a disruption of prostate development in the male offspring. Although it is not clear if this phenomenon occurs in human populations exposed to TCDD, the observed effect level is low among the various endpoints of TCDD developmental toxicity in animal studies. Clarification of the mechanism by which the effect is produced at the molecular level would help substantiate male reproductive toxicity caused by in utero TCDD exposure as a model for human health risk assessment. In both rats and mice, a critical window for TCDD disruption of prostate development in late pregnancy has been illustrated. The primary alteration in gene expression that presumably causes this phenomenon depends on the fetal aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene being expressed in the fetal urogenital sinus from which the outgrowth of prostatic buds occurs. In the male offspring of mice exposed to TCDD on gestation day 13 (GD 13), severe inhibitory developmental effects were found on ventral prostate development. These effects were significantly lower when in utero TCDD exposure occurred after GD 16 than GD 13. Upon administration of TCDD to the dam on GD 13, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 were induced in the urogenital complex of the male offspring on postnatal day 14. Thus, ''dioxin biomarker genes'' are responsive to in utero and lactational TCDD exposure during the neonatal stage of development. This suggests that key TCDD responsive genes involved in disrupting prostate development would be genes other than CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In the present study we administered a single dose of TCDD to mouse dams during the critical window (GD 13 or GD 14) for impairing prostate development, or later during a less TCDD sensitive period (GD 17). Microarray techniques were then used to compare gene expression profiles of the fetus versus the urogenital sinus in order to identify genes involved in disruption of prostate development caused by in utero TCDD exposure.

  20. Cytokine mRNA profiles in bronchoalveolar cells of piglets experimentally infected in utero with with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Association of sustained expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 after viral clearance

    Johnsen, C.K.; Bøtner, Anette; Kamstrup, Søren; Lind, Peter; Nielsen, J.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental model was used to investigate mRNA cytokine profiles in bronchoalvolar cells (BALC) from piglets, infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The BALC's were analyzed for the cytokines TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12(p40) by real...... elevated in all three age groups. Virus was reduced by 50% in 4-week-old piglets and cleared by 6 weeks of age. The sustained expression of IFNgamma and reduction of IL-10 production indicate an important role for these cytokines in immunity to PRRSV....

  1. Value-added Applications of Libraries’ E-resources: A Case Study of Citation Analysis System

    黃明居、吳東陽 Ming-Jiu Hwang,Tung-Yang Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The libraries now still play as the role of information provider without effectively aggregate inforrmations to knowledge based on users’ requirement, though the budget of electronic resources increasing yearly. For example, the aggregative search of library resources just shorten the timeusers attach the electronic resources without providing real knowledge. This research proposed ageneral value-added model of electronic resources during the process building the citation analysissystem. With the model, the library would be offer some value-added enhancement, even knowledgeprovider furthermore, based on the typical knowledge from aggregation of electronic resources inthe library. pp. 66-81

  2. Solar Resource Assessment

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  3. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  4. Mineral Resources Data System

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  5. Human Resource Planning

    Hoffman, W. H.; Wyatt, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    By using the total resource approach, we have focused attention on the need to integrate human resource planning with other business plans and highlighted the importance of a productivity strategy. (Author)

  6. Space resources. Overview

    Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  7. Hydrography - Water Resources

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...

  8. Recycling of natural resources

    Shevchenko, Tetiana Ivanivna; ????????, ??????? ????????; ????????, ?????? ????????

    2007-01-01

    Switching of economy to the market economy is related to creation and realization of order of resource saving in all links of economic mechanism. It is one of primary objectives and features of transitional period. The policy of resource saving must engulf all of branch structures and all of the tools of territorial-economic complex. Important line of work in policy of saving resources is drawing secondary resources in turnover. Their stake in production consumption is small yet, although cer...

  9. Human Resource Management System

    Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V; Gopalakrishnan, S

    2013-01-01

    The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems evolved into standa...

  10. Knowledge resources and performance

    Lucia Naldi; Mattias Nordqvist; Thomas Zellweger

    2011-01-01

    According to the RBV, knowledge resources can be sources of competitive advantage. Yet, performance also depends on how these resources are managed and leveraged in strategy processes. We investigate how the effect of knowledge resources on performance is moderated by the involvement of the owner family in both business level and corporate level strategy. We find that family involvement in business strategy enhances the performance implications of knowledge-based resources, while family invol...

  11. Electronic Prescribing

    ... Do you prescribe electronically? For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... to the pharmacy, and my prescription was ready. Electronic eRx Prescribing CMS Product No. 11382 Revised July ...

  12. Electronic Prescribing

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... to the pharmacy, and my prescription was ready. Electronic eRx Prescribing CMS Product No. 11382 Revised July ...

  13. Resources for the Marketplace.

    Shropshire, William O.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A conceptual introduction to the nature of resources and their role in production and in the marketplace begins this issue. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Nature Is Resourceful," a unit intended for preschool and kindergarten children built around a nature/resource walk, making sun tea, and analyzing the story of the "Three…

  14. Space Resources Roundtable VI

    2004-01-01

    The topics addressed in the conference paper abstracts contained in this document include: extracting resources from the Moon and Mars, equipment for in situ resource utilization, mission planning for resource extraction, drilling on Mars, and simulants for lunar soil and minerals.

  15. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues and their…

  16. Bootstrapping Deep Lexical Resources: Resources for Courses

    Baldwin, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    We propose a range of deep lexical acquisition methods which make use of morphological, syntactic and ontological language resources to model word similarity and bootstrap from a seed lexicon. The different methods are deployed in learning lexical items for a precision grammar, and shown to each have strengths and weaknesses over different word classes. A particular focus of this paper is the relative accessibility of different language resource types, and predicted ``bang for the buck'' associated with each in deep lexical acquisition applications.

  17. Cohort profile of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register: current status and recent enhancement of an Electronic Mental Health Record-derived data resource

    Perera, Gayan Surendrajith; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Broadbent, Matthew; Callard, Felicity; Downs, Jonathan Muir; Dutta, Rina; Fernandes, Andrea Carmen; Hayes, Richard Derek; Henderson, Max Joseph; Jackson, Richard George; Jewell, A; Kadra, Giouliana; Little, Ryan; Pritchard, Megan Ruth; Shetty, Hitesh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The South London and Maudsley National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust Biomedical Research Centre (SLaM BRC) Case Register and itsClinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) application were developed in 2008, generating a research repository of real-time, anonymised, structured andopen-text data derived from the electronic health record system used by SLaM, a large mental healthcare provider in southeast London. In this paper, we updatethis register’s descriptive data, and descr...

  18. Transient in utero disruption of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator causes phenotypic changes in Alveolar Type II cells in adult rats

    Larson Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanicosensory mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during lung organogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR was integral to stretch-induced growth and development and that transient expression of antisense-CFTR (ASCFTR had negative effects on lung structure and function. In this study, we examined adult alveolar type II (ATII cell phenotype after transient knock down of CFTR by adenovirus-directed in utero expression of ASCFTR in the fetal lung. Results In comparison to (reporter gene-treated Controls, ASCFTR-treated adult rat lungs showed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC levels in the large but not in the small aggregates of alveolar surfactant. The lung mRNA levels for SP-A and SP-B were lower in the ASCFTR rats. The basal PC secretion in ATII cells was similar in the two groups. However, compared to Control ATII cells, the cells in ASCFTR group showed higher PC secretion with ATP or phorbol myristate acetate. The cell PC pool was also larger in the ASCFTR group. Thus, the increased surfactant secretion in ATII cells could cause higher PC levels in large aggregates of surfactant. In freshly isolated ATII cells, the expression of surfactant proteins was unchanged, suggesting that the lungs of ASCFTR rats contained fewer ATII cells. Gene array analysis of RNA of freshly isolated ATII cells from these lungs showed altered expression of several genes including elevated expression of two calcium-related genes, Ca2+-ATPase and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase1 (CaMkk1, which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of calmodulin kinase I, which is activated following phosphorylation by CaMkk1. Although increased expression of calcium regulating genes would argue in favor of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms increasing surfactant secretion, we cannot exclude contribution of alternate mechanisms because of other phenotypic changes in ATII cells of the ASCFTR group. Conclusion Developmental changes due to transient disruption of CFTR in fetal lung reflect in altered ATII cell phenotype in the adult life.

  19. Resource Structuring and Ambidexterity

    Ma, Yucheng; Li, Peter Ping

    Focusing on how resource structuring mechanisms and managerial ties influence organizational ambidexterity of new ventures in emerging economy, this study explores the effects of resource structuring mechanisms (i.e., resource acquiring and resource accumulating) on organizational ambidexterity. It......-shaped effect on organizational ambidexterity in new ventures. Further, because of the traditional culture and economic transition characteristics, new ventures actively leverage managerial ties as key social relations to obtain special resources or nurture business transactions. We propose that ties with other...... firms and ties with government can differently strengthen the effects of acquiring and accumulating on organizational ambidexterity. The results support our propositions...

  20. Self managing experiment resources

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  1. Utero-vaginal high dose rate multi-fractionated curie therapy in one implant with the standard indications of exclusive curie-therapy or in addition to radiotherapy: a feasibility study; Curietherapie uterovaginale multifractionnee de haut debit de dose en un implant dans les indications standard de curietherapie exclusive ou completant la radiotherapie: etude de faisabilite

    Guerif, S.; Berger, A.; Pinel, B.; Regneaux, P.; Magnien, G.; Bensadoun, R.J. [CHU, 86 - Poitiers (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors discuss data and results obtained while performing 200 utero-vaginal low dose rate curie-therapies and 5 utero-vaginal high dose rate curie-therapies. The procedure comprises a radiotherapy followed by a curie-therapy, a dosimetric MRI, and a definition of the macroscopic tumour volume and of high and medium risk planning target volumes on different parts of the digestive tract, a three-dimensional dosimetry, a control of dosimetric constraints, a manual optimization of these constraints, and fractionated irradiations. The passage from low dose rate to high dose rate curie-therapy did not raise any problem. Short communication

  2. Conventional transmission electron microscopy.

    Winey, Mark; Meehl, Janet B; O'Toole, Eileen T; Giddings, Thomas H

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to make contributions to cell biology for well over 50 years, and TEM continues to be an important technology in our field. We briefly present for the neophyte the components of a TEM-based study, beginning with sample preparation through imaging of the samples. We point out the limitations of TEM and issues to be considered during experimental design. Advanced electron microscopy techniques are listed as well. Finally, we point potential new users of TEM to resources to help launch their project. PMID:24482357

  3. Recycling of electronic scrap

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... of recycling in the modern quest for a sustainable global society is performed, clearly showing that without intensified focus on recycling, the global community cannot hope to reach even the most modest goals for sustainability in resource use. A general method for finding new recycling alternatives...... where resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  4. Male rats exposed in utero to di(n-butyl) phthalate: Age-related changes in Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum and testicular testosterone-biosynthesis enzymes/proteins.

    Motohashi, Masaya; Wempe, Michael F; Mutou, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kansaku, Norio; Ikegami, Masahiro; Inomata, Tomo; Asari, Masao; Wakui, Shin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the age-related (i.e., weeks 5, 7, 9, 14 and 17) morphological changes of Leydig cell smooth endoplasmic reticulum (LCs-ER) and testicular testosterone biosynthesis/protein expression in rats in utero exposed to di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) (intragastrically; 100mg/kg/day) on days 12-21 post-conception. Ultrastructural observations revealed the LCs-ER of the DBP group were non-dilated until peri-puberty, and thereafter decreased and disappeared. RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses revealed that StAR and P450scc levels in the DBP group were significantly lower at 5 and 7 weeks compared with the vehicle group but became similar during weeks 9-17. Although 3β-HSD, P450c17, and 17β-HSD levels of mRNA and protein in the DBP group were similar to the vehicle control group at 5 and 7 weeks of age, they were significantly lower during weeks 9-17. In utero DBP exposure results in age-related LCs-ER changes corresponding to reduction of testicular testosterone biosynthesis enzymes/associated proteins. PMID:26706031

  5. Imaging of activated complement using ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (USPIO)--conjugated vectors: an in vivo in utero non-invasive method to predict placental insufficiency and abnormal fetal brain development.

    Girardi, G; Fraser, J; Lennen, R; Vontell, R; Jansen, M; Hutchison, G

    2015-08-01

    In the current study, we have developed a magnetic resonance imaging-based method for non-invasive detection of complement activation in placenta and foetal brain in vivo in utero. Using this method, we found that anti-complement C3-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles bind within the inflamed placenta and foetal brain cortical tissue, causing a shortening of the T2* relaxation time. We used two mouse models of pregnancy complications: a mouse model of obstetrics antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB). We found that detection of C3 deposition in the placenta in the APS model was associated with placental insufficiency characterised by increased oxidative stress, decreased vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor levels and intrauterine growth restriction. We also found that foetal brain C3 deposition was associated with cortical axonal cytoarchitecture disruption and increased neurodegeneration in the mouse model of APS and in the PTB model. In the APS model, foetuses that showed increased C3 in their brains additionally expressed anxiety-related behaviour after birth. Importantly, USPIO did not affect pregnancy outcomes and liver function in the mother and the offspring, suggesting that this method may be useful for detecting complement activation in vivo in utero and predicting placental insufficiency and abnormal foetal neurodevelopment that leads to neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25245499

  6. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... The following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): ... Urology Care Foundation -- ...

  7. Electron detector

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  8. Resources to Manage a Private Practice.

    Aigner, John; Cheek, Fredricka; Donati, Georgia; Zuravicky, Dori

    1997-01-01

    Includes four theme articles: "The Digital Toolkit: Electronic Necessities for Private Practice" (John Aigner); "Organizing a Private Practice: Forms, Fees, and Physical Set-up (Fredricka Cheek); "Career Development Resources: Guidelines for Setting Up a Private Practice Library" (Georgia Donati); and "Books to Enhance Private Practice Management

  9. Another Kind of Diplomacy: International Resource Sharing

    Arlitsch, Kenning; Lombardo, Nancy T.; Gregory, Joan M.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past six years, the University of Utah libraries have developed an extensive international presence through digital resource sharing. Services include instruction, electronic document delivery, shared catalogs, and full-text databases. This paper will describe the process of establishing, extending, and improving these services through…

  10. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  11. Resource Letter: MesP-1: Mesoscopic physics

    Glazman, L. I.

    2002-04-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on mesoscopic electron physics of solids. Journal articles, conference proceedings, and books are cited for the following topics: conductance fluctuations in disordered and quantum-chaotic systems, conductance quantization, conduction of a Luttinger liquid, electron noise in mesoscopic devices, mesoscopic superconductivity, electron-electron interactions in mesoscopic systems and the Coulomb blockade phenomenon, and Kondo effect in quantum dots.

  12. Legal Electronic Dictionary for Czech

    Cvrček, František; Pala, K.; Rychlý, P.

    Istambul : European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2012 - (Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.), s. 283-287 ISBN 978-2-9517408-7-7. [The eight international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Istanbul (TR), 21.05.2012-27.05.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legal dictionary * electronic database * Web interface Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0217335

  13. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    Postnov, Dmitry E.; Sosnovtseva, Olga V.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-03-01

    The paper investigates the special clustering phenomena that one can observe in systems of nonlinear oscillators that are coupled via a shared flow of primary resources (or a common power supply). This type of coupling, which appears to be quite frequent in nature, implies that one can no longer separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads to a number of new generic phenomena, including partial synchronization, sliding of the synchronization region with the resource supply, and coupling-induced inhomogeneity.

  14. A renewable resource economy

    Hamrin, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This book demonstrates the need to undertake a new course in the economic and environmental affairs of the world. Hamrin, an economist, consultant, and staff member of the President's Commission for a National Agenda for the Eighties in the Carter administration, forges a theory of bioeconomics, examining such issues as supply-side economics, resource depletion, global resource imbalance, and development of the renewable resource base.

  15. Rethinking Resource Conflict

    McNeish, John-Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Reconsiders how natural resource abundance in minerals, oil and gas, water, and land is frequently associated with various negative development outcomes. Policy making has been affected by the theories on (1) economic performance of resource abundance; (2) political behavioral variables; and (3) civil war onset, duration, and intensity. Mechanisms that abate the resource curse include short-term confidence and peacebuilding, reconstruction of war economies, corporate social responsibility (CS...

  16. Vulnerability of Water Resources

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    Water is a critical natural resource. It is used for drinking water, agriculture, wetlands services, and the production of hydroelectric energy, amongst others. Croatian fresh-water resources are abundant - indeed they are among the richest in Europe. Therefore, water resources are not considered a limiting factor for development in Croatia. However, while there is no shortage of water per se for use in Croatia, problems do exist. - First, a large amount of pumped water is wasted, which...

  17. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    IOANA-JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information includ...

  18. Water resources management plan

    Glauco Maia; Jorge Xavier da Silva; Tiago Marino

    2011-01-01

    Water resources manageWith the mission of providing reliable data for water supply activities in medium and large firefighting operations, the Firefighting Water Supply Tactical Group (GTSAI) represents an important sector of the Rio de Janeiro State Fire Departmentment plan strategic support. Acting proactively, the Tactical Group prepared a Water Resources Management Plan, aiming to set up water resources for each jurisdiction of firefighters in the City of Rio de Janeiro, in order to assis...

  19. Resources, Technology, and Strategy

    Resources, Technology and Strategy brings together contributors from Europe, North America and Asia to consider the strategic relationship between technology and other resources, such as production capabilities, marketing prowess, finance and organisational culture. Throughout the book, these...... experts take a critical approach to RBP (Resource-Based Perspective) in order to assess both its strengths and weaknesses. Case studies also highlight the importance of both having and not having strong technological capabilities in settings as diverse as the US semiconductor industry, small family...

  20. Off Campus Access to Licensed E-resources of Library: A Case Study

    Mahabaleshwara Rao Baikady,; Jessy A., .; Shivananda Bhat K.

    2014-01-01

    A case study of off campus (remote) access to licensed/subscribed electronic resources (e-resources) of the Health Sciences Library of Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, which offers diverse sets of electronic information resources for its users, is presented here. User community, residing outside the campus and off campus were disadvantaged by the inability to access library e-resources in their hours of need. Due to the pressing demand from the user community for off/rem...

  1. World energy resources

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As energy is the main fuel for social and economic development and since energy-related activities have significant environmental impacts, it is important for decision-makers to have access to reliable and accurate data in an user-friendly format. The World Energy Council (WEC has for decades been a pioneer in the field of energy resources and every three years publishes its flagship report Survey of Energy Resources. A commented analysis in the light of latest data summarized in such a report, World Energy Resources (WER 2013, is presented together with the evolution of the world energy resources over the last twenty years.

  2. 2005 resource options report

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  3. National Airspace System Resources

    Department of Transportation — National Airspace System Resources (NASR) maintains the national aeronautical information database, containing static data related to NAS facilities and operations....

  4. Virtual Resources Centers and Their Role in Small Rural Schools.

    Freitas, Candido Varela de; Silva, Antonio Pedro da

    Virtual resources centers have been considered a pedagogical tool since the increasing development of electronic means allowed for the storage of huge amounts of information and its easy retrieval. Bearing in mind the need for enhancing the appearance of those centers, a discipline of "Management of Resources Centers" was included in a specialized…

  5. Emotional Intelligence Research within Human Resource Development Scholarship

    Farnia, Forouzan; Nafukho, Fredrick Muyia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to review and synthesize pertinent emotional intelligence (EI) research within the human resource development (HRD) scholarship. Design/methodology/approach: An integrative review of literature was conducted and multiple electronic databases were searched to find the relevant resources. Using the content…

  6. Electronic emission and electron guns

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  7. Vacuum electronics

    Eichmeier, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  8. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  9. Understand electronics

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  10. Electronic archive

    Šafhalter, Simon

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis leads us through the main points of making a coherent legal electronic archive: from law, by means of various information technologies, to the final service of electronic archiving. In the introduction we will briefly explain the reason for the emergence of electronic archives and the law that is related to it. In the second chapter we will introduce to the basic archiving functions, applicable to both classical and electronic archiving. We will answer to questions...

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST TO MEASURE E-RESOURCES KNOWLEDGE (ERKT OF HIGHER SECONDARY TEACHERS

    P. Selvam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available -An electronic resource (E- Resource is any information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format. E-Resource consist of e-books,e-journals,e-thesis, e-library, edatabases, e-portfolio, etc.. In this research paper an attempt has been made to construct and standardize the E- Resources Knowledge Test to measure E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers, as there is no suitable questionnaire available to measure the E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers.

  12. Learning Resources Operational Model.

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    The learning resources program at Tarrant Count Junior College calls for a district-wide resource dedicated to the support of instruction. Traditional library and media services are subsumed within this approach. The operational model consists of many interrelated subsystems most of which are described by flow charts. The systems viewpoint is…

  13. Rethinking Resource Sharing

    Beaubien, Anne; Stevens, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the need for rethinking resource sharing to offer both library users and nonlibrary users options to obtain the material they seek from both libraries and commerical sources. The article discusses several programs that are emerging including the "GoGetter" function, the Rethinking Resource Sharing Manifesto, user needs, and…

  14. Greenland and Natural Resources

    Lyck, Lise

    domestic Greenland policy can delay and maybe change the future of the forecasted development of the use of natural resources. This book is relevant for anyone interested in Greenland in general and the development of Greenland both politically and economically and in relation natural resources....

  15. World Music Resources

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  16. Resources for GCSE.

    Anderton, Alain

    1987-01-01

    Argues that new resources are needed to help teachers prepare students for the new General Certificate in Secondary Education (GCSE) examination. Compares previous examinations with new examinations to illustrate the problem. Presents textbooks, workbooks, computer programs, and other curriculum materials to demonstrate the gap between resources

  17. Renewable energy resources

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because th...

  18. Resources and Transaction Costs

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2004-01-01

    resources depends on the propertyrights that she holds to those resources and on the transaction costs of exchanging,defining and protecting the relevant property rights. While transaction costs aremajor sources of value dissipation, value may be created by reducing suchdissipation. Implications for the RBV...

  19. World Music Resources

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music

  20. Learning resource metadata

    Silvana Temesio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metadata of educational resources are subject of analysis including LOM, OBAA and in a particular way LOM-ES Profile and accesibility VII annex. Conclusions are the importance of getting quality descriptions of resources to fulfill discovery, localization and reuse operations. The information professionals have a principal importance in the metadata registration.

  1. Using space resources

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: reducing the cost of space exploration; the high cost of shipping; lunar raw materials; some useful space products; energy from the moon; ceramic, glass, and concrete construction materials; mars atmosphere resources; relationship to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI); an evolutionary approach to using space resources; technology development; and oxygen and metal coproduction.

  2. Polarized electrons

    This article reviews all the possible uses of polarized electrons: as lepton probes, for polarization measurement in electron-nucleus scattering; in polarized electron sources; in beams with all the related problems of polarized beams; in reaction for parity violation measurement; in scattering for nucleon physics study

  3. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    Companies that wish to draw benefit from supplier resources beyond standard market offerings must actively make an effort to mobilize these resources. This task has been a major topic of interest in the management literature, but the continued reported problems of companies attempting to influence...... suppliers suggests that the knowledge of this challenge is yet inadequate. The purpose of this paper is therefore to establish a research agenda on supplier resource mobilization that can improve this knowledge. To fulfill the purpose we review the management literature and identify the most prevalent...... theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company in...

  4. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  5. Mining Frequent Closed Patterns using Sample-growth in Resource Effectiveness Data

    Lihua Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the occurrence of failure of electronic resources is sudden, real-time record analysis on the effectiveness of all resources in the system can discover abnormal resources earlier and start using backup resources or restructure resources in time, thus managing abnormal situations and finally realizing health management of the system. This paper proposed an algorithm: MFPattern, for mining frequent closed resource patterns in resource effectiveness matrix. In order to improve the efficiency, MFPattern algorithm uses sample-growth method and effective pruning strategies to guarantee mining all frequent closed patterns without candidate maintenance. Different from the traditional frequent closed pattern, MFPattern algorithm can mine resource combination patterns with all resources very effective during work, those with simultaneous failure of resources and combination patterns in which some resources are very effective while some other resources have failure. The experimental result shows that our algorithm has more efficiently than existing algorithms.

  6. Electronic warfare target location methods

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  7. Basic electronics

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  8. Introduction of home electronics for the future

    Yoshimoto, Hideyuki; Shirai, Iwao

    Development of electronics has accelerated the automation and labor saving at factories and offices. Home electronics is also expected to be needed more and more in Japan towards the 21st century, as the advanced information society and the elderly society will be accelerated, and women's participation in social affairs will be increased. Resources Council, which is the advisory organ of the Minister of State for Science and Technology, forecast to what extent home electronics will be popularized by the year of 2010. The Council expected to promote home electronics, because resource and energy saving should be accelerated and people should enjoy much more their individual lives at home.

  9. Electron Tree

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  10. Do natural resources attract non-resource FDI?

    S. Poelhekke; Ploeg, F. van der

    2013-01-01

    A new and extensive panel of outward non-resource and resource FDI is used to obtain panel error-correction and estimates with spatial lags of the determinants of non-resource and resource FDI. Our main findings are as follows. First, for those countries which were not a resource producer before, a resource discovery causes non-resource FDI to fall by 16% in the short run and by 68% in the long run. Second, for those countries which wre already a resource producer, a doubling of resource rent...

  11. Experimental investigation of collisionless electron-electron microinstabilities. Final technical report for the period August 1, 1997-October 31, 2000

    Scime, Earl E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2000-12-11

    This is the final report for the Office of Fusion Energy sponsored project entitled, "Experimental Investigation of Collisionless Electron-Electron Microinstabilities." The report summarizes the scientific and human resource development accomplishments supported through this project.

  12. Risk Profile May Affect Search Process but Not Results. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, Douglas B. Fridsma, and Rebecca S. Crowley. How Primary Care Physicians Attitudes Toward Risk and Uncertainty Affect Their Use of Electronic Information Resources. Journal of the Medical Library Association 95.2 (2007: 138?46, e49?50. 10 Nov. 2007 .

    Gale G. Hannigan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the use, in terms of process and outcomes, of electronic information resources by primary care physicians with different risk profiles and comfort with uncertainty.Design Survey, and observation using think?aloud method.Setting Physicians offices.Subjects Canadian and U.S. primary carephysicians who report seeing patients in clinic settings.Methods Volunteers were recruited from personal contacts and the list of physicianswho rate current studies for the McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE project. Physicians completed the Pearson scale to measure attitude toward risk and the Gerrity scale to measure comfort with uncertainty, and those who scored at the extremes of each of these two scales were included in the study (n=25, resulting in four groups (risk?seeking, risk?avoiding, uncertainty?stressed, uncertainty unstressed. One researcher observed each of these physicians in their offices for an hour during which they completed questionnaires about their computer skills and familiarity with resources, answered multiple?choice clinical questions, and indicated level of certainty with regard to those answers (scale of 0 to 100%. Physicians also chose two of the clinical questions to answer using their own resources. The think?aloud method was employed, and transcripts were coded and analyzed.Main results The study analysis included two comparisons: risk?seeking (11 subjects versus risk?avoiding (11 subjects physicians,and uncertainty?stressed (11 subjects versus uncertainty?unstressed (10 subjects physicians. Most physicians were included in both sets of analyses. The researchers found no association of risk attitude and uncertainty stress with computer skills nor with familiarity and use of specific information resources (Internet, MEDLINE, PIER, Clinical Evidence, and UpToDate. No differences were found for the following outcomes: time spent searching, answers correct before searching, answers correct after searching, and certainty of answer if answer is right, certainty of answer if answer is wrong. There was a statistically significant association of participants indicating certainty for answers that were correct versus those that were not correct (pConclusion Based on a small sample, it appears that primary care physicians who are risk?seeking and/or less stressed by uncertainty have the same (poor search results as their more risk?averse and stressed?by?uncertainty colleagues although their search processes may differ.

  13. Lunar Resources: A Review

    Crawford, Ian A.

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which are found to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industrial capability within the Earth-Moon system. In this way, gradually increasing access to lunar resources may help 'bootstrap' a space-based economy from which the world economy, and possibly also the world's environment, will ultimately benefit.

  14. Global resource sharing

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  15. Adaptive radar resource management

    Moo, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and

  16. Licensing and Negotiations for Electronic Content

    Crawford, Amy R.

    2008-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the basic characteristics of database, or eContent, license agreements, defines general licensing terms, maps the anatomy of an electronic resources subscription agreement, and discusses negotiating skills and techniques for library staff. (Contains a list of additional resources and a sample agreement.)

  17. Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study

    Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f1 sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f2 generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out

  18. Repeated in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure affects male gonads in offspring, leading to sex ratio changes in F2 progeny

    The effects of in utero and lactational 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on the reproductive system of male rat offspring (F1) and the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2) were examined. Female Holtzman rats were gavaged with an initial loading dose of 400 ng/kg TCDD prior to mating, followed by weekly maintenance doses of 80 ng/kg during mating, pregnancy, and the lactation period. Maternal exposure to TCDD had no significant effects on fetus/pup (F1) mortality, litter size, or sex ratio on gestation day (GD) 20 or postnatal day (PND) 2. The TCDD concentration in maternal livers and adipose tissue on GD20 was 1.21 and 1.81 ng/kg, respectively, and decreased at weaning to 0.72 in the liver and 0.84 in the adipose tissue. In contrast, the TCDD concentration in pup livers was 1.32 ng/kg on PND2 and increased to 1.80 ng/kg at weaning. Ventral prostate weight of male offspring was significantly decreased by TCDD exposure on PND28 and 120 compared with that of controls. Weight of the testes, cauda epididymides, and seminal vesicle, and sperm number in the cauda epididymis were not changed by TCDD exposure at PND120. TCDD- or vehicle-exposed male offspring were mated with unexposed females. The sex ratio (percentage of male pups) of F2 offspring was significantly reduced in the TCDD-exposed group compared with controls. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposures affect the development of male gonads in offspring (F1), leading to changes in the sex ratio of the subsequent generation (F2)

  19. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France. PMID:26283311

  20. The Frustrated Nerds Project--Resources for Systems Administrators in Higher Education: A Resource Webliography

    Henninger, Jessamyn; Aber, Susan Ward

    2010-01-01

    Systems Architects and Information Technology administrators working in higher education help faculty, staff, and student computer users. Yet, who helps them? What resources do these professionals value? A case study was conducted using purposeful sampling and data collection through electronic interview to gather the preferred information-seeking…