WorldWideScience

Sample records for utero electronic resource

  1. Selection of Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathers, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the impact of electronic resources on collection development; selection of CD-ROMs, (platform, speed, video and sound, networking capability, installation and maintenance); selection of laser disks; and Internet evaluation (accuracy of content, authority, objectivity, currency, technical characteristics). Lists Web sites for evaluating…

  2. Human resources handbook [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contains documents related to human resources. Initial focus was on making available the rules (Charter, Staff Regulations, Staff Rules, Secretary-General's Bulletins, Administrative Instructions) pertaining to human resources. In addition, Information Circulars and links or references to already existing "Task Tools", such as forms and IMIS desk procedures, are included. Additional "Task Tools" are being placed online as they become available.

  3. Agripedia glossary [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glossary of terms used in the classes contained within Agripedia, an Internet accessible interactive multimedia instructional resource developed by the University of Kentucky's College of Agriculture.

  4. Fundamentals of Electronics Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website from UBM Tech provides links to a variety of technical papers, webinars, videos and tutorials pertaining to fundamental electronics. At the top of the page, users will find current spotlight resources.

  5. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrauskiene, Zibute

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

  6. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  7. Electronic Resource Management Systems in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic resource management (ERM) systems have inundated the library marketplace. Both integrated library systems (ILS) vendors and subscription agents are now offering products and service enhancements that claim to help libraries efficiently manage their electronic resources. Additionally, some homegrown and open-source solutions have emerged…

  8. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  9. Digital Preservation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C. Gaur,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to huge advances in information communication technologies (ICTs, there has been an astronomicalgrowth of e-resources—e-journals, e-books, online databases and so on; libraries spend phenomenally onacquisition of these e- resources as these are very popularly used by the students and researchers.Unfortunately, this growth is accompanied by many threats. Digital content (of the e- resources is fragile andnot durable. Its accessibility and use by future generations depends on technology which very rapidly evolvesand changes. Hence, ensuring access of e-resources for future generation of users is a big challenge forlibraries. The present paper highlights various problems of digital content and elaborates how digital preservationis more demanding and challenging than preserving print copies of journals. It also gives a bird’s eye viewof various projects initiated for archiving digital content of scholarly journals.

  10. In utero. Turvatunderuumid / Kristina Viin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viin, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    Lõputöö "In utero" on põhijoones munakuju meenutav interaktiivne kunstiobjekt, mis oma funktsioonilt läheneb pigem teraapilisele ruumile, pakkudes turvatunnet ja relaksatsiooni, et saavutada "emaüsatunnetus", vabastades inimest painetest ning meenutades talle algset, prenataalset olemist. Projekt kujutab endast nii osalusskulptuuri kui ka relaksatsioonikambrit. Ka emaihalusest psühhoanalüüsis, munast kui loomise arhetüüpsest sümbolist kosmogoonias, muna ja emaüsa kujutamisest Ülo Soosteri ja Hieronymus Boschi jt. kunstis

  11. Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software

    OpenAIRE

    Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

    2012-01-01

    The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

  12. TJ training journal [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training Journal is the UK's only dedicated publication for the Training and Learning & Development Industry. Aimed at everyone from the head of corporate learning & development through to the independent trainer, Training Journal provides the industry with a huge resource of information. Having been established for over 40 years, Training Journal has always been at the forefront of the industry, discussing the latest trends and research and helping to shape opinion and drive

  13. Monash University Library Electronic Resources Directory: Extending the Library Catalogue to Access Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electronic Resources Directory of Monash University (Melbourne, Australia), designed for locating electronic resources of the library. It both provides information about these resources as well as direct links to them where appropriate. Use of the World Wide Web for the directory has obvious advantages for a university where global…

  14. In utero transplantation: Disparate ramifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Pixley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In utero stem cell transplantation, which promises treatment for a host of genetic disorders early in gestation before disease effect stems from Ray Owen’s seminal observation that self-tolerance, is acquired during gestation. To date, in utero transplantation (IUT has proved useful in characterizing the hematopoietic stem cell. Recent observations support its use as an in vivo method to further understanding of self-tolerance. Preclinical development continues for its application as a treatment for childhood hematolymphoid diseases. In addition, IUT may offer therapeutic options in the treatment of diabetes among other diseases. Thus IUT serves as a technique or system important in both a basic and applied format. This review summarizes these findings.

  15. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

  16. Programación in utero: un desafío / In utero programming: a challenge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nuris, Rodríguez Vargas; Tania P, Martínez Pérez; Rolando, Martínez García; Mailin, Garriga Reyes; José Emilio, Fernández-Britto; Gilda, Martínez Fure.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: recientemente, mediante estudios epidemiológicos realizados en distintas poblaciones se ha llegado a la conclusión de que la situación nutricional durante las etapas prenatal y posnatal puede influir en la susceptibilidad del adulto a padecer intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensión, en [...] fermedad coronaria y obesidad. Actualmente, la teoría de que los factores medioambientales en el feto, y en particular la nutrición de la madre, influyen en la susceptibilidad a padecer determinadas enfermedades en el adulto, ha logrado amplio apoyo y muy especialmente, cuando el tema se ha ido trasladando al terreno de la biología molecular. Los cambios bioquímicos que ocurren durante la vida intrauterina y la etapa prenatal implican el continuo aporte de sustratos plásticos y energéticos de la madre, así como su integración. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear que una mala nutrición materna, ambiental, así como malas condiciones al nacer y durante la infancia, pueden condicionar riesgo de padecer aterosclerosis en el adulto. Métodos: se realizó una revisión exhaustiva del tema programación in utero, añadida al conocimiento en factores de riesgo aterosclerótico por investigaciones realizadas y los conocimientos adquiridos y lógicos en esta materia. Desarrollo: la relación descrita entre medidas corporales al nacer y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de la edad gestacional en los diferentes estudios desarrollados en Sheffield. Este problema puede ser bien confirmado no solo por la malnutrición por defecto de la madre sino también por otros factores bien conocidos que causan el bajo peso al nacer; además del estado nutricional de la madre existen factores intrínsecos del embarazo como la gemelaridad, anomalías cromosómicas, malformaciones congénitas, y otros asociadas a los maternos como edad, paridad, entre otros. Conclusiones: los factores macrodeterminantes y microdeterminantes in utero durante la gestación son causantes de factores de riesgo aterosclerótico no solo en la adultez, sino desde la edad escolar, esto ocurre por injurias durante las etapas embriogénica, fetal y de la infancia y no así por la medición corporal al nacer. Abstract in english Introduction : recent epidemiological studies of different populations have shown that pre- and postnatal nutrition may influence adult susceptibility to suffer from glucose intolerance, hypertension, coronary heart disease and obesity. The theory that fetal environmental factors and in particular m [...] aternal nutrition exert an influence upon the susceptibility to suffer from certain conditions in adulthood, has achieved great support, especially because the topic has gradually gained space in molecular biology. The biochemical changes occurring during the intrauterine and prenatal stages of life involve a continuous supply by the mother of plastic and energy substrates, as well as their integration. Poor maternal nutrition, a deficient environment, and bad conditions at birth and during childhood, may result in the risk to suffer from atherosclerosis in adulthood. Methods: Based on knowledge about in utero programming obtained from an exhaustive review, data about atherosclerotic risk factors drawn from research previously conducted, and information acquired about the topic. Development: The relationship described between body measurements at birth and coronary heart disease was irrespective of gestational age in the various studies conducted in Sheffield. This problem may be confirmed not only by maternal malnutrition, but other well-known factors as well, cause low weight at birth. Alongside the mother's nutritional status, other pregnancy-related factors should also be considered, such as multiple births, chromosomal anomalies, congenital malformations, maternal age, parity and others. Conclusions: In utero macro- and microdetermining factors during pregnancy cause atherosclerotic risk factors not only in adulthood, but since school age. Body measurement at birth is not determining if no injury o

  17. Ex Utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Pentyala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The anesthesia ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure is a specialized surgical procedure used to deliver babies who have airway compression due to cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchopulmonary sequestration, cervical teratomas, or other congenital conditions. EXIT is erroneously known as a routine cesarean section (CS, but is rather an extension of CS with discernible differences. The procedure creates an opening in the anesthetized abdomen of the mother and uterus. Once EXIT is complete, the remainder of the CS proceeds. EXIT is much more complex than a routine CS, as it requires coordination between the mother and a multidisciplinary team of surgical and neonatal personnel. This review highlights current anesthetic concepts during the EXIT procedure.

  18. EETimes Network: The Worldwide Electronics Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    EEdesign (last mentioned in the February 15, 2002 NSDL Report for Math, Engineering, and Technology is one of many Web sites that are part of the EETimes Network. This new resource for electrical engineering (EE) and electronics professionals integrates the online versions of global technical newspapers. It also serves as a central access point to sites for specific industries that are part of the EETimes Network. For instance, there are features for communications, analog design, embedded systems, semiconductors, and microwave engineering. All of this provides an excellent way to keep up to date on breakthrough technologies, market developments, and business dealings. This site is also reviewed in the August 16, 2002 Scout Report.

  19. Schizencephaly: Diagnosis and progression in utero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Cioffi-Ragan, D.T.

    1986-06-01

    Schizencephaly is an unusual condition of obscure etiology. Most theories of pathogenesis postulate an in utero insult leading to maldevelopment rather than destruction of brain. The cause has most often been described as vascular or idiopathic dysgenesis. The authors report a case in which two in utero ultrasound (US) examinations performed at 31 and 36 menstrual weeks demonstrated progressive deterioration of the relatively narrow, symmetrical clefts connecting the lateral ventricles with the sub-arachnoid space into broad effects that corresponded to the entire distribution of the middle cerebral arteries. The findings in this case document progressive destruction of brain tissue in utero and are consistent with a vascular cause rather than a failure of formation of portions of the cerebral mantle.

  20. Schizencephaly: Diagnosis and progression in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schizencephaly is an unusual condition of obscure etiology. Most theories of pathogenesis postulate an in utero insult leading to maldevelopment rather than destruction of brain. The cause has most often been described as vascular or idiopathic dysgenesis. The authors report a case in which two in utero ultrasound (US) examinations performed at 31 and 36 menstrual weeks demonstrated progressive deterioration of the relatively narrow, symmetrical clefts connecting the lateral ventricles with the sub-arachnoid space into broad effects that corresponded to the entire distribution of the middle cerebral arteries. The findings in this case document progressive destruction of brain tissue in utero and are consistent with a vascular cause rather than a failure of formation of portions of the cerebral mantle

  1. Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

  2. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  3. Bulletin of entomological research [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A journal covering agricultural entomology, medical and veterinary entomology, biological control, stored products entomology, and natural resource management. Includes taxonomic papers when relevant.

  4. D-Lib magazine [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents "D-Lib Magazine," a monthly electronic publication related to digital libraries. Includes commentaries and news articles. Offers an archive of back issues and a site search engine. Provides access to working groups, digital library research

  5. Marketing of Electronic Resources in IIT Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daulat Jotwani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Indian Institute of Technology (IIT libraries at Bombay, Delhi, Guwahati, Kanpur, Kharagpur, Madras, and Roorkee have been subscribing to over 15000 e-journals, e-books, databases, and other e-resources either individually or in consortia mode and spending a substantial part of their acquisition budget for over a decade now. This paper attempts to study the marketing efforts being made by these libraries to improve the awareness and increase the usage of these resources. Marketing-related data were collected through a questionnaire, personal visits, and discussions with the librarians, and the usage data were obtained from publishers. Data analysis revealed that e-resources in all IITs are being heavily used as the number of downloads have increased from 32,33,818 to 75,23,371 reflecting a growth of 132 % over a period of 9 years. The IIT libraries adopt multipronged approach and use 27 marketing techniques to promote their resources. The study also showed that there were downward fluctuations in usage in different years. It is suggested that these libraries shall regularly re-look at the marketing strategies and techniques; study their impact on the awareness and usage of the e-resources; identify and remove the bottlenecks; and make additional efforts including interacting with the users to ensure optimum utilisation of these resources.

  6. Radiation tolerant nuclear electric cell [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electric cell comprises layers of moderating material 1 &8, nuclear fuel 2 &7, cathode 3, anode 6, and semiconductor junction layers 4 &5 adjacently stacked one above another. Ionic compounds with high proton numbers are used to form the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5. Highly energetic heavy ion daughter nuclides from the nuclear fuel layers 2 &7 penetrate into the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5. The collision of heavy ions with the valence band electrons in the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5 creates electron-hole pairs which provide electricity. If the semiconductor junction layers 4 &5 are fissile, then the nuclear fuel layers 2 &7 can be removed.

  7. Health condition of children irradiated in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the children exposed to ionizing radiation, the ones irradiated in utero constitute a group under special surveillance. The greatest sensitivity of the organism to the effects of radiative factors occurs in the neonatal period of development and the forthcoming life span with irradiation effects is the longest for these children. Children with acute exposure, with chronic exposure and control group were encompassed by this study - 1144 children altogether. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  9. Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

    1991-01-01

    A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

  10. Electronics Learning-Resources on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charles D. H.

    The links on this page are to background information which students taking electronics courses (particularly PHY2003, PHY3128) may find helpful. The descriptors used in the tables are explained at the bottom of the page. Topics include Circuit Analysis and Complex Variables, Techniques and Good Practice, Oscilloscopes, Passive Components, Diodes, Transistors, Op-Amps, Filters, Digital Signal, Processing, Applications and Circuits, Monostables and Astables, and Microcontrollers and PICsSpice: Learning and using Spice

  11. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  12. The impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process using ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.

    OpenAIRE

    Love-Rodgers, Christine; Stewart, Rowena

    2006-01-01

    As part of a UK wide study attempting to assess the impact libraries have on the work and study of their members, Edinburgh University Library (EUL) decided to “measure the impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process”, using the ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars. The project methodology included analysis of the databases’ coverage of University of Edinburgh research publications and surv...

  13. Developing an Electronic Resource Management System: Verde from Ex Libris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Sadeh

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth in the number of electronic resources and the complexity of managing e-collections has posed new challenges for libraries and hence requires the development of new tools. To meet this need, Ex Libris is developing a new product, an electronic resource management (ERM system. The development process began in 2002 and has benefited from the company's 25 years of experience in providing libraries with various products - an integrated library system, digital asset management system, library portal, and link server. Working with an international focus group and development partners and interacting with the Digital Library Federation's Electronic Resource Management Initiative (DLF ERMI committee, Ex Libris explored the various aspects of the e-resource life cycle. As a result, the Ex Libris ERM system was designed to address the issues raised through this collaboration and the DLF requirements. The interface of the system represents all of its components; it includes navigation options and facilitates workflows that support the various activities that librarians perform when dealing with electronic resources. This paper describes the development process of the Ex Libris ERM system. The emphasis is on the particular functionality required for managing e-resources and the ways in which existing systems in the library arena can handle specific tasks.

  14. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  15. The Study of Analytical Model of Library Electronic Resources Usage-A Case of Medical Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Yu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the advents of internet, the importance of electronic resources is growing. Due to the increasing expensiveness of electronic resources, university libraries normally received budgets from parent institutions annually. They necessarily applied effective and systematic methods for decision making in electronic resources purchase or re-subscription. However, there are some difficulties in practices: First of all, libraries are unable to receive user records; second, the COUNTER statistics does not include details about users and their affiliation. As a result, one cannot conduct advanced user analysis based on the usage of users, institutions, and departments. To overcome the difficulties, this study presents a feasible model to analyze electronic resource usage effectively and flexibly. We set up a proxy server to collect actual usage raw data. By analyzing items in internet browsing records, associated with original library automatic system, this study aims at exploring how to use effective ways to analyze big data of website log data. We also propose the process of how original data to be transformed, cleared, integrated, and demonstrated. This study adopted a medical university library and its subscription of medical electronic resources as a case. Our data analysis includes (1 year of subscription,(2 title of journal, (3 affiliation, (4 subjects, and (5 specific journal requirements, etc. The findings of the study are contributed to obtain further understanding in policy making and user behavior analysis. The integrated data provides multiple applications in informatics research, information behavior, bibliomining, presenting diverse views and extended issues for further discussion.

  16. Electronic Resources Security: A look at Unauthorized Users

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Tones White

    2010-01-01

    Much of the literature written on electronic resources security focuses on systematic downloading.  However, when the unauthorized use from two cases of stolen identities at the University of Saskatchewan was studied in more depth, a different pattern emerged.  By analyzing proxy server data, we found that the unauthorized use was coming from all over the world, was focused on science, technology and medical resources, and included both small-scale and excessive downloading.  This article ...

  17. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  18. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  19. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources

  20. What Is the Future of Electronic Resource Management Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijerina, Bonnie; King, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    In a time of constant change, sometimes it is worthwhile to ruminate on the future and how things ought to be. "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" wanted to capture some of these ruminations from around the field in a new column called "E-Opinions from the Field" where readers are asked to send in their thoughts on a topic and respond…

  1. Think Locally: A Prudent Approach to Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson-Sundell, Nat

    2011-01-01

    A few articles have drawn some amount of attention specifically to the local causes of the success or failure of electronic resource management system (ERMS) implementations. In fact, it seems clear that local conditions will largely determine whether any given ERMS implementation will succeed or fail. This statement might seem obvious, but the…

  2. The Electronic Clearinghouse for Exemplary Engineering Technology Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronic Clearinghouse for Exemplary Engineering Technology Resources (or NETEC) is a site created with substantial funding from the National Science Foundation. Drawing on the teaching experiences and resources developed by many concerned persons in industry and academic settings, the Clearinghouse contains everything from course materials for material engineering to journal articles that deal with the science (and art) of teaching in the subfields of engineering. First-time visitors may wish to register on the homepage, and then proceed to browse through the â??Clearinghouse Resourcesâ? area. Here they can click on an alphabetized list of terms, such as digital electronics and skill standards, and look through the available materials. Of course, there is a great deal more available here than the very fine educational resources, as visitors can also look over online job boards and mentorship opportunities.

  3. ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Marci.

    2003-01-01

    The study and practice of international law can be a tough area to get a handle on, and with numerous online resources available for both areas, it can be difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Since 1997, The American Society of International Law (ASIL) has been continuously updating and revising their Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, under the able direction of Marci Hoffman and Jill Watson. Within each of its eight primary sections, users can read about various high-quality online resources for each topical area (such as international organizations and human rights), and then read brief summaries of what each online resource features in terms of its content and scope. As might be expected, the site also contains information on relevant and helpful weblogs that deal with international law.

  4. E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

  5. Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.

    OpenAIRE

    Nulman, I; Rovet, J; Altmann, D; Bradley, C; Einarson, T; Koren, G

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consu...

  6. Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an Bq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors,

  7. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  8. Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Lenore; Fu, Li

    2011-01-01

    A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

  9. Tracheoesophageal fistula in utero: 22 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective review of 22 infants born with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) detected on in utero US was performed. In addition, ten cases reported in the literature were reviewed. TEF or esophageal atresia should be considered when there is polydramnios and the stomach is not fluid filled; these findings were seen in 32% of the cases. Amniotic fluid flows freely through some TEFs, resulting in a normal amount of amniotic fluid and a fluid-filled stomach (6 of 22 cases), while in other cases the fluid does not traverse the fistula easily and polyhydramnios results. Polyhdramnios was present in 62% of the cases we reviewed and was the most common sonographic finding. The earliest age at which polyhdramnios was diagnosed was 24 weeks. Associated abnormalities are seen in 50%-70% of cases of TEF and are a major contributing factor to morbidity and mortality. Sonography will continue to miss many cases of TEF; however, when TEF is suspected from fetal US (i.e., polyhdramnios and no fluid-filled stomach, or polyhdramnios with no etiology identified), an improved outcome is expected

  10. Next Generation Networks for Distributed Electronic Resources: Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Soysal, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The changes in the lifestyle of the people, new applications, technological developments and the telecommunication market drive the adoption Next Generation Network (NGN) as the new network architecture. NGN has a service-centric architecture which promotes agile creation of services and then maintenance of these services with end-to-end QoS support. In the current era, every internet user is a potential electronic resource user. Due to the transition from the traditional mode of collect...

  11. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  12. SAGES Update: Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheri, Lewis L.; Campbell, Timothy C.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Patel, Shraddha V.; Feighner, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objective The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, open-source software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. This demonstration will illustrate several new innovations and update attendees on new users in Africa and Asia. Introduction The new 2005 International Health Regulations (IHR), a legally binding instrument for all 194 WHO member countries, significantly expanded the scope of reportable conditions and are intended to help prevent and respond to global public health threats. SAGES aims to improve local public health surveillance and IHR compliance with particular emphasis on resource-limited settings. More than a decade ago, in collaboration with the US Department of Defense (DoD), the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) developed the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics (ESSENCE). ESSENCE collects, processes, and analyzes non-traditional data sources (i.e. chief complaints from hospital emergency departments, school absentee data, poison control center calls, over-the-counter pharmaceutical sales, etc.) to identify anomalous disease activity in a community. The data can be queried, analyzed, and visualized both temporally and spatially by the end user. The current SAGES initiative leverages the experience gained in the development of ESSENCE, and the analysis and visualization components of SAGES are built with the same features in mind. Methods SAGES tools are organized into four categories: 1) data collection, 2) analysis & visualization, 3) communications, and 4) modeling/simulation/evaluation. Within each category, SAGES offers a variety of tools compatible with surveillance needs and different types or levels of information technology infrastructure. SAGES tools are built in a modular nature, which allows for the user to select one or more tools to enhance an existing surveillance system or use the tools en masse for an end-to-end electronic disease surveillance capability. Thus, each locality can select tools from SAGES based upon their needs, capabilities, and existing systems to create a customized electronic disease surveillance system. New OpenESSENCE developments include improved data query ability, improved mapping functionality, and enhanced training materials. New cellular phone developments include the ability to concatenate single SMS messages sent by simple or Smart Android cell phones. This ‘multiple-SMS’ message ability allows use of SMS technology to send and receive health information exceeding normal SMS message length in a manner transparent to the users. Conclusions The SAGES project is intended to enhance electronic disease surveillance capacity in resource-limited settings around the world. We have combined electronic disease surveillance tools developed at JHU/APL with other freely-available, interoperable software tools to create SAGES. We believe this suite of tools will facilitate local and regional electronic disease surveillance, regional public health collaborations, and international disease reporting. SAGES development, funded by the US Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, continues as we add new international collaborators. SAGES tools are currently deployed in locations in Africa, Asia and South America, and are offered to other interested countries around the world.

  13. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming
    Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  14. COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ????????

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

  15. Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor - in utero and postnatal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Rupa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A.; Koch, Bernadette L. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lim, Foong-Yen [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Elluru, Ravindhra G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of an infant with congenital salivary gland anlage tumor, with fetal and postnatal imaging. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case describing the in utero imaging findings of salivary gland anlage tumor. A fetal MRI was performed secondary to the clinical finding of polyhydramnios, which identified a nasopharyngeal mass. Because findings were concerning for airway obstruction, the fetus was delivered by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) to airway procedure. A postnatal CT confirmed the findings of the fetal MRI. The lesion was resected when the baby was 4 days old and recovery was uneventful. (orig.)

  16. Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Wenjuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

  17. The results of health screening of the children exposure in utero and who continuous residing at the contamination territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    240 children 10 years old exposure in utero have been examined. It's show that among exposed in utero children are more high level morbidity. We found considerable disturbances weight and growth after exposure in utero. Our date has shown that the exposed in utero children have more bad anthropometric indexes than children control group. (authors)

  18. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P?nar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  19. Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  20. MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) Solution at York University

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron August Lupton; Marcia Kay Salmon

    2012-01-01

    Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM) system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, d...

  1. IN UTERO HAEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION (IUHSCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Maggio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHSCT is a non-myeloablative approach for the prenatal treatment of genetic disorders. However, in target disorders, where there is not a selective advantage for donor cells, a useful donor-cell  chimerism  has not been achieved 

    There are three  possible  barriers  to engraftment following IUHSCT :  limited space in the fetus due to host-cell competition; the large number of donor cells needed, and the immunological asset of recipient .

    Animal models have shown different levels of resistance to IUHSCT engraftment.  In primate, goat, rat and mouse  the levels of engraftment that has been achieved were low and not  therapeutic.

    Among 46 cases of  IUHSCT reported in humans, successful engraftment  was obtained only in cases of  X-SCID. Useful levels of chimerism has not been achieved in non-immunodeficiency diseases, and  a detectable engrafment , was  reported only in one case  of  ß-thalassemia transplanted at 12 weeks of gestation  by fetal liver cells 

    In one a-thalassemia case,

  2. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  3. Electronic Resource Management 2.0: Using Web 2.0 Technologies as Cost-Effective Alternatives to an Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Designed to assist with the management of e-resources, electronic resource management (ERM) systems are time- and fund-consuming to purchase and maintain. Questions of system compatibility, data population, and workflow design/redesign can be difficult to answer; sometimes those answers are not what we'd prefer to hear. The two primary functions…

  4. Outcome of isolated congenital complete heart block diagnosed in utero.

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, A. M.; Allan, L. D.; Rosenthal, E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish identifiable prenatal factors in fetal heart block which might predict death in utero, the need for intervention, or the probability of pacemaker requirement. SETTING: Tertiary referral unit for fetal echocardiography. SUBJECTS: 36 fetuses with congenital complete heart block and structurally normal hearts identified between 1980 and 1993. METHODS: Maternal anti-Ro antibody status was documented. Prenatal variables examined included absolute heart (ventricular) rate, c...

  5. Cardiovascular assessment of fetal mice by in utero echocardiography

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Qing; Leatherbury, Linda; Tian, Xin; Lo, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    To establish a developmental profile of fetal mouse cardiovascular parameters, we analyzed a large body of ultrasound measurements obtained by in utero echocardiography of C57BL/6J fetal mice from embryonic day 12.5 to 19.5 (term). Measurements were obtained using 2D, spectral Doppler and M-mode imaging with standard clinical cardiac ultrasound imaging planes. As these studies were conducted as part of a large scale mouse mutagenesis screen, stringent filtering criteria were used to eliminate...

  6. The use of remifentanil in ex utero intrapartum treatment procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Chad Whited; Eileen Raynor

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We propose that using remifentanil in ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedures reduces the need for maternal exposure to general anesthesia. Using remifentanil along with spinal anesthesia eliminates the fetal and maternal risks associated with inhalational general anesthesia, allows the mother to be awake, and obviates the need for and costs associated with general anesthesia and a second anesthesia team. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospec...

  7. Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment for Fetal Oropharyngeal Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Pugh, Suzanne K; Ayres, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A prenatally diagnosed fetal anomaly that could compromise the fetal airway at delivery can be managed safely with the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. Case. A 26-year-old healthy primigravida was diagnosed during her midtrimester anatomic ultrasound survey with a fetal oropharyngeal cystic structure located at the base of the tongue. The neonatal airway was successfully secured intrapartum using the EXIT procedure. Conclusion. Maintenance of fetoplacental circulat...

  8. Ex Utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas Pentyala; Aleef Rahman; Pooja Mysore; Sahana Pentyala; Kyle Urbanczyk; Thomas Tumillo; John Muller; Yimei Miao; Sardar Khan

    2013-01-01

    The anesthesia ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is a specialized surgical procedure used to deliver babies who have airway compression due to cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchopulmonary sequestration, cervical teratomas, or other congenital conditions. EXIT is erroneously known as a routine cesarean section (CS), but is rather an extension of CS with discernible differences. The procedure creates an opening in the anesthetized abdomen of the mother and uterus. Once E...

  9. Routine ultrasonography in utero and subsequent handedness and neurological development.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvesen, K. A.; Vatten, L. J.; Eik-nes, S. H.; Hugdahl, K.; Bakketeig, L. S.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine any associations between routine ultrasonography in utero and subsequent brain development as indicated by non-right handedness at primary school age and neurological development during childhood. DESIGN--Follow up of 8 and 9 year old children of women who took part in two randomised, controlled trials of routine ultrasonography during pregnancy. SETTING--Clinics of 60 general practitioners in Norway during 1979-81. Maternal and child health centres. SUBJECTS--2161 (89%)...

  10. Bridging the Two Cultures: A Collaborative Approach to Managing Electronic Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, John; Ryan, Patti

    2002-01-01

    Highlights an example of cross-discipline collaboration in an academic library and describes a collaborative approach to managing electronic resources that is used at York University (Canada). Explains a model in which a science librarian and a humanities/social science librarian work together to manage electronic resources. (Author/LRW)

  11. Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free) and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

  12. Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Shapiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

  13. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  14. The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

  15. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  16. "Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

  17. ODLIS : Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hypertext reference resource for library and information science professionals, university students and faculty, and users of all types of libraries. Includes not only the terminology of the various specializations within library science and information studies but also the vocabulary of publishing, printing, binding, the book trade, graphic arts, book history, literature, bibliography, telecommunications, and computer science.

  18. In-utero treatment of hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Helvind, Morten

    2015-01-01

    In-utero treatment of fetal aortic stenosis (AS) may prevent hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A girl was diagnosed prenatally with severe AS and was referred to the Women's and Children's Hospital in Linz, Austria, where she underwent an intrauterine valvuloplasty of the aortic valve. Postnatally, the girl was given prostaglandin and operated a.m. Ross-Konno. An echocardio-graphy at the age of four months showed a neoaorta without stenosis and insufficiency and a normal systolic function of the left ventricle. This treament must be carefully considered when dealing with fetuses with AS.

  19. A comparative analysis of the use of electronic resources by undergraduate students at two Kenyan universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ingutia-oyieke, Lilian; Dick, Archie L.

    2010-01-01

    This article compares the information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructures, the levels of access, and the electronic resources usage patterns at two academic libraries in Kenya. The focus is on the use by undergraduate students at the private University of Eastern Africa, Baraton (UEAB) and the public Kenyatta University (KU) of electronic resources to support formal and informal learning. The article also briefly explores the perceptions of library managers with regard to teach...

  20. Use and Search Pattern of Electronic Resources in Five Autonomous Engineering Colleges (Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallinath Kumbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluates the use of electronic resources among the faculty in five autonomous Engineering Colleges in Bengaluru. It evaluates the purpose,benefits, preference of web browsers, search engines, file formats, problem faced,and search patterns as the key parameters. It highlights some problems,constraints and forward suggestions for better use of electronic resources.Methodology/Approach: The structured questionnaire is used for data collection besides personal interview and observation to add clarity.Findings: The study assesses the faculty awareness and use of electronic resources in their academic and research needs. Besides, familiarity about search patterns for effective retrieval.Research Limitations: The study is limited to the faculty of the Autonomous Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU in Bengaluru Region of Karnataka State, India.Keywords: e-resources; search pattern; e-resource use; Autonomous Engineering Colleges.Paper Type: Survey cum Research

  1. Using Electronic Repositories as a Student Resource for MSE Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicblau, Aaron

    In the majority of engineering disciplines, MSE provides resources and applications with many other areas of engineering, e.g., design, structures, mechanics, and manufacturing. For the students to transfer and implement their MSE knowledge, they must have easy access to all their information. The eportfolio is a repository of the students entire academic MSE content and provides a wealth of knowledge applicable to all engineering disciplines. This repository combines not only lecture and textbook material, but also every assignment (in assessed format), all quizzes (with answers) laboratory activities (in audiovisual format), student oral presentations (podcast), and lectures in asynchronous format. This allows all of the data and information accumulated by students throughout their varying MSE course collected in one place, and is able to act as a quick resource and information kit for future use as the eportfolio is quickly accessed. Student and graduate responses have been positive especially for those in the workforce who require immediate and correct information.

  2. ?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

  3. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jaihyunk; Bae, Seho; Bae, Changhyu [Sunchon National Univ., Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Suk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy {approx} 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner.

  4. Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy ? 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner

  5. Resource note: Theoretical atomic-electron binding energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An annotated bibliography of calculations of electron binding energies of neutral atoms is presented. The subject is summarized in a brief introduction. Published calculations are tabulated; entries are characterized according to range of atomic numbers; type of atomic model; nuclear charge distribution; and inclusion of relaxation, Breit interaction, and quantum-electrodynamic effects. The table is supplemented with a chronological list of selected papers on atomic structure calculations and with a list of references to some useful computer programs. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  6. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  7. Electronic resources and institutional repositories in informal scholarly communication and publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Russell, I.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of institutional repositories is to aid the management and dissemination of the increasingly copious amount of scholarly electronic resources produced by academics. To date most research has focused on the impact for formal scholarly publishing. The purpose of this exploratory study is to discover the impact of IRs on the visibility and use of digital resources with particular focus on resources outside the formal publishing framework. An online survey and interviews wi...

  8. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  9. Induction of leukemia by chronic irradiation, starting in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs receiving 0.1 Gy/day continuous, whole body radiation have greatly increased radiation resistance, living up to ten times longer than beagles similarly exposed after 50 days of age. In addition, nearly 100% of the animals exposed in utero at risk in either the 0.1 or 0.04 Gy/day level develop acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemic changes. In contrast, in those animals exposed after 50 days of age, only one dog (in the 0.04 Gy/day level) developed an acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. This new leukemia model will provide large numbers of beagles which have a very high probability of presenting with radiation-induced leukemia within two to three years

  10. Neurobehavioral changes in mice exposed to fast neutrons in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies have revealed that radiation causes brain development abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Rat and mouse studies have also shown that prenatal exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation induces developmental brain anomalies. Because the effects of prenatal irradiation on adult behavior patterns remain largely unknown, the present study investigated the effects of neutron exposure in utero on postnatal behavior patterns in mice. [C57BL/6J x C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-0.2 Gy) or Cs-137 gamma-rays (0.2-1.5 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5. At 5.5-8 months of age, the neurobehavior of male offspring was examined by Rota-rod treadmill and locomotor activity. The accumulation of radio-labeled drug at muscarinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in mice from control and neutron-irradiated groups was determined by the tracer method. Locomotor activity during the dark period increased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. Furthermore, at 5.5 months of age, tracer binding in vivo to the muscarinic acetylcholine increased and to the serotonin receptors decreased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. In conclusion, the present study reveals that a certain ''low-dose window'' may exist for radiation-induced changes in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors, because there was correlation in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmi neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group though there was not correlation in the neutron-irradiated groups more than 0.05 Gy. (author)

  11. Disseminating Context-Specific Access to Online Knowledge Resources within Electronic Health Record Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Fiol, Guilherme Del; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J.; Iskander, Andrew; Kalluri, Aditya S. D.; Jing, Xia; Hulse, Nathan C.; Long, Jie; Overby, Casey L.; Schardt, Connie; Douglas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians’ patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians’ questions and provide automated links to relevan...

  12. The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

    2010-01-01

    As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

  13. In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken

    2001-01-01

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used non-ionic surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylate constitutes 82% of the production of all alkylphenol ethoxylates and the breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate, nonylphenol (NP) has been shown to be estrogenic in both in vitro and in vivo screening assays. To determine the potential reproductive toxicity of NP, a one-generation in utero study was conducted, Rats were dosed from gestation day 11 through 18 with NP at 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 30 mug/kg/day. DES was used as a positive control. Both substances were given orally by gavage. Male offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, or 110 and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Pup birth weight and body weight and percent motile sperm at age of 110 day were significantly reduced by DES. The absolute weight of the right epididymis was significantly reduced in the DES group. The absolute weight of the right epididymis were also significantly decreased in the animals exposed to 75 or 15 mg/kg/day NP, effects which disappeared when organ weight was related to body weight. This study showed a dose-dependent effect of nonylphenol on male reproductive development at doses of 75 and 15 mg/kg bw/day based on absolute epididymal weight.

  14. Haemopoiesis in the beagle foetus after in utero irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foetal beagles were irradiated in utero (0.9 Gy of 60Co ?-irradiation, 0.4 Gy/min, gestation day 33). Foetal haematocytopoiesis was studied during days 42-55. Peripheral blood nucleated cell counts were 33% lower than normal on day 44, until day 49, when values became higher than normal. Splenic cellularities of irradiated pups on days 44 were more than 3 times those of the nonirradiated, but thereafter similar to normal. Differences in haemopoietic progenitor cell activity between irradiated and normal foetuses were observed. Compared with other tissues, foetal liver experienced greater radiation injury. On day 44, the irradiated liver BFU-E, CFU-E, and GM-CFC per 105 cells were almost fivefold lower than normal. Spleens of irradiated foetal beagles contained a marked increase in all haemopoietic progenitor cells and recognizable proliferative granulocytic cells and nucleated erythroid cells. Haemopoietic activity of the irradiated bone marrow during days 42-44 was similar to that of the irradiated spleen and compensated for the damaged liver. The irradiated bone marrow had decreased BFU-E activity compared with the values for the nonirradiated bone marrow during days 48-55. Until day 50, the irradiated marrow contained fewer recognizable proliferative granulocytic cells but more nucleated erythroid cells. (U.K.)

  15. Infant leukaemia after in utero exposure to radiation from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been no documented increase in childhood leukaemia following the Chernobyl accident. However, different forms of childhood leukaemia may not be equally susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis. Infant leukaemia is a distinct form associated with a specific genetic abnormality. Outside the former Soviet Union, contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been highest in Greece and Austria and high also in the Scandinavian countries. All childhood leukaemia cases diagnosed throughout Greece since 1 January 1980 have been recorded. Here we report that infants exposed in utero to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident had 2.6 times the incidence of leukaemia compared to unexposed children (95% confidence interval, 1.4 to 5.1; P ? 0.003), and those born to mothers residing in regions with high radioactive fallout were at higher risk of developing infant leukaemia. No significant difference in leukaemia incidence was found among children aged 12 to 47 months. Preconceptional irradiation had no demonstrable effect on leukaemia risk at any of the studied age groups. (author)

  16. [The EX-utero Intrapartum Technique (EXIT) procedure in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midrio, P; Grismondi, G; Meneghini, L; Suma, V; Pitton, M A; Salvadori, S; Gamba, P G

    2001-06-01

    Aim of the study was to present the first two Italian cases of C-section performed with the EXIT procedure (EX-utero Intrapartum Technique). Deliveries were performed at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Hospital of Padua in cooperation with the Pediatric Surgery Department, both tertiary care centers. The first case was a twin with a huge neck mass (cystic hygroma) and the second a fetus with an oropharyngeal mass (epignathus). Airway patency could have been compromised at birth in both of them. EXIT procedure consists in securing the airway of the fetus partially delivered and still connected with the placenta. This technique leaves an intact feto-placental circulation and guarantees a normal fetal oxygenation while fetal airway patency is secured. Both the fetuses were successfully intubated and the C-section ended up in a short period of time without maternal and fetal complications. The EXIT technique, performed for the first time in 1989 and now in many centers abroad, can be considered a safe procedure as long as a multidisciplinary approach is carried out. The EXIT procedure is indicated whenever fetal airways can be compromised at birth, that is when oropharyngeal masses, laryngeal atresia, cystic hygroma and goiter are encountered during prenatal ultrasound. PMID:11395694

  17. The results of health screening of the children exposure in utero and who continuous residing at the contamination territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    240 children 10 years old exposure in utero have been examined. It's show that among exposed in utero children are more high level morbidity in comparison with control group. The first places occupy diseases of the respiratory tract, for they follow endocrine diseases, diseases of the nerves system, of the cardiovascular system and blood, and the diseases of the alimentary tract. We found considerable disturbances weight and growth after exposure in utero. Our date has shown that the exposed in utero children have more bad anthropometric indexes than children control group. (authors)

  18. Opening a Can of wERMS: Texas A&M University's Experiences in Implementing Two Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Price, Apryl; Smith, Jane; Barrett, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, Texas A&M University (TAMU) has searched for a way to administer its electronic subscriptions as well as the electronic subscriptions shared among the TAMU System. In this article, we address our attempts to implement an effective electronic resource management system (ERMS), both for subscriptions on the main campus and…

  19. Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

  20. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  1. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

  2. Potential risk of asthma associated with in utero exposure to xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgrade, MaryJane K; Blain, Robyn B; Fedak, Kristen M; Cawley, Michelle A

    2013-03-01

    The incidence of asthma, a complex disease and significant public health problem, has been increasing over the last 30 years for unknown reasons. Changes in environmental exposures or lifestyle may be involved. In some cases asthma may originate in utero or in early life. Associations have been found between in utero exposures to several xenobiotics and increased risk of asthma. There is convincing evidence that maternal smoking and/or in utero and perinatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with increased risk of asthma. Similar effects have been demonstrated in animal models of allergic asthma. Evidence also suggests that in utero and/or early-life exposures to various ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of asthma although supporting animal data are very limited. A few studies have suggested that in utero exposure to acetaminophen is associated with increased risk of asthma; however, animal data are lacking. Various vitamin deficiencies and supplements during pregnancy have been studied. In general, it appears that vitamins A, C, and E have protective effects and vitamins D and B may, in some instances, increase the risk, but the data are not conclusive. Some studies related to in utero exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A and asthma risk are also reported. The underlying mechanisms for an association between xenobiotic exposures and asthma remain a matter of speculation. Genetic predisposition and epigenetic changes have been explored. The developing immune, respiratory, and nervous systems are potential targets. Oxidative stress and modulation of inflammation are thought to be involved. PMID:23723168

  3. Illness during Pregnancy and Bacterial Vaginosis are Associated with In Utero HIV-1 Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    FARQUHAR, CAREY; MBORI-NGACHA, Dorothy; OVERBAUGH, Julie; Wamalwa, Dalton; Harris, Jennifer; BOSIRE, ROSE; JOHN-STEWART, GRACE

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 transmission in utero accounts for 20–30% of vertical transmission events in breastfeeding populations. In a prospective study of 463 HIV-1-infected mothers and infants, illness during pregnancy was associated with 2.6-fold increased risk of in utero HIV-1 transmission (95% CI 1.2, 5.8) and bacterial vaginosis with a 3-fold increase (95% CI 1.0–7.0) after adjusting for maternal HIV-1 viral load. Interventions targeting these novel risk factors could lead to more effective prevention of ...

  4. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment wpes of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

  5. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

  6. Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females. In contrast, a statistically significant increase in the mutation frequency of male mice exposed in utero to DEP was observed (2-fold; Fisher's exact p < 0.05). Thus, maternal exposure to DEP results in increased mutation in sperm during development.

  7. Ex utero electroporation and organotypic slice culture of mouse hippocampal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramanappa, Sathish; Simon, Ruth; Britsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Mouse genetics offers a powerful tool determining the role of specific genes during development. Analyzing the resulting phenotypes by immunohistochemical and molecular methods provides information of potential target genes and signaling pathways. To further elucidate specific regulatory mechanisms requires a system allowing the manipulation of only a small number of cells of a specific tissue by either overexpression, ablation or re-introduction of specific genes and follow their fate during development. To achieve this ex utero electroporation of hippocampal structures, especially the dentate gyrus, followed by organotypic slice culture provides such a tool. Using this system to generate mosaic deletions allows determining whether the gene of interest regulates cell-autonomously developmental processes like progenitor cell proliferation or neuronal differentiation. Furthermore it facilitates the rescue of phenotypes by re-introducing the deleted gene or its target genes. In contrast to in utero electroporation the ex utero approach improves the rate of successfully targeting deeper layers of the brain like the dentate gyrus. Overall ex utero electroporation and organotypic slice culture provide a potent tool to study regulatory mechanisms in a semi-native environment mirroring endogenous conditions. PMID:25866930

  8. HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RATS EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN UTERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Exposed to Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in utero. J.A. Bjork1, J.M. Berthiaume1, C. Lau2, J. L. Butenhoff3, and K.B. Wallace1 1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Dulut...

  9. NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero. HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2 1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

  10. Tubacin prevents neuronal migration defects and epileptic activity caused by rat Srpx2 silencing in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Manal; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Lozovaya, Natalia; Massacrier, Annick; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Cloarec, Robin; Tsintsadze, Timur; Watrin, Françoise; Tsintsadze, Vera; Zimmer, Céline; Villard, Claude; Lafitte, Daniel; Cardoso, Carlos; Bao, Lan; Lesca, Gaetan; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Muscatelli, Françoise; Pauly, Vanessa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Durbec, Pascale; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Burnashev, Nail; Represa, Alfonso; Szepetowski, Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic disorders with or without structural developmental alteration of the speech cortex. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the precise developmental role of SRPX2, to have a better knowledge on the consequences of its mutations, and to start addressing therapeutic issues through the design of an appropriate animal model. Using an in utero Srpx2 silencing approach, we show that SRPX2 influences neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not the mutant human SRPX2 proteins, rescued the neuronal migration phenotype caused by Srpx2 silencing in utero, and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. Following in utero Srpx2 silencing, spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded post-natally. The neuronal migration defects and the post-natal epileptic consequences were prevented early in embryos by maternal administration of tubulin deacetylase inhibitor tubacin. Hence epileptiform manifestations of developmental origin could be prevented in utero, using a transient and drug-based therapeutic protocol. PMID:23831613

  11. Age at menarche and tanner stage in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, H M; Marcus, M; Tolbert, P E; Rubin, C; Henderson, A K; Hertzberg, V S; Zhang, R H; Cameron, L

    2000-11-01

    Accidental contamination of the Michigan food chain with polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) led to the exposure of more than 4,000 individuals in 1973. Because PBB exposure is suspected to disrupt endocrine function, we assessed pubertal development in females 5-24 years of age (N = 327) who were exposed to PBB in utero and, in many cases, through breastfeeding. We estimated in utero PBB exposure using maternal serum PBB measurements taken after exposure (1976-1979) and extrapolated to time of pregnancy using a model of PBB decay. We found that breastfed girls exposed to high levels of PBB in utero (> or =7 parts per billion) had an earlier age at menarche (mean age = 11.6 years) than breastfed girls exposed to lower levels of PBB in utero (mean age = 12.2-12.6 years) or girls who were not breastfed (mean age = 12.7 years). This association persisted after adjustment for potential confounders (menarche ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-9.0). Perinatal PBB exposure was associated with earlier pubic hair stage in breastfed girls, but little association was found with breast development. The associations observed here lend support to the hypothesis that pubertal events may be affected by pre- and postnatal exposure to organohalogens. PMID:11055623

  12. The effects of in utero irradiation on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Ruth C.; Hardwick, Robert J.; Shanks, Morag E.; Glen, Colin D.; Mughal, Safeer K.; Voutounou, Mariel [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-12

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of prenatal irradiation can manifest during childhood, resulting in an increased risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth. However, the mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of foetal irradiation remain poorly understood. This study was designed to analyse the impact of in utero irradiation on mutation rates at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci in directly exposed mice and their first-generation (F{sub 1}) offspring. ESTR mutation frequencies in the germline and somatic tissues of male and female mice irradiated at 12 days of gestation remained highly elevated during adulthood, which was mainly attributed to a significant increase in the frequency of singleton mutations. The prevalence of singleton mutations in directly exposed mice suggests that foetal irradiation results in genomic instability manifested both in utero and during adulthood. The frequency of ESTR mutation in the F{sub 1} offspring of prenatally irradiated male mice was equally elevated across all tissues, which suggests that foetal exposure results in transgenerational genomic instability. In contrast, maternal in utero exposure did not affect the F{sub 1} stability. Our data imply that the passive erasure of epigenetic marks in the maternal genome can diminish the transgenerational effects of foetal irradiation and therefore provide important clues to the still unknown mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability. The results of this study offer a plausible explanation for the effects of in utero irradiation on the risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth.

  13. Ultrasound Evaluation of Congenital Cervical Teratoma and Therapeutic Management (Ex Utero Intrapartum Treatment)

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Perales-Marín; Vicente Diago Almela; Juan Rubio Moll; Blanca Ferri Folch; Amp Xe Rez, Amparo Sanroma P.; Pablo Padilla Iserte

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasound evaluation of the fetal neck has a high importance as a key point of the airway and digestive tract. We report the case of a fetus diagnosed with a cervical teratoma by ultrasound, which generated a compressive effect on airway, requiring a surgical approach EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) to ensure the extrauterine viability.

  14. The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreca, Alan I.

    2010-01-01

    I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

  15. In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality

  16. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itunu Bamidele

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
    Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

  17. Electronic Human Resource Management (e-HRM of Hotel Business in Phuket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitimaporn Choochote

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study the pattern of the electronic human resources management (e-HRM of the hotel business in Phuket. The study is conducted with the implementation of field data and in-depth interview of hotels’ HR managers. In consequence, the study reveals that the hotel business has applied the use of the e-HRM varying in job recruitment (15 percent, employee engagement (55 percent, organizational file structure (10 percent, idea and creativity exchanges (38 percent and assessment system (6 percent. However, considered as 100 percent, the hotel business has not prepared to apply the use of the e-HRM in salary system, learning and training program, welfare allocation and career development.

  18. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  19. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  20. ATRAZINE INCREASES DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE-INDUCED MAMMARY TUMOR INCIDENCE IN LONG EVANS OFFSPRING EXPOSED IN UTERO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATRAZINE INCREASES DIMETHYLBENZ[A]ANTHRACENE-INDUCED MAMMARY TUMOR INCIDENCE IN LONG EVANS OFFSPRING EXPOSED IN UTERO. SE Fenton and CC Davis Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, Durham, NC, USA Recently, we found that ATR exposure during ma...

  1. Marcadores ecográficos de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero: Revisión de la literatura / Ultrasound markers for chorioamnionitis and in utero fetal infection: a literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saulo, Molina-Giraldo; Jesús, Bermúdes-Roa; Edgar, Acuña-Osorio; Alejandro, Franco-Hernández; José Luis, Rojas-Arias.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el diagnóstico de corioamnionitis se basa en criterios clínicos que no alcanzan una sensibilidad mayor al 60%, y que tienen poca utilidad para predecir el compromiso fetal. El ultrasonido surge como una alternativa útil en el diagnóstico. Al mejorar el diagnóstico con la búsqueda de ma [...] rcadores ecográficos de infección fetal podemos impactar en la morbimortalidad perinatal al poder intervenir de forma temprana a las gestantes en riesgo de compromiso fetal, especialmente corioamnionitis con curso subclínico. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer la evidencia que soporta la asociación entre los hallazgos ecográficos del ultrasonido y la presencia de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura existente en las bases de datos medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs, SciELO desde enero de 1985 hasta octubre de 2012. Se incluyeron los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales. Resultados: en las gestantes con parto pretérmino y ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares el acortamiento cervical, la presencia de “sludge”, el oligohidramnios y la involución del timo son los marcadores que han mostrado mayor asociación con infección amniótica. Conclusiones: el ultrasonido es una herramienta por considerar en el diagnóstico de infección materna y fetal in utero. Abstract in english Introduction: A diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is based on clinical criteria which only manage 60% sensitivity and have little usefulness in predicting fetal compromise. Ultrasound emerges as a useful diagnostic alternative. An impact might be made on perinatal morbimortality by improving diagnosis t [...] hrough the search for echographic markers of fetal infection, thereby enabling early intervention in pregnant women at risk of fetal compromise, especially regarding subclinical chorioamnionitis. This review was aimed at providing evidence supporting an association between ultrasound’s echographic findings and the presence of chorioamnionitis in in utero (congenital) fetal infection. Materials and methods: A review of the existing literature was made in medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs and scielo databases from January 1985 to October 2012. Original research and review articles were included. Results: Cervical length shortening, the presence of sludge, oligohydramnios and thymus involution are the markers which have been shown to have the greatest association with intra-amniotic infection. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a tool to be considered when diagnosing in utero maternal and fetal infection.

  2. Marcadores ecográficos de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero: Revisión de la literatura Ultrasound markers for chorioamnionitis and in utero fetal infection: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Molina-Giraldo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el diagnóstico de corioamnionitis se basa en criterios clínicos que no alcanzan una sensibilidad mayor al 60%, y que tienen poca utilidad para predecir el compromiso fetal. El ultrasonido surge como una alternativa útil en el diagnóstico. Al mejorar el diagnóstico con la búsqueda de marcadores ecográficos de infección fetal podemos impactar en la morbimortalidad perinatal al poder intervenir de forma temprana a las gestantes en riesgo de compromiso fetal, especialmente corioamnionitis con curso subclínico. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer la evidencia que soporta la asociación entre los hallazgos ecográficos del ultrasonido y la presencia de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura existente en las bases de datos medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs, SciELO desde enero de 1985 hasta octubre de 2012. Se incluyeron los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales. Resultados: en las gestantes con parto pretérmino y ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares el acortamiento cervical, la presencia de “sludge”, el oligohidramnios y la involución del timo son los marcadores que han mostrado mayor asociación con infección amniótica. Conclusiones: el ultrasonido es una herramienta por considerar en el diagnóstico de infección materna y fetal in utero.Introduction: A diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is based on clinical criteria which only manage 60% sensitivity and have little usefulness in predicting fetal compromise. Ultrasound emerges as a useful diagnostic alternative. An impact might be made on perinatal morbimortality by improving diagnosis through the search for echographic markers of fetal infection, thereby enabling early intervention in pregnant women at risk of fetal compromise, especially regarding subclinical chorioamnionitis. This review was aimed at providing evidence supporting an association between ultrasound’s echographic findings and the presence of chorioamnionitis in in utero (congenital fetal infection. Materials and methods: A review of the existing literature was made in medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs and scielo databases from January 1985 to October 2012. Original research and review articles were included. Results: Cervical length shortening, the presence of sludge, oligohydramnios and thymus involution are the markers which have been shown to have the greatest association with intra-amniotic infection. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a tool to be considered when diagnosing in utero maternal and fetal infection.

  3. Usage of Electronic Resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thanuskodi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT has thrown a new challenge to the libraries. The technology has shown a great impact on the services of the libraries. Libraries use IT for better services and satisfying diverse user needs. Libraries have transformed into digital and virtual libraries where books, journals, and magazines have changed into e-books, e-journals, and e-zines. This has increased the global dissemination of information. Electronic resources (e-resources are easily accessible in the remote areas. The e-resources solve storage problems and control the flood of information. Print sources are being digitised. There is a great need to study the use of e-resources and investigate the factors that are a hindrance to their use. The present study is an attempt to examine the usage of electronic resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University. Study revealed that MPhil students respondents took the first position in their overall methods of searching e-resources, postgraduate student respondents the second position, PhD Scholar respondents the last position. The study confirmed that respondents were aware of the e-resources and various types of e-resources, e-database, and e-journals. The study recommended the improvement in the access facilities with high internet speed and subscription to more e-resources at Dr T.P.M. Library, Madurai Kamaraj University.

  4. First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than two-fold) increased risk of congenital malformations.

  5. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheri L; Feighner, Brian H; Loschen, Wayne A; Wojcik, Richard A; Skora, Joseph F; Coberly, Jacqueline S; Blazes, David L

    2011-01-01

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations. PMID:21572957

  6. Mn Enhancement and Respiratory Gating for In Utero MRI of the Embryonic Mouse Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Deans, Abby E.; Wadghiri, Youssef Zaim; Berrios-otero, Ce?sar A.; Turnbull, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    The mouse is the preferred model organism for genetic studies of mammalian brain development. MRI has potential for in utero studies of mouse brain development, but has been limited previously by challenges of maximizing image resolution and contrast while minimizing artifacts due to physiological motion. Manganese (Mn)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) studies have demonstrated central nervous system (CNS) contrast enhancement in mice from the earliest postnatal stages. The purpose of this study was to e...

  7. Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings-Gee, Jamie E.; Mariana Tozlovanu; Richard Manderville; Mark Steven Miller; Annie Pfohl-Leszkowicz; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these l...

  8. Update in fetal anesthesia for the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Ngamprasertwong, Pornswan; Vinks, Alexander A; Boat, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is one type of fetal surgery, performed before delivery while the fetus remains attached to the uteroplacental circulation. This intervention improves neonatal morbidity and mortality of certain congenital diseases. For instance, securing the airway of a fetus with congenital airway obstruction while on uteroplacental circulation prevents the hypoxemia during the establishment of an airway post-delivery. Anesthesia for fetal surgery now incorporates n...

  9. Anesthetic management of the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Heeseung; Ryu, Jung Wan; Kim, Dong Yeon; Lee, Guie Yong

    2010-01-01

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is a very rare technique performed in cases of fetal congenital malformations. The EXIT procedure increases the rate of survival at delivery by maintaining the uteroplacental circulation until the airway of the fetus is secured. To maintain the uteroplacental circulation, a higher dose of inhalational anesthetics and/or intravenous nitroglycerin can be used as compared to conventional Cesarean section. The aim of this report is to share our ...

  10. Chronic nitric oxide inhibition in utero produces persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborn lambs.

    OpenAIRE

    Fineman, J. R.; Wong, J.; Morin, F. C.; Wild, L. M.; Soifer, S. J.

    1994-01-01

    Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with chronic intrauterine events. Acute nitric oxide (NO) inhibition attenuates the normal increase in pulmonary blood flow at birth. We investigated whether chronic NO inhibition in utero causes persistent pulmonary hypertension. 11 fetal lambs received either a continuous infusion of N omega-nitro-L-arginine (an NO synthesis inhibitor) or 0.9% saline. Before infusion, acetylcholine (dependent upon endogenous NO production...

  11. Effects of in utero odorant exposure on neuroanatomical development of the olfactory bulb and odour preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Todrank, Josephine; Heth, Giora; Restrepo, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Human babies and other young mammals prefer food odours and flavours of their mother's diet during pregnancy as well as their mother's individually distinctive odour. Newborn mice also prefer the individual odours of more closely related—even unfamiliar—lactating females. If exposure to in utero odorants—which include metabolites from the mother's diet and the foetus's genetically determined individual odour—helps shape the neuroanatomical development of the olfactory bulb, this could...

  12. Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father)

    OpenAIRE

    Paul M. Collins

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates possible (re-)constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with material...

  13. In-utero infection with HIV-1 associated with suppressed lymphoproliferative responses at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman-Payne, B; Sandifer, T; OhAinle, M; Crudder, C; Lynch, J; Omenda, M M; Maroa, J; Fowke, K; John-Stewart, G C; Farquhar, C

    2014-10-01

    In-utero exposure to HIV-1 may affect the immune system of the developing child and may induce HIV-1-specific immune responses, even in the absence of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated lymphoproliferative capacity at birth among 40 HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and 10 infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. Cord blood mononuclear cells were assayed using [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation for proliferation in response to HIV-1 p55-gag and the control stimuli phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) and allogeneic cells. In response to HIV-1 p55-gag, eight (20%) HIV-1-exposed, uninfected (EU) infants had a stimulation index (SI) ??2 and three (30%) in-utero?HIV-1 infected infants had SI ?2. The frequency and magnitude of responses to HIV-1 p55-gag were low overall, and did not differ statistically between groups. However, proliferative responses to control stimuli were significantly higher in EU infants than in infants infected in utero, with a median SI in response to PHA of 123 [interquartile range (IQR) 77-231] versus 18 (IQR 4-86) between EU and infected infants, respectively (P?

  14. SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

  15. Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2014-01-01

    The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer. PMID:24637845

  16. In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys : a pregnancy cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. SETTING: Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. RESULTS: We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ?5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3?months (95% CI -2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9?months (95% CI -0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further.

  17. True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

    2011-01-01

    A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

  18. In Utero DDT and DDE Exposure and Obesity Status of 7-Year-Old Mexican-American Children in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    WARNER, MARCELLA; Schall, Raul Aguilar; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been hypothesized to increase risk of obesity later in life.

  19. Paradata for 'Fishing-dependent communities on the Gulf Coast of Florida [electronic resource] : their identification, recent decline and present resilience / by Yu Huang.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Fishing-dependent communities on the Gulf Coast of Florida [electronic resource] : their identification, recent decline and present resilience / by Yu Huang.'

  20. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  1. Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

  2. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa Nguyen B

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

  3. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  4. Substance exposure in utero and developmental consequences in adolescence : A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irner, Tina Birk

    2012-01-01

    Background: The impacts of maternal substance use have been observed in both research and clinical experience. Several studies have shown that preschool children are at heightened risk of developing various cognitive, behavioral, and socioemotional difficulties. Most knowledge has been generated concerning alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the postnatal effects thereof. Less is known about substance use other than alcohol (for instance, opiates, marijuana, and cocaine) during pregnancy and the long-term developmental consequences. Objective: The aims of this review are to identify relevant published data on adolescents who have been exposed in utero to alcohol and/or other substances and to examine developmental consequences across functions and mental health at this point in life. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and PsychInfo were searched for publications during the period of 1980-2011 and titles and abstracts selected according to prespecified broad criteria. Results: Twenty-five studies fulfilled all of the specific requirements and were included in this review. Most research covered prenatal alcohol exposure. Other substances, however, included cocaine, marijuana, opiates, and poly-substances. Results showed that prenatal exposure to alcohol has long-term cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional developmental consequences depending on amount and timing of exposure in utero. Less evidence exists for long-term consequences of exposure in utero to other substances than alcohol. However, recent brain-imaging studies have provided important evidence of serious effects of other substance exposure on the developing brain and recent follow-up studies have found an association with deficits in language, attention, areas of cognitive performance and delinquent behavior in adolescence.

  5. E X I T (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) en linfangioma cervical fetal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Carlos, Bustos V; Vivian, González C; Francisco, Olguin C; René, Bustamante T; Américo, Hernández L; Leopoldo, Razeto W; Alejandro, Paredes W.

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de una embarazada primigesta de 17 años, con un feto con gran masa cervical a las 20 semanas, se diagnostica como linfangioma cervical. La evaluación prenatal concluye que existe gran riesgo de asfixia perinatal por obstrucción de la vía aérea superior, se resuelve el par [...] to mediante procedimiento EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) a las 37 semanas. Se logra realizar intubación con larin-goscopia directa, con un tiempo de by-pass uteroplacentario de 7 minutos. Se obtiene un recién nacido de 3300 g, al segundo día se opera del tumor con buenos resultados. Se revisa el protocolo del procedimiento EXIT en sus aspectos anestésicos, obstétricos, quirúrgicos y neonatológicos. Se concluye que el EXIT debe ser planteado en todo caso en que se sospeche obstrucción de la vía aérea superior y puede ser realizado en hospitales que cuenten con equipamiento habitual y un equipo médico multidisciplinario. Abstract in english We report a case of primigravida patient, 17 years old, with a fetus showing a large cervical mass at 20 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed as a cervical lymphangioma. The prenatal evaluation concludes that there exists a great risk of perinatal asphyxia due to obstruction of the upper airway and [...] therefore it is decided to perform a cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation, using an EXIT procedure (ex-utero intra-partum therapy). We perform intubation with a semi- rigid tube having a by-pass time utero-placental of 7 minutes, obtaining a newborn of 3300 g at birth. The newborn is operated two days after birth removing the cervical tumor with good results. We review the protocol of the EXIT procedure concerning aspects related to anesthesia, obstetrics, surgery and neonatal care. We conclude that EXIT should be considered in all cases in which obstruction of the upper airway is suspected, and can be performed in hospitals that have basic surgical facilities and a multidisciplinary team.

  6. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier - thus the developing fetus is exposed in utero. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with sons' semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen- and blood samples that were analysed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. Maternal blood samples from pregnancy week 30 were analysed for concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. Potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/mL), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/mL), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/mL, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/mL, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/mL, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health, however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine modulating compounds may have adverse effects.

  7. Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

    2007-01-01

    Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

  8. Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)

    OpenAIRE

    Denaxas, S. C.; George, J.; Herrett, E.; Shah, A. D.; Kalra, D.; Hingorani, A. D.; Kivimaki, M.; Timmis, A. D.; Smeeth, L.; Hemingway, H.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

  9. In utero and postnatal imaging findings of parasitic conjoined twins (ischiopagus parasiticus tetrapus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahr, Nikolai; Guggenberger, Roman; Kellenberger, Christian J; Wisser, Josef; Subotic, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Conjoined twins are a rare developmental anomaly with a reported prevalence of 1.47 per 100,000 births. We present an uncommon case of a parasitic ischiopagus tetrapus with a parasitic ischiopagus partial twin joined to the complete fetus at the level of the ischium diagnosed in utero by fetal MRI. The correct prenatal diagnosis led to birth by caesarean section. Prenatal MRI findings are presented and corroborated by postnatal imaging delineating the full extent and associated anomalies of this rare malformation. Differential diagnosis of duplicated lower extremities is discussed. PMID:25287358

  10. Intention to Use and Actual Use of Electronic Information Resources: Further Exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Donghua

    2009-01-01

    Following up a previous study that examined public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structu...

  11. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Soto Giselle; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Neyra Joan; Fernandez Miguel; Leturia Carlos; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective descript...

  12. Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library

    OpenAIRE

    Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and librari...

  13. ‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?

    OpenAIRE

    Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

  14. Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Itunu Bamidele; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Omeluzor, Saturday U.; Ogbuiyi, Susan U.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection w...

  15. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB): A Central Electronic Resource for Locating and Integrating Mouse Tumor Pathology Data

    OpenAIRE

    Begley, D. A.; Krupke, D. M.; Neuhauser, S. B.; Richardson, J. E.; Bult, C. J.; Eppig, J. T.; Sundberg, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology Database (MTB) is designed to provide an electronic data storage, search, and analysis system for information on mouse models of human cancer. MTB includes data on tumor frequency and latency, strain, germ line and somatic genetics, pathologic notations, and photomicrographs. MTB collects data from the primary literature, other public databases, and direct submissions from the scientific community. MTB is a community resource that provides integrated access to mouse tu...

  16. Student Effort, Media Preference, and Writing Quality when Using Print and Electronic Resources in Expository Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Kathy L.; Farrell, Courtney A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of the Internet as a research tool on elementary students' quality of writing, their perceptions of effort expended, and their resource media preference in writing an expository paper. We gathered data from 56 upper-elementary students as they wrote expository papers using print resources

  17. Relationship between Human Resources Management Practices, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Sharing on Innovation in Iranian Electronic Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Manafi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Electronic industry needs innovation to survive, and also to compete internationally. This study examines factors that can enhance technical innovation of companies in the electronic industry of Iran. The main purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between human resource management practices, transformational leadership, knowledge sharing, and innovation of the large and major electronic companies.More specifically, the research attempts to examine whether knowledge sharing mediates the relationship between human resource management practices and transformational leadership with innovation. A quantitative research approach was used in this study. A cross-sectional correlational research design was used.The sample for this study was drawn from a population of 23,704 employees (managers, engineers, and expert technicians of eight largest electronic companies in Iran using stratified sampling method. The sample size was 376.After exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, structural equation modeling (SEM technique was used to test the hypothetical model. The Findings asserts that only two HRM practices (training and participation and three transformational leadership components (vision, intellectual stimulation and personal recognition have significant impacts on innovation. Besides, knowledge sharing has significant and positive impact on innovation. Out of five HRM practices, training, staffing, participation have significant and positive impacts on knowledge sharing while intellectual stimulation, and personal recognition(as transformational leadership components have significant and positive impacts.Finally, knowledge sharing merely mediated the relationships of training, participation, vision and personal recognition with innovation.

  18. In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 ?m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults

  19. The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

  20. Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

  1. Routledge German technical dictionary [electronic resource] = Routledge Universal-Wörterbuch der Technik Englisch.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic dictionary covering over 60 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in German and English, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

  2. ??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????????

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

    ???89-102

  3. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  4. Associations of in utero exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids with human semen quality and reproductive hormones in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern.

  5. TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS ON GENE EXPRESSION IN RAT SEMINAL VESICLE DEVELOPMENTALLY ALTERED BY IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO TCDD. V M Richardson', J T Hamm2, and L S Birnbaum1. 'USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA, 'Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, ...

  6. Offspring insulin and adiponectin signaling are targets of in utero programming following exposure to maternal overweight during gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of obesity in adult-life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal overweight (OW) increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal OW in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via to...

  7. Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

    2012-12-01

    The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

  8. Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Anisur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

  9. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  10. In utero stem cell transplantation for radical treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta: perspectives and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mariam Taher Mohamed; Shazly, Sherif Abd-Elkarim Mohammed

    2014-11-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a lethal hereditary connective tissue disease that affects the synthesis of type I collagen. Current treatment options including surgical, physical, and medical treatment help to reduce pain, deformities, and rate of bone fracture. However, these choices are insufficient and are associated with many adverse effects. The development of stem cell therapy allows scientists to consider this option for radical treatment of many genetic diseases including OI. In utero stem cell transplantation provides a better opportunity for early prenatal intervention while the fetus is preimmune and before any permanent damage occurs. Few animal and human trials for treatment of OI have been published, and the results were promising but still controversial. Our objective is to review the available evidence and discuss the points of controversy including the parameters of treatment success and postnatal predictors of long-term treatment outcome. PMID:24347264

  11. A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or ?-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

  12. Fetus, fasting, and festival: the persistent effects of in utero social shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The Fetal Origins Hypothesis (FOH), put forward in the epidemiological literature and later flourished in the economics literature, suggests that the time in utero is a critical period for human development. However, much attention has been paid to the consequences of fetal exposures to more extreme natural shocks, while less is known about fetal exposures to milder but more commonly experienced social shocks. Using two examples of under-nutrition due to mild social shocks, i.e. Ramadan fasting and festival overspending, this paper summarizes our current knowledge, especially the contribution from economics, and key challenges in exploring fetal exposures to milder social shocks. I also discuss the salient added value of identifying milder versus more extreme fetal shocks. Finally, implications are drawn on individual decisions and public policy to improve children's well-being before they are born or even before their mothers realize that they are pregnant. PMID:25279378

  13. The simulation of an ex utero intrapartum procedure to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguste, Tamika C; Boswick, J Aidan; Loyd, Mary K; Battista, Alexis

    2011-02-01

    We report a case of using simulation to aid in the performance of ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A primigravid with a fetus who was diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome was scheduled for an EXIT to ECMO procedure to be done by members of her obstetrical and neonatal teams. It would be the first time any of the members of the 2 teams would work together. Simulation was used to allow all involved parties to experience the procedure before the live operation. In addition, the simulation enabled the interdisciplinary teams to work with each other, identify possible complications, and further plan the coordination during the event. The EXIT to ECMO surgery was completed successfully. The use of low-fidelity, cost-effective simulation during a surgical rehearsal can give a surgical team critical advantage when performing a rare and/or complex procedure. PMID:21292095

  14. Fetus, Fasting, and Festival: The Persistent Effects of In Utero Social Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Fetal Origins Hypothesis (FOH, put forward in the epidemiological literature and later flourished in the economics literature, suggests that the time in utero is a critical period for human development. However, much attention has been paid to the consequences of fetal exposures to more extreme natural shocks, while less is known about fetal exposures to milder but more commonly experienced social shocks. Using two examples of under-nutrition due to mild social shocks, i.e. Ramadan fasting and festival overspending, this paper summarizes our current knowledge, especially the contribution from economics, and key challenges in exploring fetal exposures to milder social shocks. I also discuss the salient added value of identifying milder versus more extreme fetal shocks. Finally, implications are drawn on individual decisions and public policy to improve children’s well-being before they are born or even before their mothers realize that they are pregnant.

  15. Design and Thermal Distribution of Intra-hyperthermia Microwave Antennas for Utero-cervical Applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracavitary brachytherapy combined hypertermin for utero-cervical cancer seems to be a promising method for salvage treatments in persistent tumors and inoperable or previously irradiated cervical recurrences. In order to heat the vaginal apex and uterus, power full conical antennas which are suitable for afterloading cervical applicator have been designed for use in conjunction with intracavitary radiation therapy. The antennas were constructed with conical conductive material to feed line and the effective length were designed proportional to microwave length, Power deposition profiles of 2450 MHz of conical antennas were studied in both phantom models and muscle tissue and compared to those of commonly used dipole antenna. Improvement of the heating pattern was found in both phantom and muscle tissue. The heating pattern produced by the conical antenna resembles an ellipsoid and then the temperature distribution in depth was extended to 2-3 cm from the effective antenna axis

  16. In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for autism spectrum disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidaya, Nicole B; Lee, Brian K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used Denmark's health and population registers to obtain information regarding prescription drugs, ASD diagnosis, and health and socioeconomic status. There were 1.5 % of cases and 0.7 % of controls exposed to SSRIs during the pregnancy period, and higher effect estimates observed with longer use. We found evidence that in utero exposure to SSRIs increases a child's risk associated with ASD. These results, while adding to the limited knowledge on prenatal pharmacological exposures as potential ASD risk factors, need to be balanced against the benefits of indicated medication use by pregnant mothers.

  17. Long-term studies in children following low radiation doses in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective clinical study was started in 1967 in order to give optimal advice to parents who want to have children after radiation exposure in early pregnancy. Recommendations were elaborated, whether an interruption is necessary or not. Within this study embryologic studies after interruptio were carried out and children irradiated in utero were examined clinically and genetically. Until 1. May 1982 more than 200 cases were examined and lomg-term studies of 73 children up to 10 years of age were performed. The results of cytogenetic, biochemico-genetic, clinical and other investigations are reported. It is concluded that the recommendation to carry the child to full term if the radiation exposure was less than 0.1 Sv had been correct. (author)

  18. National Information Infrastructure of a Science, Culture and Education: Representation of Resources of Electronic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filinov, E.; Boychenko, A.

    In the report are given questions concerned the choice of international standards for electronic libraries construction: - The alternative variants of choice standards on electronic catalogs and metacatalogs formats; - The alternative variants of choice standards for interlibrary loan; - The variants of choice standards for information search in online public catalogs (OPAC) and bibliographic databases; - The variants of choice standards for file representation of full text documents, vector and raster images, audio- and video-materials, text of public distributed programs. The questions for public discussion by interested organizations are intended to represent on special web site. The profile of electronic library as a total combination of standards on program interfaces and protocols may be constructed with the conceptual model of EL. This model is offered as a expansion of basic open systems environment / reference model (OSE/RM) for the area of applications to describe the Application Program Interface (APIs). Opinions of the interested organizations, which will be collected on a site by way of discussion of the questions put above, it is supposed to base on formation of a national information infrastructure of Russia for science, culture and education.

  19. Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings-Gee, Jamie E.; Tozlovanu, Mariana; Manderville, Richard; Miller, Mark Steven; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Schwartz, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg) by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg) at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis). The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer. PMID:20648226

  20. In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, S. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samrickard@tiscali.co.uk; Morris, J. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paley, M. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Whitby, E. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC.

  1. In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlyireflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC

  2. Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ?-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing [14C] linoleic acid and [3H] palmitic acid or [14C] octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubicood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny

  3. Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register

    OpenAIRE

    Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national pro...

  4. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  5. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

  6. A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1500 children who were born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Study Groups 1 and 2) were identified from lists of children undergoing mandatory surveillance in the Minsk Chernobyl Dispensary. During pregnancy mothers of these children lived in highly contaminated territories in several areas of three Belarus Regions - Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest. Children in Study Group 1 were born between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. The mothers of these children during their pregnancy period were exposed both to radiocesium and radioiodine. Children in Study Group 2 were born between February 1, 1987 and December 31, 1987. The mothers of children from Study Group 2 lived in the same areas as the mothers of children from Study Group 1, but during their pregnancy period were mainly exposed to radiocesium. The Control Group consists of children born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987, to mothers living throughout pregnancy in the uncontaminated Vitebsk Region. These children were randomly selected from medical records of family-practice clinics, and were matched to Study Groups 1 and 2 by age and sex. To assess the health effects of in utero radiation exposure among the cohort, the specific protocol for annual health examination was developed in 1988. The study protocol included collection of data on family history; history of mothers pregnancy and delivery; head circumference at birth; annual measurements of standing height and weight; examination by neurologist; clinical thyroid evaluation, and ultrasound examination of the thyroid; annual measurements of levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies in children's blood (i.e. thyrotropin (TSH), total and free thyroxin (T4), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroglobulin (TG) and TG autoantibodies, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and anti-TPO (thyroid microsomal )assay; annual blood count; analyses of the components of the immune system (T- cells, B-cells, immunoglobulins, complement, etc.); and data on general health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation

  7. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Impairs Nrf2-Mediated Adaptive Antioxidant Defenses and Redox Signaling in Fetal Endothelial Cells In Utero

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xinghua; Chapple, Sarah J.; Patel, Bijal; Puszyk, William; Sugden, David; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Siow, Richard C. M.; Mann, Giovanni E.

    2013-01-01

    In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status, and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altere...

  8. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

  9. Mental and behavioural disorders in Belarusian persons exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinion, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0.01) and borderline intellectual functioning (r=0.56; P<0.05) of the same people at age 10-12.

  10. In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure

  11. Transient in utero knockout (TIUKO of C-MYC affects late lung and intestinal development in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Pengbo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmentally important genes often result in early lethality in knockout animals. Thus, the direct role of genes in late gestation organogenesis cannot be assessed directly. In utero delivery of transgenes was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer to pulmonary and intestinal epithelial stem cells. Thus, this technology can be used to evaluate late gestation development. Results In utero gene transfer was used to transfer adenovirus with either an antisense c-myc or a C-MYC ubiquitin targeting protein to knockout out c-myc expression in late gestation lung and intestines. Using either antisense or ubiquitin mediated knockout of C-MYC levels in late gestation resulted in similar effects. Decreased complexity was observed in both intestines and lungs. Stunted growth of villi was evident in the intestines. In the lung, hypoplastic lungs with disrupted aveolarization were observed. Conclusions These data demonstrated that C-MYC was required for cell expansion and complexity in late gestation lung and intestinal development. In addition they demonstrate that transient in utero knockout of proteins may be used to determine the role of developmentally important genes in the lungs and intestines.

  12. In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol and blood DNA methylation in women ages 40-59 years from the sister study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlid, Sophia; Xu, Zongli; Panduri, Vijayalakshmi; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P; Taylor, Jack A

    2015-01-01

    In utero exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes such as fertility problems and vaginal as well as breast cancer. Animal studies have linked prenatal DES exposure to lasting DNA methylation changes. We investigated genome-wide DNA methylation and in utero DES exposure in a sample of non-Hispanic white women aged 40-59 years from the Sister Study, a large United States cohort study of women with a family history of breast cancer. Using questionnaire information from women and their mothers, we selected 100 women whose mothers reported taking DES while pregnant and 100 control women whose mothers had not taken DES. DNA methylation in blood was measured at 485,577 CpG sites using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Associations between CpG methylation and DES exposure status were analyzed using robust linear regression with adjustment for blood cell composition and multiple comparisons. Although four CpGs had pwomen exposed to DES in utero had no evidence of large persistent changes in blood DNA methylation. PMID:25751399

  13. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  14. In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.oses.

  15. Imaging the fetal spine using in utero MR: diagnostic accuracy and impact on management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-utero MR imaging (iuMR) has entered the clinical arena during the last decade. It is used mainly for imaging fetal brain abnormalities. To report our experience of imaging the fetal spine and spinal cord in fetuses with known or suspected abnormalities diagnosed on US imaging. Prospective imaging and retrospective analysis of the possible impact on management of 50 consecutive fetuses with spinal abnormalities detected by antenatal US imaging. In 40 (80%) of 50 fetuses, iuMR and US imaging were in complete agreement. In the other 10 fetuses (20%), iuMR provided additional information or changed the diagnosis, including 8 fetuses where the iuMR could find no abnormality and was found to be correct by later follow-up. IuMR is useful in fetuses with a suspected spinal abnormality. The clinical impact of iuMR may be numerically less than with brain abnormalities, but is still sufficient to warrant its use, especially if there is any uncertainty about the US imaging, and particularly as a relatively high proportion of diagnoses on US imaging are false-positives. (orig.)

  16. Effects of in utero exposure to Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorce, Ana Leticia Coronado; Dorce, Valquiria Abrão Coronado; Nencioni, Ana Leonor Abrahão

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of Tityus bahiensis scorpion venom is well known, but there are little data about the damage in offspring of dams that were exposed to the venom during pregnancy. The objective of this work was to determine the toxic effects of venom in adult offspring of Wistar rats exposed to venom in utero. Dams were divided into a control group, subcutaneously injected with saline solution on the 10th (GD10) and 16th (GD16) days, and two experimental groups, subcutaneously injected with venom (2.5mg/kg) on GD10 or GD16, respectively. Adult offspring were evaluated according to behavioral development and neuronal integrity in the hippocampus. Tests performed in the activity box and in the enriched environment demonstrated that males from GD10 had motor decrease. Females from GD10 showed a depressive-like state and were more anxious, as demonstrated by the forced swimming test and social interaction. The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task demonstrated that GD16 males had lower levels of anxiety. The number of neuronal cells was decreased in CA1, CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of males and females from GD10 group and in CA1 of females and CA4 of males from GD16 group. Thus, we conclude that venom exposure in pregnant dams causes subtle alteration in the behavioral and neuronal development of offspring in adult life in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:19945531

  17. Influence of diurnal phase on startle response in adult rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, S L; Hougaard, K S

    2011-01-01

    Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle. We speculated that this observation of increased basal startle might be influenced by diurnal phase. In the present study, adult female Sprague Dawley rats, stressed prenatally with DEX (200 ?g/kg, gestational days 14-21) and postnatally by blood sampling under restraint, were tested for the ASR during both circadian phases (light and dark). Basal startle was increased in animals tested both during the light and the dark phases of the cycle. We hereby replicated our earlier findings in a new strain and laboratory, thus strengthening the validity of our model regarding prenatal stress effects on ASR in female offspring. Our results indicate that observation of increased basal ASR is not solely dependent on diurnal phase. We found no difference in hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid receptor expression between groups.

  18. Anesthetic management of a patient undergoing an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choleva, Abbie J

    2011-12-01

    The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure involves partial delivery of the fetus with the fetal-placental circulation maintained. This allows for management of the obstructed fetal airway via direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, tracheostomy, or surgical intervention. These complex and often challenging procedures have been performed about 100 times in the United States to date. Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis of fetal congenital malformations, in particular, abnormalities involving the fetal airway, have allowed for the development of the EXIT strategy to convert potentially catastrophic situations during fetal delivery to a controlled environment. Indications for the EXIT procedure have expanded to a variety of congenital abnormalities, including fetal neck masses, lung or mediastinal tumors, congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, conjoined twin separation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring transitioning from EXIT to extracorporeal membrane oxygen transitioning. Various considerations must be managed by the anesthesia provider during the EXIT procedure to ensure positive maternal and fetal outcomes. Careful attention to achieving adequate uterine relaxation, maintaining maternal blood pressure, avoiding placental abruption, prioritizing fetal airway establishment, and providing return of uterine tone when indicated are examples of these considerations. In this case report, a parturient presented for an EXIT procedure secondary to fetal cystic hygroma. PMID:22400417

  19. Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M. Collins

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates possible (re-constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with materiality. Neal argues with Irigaray that symbolic changes follow on from psychological changes. This proposal for the (re- construction of masculinity will be compared with four recent image-based constructions of masculinity: Daniel Craig in Casino Royale and the film of The History Boys; the French national rugby team’s calendar Dieux du Stade, and David Beckham’s portrayal in the recent advertising campaign for Armani. Do these constructions of masculinity confirm Neal and Irigaray’s understanding of change?

  20. Congenital malformations in sheep resulting from in utero inoculation of Cache Valley virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, S I; Livingston, C W; Edwards, J F; Gauer, B B; Collisson, E W

    1990-10-01

    Serologic evidence indicated that an episode of congenital abnormalities in sheep was caused by Cache Valley virus (CVV), a bunyavirus indigenous to the United States. To determine the teratogenic potential of CVV in sheep, fetuses were infected in utero between 27 and 54 days of gestation with an isolate (CK-102) obtained in 1987 from a sentinel sheep in San Angelo, Texas. The dams of these fetuses were euthanatized between 28 and 75 days after inoculation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Twenty-eight of 34 fetuses had congenital abnormalities, including arthrogryposis, hydranencephaly, mummification, reabsorption, and oligohydroamnion. Virus was isolated from the allantoic fluid of 11 of 17 fetuses euthanatized at less than 70 days of gestation. The virus-positive fetuses, which were all negative for CVV-neutralizing antibody, had lesions ranging from none to severe arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Virus was not recovered from the allantoic fluid of fetuses after 76 days' gestation when CVV-specific antibody could be detected in 5 of 8 fetuses examined. The 2 fetuses infected on days 50 and 54 of gestation appeared normal and 1 had antibody to CVV. PMID:2122779

  1. In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derderian, S Christopher; Togarrati, P Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-08-01

    Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders. PMID:24879814

  2. Dietary supplementation with resveratrol protects against striatal dopaminergic deficits produced by in utero LPS exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Katherine M; Parmar, Mayur S; Cavanaugh, Jane E

    2014-07-21

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol in pregnant dams on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic deficits in pups exposed to LPS in utero. Gravid female rats were fed with a resveratrol-enriched diet during gestational days 3-22.5 (E3-E22.5) and received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1mg/kg LPS at E10.5. The striata were isolated from the pups at postnatal days 10 (P10) and P21. LPS-induced dopaminergic deficits were noted at P21, but not P10. These DA deficits at P21 were exhibited by a loss of DA and DA metabolite [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] levels and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum. The LPS-induced loss of DA, DA metabolites, and TH expression were attenuated in the striata of pups from the dams fed with the resveratrol-supplemented diet. These data suggest that a resveratrol-supplemented diet may restore homeostasis of the striatal DA neuronal system following disruption by LPS. PMID:24863468

  3. Array comparative genomic hybridization and flow cytometry analysis of spontaneous abortions and mors in utero samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, Björn; Swerts, Katrien; Chiaie, Barbara Delle; Janssens, Sandra; Buysse, Karen; Philippé, Jan; Speleman, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background It is estimated that 10-15% of all clinically recognised pregnancies result in a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. Previous studies have indicated that in up to 50% of first trimester miscarriages, chromosomal abnormalities can be identified. For several decades chromosome analysis has been the golden standard to detect these genomic imbalances. A major drawback of this method is the requirement of short term cultures of fetal cells. In this study we evaluated the combined use of array CGH and flow cytometry (FCM), for detection of chromosomal abnormalities, as an alternative for karyotyping. Methods In total 100 spontaneous abortions and mors in utero samples were investigated by karyotyping and array CGH in combination with FCM in order to compare the results for both methods. Results Chromosome analysis revealed 17 abnormal karyotypes whereas array CGH in combination with FCM identified 26 aberrations due to the increased test success rate. Karyotyping was unsuccessful in 28% of cases as compared to only two out of hundred samples with inconclusive results for combined array CGH and FCM analysis. Conclusion This study convincingly shows that array CGH analysis for detection of numerical and segmental imbalances in combination with flow cytometry for detection of ploidy status has a significant higher detection rate for chromosomal abnormalities as compared to karyotyping of miscarriages samples. PMID:19751515

  4. Late effects of iodine-131 in utero exposure: Toxicological effects in first generation of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have initiated studies to evaluate the possible immunotoxic effects to both the mother and offspring following an in utero exposure to /sup 131/I, and initial observations suggest induction of antitumor immunity as measured by cell-mediated immune (CMI) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The animal model selected for these studies was the Fischer F344 female rat intraperitoneally exposed to concentrations ranging from 4 to 3700 kBq of Na/sup 131/I during the gestation period of 16 to 18 days. The CMI results suggested the male offspring were 1.7 times more immunologically responsive than their sisters with a threshold detection level in the range of 9.25 kBq being observed. The parents of F/sub 1/ generation exposed to the /sup 131/I are now being evaluated for possible immunotoxicity according to: host resistance to E. coli endotoxin and blastogenenic responses to phytohemagglutin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide. The results of these studies suggest that perinatal /sup 131/I exposure exerts an immunotoxic effect upon the first generation

  5. In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A

    2010-01-01

    In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996 and 2003. Maternal smoking was associated with a significantly elevated risk of strabismus in the child, increasing with number of cigarettes smoked per day ( or =10 cigarettes/day: RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.30). Nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with strabismus risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffeeand tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk.

  6. Electronic medical record data to identify variables associated with a fibromyalgia diagnosis: importance of health care resource utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Elizabeth T; Mardekian, Jack; Emir, Birol; Clair, Andrew; Kuhn, Max; Silverman, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of fibromyalgia (FM) is often challenging. Identifying factors associated with an FM diagnosis may guide health care providers in implementing appropriate diagnostic and management strategies. Methods This retrospective study used the de-identified Humedica electronic medical record (EMR) database to identify variables associated with an FM diagnosis. Cases (n=4,296) were subjects ?18 years old with ?2 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for FM (729.1) ?30 days apart during 2012, associated with an integrated delivery network, with ?1 encounter with a health care provider in 2011 and 2012. Controls without FM (no-FM; n=583,665) did not have the ICD-9 codes for FM. Demographic, clinical, and health care resource utilization variables were extracted from structured EMR data. Univariate analysis identified variables showing significant differences between the cohorts based on odds ratios (ORs). Results Consistent with FM epidemiology, FM subjects were predominantly female (78.7% vs 64.5%; P<0.0001) and slightly older (mean age 53.3 vs 52.7 years; P=0.0318). Relative to the no-FM cohort, the FM cohort was characterized by a higher prevalence of nearly all evaluated comorbidities; the ORs suggested a higher likelihood of an FM diagnosis (P<0.0001), especially for musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain conditions (OR 3.1 for each condition). Variables potentially associated with an FM diagnosis included higher levels of use of specific health care resources including emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications. Units used per subject for emergency-room visits, outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and medications were also significantly higher in the FM cohort (P<0.0001), confirming resource utilization as an important variable associated with an FM diagnosis. Conclusion Significant differences between the FM and no-FM cohorts were observed for nearly all the demographic, clinical, and health care resource variables, suggesting an association with FM diagnosis. These results also support use of EMR data for identifying variables associated with FM, which may help in the diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:25784819

  7. Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Mesias, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

  8. Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hollar, Sherman

    2012-01-01

    Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

  9. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

  10. TD magazine [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TD magazine covers the art and science of developing people and the systems in which they work to produce results. Its goals are to: provide useful, how-to information on current best practices through case studies, share new technologies and their applications, report emerging trends and address relevant and pivotal issues to the field.

  11. Science advances [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The online-only journal seeks to publish high-quality original research in the physical, life, environmental, mathematical, engineering, computer, and social sciences that has the potential to make significant advances in any relevant field.

  12. Procedia chemistry [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedia Chemistry covers conferences on all topics in Chemistry, such as: analytical chemistry, electrochemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical biology, green chemistry, medicinal chemistry and physical chemistry.

  13. Schweizer Kernenergie [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home page of the Schweizerische Vereinigung für Atomenergie. Provides information and news from the nuclear power plants Beznau, Mühleberg, Gösgen and Leibstadt, as well as the radioactive waste depository Würenlingen (Zwilag).

  14. RISO [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Forskningscenter Risø, a government research institution under the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation. The searchable website provides information about the institute, its organization, activities, research projects; also links to its annual reports and other publications, gives contact information.

  15. Plant science [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides citations and some abstracts to the literature on plant science, focusing especially on pathology, symbiosis, biochemistry, genetics, biotechnology, techniques and environmental biology. Major areas of coverage include physiology;

  16. In Utero Exposure to Low-Dose Alcohol Induces Reprogramming of Mammary Development and Tumor Risk in MMTV-erbB-2 Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhikun Ma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that prenatal exposure to environmental factors may modify breast cancer risk later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol on mammary development and tumor risk. Pregnant MMTV-erbB-2 mice were exposed to alcohol (6 g/kg/day between day 13 and day 19 of gestation, and the female offspring were examined for tumor risk. Whole mount analysis indicated that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induced significant increases in ductal extension at 10 weeks of age. Molecular analysis showed that in utero alcohol exposure induced upregulation of ER? signaling and activation of Akt and Erk1/2 in pubertal mammary glands. However, enhanced signaling in the EGFR/erbB-2 pathway appeared to be more prominent in 10-week-old glands than did signaling in the other pathways. Interestingly, tumor development in mice with in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol was slightly delayed compared to control mice, but tumor multiplicity was increased. The results indicate that in utero exposure to low-dose alcohol induces the reprogramming of mammary development by mechanisms that include altered signaling in the estrogen receptor (ER and erbB-2 pathways. The intriguing tumor development pattern might be related to alcohol dose and exposure conditions, and warrants further investigation.

  17. Contribution of in utero drug exposure when interpreting hair results in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, P

    2015-04-01

    Hair specimen is necessary to complement blood and/or urine analyses as it permits differentiation of a single exposure from chronic use of a drug by segmentation of the hair for a stated growth period. Moreover, due to a frequent long delay between event and police declaration, hair can be the only solution for lack of corroborative evidence of a committed crime. With the exception of lower amount of biological material in children versus adults, there is no specific analytical problem when processing samples from children. The issue is the interpretation of the findings, with respect to the different pharmacological parameters. In some very young children, the interpretation can be complicated by potential in utero exposure. Twenty-four cases from daily practice have been reviewed. Children were less than 1 year old, hair was always longer than 4cm and the corresponding mothers admitted having used drugs during pregnancy. Drugs involved include methadone, tramadol, diphenhydramine, diazepam, cannabis, heroin, amitriptyline and bromazepam. Analyses were achieved by hyphenated chromatographic validated procedures after hair decontamination and segmentation. The concentrations measured in the hair of children were lower than those observed in subjects using therapeutically (or illegally) these drugs. In that sense, the frequency of exposures appears as un-frequent (low level of exposure), with marked decrease in the more recent period. However, the parents denied any administration in all cases and there was no reason to suspect re-exposure after delivery and no clinical problem during the period between delivery and hair collection during regular visits to the physician was noticed. The pattern of drug distribution was similar in all these cases, low concentrations in the proximal segments and highest concentration in the distal segment (last segment). When considering the concentration in the distal segment as the 100% of the response (highest concentration), after analysis of 4 segments (irrespective of the length of the segment but longer than 1cm), it was observed the following pattern: proximal segment, 5-35% of the response; segment 2, 15-50% of the response; segment 3, 25-60% of the response; and distal segment, 100% of the response. It is proposed to consider 100% in utero contribution to the final interpretation when the ratio concentration of the proximal segment to the concentration of the distal segment is lower than 0.5. This can be applied only when the child is under 1 year old and the hair shaft length is at least 4cm (to achieve suitable segmentation). It is important, when using this cut-off to have at least 3 or 4 segments to be able to observe the variation in drug concentrations, whatever the length of each segment (>1cm). PMID:25450508

  18. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

  19. The BRIGHTEN Program: Implementation and Evaluation of a Program to Bridge Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Erin E.; Lapidos, Stan; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Ivan, Iulia I.; Golden, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of the BRIGHTEN Program (Bridging Resources of an Interdisciplinary Geriatric Health Team via Electronic Networking), an interdisciplinary team intervention for assessing and treating older adults for depression in outpatient primary and specialty medical clinics. The BRIGHTEN team collaborates "virtually"…

  20. Differential DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood of infants exposed to mercury and arsenic in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Andres; Koestler, Devin C; Houseman, E Andres; Jackson, Brian P; Kile, Molly L; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J

    2015-06-01

    Mercury and arsenic are known developmental toxicants. Prenatal exposures are associated with adverse childhood health outcomes that could be in part mediated by epigenetic alterations that may also contribute to altered immune profiles. In this study, we examined the association between prenatal mercury exposure on both DNA methylation and white blood cell composition of cord blood, and evaluated the interaction with prenatal arsenic exposure. A total of 138 mother-infant pairs with postpartum maternal toenail mercury, prenatal urinary arsenic concentrations, and newborn cord blood were assessed using the Illumina Infinium Methylation450 array. White blood cell composition was inferred from DNA methylation measurements. A doubling in toenail mercury concentration was associated with a 2.5% decrease (95% CI: 5.0%, 1.0%) in the estimated monocyte proportion. An increase of 3.5% (95% CI: 1.0, 7.0) in B-cell proportion was observed for females only. Among the top 100 CpGs associated with toenail mercury levels (ranked on P-value), there was a significant enrichment of loci located in North shore regions of CpG islands (P = 0.049), and the majority of these loci were hypermethylated (85%). Among the top 100 CpGs for the interaction between arsenic and mercury, there was a greater than expected proportion of loci located in CpG islands (P = 0.045) and in South shore regions (P = 0.009) and all of these loci were hypermethylated. This work supports the hypothesis that mercury may be contributing to epigenetic variability and immune cell proportion changes, and suggests that in utero exposure to mercury and arsenic, even at low levels, may interact to impact the epigenome. PMID:25923418

  1. In utero exposure to phthalate downregulates critical genes in leydig cells of f1 male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaran, Suganya; Jagadeesan, Arunakaran

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are the largest group of environmental pollutants and are considered toxicant to the endocrine system. The present study was aimed to test the effect of in utero exposure of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on Leydig cell steroidogenesis in F1 male offspring's. Pregnant dams were oral gavaged with different doses (1, 10, and 100?mg/kg/day) of DEHP or olive oil during gestational Day 9-21. Serum testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2 ) levels were significantly reduced in male offspring at 60 days of age. Our results also demonstrate a coordinate, dose-dependent disruption of genes involved in steroidogenesis. The gene expression of StAR, Cyp11a1, 3?-HSD, 17?-HSD, 5?-reductase and cytochrome P450 19a1 (or) aromatase (Cyp-19) were significantly decreased. The transcription factors like steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and specific protein-1 (Sp-1) showed a significant decrease in 10 and 100?mg DEHP treatment group. DNA methylation analysis using bisulfite specific-methylation PCR shows hypermethylation in the SF-1 and Sp-1 promoter regions. Further to determine whether the DEHP-induced methylation changes were associated with increased DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) levels, we measured the expression levels of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Dnmt1, and Dnmt3l using real-time PCR and Western blot method. The mRNA and protein expressions of Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, and Dnmt1 were stimulated in 10 and 100?mg DEHP treatment groups, whereas no significant change was seen in Dnmt3l expression, suggesting that increased Dnmt3a/b, Dnmt1 may cause DNA hypermethylation in testicular Leydig cells. Overall, these data suggest that gestational exposure to DEHP affects adult testicular function via altered methylation patterns. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 1466-1477, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25649163

  2. Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ?50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy-1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy-1), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict thtandard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

  3. In Utero Exposure to Compounds with Dioxin-like Activity and Birth Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds may affect fetal growth and development. We evaluated the association between in utero dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study. METHODS: We measured dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood plasma samples collected at delivery using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX) bioassay in 967 mother-child pairs, in Denmark, Greece, Norway, Spain, and England. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the associations with birth weight, gestational age, and head circumference. RESULTS: Plasma dioxin-like activity was higher in maternal sample than in cord samples. Birth weight was lower with medium (-58 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -176 to 62]) and high (-82 g [-216 to 53]) tertiles of exposure (cord blood) compared with the lowest tertile. Gestational age was shorter by approximately half a week in the highest compared with the lowest (-0.4 weeks [95% CI = -0.8 to -0.1]). This association was stronger in boys than in girls, although the statistical evidence for interaction was weak (P = 0.22). Analysis based on CALUX-toxic equivalents expressed per milliliter of plasma showed similar trends. We found no association between dioxin-like activity in maternal plasma and birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this international general population study suggest an association between low-level prenatal dioxin-like activity and shorter gestational age, particularly in boys, with weaker associations for birth weight.

  4. Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2-/-) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2-/- and Folbp2+/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

  5. In utero exposure to compounds with dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds may affect fetal growth and development. We evaluated the association between in utero dioxin-like activity and birth outcomes in a prospective European mother-child study. METHODS: We measured dioxin-like activity in maternal and cord blood plasma samples collected at delivery using the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX) bioassay in 967 mother-child pairs, in Denmark, Greece, Norway, Spain, and England. Multiple linear regression models were used to investigate the associations with birth weight, gestational age, and head circumference. RESULTS: Plasma dioxin-like activity was higher in maternal sample than in cord samples. Birth weight was lower with medium (-58 g [95% confidence interval (CI) = -176 to 62]) and high (-82 g [-216 to 53]) tertiles of exposure (cord blood) compared with the lowest tertile. Gestational age was shorter by approximately half a week in the highest compared with the lowest (-0.4 weeks [95% CI = -0.8 to -0.1]). This association was stronger in boys than in girls, although the statistical evidence for interaction was weak (P = 0.22). Analysis based on CALUX-toxic equivalents expressed per milliliter of plasma showed similar trends. We found no association between dioxin-like activity in maternal plasma and birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this international general population study suggest an association between low-level prenatal dioxin-like activity and shorter gestational age, particularly in boys, with weaker associations for birth weight.

  6. In utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses resulting from maternal ingestion of strontium isotopes from the Techa river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable estimates of tissue doses to individuals exposed as a result of radioactive releases to the Techa River are essential prerequisites for epidemiological analyses. This paper describes progress made in collaborative studies, sponsored by the European Union, between the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine and the UK Health Protection Agency to provide dose estimates to Techa River populations following in utero exposures and infant exposures resulting from breast-feeding. Studies have concentrated on the assessment of internal doses from 90Sr as the main contributor to internal doses to the Techa River populations. (authors)

  7. Successful in utero treatment of an oral teratoma via operative fetoscopy: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Eftichia V; Gualtieri, Marc; Quintero, Rubén A

    2012-07-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of a nasopharyngeal teratoma carries a very grave prognosis. Although these tumors constitute only 9% of all teratomas, all previous cases diagnosed antenatally have been associated with either fetal demise or emergent surgery at birth. Of the fetuses that survive to birth, delivery can be associated with airway obstruction and multiple postnatal surgeries. These complications could be averted if the tumor could be safely treated in utero. We hereby report the successful treatment of an oral teratoma via operative fetoscopy, with the birth of a healthy infant at term. PMID:22541612

  8. The Effects of High-Fat Diet Exposure In Utero on the Obesogenic and Diabetogenic Traits Through Epigenetic Changes in Adiponectin and Leptin Gene Expression for Multiple Generations in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Hisashi; Mitsui, Takashi; Nobumoto, Etsuko; Hiramatsu, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that epigenetic changes under malnutrition in utero might play important roles in transgenerational links with metabolic diseases. We have previously shown that exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) in utero may cause a metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon through epigenetic modifications of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Because an association of obesity between mother and offspring endured in multiple generations, we examined whether HFD exposure in utero might affect the metabolic status of female offspring through multigenerational epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes and whether a normal diet in utero for multiple generations might abolish such epigenetic changes after exposure to a HFD in utero using ICR mice. We observed that the effect of maternal HFD on offspring over multiple generations in metabolic syndrome-like phenomenon such as weight and fat mass gain, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, abnormal adiponectin and leptin levels, and hypertension, were accumulated with expression and epigenetic changes in Adiponectin and Leptin genes. A normal diet in utero in the subsequent generations after HFD exposure in utero diminished, and a normal diet in utero for 3 generations completely abolished, the effect of HFD in utero on weight and fat mass gain, insulin resistance, serum triglyceride, adiponectin, and leptin levels, with epigenetic changes of Adiponectin and Leptin genes. Exposure to a HFD in utero might affect glucose and lipid metabolism of female offspring through epigenetic modifications to Adiponectin and Leptin genes for multiple generations. Obesogenic and diabetogenic traits were abolished after a maternal normal diet for 3 generations. PMID:25853666

  9. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cevix without in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix (CCAC is usually seen in women with a history of in utero exposure to diethyl acetyl bestrol (DES. We report two cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix with no history of exposure to DES in embryonic period. "n"nCase presentation: The first case was a 14-year-old women with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. There was atypical cells in Pap Smear and a bleeding tumor with 1.5 cm in diameter was found in vagina. She was admitted with a diagnosis of CCAC of the uterine cervix stage Ib2 according to FIGO classification."n"n The second case was a 23-year-old patient with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. The results of cervical cytology was normal. Evaluation of the punch biopsy sample revealed CCAC. Her clinical exam showed stage IIb according to FIGO classification.  Both patients had no history of exposure to DES during embryonic period. The first patient treated with radical abdominal hysterectomy and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy and for the another one external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy was performed. There was no any recurrence or metastasis after an 18-24 months follow-up"n"nConclusions: Primary clear cell carcinoma of cervix could be unrelated to HPV infection or exposure to DES during embryonic period and in approach to these patients this subject should be considered.

  10. Influence of in utero di-n-hexyl phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate on fetal testicular development in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydo?an Ahbab, Müfide; Barlas, Nurhayat

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHP) and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) on male reproductive development in utero. Pregnant rats were exposed to DHP and DCHP at doses of 0 (vehicle), 20, 100 and 500mg/kg/day, by gavage, on gestational days (GD) 6-19. A significant decrease in the anogenital distance (AGD) of male fetuses was observed at all doses of DHP and DCHP. The AGD/cube root of body weight ratio in male fetuses was also significantly reduced compared to control group. The litters with resorption, percentage of resorptions and inhibin B levels increased in treatment groups. Moreover, testosterone and MIS/AMH levels in all treatment groups decreased. Although FSH and inhibin B levels of male pups exposed to DHP and DCHP increased, FSH/inhibin B ratio decreased in treatment groups. Reduced testosterone production in response to DHP and DCHP exposure appeared to be related to changes in testosterone metabolism, as shown by decreased 3?-HSD immunoexpression. The percentages of large Leydig clusters increased after exposure to DHP and DCHP in utero. Histopathological examination of the testis on GD20 revealed changes at all doses. Relative integrated immunodensities of 3?-HSD, MIS/AMH, PCNA and AR decreased after DHP and DCHP exposures. Altered fetal Sertoli cell development and function may be caused by disrupted PMC function revealed by reduced AR production in these cells in treatment groups. PMID:25637754

  11. Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

  12. Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and ?26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. A Screening Study of Thyroid Cancer and Other Thyroid Diseases among Individuals Exposed in Utero to Iodine-131 from Chernobyl Fallout

    OpenAIRE

    Hatch, M.; Brenner, A.; Bogdanova, T.; Derevyanko, A.; Kuptsova, N.; Likhtarev, I.; Bouville, A.; Tereshchenko, V.; Kovgan, L.; Shpak, V.; Ostroumova, E.; Greenebaum, E.; Zablotska, L.; Ron, E.; Tronko, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Like stable iodine, radioiodines concentrate in the thyroid gland, increasing thyroid cancer risk in exposed children. Data on exposure to the embryonic/fetal thyroid are rare, raising questions about use of iodine 131 (I-131) in pregnant women. We present here estimated risks of thyroid disease from exposure in utero to I-131 fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident.

  14. Neurological deficit among the survivors exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A reassessment and new directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive epidemiological and experimental literature records the deleterious effects on the embryonic and fetal central nervous system of exposure to ionizing radiation; much of the human evidence stems from studies of the in utero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (orig./MG)

  15. Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2010-01-01

    Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

  16. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

  17. The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

  18. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactese results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

  19. Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários / Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Ataíde, Dias.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciê [...] ncia da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science [...] are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

  20. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  1. Target-antigen Detection and Localization of Human Amniotic-derived Cells after in Utero Transplantation in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrai, Giovanni Pietro; Antuofermo, Elisabetta; Farigu, Serafina; Cargnoni, Anna; Bonassi, Patrizia; Pasciu, Valeria; Demontis, Maria Piera; Parolini, Ornella; Varoni, Maria Vittoria

    2015-05-01

    Human amniotic-derived cells (hAMCs) have recently raised interest for their differentiation capability and immunomodulatory properties. To assess the feasibility of hAMCs therapeutic treatment during fetal development, we explored the localization of cells derived from the human amniotic membrane in rat organs after in utero transplantation. Rats were sacrificed at different time points and their organs were analyzed for the distribution of hAMCs by immunohistochemistry using an antibody against Human Cytoplasm and through detection of human DNA. Immunohistochemical and PCR analysis showed that most of the rat tissues presented human cells/DNA suggesting a widespread migration of hAMCs after transplantation. We developed an efficient target-antigen detection method based on an immunohistochemical technique that resulted to be highly specific and sensitive to identify the hAMCs into rat tissues. PMID:26116590

  2. Exposure parameters necessary for delayed puberty and mammary gland development in Long-Evans rats exposed in utero to atrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our studies suggested that prenatal exposure to the herbicide atrazine (ATR) could delay vaginal opening (VO) and mammary development in the offspring of Long-Evans (LE) rats. To evaluate ATR exposure parameters required for pubertal delays, including mammary gland development, we used cross-fostering to determine if effects were strictly dam-mediated (via milk) or a direct effect (transplacental) on the pups. Timed-pregnant LE rats (N = 20/treatment group) were gavaged on gestational days (GD) 15-19 with 100 mg ATR/kg body weight (BW) or vehicle (controls, C). On PND1, half of all litters were cross-fostered, creating four treatment groups: C-C, ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR (dam-milk source, respectively). A significant delay in VO and increase in VO BW was seen only in the litters receiving milk from ATR-exposed dams. However, mammary glands of female offspring (two per dam) in all groups exposed to ATR (ATR-C, C-ATR, and ATR-ATR) displayed significant delays in epithelial development. These changes were detected as early as PND4 and stunted development was evident through PND40. Further, at all developmental stages examined, offspring in the ATR-ATR group exhibited the least developed glands. These delays in pubertal endpoints do not appear to be related to body weight or endocrine hormone concentrations. Our data suggest that the delay in VO of ATR-exposed offspring (C-ATR lactationally, ATR-ATR lactationally and in utero) is mediated via the dam [milk], whereas brie mediated via the dam [milk], whereas brief direct exposure to ATR in utero can cause delays in mammary gland development. Our data suggest that milk-derived factors (growth factors or hormones), in addition to transplacental exposure during mammary bud outgrowth, may be involved in ATR mode of action on delayed mammary gland development

  3. Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eltayb M., Abuelzein; Mofeed A., Al-Khaliyfa; Ahmed A., Gameel.

    Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak o [...] r malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

  4. The retro placental hematoma and fetal death in utero: About 49 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saida Mezane

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Retro Placental Hematoma (RPH or placental abruption untimely normally inserted paroxysmal is an accident that threatens maternal and fetal prognosis. It is a major emergency obstetric pathology and remains the second leading cause of maternal mortality after postpartum haemorrhage. It is actually very difficult to have an accurate evaluation the frequency of the HRP because it requires a complete table including Pathologists; or simple macroscopic or microscopic findings; or purely clinical diagnosis for some. Its occurrence requires appropriate resuscitation and adapted care to improve the prognosis. We report our study of 49 cases the HRP hospitalized in Obstetrics and Gynecology of Instruction Military Hospital Mohamed V in Rabat, diagnosed on a suggestive clinical picture and the presence of hematoma after examining the issue. This is a descriptive and comparative retrospective study over a period of one year. This study compared two groups: with HRP feotale death in utero and HRP without fetal death in utero. This study aims to evaluate neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity related to RPH and therapeutic modalities. This pathology formerly known pathology multiparous tends to reach more and more heifer. The important blood loss and delay the expulsion worse prognosis causing severe maternal morbidity hence the need to expand the indications for cesarean of retro placental hematoma regardless of the fetal state. Our study aims to contribute to reduce mortality and morbidity Fetomaternal by improving our work is stepping up efforts for a rapid decision-making, and we must educate what especially pregnant women of the risk factors to see from the beginning of symptoms. The pregnancy monitoring, early diagnosis of RPH, an obstetrical treatment adequate, and a resuscitation well driving can improve the prognosis of this disease.

  5. ``If it's not on the Web, it doesn't exist at all'': Electronic Information Resources -- Myth and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Rayburn, Sarah; Bouton, Ellen N.

    In this paper, we review the current status of astronomical research via electronic means, with an eye towards separating the hype from the hypothetical in hopes of revealing the actual state of affairs. We will review both anecdotal and scholarly work aimed at documenting the state of research using the World Wide Web and demonstrate that although there is enormous potential in electronic research, much of that potential is as yet unrealized. In addition, especially in astronomy, a significant amount of material is not (yet) available electronically and likely will never be. Finally, we will point out the potential danger of a looming paradigm shift in the way astronomers conduct research and the possible consequences thereof. \\end{abstract}

  6. CMS Molecular Biology Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher M.

    The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

  7. Clinician?selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician?selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653?9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour?long interviews and think?aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty?five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple?choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty?three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword?based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician?selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of one correct answer was due to the answers from 5 (10.9% questions changing from correct to incorrect, while the answers to 6 questions (13.0% changed from incorrect to correct. The ability to provide correct answers differed among the various resources. Google and Cochrane provided the correct answers about 50% of the time while PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, UpToDate, Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews and InfoPOEMs were more likely to be associated with incorrect answers. Physicians also seemed unable to determine when they needed to search for informationi n order to make an accurate decision.Conclusion – Clinician?selected electronic information resources did not guarantee accuracy in the answers provided to simulated clinical questions. At times the use of these resources caused physicians to change self?determined correct answers to incorrect ones. The authors state that this was possibly due to factors such as poor choice of resources, ineffective search strategies, time constraints and automation bias. Library and information practitioners have an important role to play in identifying and advocating for appropriate information resources to be integrated into the electronic medical record systems provided by healthcare institutions to ensure evidence based health care delivery.

  8. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  9. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Lorna M.; Allison Littlejohn; Charles Duncan

    2001-01-01

    The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk) is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk). This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  10. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  11. Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

  12. Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of...

  13. Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as 'little adults'; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahrb-1/d ('responsive') genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahrd/d ('non-responsive') siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiin utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing

  14. Lymphoma and Lung Cancer in Offspring Born to Pregnant Mice Dosed with Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The Importance of In Utero Versus Lactational Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, David J.; Lo?hr, Christiane V.; Fischer, Kay A.; Pereira, Clifford B.; Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as “little adults”; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero versus lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especiall...

  15. In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja S. Zabka

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

  16. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Ex-Utero intrapartum procedure for congenital high airway obstruction syndrome in a neonate: First case in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Large fetal neck masses can present a major challenge for securing an airway at birth with associated risks of hypoxia, brain injury and death. Teratomas of the oropharynx are rare, presenting 3% of teratomas in childhood, and are treated by surgical excision. If respiratory distress accompanies the lesion, priority must be given to the securing of the airway. Case History: We present a case of an infant who was diagnosed antenatally as having a huge oropharyngeal teratoma. The anaesthetic, surgical and neonatology teams were ready to perform surgical excision depending on the placental circulation immediately after securing the airway. The tumour weighed 1591 g and was 20 x 22 x 12 cm. The patient was a male and weighed 715 g. Histopathology showed Grade II teratoma. Conclusion: Large fetal neck masses can present a major challenge for securing an airway at birth with associated risks of hypoxia, brain injury and death. A multidisciplinary team approach combined with an accurate prenatal diagnosis obtained through fetal ultrasound is the key to a successful outcome. Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT that is based on the placental blood during intubation, tracheostomy or surgical excision is the standard procedure.

  19. Age-related increases in long-range connectivity in fetal functional neural connectivity networks in utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E. Thomason

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of operational neural networks is one of the most significant accomplishments of human fetal brain growth. Recent advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI have made it possible to obtain information about brain function during fetal development. Specifically, resting-state fMRI and novel signal covariation approaches have opened up a new avenue for non-invasive assessment of neural functional connectivity (FC before birth. Early studies in this area have unearthed new insights about principles of prenatal brain function. However, very little is known about the emergence and maturation of neural networks during fetal life. Here, we obtained cross-sectional rs-fMRI data from 39 fetuses between 24 and 38 weeks postconceptual age to examine patterns of connectivity across ten neural FC networks. We identified primitive forms of motor, visual, default mode, thalamic, and temporal networks in the human fetal brain. We discovered the first evidence of increased long-range, cerebral-cerebellar, cortical-subcortical, and intra-hemispheric FC with advancing fetal age. Continued aggregation of data about fundamental neural connectivity systems in utero is essential to establishing principles of connectomics at the beginning of human life. Normative data provides a vital context against which to compare instances of abnormal neurobiological development.

  20. Effects of yoga on utero-fetal-placental circulation in high-risk pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhshani, Abbas; Nagarathna, Raghuram; Mhaskar, Rita; Mhaskar, Arun; Thomas, Annamma; Gunasheela, Sulochana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Impaired placentation and inadequate trophoblast invasion have been associated with the etiology of many pregnancy complications and have been correlated with the first trimester uterine artery resistance. Previous studies have shown the benefits of yoga in improving pregnancy outcomes and those of yogic visualization in revitalizing the human tissues. Methods. 59 high-risk pregnant women were randomized into yoga (n = 27) and control (n = 32) groups. The yoga group received standard care plus yoga sessions (1 hour/day, 3 times/week), from 12th to 28th week of gestation. The control group received standard care plus conventional antenatal exercises (walking). Measurements were assessed at 12th, 20th, and 28th weeks of gestation. Results. RM-ANOVA showed significantly higher values in the yoga group (28th week) for biparietal diameter (P = 0.001), head circumference (P = 0.002), femur length (P = 0.005), and estimated fetal weight (P = 0.019). The resistance index in the right uterine artery (P = 0.01), umbilical artery (P = 0.011), and fetal middle cerebral artery (P = 0.048) showed significantly lower impedance in the yoga group. Conclusion. The results of this first randomized study of yoga in high-risk pregnancy suggest that guided yogic practices and visualization can improve the intrauterine fetal growth and the utero-fetal-placental circulation. PMID:25688304

  1. Mortality of in-utero children exposed to the A-bomb and of offspring of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort-type follow-up study has been carried out by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the mortality of children exposed to A-bomb radiation while in utero. The mortality increased with tissue dose during the first year of life and did not increase during the following nine years, but an increase with dose was again suggested during 10-32 years of age. A detailed analysis of infant mortality revealed that the dose-associated excess in mortality among those under one year of age, especially within one month after birth, was attributable partly to the mechanical injury of the mother, but this does not provide the whole explanation. There was no increase of mortality from cancer including leukaemia with dose. As the number of cancer deaths is at present only five, further careful follow-up on this cohort is necessary to determine the state of radiation-induced cancer among this cohort. The continuing study on mortality rates among children born to A-bomb survivors has been updated to 1976. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on survival of the offspring (average age 24 years) could be demonstrated either by a contingency chi2-type of analysis or regression analysis. (author)

  2. Facing the noncommunicable disease (NCD) global epidemic--the battle of prevention starts in utero--the FIGO challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Lluis Cabero; Arulkumaran, Sir Sabaratnam

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are responsible for 36 million deaths every year. Of this death toll, nearly 80% (29 million) occur in low- and median-income countries. More than 9 million deaths attributed to NCDs occur in people under 60 years of age. National economies are suffering considerable losses due to premature death or disability to work resulting from heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. The knowledge that in utero and in early childhood certain processes can affect the risk of developing NCDs provides an opportunity to enforce interventions during this critical time, when they may have the greatest effect. Using appropriate protocols, the health-care provider can educate mothers about the risks of certain nutritional and environmental exposures and integrate health promotion on the agenda, as part of the social and economic development. All this could motivate a substantial reduction in the risk of NCDs. Current and future health challenges demand new and changing competencies that should form the basis for education, training, and workforce planning. The International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) is aware of that responsibility and has joined hands with other agencies and organizations that make a considerable effort in providing appropriate prenatal care programs to prevent and treat most of the common preconditioning factors, especially in low-income countries. PMID:25248554

  3. Low Rate of Prenatal Diagnosis among Neonates with Critical Aortic Stenosis: Insight into the Natural History In Utero (Aortic Stenosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Lindsay R.; Moon-Grady, Anita; Escobar-Diaz, Maria C.; Gotteiner, Nina L.; Young, Luciana T.; McElhinney, Doff B.; Tworetzky, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the natural history and spectrum of fetal aortic stenosis (AS), we aimed to 1) determine the prenatal diagnosis rate of neonates with critical AS and a biventricular (BV) outcome; and 2) describe the findings at fetal echocardiography in prenatally diagnosed patients. Methods A multi-center, retrospective study was performed from 2000 to 2013. Neonates with critical AS who were discharged with a BV outcome were included. The prenatal diagnosis rate was compared to that reported for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Fetal echocardiographic findings in prenatally diagnosed patients were reviewed. Results Only 10 of 117 neonates (8.5%) with critical AS and a BV outcome were diagnosed prenatally, a rate significantly lower than that for HLHS in the contemporary era (82%; p<0.0001). Of the 10 patients diagnosed prenatally, all developed LV dysfunction by a median gestational age of 33 weeks (range, 28–35). When present, Doppler abnormalities such as retrograde flow in the aortic arch (n=2), monophasic mitral inflow (n=2), and left to right flow across the foramen ovale (n=8) developed late in gestation (median 33 weeks). Conclusion The prenatal diagnosis rate among neonates with critical AS and a BV outcome is very low, likely due to a relatively normal 4-chamber view in mid-gestation with development of significant obstruction in the 3rd trimester. This natural history contrasts with that of severe mid-gestation AS with evolving HLHS and suggests that the timing in gestation of significant AS has an important impact on subsequent left heart growth in utero. PMID:25251721

  4. In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.; BØtner, Anette

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2 and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets and age-matched uninfected controls.The key observation in the present study is that high levels of CD8+ cells constitute a dominant feature in peripheral blood and BALF of piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. In BALF, the average high level of CD8+ cells in 2-week-old infected piglets (33.4±12.6%) was followed by a decline to 7.3±3.0 and 11.1±3.0% at 4 and 6 weeks of age. BALF of control piglets contained 1.6±0.9, 2.3±1.8 and 1.9±0.5% CD8+ cells, only. In peripheral blood, however, the average number of CD8+ cells remained at high levels in the infected piglets throughout the post-natal experimental period (2.8±1.9, 2.9±1.8 and 3.2±1.7×106 CD8+ cells/ml at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively). In the controls, the average levels of CD8+ cells were 0.9±0.2, 1.9±1.7 and 1.6±0.5×106/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the numbers of CD2+, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero infection with PRRSV modulates immune cell populations in peripheral blood and BALF of surviving piglets. The observed changes are characterised by high levels of CD8+ cells supporting an important role of these cells in PRRSV infection. The present results, however, do not support the existence of post-natal immunosuppression following in utero infection with PRRSV.

  5. In Utero DDT and DDE Exposure and Obesity Status of 7-Year-Old Mexican-American Children in the CHAMACOS Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Raul Aguilar; Harley, Kim G.; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been hypothesized to increase risk of obesity later in life. Objectives: The Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study is a longitudinal birth cohort of low-income Latinas living in a California agricultural community. We examined the relation of in utero DDT and DDE exposure to child obesity at 7 years of age. We also examined the trend with age (2, 3.5, 5, and 7 years) in the exposure–obesity relation. Methods: We included 270 children with o,p´-DDT, p,p´-DDT, and p,p´-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum during pregnancy (nanograms per gram lipid) and complete 7-year follow-up data including weight (kilograms) and height (centimeters). Body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared) was calculated and obesity was defined as ? 95th percentile on the sex-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts. Results: At 7 years, 96 (35.6%) children were obese. A 10-fold increase in o,p´-DDT, p,p´-DDT, or p,p´-DDE, was nonsignificantly associated with increased odds (OR) of obesity [o,p´-DDT adjusted (adj-) OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.82; p,p´-DDT adj-OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.74; p,p´-DDE adj-OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.72, 2.06]. With increasing age at follow-up, we observed a significant trend toward a positive association between DDT and DDE exposure and odds of obesity. Conclusion: We did not find a significant positive relation between in utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7-year-old children. However, given the observed trend with age, continued follow-up will be informative. PMID:23512307

  6. Fine structural lesions and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, W. T.; Capen, C C

    1980-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) produced ultrastructural lesions of thyroid follicular cells and a reduction in serum levels of thyroid hormones in neonatal (0, 7, 14, and 21 days of age) Osborne-Mendel rats exposed to 50 or 500 ppm PCB in utero and by the milk. Litter size was decreased significantly in rats fed 500 ppm PCB. Body weights at 21 days of age were reduced in rats exposed to 50 and 500 ppm PCB. The ultrastructural lesions in follicular cells were dose- and age-dependent but were ...

  7. Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royo Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

  8. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. PMID:25247662

  9. Gender, work & organization [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a central theme in social science research in the field of work and organization, the study of gender has achieved contemporary significance beyond the confines of early discussions of women at work. Launched in 1994, Gender, Work and Organization was the first journal to provide an arena dedicated to debate and analysis of gender relations, the organization of gender and the gendering of organizations.

  10. Business source elite [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Business Source Elite provides full-text coverage of scholarly business, management and economics journals. This rich collection also includes publications covering topics such as accounting, banking, finance, international business, marketing, sales, etc.

  11. Western European Union [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Western European Union, an organization created by a treaty signed in Brussels on 17 March 1948 (the Brussels Treaty) by Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Its main feature was the commitment to mutual defence and economic, social and cultural collaboration between its signatories. On 23 October 1954, the Brussels Treaty was modified to include the Federal Republic of Germany and Italy. The site includes a detailed history of the organization, archives, full-texts of the Brussels Treaty and other documents.

  12. European Broadcasting Union [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), an organization for public service broadcasters headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Contact information via mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail. Information on membership, conferences and workshops, Eurovision programs and services, and publications, including a publication catalog. Provides EBU statistics and information on legal and technical activities. Links to broadcasting related sites.

  13. NASA tech briefs [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly magazine features exclusive reports of innovations developed by NASA and its industry partners/contractors that can be applied to develop new/improved products and solve engineering or manufacturing problems. Authored by the engineers or

  14. Finance and Development [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the current edition of the online business journal "Finance and Development," published by the International Monetary Fund. Offers articles on economics and finance, subscription information, access to back issues, and editorial staff

  15. Zhongwen.com [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English Chinese / Chinese English dictionary. Uses a system of character trees to show the connections between characters according to traditional Chinese etymologies. Chinese search terms may be input as pinyin, or via radical or stroke count.

  16. European Patent Office [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the European Patent Office, which was established by the Convention on the Grant of European Patents in 1973 as part of European countries' efforts to establish a uniform patent system for the participating countries. Links to information on what's new with the office, the latest on patent information, and where to find patent information.

  17. Babylon dictionaries & glossaries [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Database of 25 dictionaries in 12 languages, professional glossaries from commercial companies and premium content providers, and thousands of user contributed glossaries in specific areas of expertise.

  18. VTT Prosessit : Ydinenergia [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the nuclear energy branch of Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, a contractor of Finnish research assignments which co-ordinates national research programmes on reactor safety, nuclear waste management, fusion technology and contributes to energy systems research. Its website provides a gateway to all VTT nuclear services, research programmes, and publications in full-text.

  19. CERN document server [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permits searching through the bibliographic information and the full-text of documents stored in CDS catalogues. Includes over 666,000 bibliographic records, including 320,000 full-text documents, of interest to people working in particle physics and related areas. Covers preprints, articles, books, journals, photographs, and much more.

  20. Oxford dictionaries online [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully searchable, completely comprehensive bilingual dictionaries, and unique study materials that provide extra help with learning and using an expanding range of languages. Languages included are English, Russian, Chinese, Arabic, Italian, German and Spanish.

  1. IAEA.org [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Website of the IAEA, the world's center of cooperation in the nuclear field, set up as the world's "Atoms for Peace" organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote safe, secure and peaceful nuclear technologies. The website was formerly known as Worldatom.

  2. In utero exposure to the antiandrogen 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) in relation to anogenital distance in male newborns from Chiapas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Longnecker, Matthew P; Gladen, Beth C; Cupul-Uicab, Lea A.; Romano-Riquer, S. Patricia; Weber, Jean-Phillipe; Chapin, Robert E.; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2007-01-01

    The insecticide DDT is still used for disease control in some areas, resulting in high levels of human exposure. The main degradation product of DDT is 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), an antiandrogen. In animal experiments, in utero exposure to DDE decreases anogenital distance in male offspring. In these models, anogenital distance serves as a measure of fetal androgen action. The authors designed the present study to examine the hypothesis that in utero exposure to DDE d...

  3. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008): 602-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-01-01

    Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finni...

  4. Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacón Cecilia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of the signals in placenta and syncytial streamers was digitally analysed. Flt1 and eNOS content of placental homogenates was determined by western blotting. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Results In the subplacenta, placental interlobium and labyrinth VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were expressed in all stages of pregnancy. Syncytial streamers in all stages of gestation, and cytotrophoblasts surrounding myometrial arteries in early and mid pregnancy – and replacing the smooth muscle at term – displayed immunoreactivity for VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, eNOS and B2R. In partly disrupted mesometrial arteries in late pregnancy cytotrophoblasts and endothelial cells expressed VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS. Sections incubated in absence of the first antibody, or in presence of rabbit IgG fraction and mouse IgG serum, yielded no staining. According to the digital analysis, Flt-1 increased in the placental interlobium in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.016, and in the labyrinth in day 60 as compared to days 20 and 40 (P = 0.026, while the signals for VEGF, KDR, B2R, and eNOS showed no variations along pregnancy. In syncytial streamers the intensity of VEGF immunoreactivity was increased in day 40 in comparison to day 20 (P = 0.027, while that of B2R decreased in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.011; VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS expression showed no variations. Western blots for eNOS and Flt-1 in placental homogenates showed no significant temporal differences along pregnancy. Conclusion The demonstration of different angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the same cellular protagonists of angiogenesis and invasion in the pregnant guinea-pig, supports the presence of a functional network, and strengthens the argument that this species provides an adequate model to understand human pregnancy.

  5. In Utero and Childhood Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Exposures and Body Mass at Age 7 Years: The CHAMACOS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Harley, Kim G.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Bradman, Asa; Kogut, Katherine; Huen, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are lipophilic flame retardants that bioaccumulate in humans. Child serum PBDE concentrations in California are among the highest worldwide. PBDEs may be associated with obesity by disrupting endocrine systems. Objective In this study, we examined whether pre- and postnatal exposure to the components of pentaBDE mixture was associated with childhood obesity in a population of Latino children participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study in the Salinas Valley, California. Methods We measured PBDEs in serum collected from 224 mothers during pregnancy and their children at 7 years of age, and examined associations with body mass index (BMI) at age 7 years. Results Maternal PBDE serum levels during pregnancy were associated with higher BMI z-scores in boys (BMI z-score ?adjusted = 0.26; 95% CI: –0.19, 0.72) but lower scores in girls (BMI z-score ?adjusted = –0.41; 95% CI: –0.87, –0.05) at 7 years of age (pinteraction = 0.04). In addition, child’s serum BDE-153 concentration (log10), but not other pentaBDE congeners, demonstrated inverse associations with BMI at age 7 years (BMI z-score ?adjusted = –1.15; 95% CI: –1.53, –0.77), but there was no interaction by sex. Conclusions We estimated sex-specific associations with maternal PBDE levels during pregnancy and BMI at 7 years of age, finding positive associations in boys and negative associations in girls. Children’s serum BDE-153 concentrations were inversely associated with BMI at 7 years with no difference by sex. Future studies should examine the longitudinal trends in obesity with PBDE exposure and changes in hormonal environment as children transition through puberty, as well as evaluate the potential for reverse causality. Citation Erkin-Cakmak A, Harley KG, Chevrier J, Bradman A, Kogut K, Huen K, Eskenazi B. 2015. In utero and childhood polybrominated diphenyl ether exposures and body mass at age 7 years: the CHAMACOS Study. Environ Health Perspect 123:636–642;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408417 PMID:25738596

  6. Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

    2004-09-15

    Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

  7. In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odagiri Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on the CNS. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to low concentration of diesel exhaust on behaviour and the monoaminergic neuron system. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and monoamine levels in the CNS were assessed. Methods Mice were exposed prenatally to a low concentration of diesel exhaust (171 ?g DEP/m3 for 8 hours/day on gestational days 2-16. SLA was assessed for 3 days in 4-week-old mice by analysis of the release of temperature-associated infrared rays. At 5 weeks of age, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were used for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results and Discussion Mice exposed to a low concentration of diesel exhaust showed decreased SLA in the first 60 minutes of exposure. Over the entire test period, the mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust showed decreased daily SLA compared to that in control mice, and the SLA in each 3 hour period was decreased when the lights were turned on. Neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and noradrenaline, were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in the exposure group compared to the control group. The metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline also increased in the PFC. Neurotransmitter turnover, an index of neuronal activity, of dopamine and noradrenaline was decreased in various regions of the CNS, including the striatum, in the exposure group. The serum corticosterone level was not different between groups. The data suggest that decreased SLA in mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust is due to facilitated release of dopamine in the PFC. Conclusions These results indicate that exposure of mice in utero to a low concentration of diesel exhaust decreases SLA and alters the neurochemical monoamine metabolism of several regions of the brain.

  8. Effect of in utero-administered coumestrol, equol, and organic selenium on biomarkers for phase 2 enzyme capacity and redox status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, F.; Jensen, P. S.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in utero administration of coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast on selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes, plasma hormone levels, and markers for redox status in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The test compounds were administered via the diet to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. Within 24 h following delivery dams and offspring were sacrificed, and blood, liver and reproductive organs were sampled. Coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast did not significantly affect hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR), or RBC glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) in the offspring, whereas significant increases in GST QR, and GP(x) activities in dams were observed following administration of selenium-enriched yeast. The level of 17beta-estradiol in offspring from coumestrol-exposed dams was significantly increased compared with the control. The present results indicate that selenium-enriched yeast, coumestrol, andequol affect selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes and GP(x) in RBC in dams, whereas the offspring in general were refractive to the employed treatments. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the observed in utero effects imposed by the selected plant compounds confer permanent alterations on the health status of the animal resulting in an altered resistance to cancer.

  9. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovacik, Meric A. [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sen, Banalata [National Center for Environmental Assessment, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Euling, Susan Y. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460 (United States); Gaido, Kevin W. [U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, Division of Human Food Safety, Rockville, MD 20855 (United States); Ierapetritou, Marianthi G. [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Androulakis, Ioannis P., E-mail: yannis@rci.rutgers.edu [Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Rutgers University, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  10. Biochemical analysis of cerebrum of fetal rats X-irradiated in utero - content and composition of DNA, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero and biochemical analysis of the cerebrum was performed. The cerebral weight was significantly lower in the irradiated group on gestational day (gd) 13 with 100R than in the control group from gd 19 to postnatal day (pd) 15. In the isolation step for cerebral DNA on gd 21, decreased DNA contents of the homogenate and isolated nuclei and an increase in the ratio of protein to DNA in nuclei and isolated DNA were observed on X-irradiation. Analysis of the nucleoside composition of isolated DNA showed the radiation resistivity of dAdo. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was extremely low in fetal cerebrum. The lipid peroxide (LP) level of the cerebrum in the irradiated group was increased compared to that in the control group. Administration of vitamin E during pregnancy resulted in an increased cerebral weight and a decreased cerebral LP level in the irradiated fetuses. The low activity of SOD may be one of the factors which cause the vulnerability of the fetal brain to irradiation. The study on vitamin E supplementation showed evidence of the possibility of the prevention of microcephaly induced by X-irradiation in utero. (orig.)

  11. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data

  12. Consumer Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta has compiled this useful collection of links and online brochures about a variety of consumer-oriented information. The resources are mainly from government sources including other federal reserve banks, the Federal Trade Commission, the Consumer Information Center, and Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards. The brochures, which are organized by subject, cover a wide range of topics including debt issues, auto leasing, small business credit, and electronic money and direct deposits. All of the information is written for consumers in easy-to-understand language.

  13. Socratic Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    Created by Tony R. Kuphaldt, this web site from the Open Book Project provides educational resources for learning and teaching electronics. It is promotes student discussion and individual research. The web site contains essays that describe this style of teaching, a collection of worksheets for teachers to use to stimulate student discussion and research about electronics, and a link to animations that help describe dynamic processes in electric and electronic circuits.

  14. Electronic Resources for Searching Health Scientific Information: Database Publication Type / Recursos Electrónicos para la Búsqueda de Información Científica en Salud: Tipos de Bases de Datos de Publicaciones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Manterola; Tamara, Otzen; Lilian, Calo.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la gran cantidad de información disponible en Internet, la obtención de información científica válida y evidente puede no ser una tarea sencilla. El objetivo fue identificar las diferentes bases de datos, motores de búsqueda y bibliotecas disponibles para recuperar la información científi [...] ca publicada en ciencias de la salud. Estudio de publicación de base de datos. Se realizó una búsqueda en los metabuscadores Altavista, Google, Yahoo, Ixquick y Copérnico, y en la base de datos "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS). La estrategia de búsqueda utilizó los términos "sistemas de gestión de base de datos", "informática médica", "motor de búsqueda" y "toma de decisiones". Se creó un documento de síntesis de la información recogida. Las direcciones halladas se agruparon en: bases de datos, motores de búsqueda y bibliotecas. A partir de la búsqueda realizada se encontraron 46 fuentes electrónicas: 25 bases de datos, 8 motores de búsqueda y 13 bibliotecas. Existe una gran variedad de recursos para la búsqueda de información científica en salud. Conocer la diversidad de opciones disponibles en el acceso a la información ayuda al usuario para llevar adelante su investigación y para poder realizar la toma de decisiones relacionada con la salud. Abstract in english Despite the large amount of information available on the Internet, getting valid scientific information and evidence may not be a simple task. The aim of this study was to identify the different databases, search engines and libraries available to retrieve published scientific information in health [...] sciences Database publication type. A search on Altavista, Google and Yahoo, Ixquick and Copérnico metasearch engines and in the database "Documents in Information Science" (DoIS) was performed. The search strategy used the terms "database management systems", "medical informatics", "search engine" and "decision making". A summary document of the information collected was created. Addresses found were grouped into: databases, search engines and libraries. The search performed returned 46 electronic resources: 25 databases, 8 search engines and 13 libraries. There is a variety of resources for searching health scientific information. Knowing the diversity of available options aids the user in access to information to generate research and health-related decision-making.

  15. INDUCTION OF CYP1A1 AD CYP1B1 AND FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN C57BL/6, BALB/C, AND F1 MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3¿m...

  16. EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Ospina-García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT, masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea.Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anesthetic considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

  17. Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltayb M. Abuelzein

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

    How to cite this article: Abuelzein, E.M., Al-Khaliyfa, M.J. & Gameel, A.A., 2011, ‘Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1, Art. #318, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.318

  18. EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Camilo, Ospina-García; Carolina, Wuesthoff-Prieto; Santiago, Eslava-Cerón.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a [...] consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT), masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea. Abstract in english Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anestheti [...] c considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia) by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

  19. Human Specimen Resources | Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers who utilize or require human specimens for their research may benefit from the information in this section, including how to find specimens for research, how to establish a tissue bank or resource, and funding opportunities related to human specimens.

  20. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

  1. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (?secondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular dynamics in lambs and modulate the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH.The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (?secondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular dynamics in lambs and modulate the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH.

  2. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinhumpatch, Pantip; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Chaisatra, Krittinee; Promvijit, Jeerawan [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Mahidol, Chulabhorn [Laboratory of Chemical Carcinogenesis, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health and Toxicology, CHE, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Phayathai, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant.

  3. Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r = 0.56, P < 0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r = 0.50, P < 0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (? 4-fold, P < 0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (? 3-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression. - Highlights: • The effects of arsenic exposure in utero and through early childhood were studied. • Arsenic-exposed children had a reduction in arsenic methylation capacity. • Exposed children had more DNA damage, observed as elevated salivary 8-OHdG. • Lower salivary hOGG1 in exposed children indicated impairment of 8-OHdG repair. • Salivary and urinary 8-OHdG levels were discordant

  4. Routledge French technical dictionary [electronic resource] : French-English, English-French = Dictionnaire technique anglais : Français-Anglais, Anglais-Français.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electronic dictionary of over 75 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in English and French, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

  5. ChemTeacher: Electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electron page includes resources for teaching students about electrons.

  6. E Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Dalve, Daya B.; Tekale, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The E- Resources have become very popular in Libraries & Information Centers. This paper deals with the concept of E- Resources, its Features and types as well as Use of e-resources in libraries and selection cum evaluation of e-resources It also reveals the significance of E- resources.

  7. Electronic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foll, Helmut

    This is full course in Electronic Materials offered by Prof. Dr. Helmut Föll of the University of Kiel in Germany. The course cover in detail the following topics: conductors, dialectrics, magnetics, semiconductor devices, and semiconductor manufacturing process. This resource should be use used by people involved in electrical engineering and semiconductor manufacturing courses.

  8. Evolução de 58 fetos com meningomielocele e o potencial de reparo intra-útero Fetal myelomeningocele and the potential in-utero repair: follow-up of 58 fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Sbragia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico pré natal da meningomielocele (MM permite melhor planejamento de sua abordagem e, mais recentemente , um possível reparo intra-útero. OBJETIVO: Descrição da evolução perinatal de fetos com MM, acompanhados em um centro de referência em Medicina Fetal, identificando os possíveis fetos candidatos à cirurgia intra-uterina. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva descritiva de 58 casos de MM fetal, atendidos no CAISM-UNICAMP, de janeiro de 1997 a dezembro de 2001, identificando-se os casos cuja indicação de cirurgia fetal seria possível. RESULTADOS: Média da idade gestacional ao diagnóstico de 29 semanas (17-39; nível da lesão acima da região sacral em 85%; associação com hidrocefalia em 86%; taxa de complicações cirúrgicas de 39%. Na evolução, 98% apresentaram bexiga neurogênica e 60% deficiência neuro-mental. O potencial reparo intra-útero foi de 42%. CONCLUSÃO: MM está associada a graves e frequentes sequelas. Quase um terço dos nossos casos poderiam ter tido a cirurgia fetal como opção terapêutica.INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MM allows planning its management and, recently, a possible in utero repair. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perinatal outcome of fetuses with MM, in a Fetal Medicine Unit, identifying possible candidates for the in utero surgical repair. METHODO: Retrospective and descriptive study of 58 cases of prenatally diagnosed MM, at CAISM-UNICAMP, from January 1997 to December 2001, identifying possible fetal candidates for in utero repair. RESULTS: the diagnosis mean gestacional age was 29 weeks (17-39; level of lesions was above sacral region in 85%, association with hydrocephaly in 86%. Surgical complications were present in 39% of the neonates. During follow-up, 98% presented neurogenic bladder and 60% neurological/mental handicap. Twenty eight fetuses (42% could have indication of in utero repair. CONCLUSION: MM is associated with severe and frequent poor results. Almost one third of our cases could had fetal repair as a treatment choice.

  9. Evolução de 58 fetos com meningomielocele e o potencial de reparo intra-útero / Fetal myelomeningocele and the potential in-utero repair: follow-up of 58 fetuses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lourenço, Sbragia; Isabela Nelly, Machado; Carlos Eduardo Braidos, Rojas; Helder, Zambelli; Márcio Lopes, Miranda; Maria Otília, Bianchi; Ricardo, Barini.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico pré natal da meningomielocele (MM) permite melhor planejamento de sua abordagem e, mais recentemente , um possível reparo intra-útero. OBJETIVO: Descrição da evolução perinatal de fetos com MM, acompanhados em um centro de referência em Medicina Fetal, identificando os poss [...] íveis fetos candidatos à cirurgia intra-uterina. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva descritiva de 58 casos de MM fetal, atendidos no CAISM-UNICAMP, de janeiro de 1997 a dezembro de 2001, identificando-se os casos cuja indicação de cirurgia fetal seria possível. RESULTADOS: Média da idade gestacional ao diagnóstico de 29 semanas (17-39); nível da lesão acima da região sacral em 85%; associação com hidrocefalia em 86%; taxa de complicações cirúrgicas de 39%. Na evolução, 98% apresentaram bexiga neurogênica e 60% deficiência neuro-mental. O potencial reparo intra-útero foi de 42%. CONCLUSÃO: MM está associada a graves e frequentes sequelas. Quase um terço dos nossos casos poderiam ter tido a cirurgia fetal como opção terapêutica. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MM) allows planning its management and, recently, a possible in utero repair. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perinatal outcome of fetuses with MM, in a Fetal Medicine Unit, identifying possible candidates for the in utero surgical repair. METHODO: Re [...] trospective and descriptive study of 58 cases of prenatally diagnosed MM, at CAISM-UNICAMP, from January 1997 to December 2001, identifying possible fetal candidates for in utero repair. RESULTS: the diagnosis mean gestacional age was 29 weeks (17-39); level of lesions was above sacral region in 85%, association with hydrocephaly in 86%. Surgical complications were present in 39% of the neonates. During follow-up, 98% presented neurogenic bladder and 60% neurological/mental handicap. Twenty eight fetuses (42%) could have indication of in utero repair. CONCLUSION: MM is associated with severe and frequent poor results. Almost one third of our cases could had fetal repair as a treatment choice.

  10. Integração e interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos em C&T: a proposta da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira / Integration and interoperability in accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Henrique, Marcondes; Luís Fernando, Sayão.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreve as opções tecnológicas e metodológicas para atingir a interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos, disponíveis na Internet, no âmbito do projeto da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira em Ciência e Tecnologia, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e [...] Tecnologia (IBICT). Destaca o impacto da Internet sobre as formas de publicação e comunicação em C&T e sobre os sistemas de informação e bibliotecas. São explicitados os objetivos do projeto da BDB de fomentar mecanismos de publicação pela comunidade brasileira de C&T, de textos completos diretamente na Internet, sob a forma teses, artigos de periódicos, trabalhos em congressos, literatura "cinzenta", ampliando sua visibilidade e acessibilidade nacional e internacional, e também de possibilitar a interoperabilidade entre estes recursos informacionais brasileiros em C&T, heterogêneos e distribuídos, através de acesso unificado via um portal, sem a necessidade de o usuário navegar e consultar cada recurso individualmente. Abstract in english This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Techn [...] ical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web on publishing and communication in science and technology and also on information systems and libraries. The work stresses the two main objectives of BDL project: promoting electronic publishing of different full text materials - theses, journal articles, papers in events, "grey" literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a gateway, interoperability among those heterogeneous electronic information resources available in the Web, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query those resources one by one separately.

  11. Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

  12. Adaptation of the ICRP models for the Techa River populations to estimate in utero and postnatal haemopoietic tissue doses from ingested strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reliable estimation of tissue doses for exposed individuals is very important in epidemiological studies. Long-term cohort studies of the Techa River populations exposed in the early 1950s due to releases of liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak plutonium production facility (Southern Urals, Russia) are unique in allowing the quantification of risks from low-level chronic exposure of the general population and providing information on risks for persons exposed in utero. Strontium isotopes were the most important contributors to haemopoietic tissue doses for people living in the riverside settlements. Large-scale monitoring of the exposed population has provided a comprehensive database, including post mortem and in vivo measurements of 90Sr in bones and whole body, for use in the estimation of doses. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published biokinetic and dosimetric models for the calculation of doses to members of the public, including doses from in utero exposures and from intakes with breast milk. However, the ICRP models as applied to Sr required modification to provide best estimates of doses to Techa River residents. Adaptations were made to the ICRP model for Sr in children and adults to take account of population-specific features relating to bone mineral turnover and to model age and gender differences in strontium retention. Refinements in the ICRP model for Sr uptake and retention in the fetus were made to improve the treatment of discrimination against Sr, relative to Ca, in transfer from maternal to foetal blood and to take account of population-specific data on the calcium content of the maternal and fetal skeleton. Modification of the ICRP model for Sr transfer in breast-milk included adaptations relating to changes in maternal mineral metabolism during lactation and consideration of population-specific features of breast feeding in the rural population. The improved models were successfully validated using data on 90Sr in humans compiled at the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine. The models will be used to provide best estimates of doses resulting from ingestion of Sr isotopes as a result of the Techa River contamination, an essential prerequisite to analyses of health risks from protracted low-level exposure of this population. (author)

  13. Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol A.

    The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances…

  14. Managing Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

    2012-01-20

    This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

  15. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

  16. In utero and neonate exposure to nonylphenol develops hyperadrenalism and metabolic syndrome later in life. I. First generation rats (F(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song A; Wang, Paulus S

    2012-11-15

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor (ENDR). It is a chemical associated with the production and degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE). NPE is widely used as nonionic surfactants. Previously, we observed that NP increased the production of corticosterone and aldosterone from zona fasciculata-reticularis, and zona glomerulosa cells, respectively. By the "fetal origins adult diseases" (Barker hypothesis), we examined the possible impact of NP exposure during developmental (in utero and neonatal) period with focus on disturbed adrenal function and related hyperadrenal syndrome, i.e. Cushings syndrome/metabolic syndrome. In this study, female rats drink NP water during pregnancy and lactation conferred F(1) generation: (1) increase the corticosterone, aldosterone concentration in plasma; (2) increase 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) activity in liver and adipose tissue; (3) increase aldosterone synthase activity in adrenal for adult offspring. Furthermore, it can increase body weight, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentration in plasma, 11?-HSD1 protein expression in liver, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and 11?-hydroxylase activity in adrenal for male adult offspring. In summary, NP exposure during developmental period bestowed F(1) generation with hyperadrenalism and its consequence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22765982

  17. Surgery and postoperative brachytherapy for treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer: an alternative to the standard association of utero vaginal brachytherapy + surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. -Evaluate the results of the treatment of small uterine cervix cancer with the association of surgery and postoperative vaginal brachytherapy, without unfavourable prognostic factors. Patients and methods. -After radical hysterectomy with lymphadenectomy, 29 women (mean age: 44 years) with carcinoma < 25 mm (26 stage IB1, 3 IIA, mean size: 15 mm) were treated by post-operative prophylactic vaginal brachytherapy using low dose rate. Ovarian transposition was performed at the surgical time in 14 young women (mean age 35 years). Results. - The actuarial specific survival rates at 5 and 10 years were 100% and 90% respectively, with a mean follow-up 75 months. Only one local recurrence was observed. The rate of grade 1 post-operative complication was 7%. The conservation rate of the ovarian function was 85% for young women. Conclusion. -Treatment of small volume uterine cervix cancer using first surgery and post-operative vaginal brachytherapy is a reliable therapeutic option. The results in terms of specific survival and complications are the same with those after standard association of preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy and surgery. (authors)

  18. Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya Rebecca

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

  19. Maternal human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) genetic variants associate with in utero mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Heather A; Paximadis, Maria; Gray, Glenda E; Kuhn, Louise; Tiemessen, Caroline T

    2015-03-01

    A 14-bp insertion/deletion (indel) within the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) that affects HLA-G expression has been associated with HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). However, other 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence HLA-G mRNA stability have been described but not analysed in the context of MTCT, and little is known about the role of HLA-G alleles. We examined HLA-G alleles and 3'UTR SNPs, including the 14-bp indel, in 216 mother-infant pairs from Johannesburg, South Africa. Mother-infant pairs were classified as HIV-1 non-transmitting (NT, n=144) or HIV-1 transmitting (TR, n=72) with either intrapartum (IP, n=29) or in utero (IU, n=19) infected infants. We found HLA-G allele, G(?)01:01:02 (in strong linkage disequilibrium with the 14-bp insertion) and +3187G SNP were significantly over-represented in IU-TR mothers compared to NT mothers (P=0.036, OR=2.26; P=0.011, OR=2.96, respectively). These findings suggest that maternal HLA-G alleles and/or SNPs that might alter expression of HLA-G potentially influence IU HIV-1 MTCT. PMID:25541520

  20. Motor development following in utero exposure to organochlorines : a follow-up study of children aged 5-9 years in Greenland, Ukraine and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØyer, Birgit Bjerre; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prior studies on the association between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and child motor development have found contradicting results. Using data collected in the INUENDO cohort in Kharkiv (Ukraine), Warsaw (Poland) and Greenland (N?=?1,103) between the years 2002 and 2012, we examined relations of prenatal exposure to 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) on motor development and developmental milestones; crawling, standing-up and walking. METHODS: CB-153 and p,p'-DDE were measured in maternal blood in second or third trimester of pregnancy. Motor development was measured in terms of the parentally assessed screening tool Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 and developmental milestones were assessed via retrospective parental reports of child age at the first time of crawling, standing-up and walking. RESULTS: We saw no associations between tertiles of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE or log-transformed exposures and retrospective reports of the developmental milestones crawling, standing-up and walking in infancy or the motor skills measured as developmental coordination disorder at young school age. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to CB-153 and p,p'-DDE was not associated with parentally retrospectively assessed developmental milestones in infancy or parentally assessed motor skills at young school age. The use of a more sensitive outcome measure may be warranted if subtle effects should be identified.

  1. The Electronic Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronic Volcano offers links to many types of information on active volcanoes, such as maps, photographs, full texts of dissertations and a few elusive documents. The Electronic Volcano will guide you to resources in libraries or resources on other information servers including catalogs of active volcanoes, datasets for literature citations, electronic and hard-copy journals, visual information, maps, observatories and institutions, and a volcano name and country index.

  2. Metadados para a descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica: utilização do padrão Dublin Core / Metadata for description of electronic information resources: the use of Dublin Core

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcia Izabel Fugisawa, Souza; Laurimar Gonçalves, Vendrusculo; Geane Cristina, Melo.

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a necessidade de adoção de padrões de descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica, particularmente, no âmbito da Embrapa Informática Agropecuária. O Rural Mídia foi desenvolvido utilizando o modelo Dublin Core (DC) para descrição de seu acervo, acrescido de pequenas adaptações [...] introduzidas diante da necessidade de adequar-se a especificidades meramente institucionais. Este modelo de metadados baseado no Dublin Core, adaptado para o Banco de Imagem, possui características que endossam a sua adoção, como a simplicidade na descrição dos recursos, entendimento semântico universal (dos elementos), escopo internacional e extensibilidade (o que permite sua adaptação às necessidades adicionais de descrição). Abstract in english The objective of this article is the need of adoption of eletronic information resources patterns, particularly, in the Embrapa Agricultural Informatics area. The Rural Midia was developed using Dublin Core model for description of its collection, increased of small adaptations introduced due to the [...] need of institutional adjusts. This metadados model based on Dublin Core, adapted for the Image Bank, has characteristics that endorse its adoption, as the simplicity in the resources description, universal semantic understanding (of the elements), international uses and extensibility (what allows its adaptation to the additional description needs).

  3. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects.

  4. Free Technology Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestudy is dedicated to providing free tutorials and resources for those studying engineering from the degree level to certificate level. The site specializes mainly in Mechanical Engineering and provides materials on thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mechanics of solids, materials, fluid power, mechatronics, control, electrical, electronics and math.

  5. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

  6. Executive function deficits and social-behavioral abnormality in mice exposed to a low dose of dioxin in utero and via lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation. PMID:23251380

  7. Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell prolifeion of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis

  8. Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 ?g benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, icularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  9. Preliminary investigation of the use of dried-blood spots for the assessment of in utero exposure to environmental pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burse, V W; DeGuzman, M R; Korver, M P; Najam, A R; Williams, C C; Hannon, W H; Therrell, B L

    1997-08-01

    We determined the concentration of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in dried-blood spot specimens from 2-day-old infants from rural Texas who had never been breast fed. Anonymous, residual whole blood spots on filter paper, previously used for routine newborn screening procedures, were soaked in a phosphate buffer, extracted with an organic solvent, and eluted through silica gel. The concentrated eluates were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD). The blood collected from 10 newborns was analyzed and found to contain DDE concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 1.87 pg/microliter with a mean of 0.72 pg/microliter. One of the 10 newborns had a whole blood DDE concentration of 1.87 pg/microliter, which was greater than the concentration of 1.34 pg/microliter in a freshly drawn sample from an adult donor whose blood serum was shown to contain DDE. With improvement in detection limits, this approach has the potential to displace the analyses of mothers' blood (as a surrogate indicator of infants' exposures) and cord blood as standard procedures for determining the newborns' body burden of environmental pollutants. PMID:9259989

  10. Screening by microarray analysis for genes that alter prostate development in C57BL/6J mice exposed in utero to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsako, Seiichiroh; Lin, Tienmin; Peterson, R.E. [Wisconsin Univ. (United States); Suzuki, Junko S.; Wu, Qing; Tohyama, Chiharu [National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Takei, Teiji [Ministry of the Environment, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats and mice leads to a disruption of prostate development in the male offspring. Although it is not clear if this phenomenon occurs in human populations exposed to TCDD, the observed effect level is low among the various endpoints of TCDD developmental toxicity in animal studies. Clarification of the mechanism by which the effect is produced at the molecular level would help substantiate male reproductive toxicity caused by in utero TCDD exposure as a model for human health risk assessment. In both rats and mice, a critical window for TCDD disruption of prostate development in late pregnancy has been illustrated. The primary alteration in gene expression that presumably causes this phenomenon depends on the fetal aryl hydrocarbon receptor gene being expressed in the fetal urogenital sinus from which the outgrowth of prostatic buds occurs. In the male offspring of mice exposed to TCDD on gestation day 13 (GD 13), severe inhibitory developmental effects were found on ventral prostate development. These effects were significantly lower when in utero TCDD exposure occurred after GD 16 than GD 13. Upon administration of TCDD to the dam on GD 13, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 were induced in the urogenital complex of the male offspring on postnatal day 14. Thus, ''dioxin biomarker genes'' are responsive to in utero and lactational TCDD exposure during the neonatal stage of development. This suggests that key TCDD responsive genes involved in disrupting prostate development would be genes other than CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. In the present study we administered a single dose of TCDD to mouse dams during the critical window (GD 13 or GD 14) for impairing prostate development, or later during a less TCDD sensitive period (GD 17). Microarray techniques were then used to compare gene expression profiles of the fetus versus the urogenital sinus in order to identify genes involved in disruption of prostate development caused by in utero TCDD exposure.

  11. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  12. ChemTeacher: Electron Affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Electron Affinity page includes resources for teaching students about the concept of electron affinity.

  13. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  14. 78 FR 68981 - Electronic Retirement Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...the rule reflects the electronic recordkeeping and automated...Human Resources Line of Business. OPM received no comments...are incompatible with electronic business processes, must be set aside with respect to electronic retirement and...

  15. DiscoveryResources.org

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interesting site that is packed full of up-to-date info, discoveryresources.org is "where you will find the most up-to-date information, resources and news available about electronic discovery...(the site) offers much needed resources for legal professionals who seek to understand the many new technological and legal challenges associated with electronic discovery." As fast as the technology revolution is booming, so too is are all of the legal strings attached. This site seeks to provide professionals in the field with a means to stay up on discovery news. With links to Legal News, Featured Articles, a weblog, and a Reading Room, there is lots of useful information on this unique site.

  16. Veterinary Medicine Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University's libraries have been compiling electronic subject guides for a number of years, and this is one such guide that users in the field of veterinary medicine will want to bookmark. Organized thematically, the resources are contained within one single list, and they are divided into categories such as websites, electronic journals, online abstracts, and basic pet care and health resources. Some of the gateway sites are quite helpful, particularly the link to the animal diseases database offered by the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. Both potential veterinarian technicians and laypersons will appreciate the pet care links, which include links to the Healthy Pet site created by the American Animal Hospital Association and an overview to animal care created by the American Veterinary Medical Association.

  17. Transient in utero disruption of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator causes phenotypic changes in Alveolar Type II cells in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Ashraf; Callender, Delon L; Killeen, Erin; Hudak, Joseph; Dlugosz, Malgosia A; Larson, Janet E; Cohen, J Craig; Chander, Avinash

    2009-01-01

    Background Mechanicosensory mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during lung organogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was integral to stretch-induced growth and development and that transient expression of antisense-CFTR (ASCFTR) had negative effects on lung structure and function. In this study, we examined adult alveolar type II (ATII) cell phenotype after transient knock down of CFTR by adenovirus-directed in utero expression of ASCFTR in the fetal lung. Results In comparison to (reporter gene-treated) Controls, ASCFTR-treated adult rat lungs showed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC) levels in the large but not in the small aggregates of alveolar surfactant. The lung mRNA levels for SP-A and SP-B were lower in the ASCFTR rats. The basal PC secretion in ATII cells was similar in the two groups. However, compared to Control ATII cells, the cells in ASCFTR group showed higher PC secretion with ATP or phorbol myristate acetate. The cell PC pool was also larger in the ASCFTR group. Thus, the increased surfactant secretion in ATII cells could cause higher PC levels in large aggregates of surfactant. In freshly isolated ATII cells, the expression of surfactant proteins was unchanged, suggesting that the lungs of ASCFTR rats contained fewer ATII cells. Gene array analysis of RNA of freshly isolated ATII cells from these lungs showed altered expression of several genes including elevated expression of two calcium-related genes, Ca2+-ATPase and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase1 (CaMkk1), which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of calmodulin kinase I, which is activated following phosphorylation by CaMkk1. Although increased expression of calcium regulating genes would argue in favor of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms increasing surfactant secretion, we cannot exclude contribution of alternate mechanisms because of other phenotypic changes in ATII cells of the ASCFTR group. Conclusion Developmental changes due to transient disruption of CFTR in fetal lung reflect in altered ATII cell phenotype in the adult life. PMID:19335897

  18. Transient in utero disruption of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator causes phenotypic changes in Alveolar Type II cells in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larson Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanicosensory mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during lung organogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR was integral to stretch-induced growth and development and that transient expression of antisense-CFTR (ASCFTR had negative effects on lung structure and function. In this study, we examined adult alveolar type II (ATII cell phenotype after transient knock down of CFTR by adenovirus-directed in utero expression of ASCFTR in the fetal lung. Results In comparison to (reporter gene-treated Controls, ASCFTR-treated adult rat lungs showed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC levels in the large but not in the small aggregates of alveolar surfactant. The lung mRNA levels for SP-A and SP-B were lower in the ASCFTR rats. The basal PC secretion in ATII cells was similar in the two groups. However, compared to Control ATII cells, the cells in ASCFTR group showed higher PC secretion with ATP or phorbol myristate acetate. The cell PC pool was also larger in the ASCFTR group. Thus, the increased surfactant secretion in ATII cells could cause higher PC levels in large aggregates of surfactant. In freshly isolated ATII cells, the expression of surfactant proteins was unchanged, suggesting that the lungs of ASCFTR rats contained fewer ATII cells. Gene array analysis of RNA of freshly isolated ATII cells from these lungs showed altered expression of several genes including elevated expression of two calcium-related genes, Ca2+-ATPase and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase1 (CaMkk1, which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of calmodulin kinase I, which is activated following phosphorylation by CaMkk1. Although increased expression of calcium regulating genes would argue in favor of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms increasing surfactant secretion, we cannot exclude contribution of alternate mechanisms because of other phenotypic changes in ATII cells of the ASCFTR group. Conclusion Developmental changes due to transient disruption of CFTR in fetal lung reflect in altered ATII cell phenotype in the adult life.

  19. Genetic toxicology: web resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert R

    2002-04-25

    Genetic toxicology is the scientific discipline dealing with the effects of chemical, physical and biological agents on the heredity of living organisms. The Internet offers a wide range of online digital resources for the field of Genetic Toxicology. The history of genetic toxicology and electronic data collections are reviewed. Web-based resources at US National Library of Medicine (NLM), including MEDLINE, PUBMED, Gateway, Entrez, and TOXNET, are discussed. Search strategies and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) are reviewed in the context of genetic toxicology. The TOXNET group of databases are discussed with emphasis on those databases with genetic toxicology content including GENE-TOX, TOXLINE, Hazardous Substances Data Bank, Integrated Risk Information System, and Chemical Carcinogenesis Research Information System. Location of chemical information including chemical structure and linkage to health and regulatory information using CHEMIDPLUS at NLM and other databases is reviewed. Various government agencies have active genetic toxicology research programs or use genetic toxicology data to assist fulfilling the agency's mission. Online resources at the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences, and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) are outlined. Much of the genetic toxicology for pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals and pesticides that is performed in the world is regulatory-driven. Regulatory web resources are presented for the laws mandating testing, guidelines on study design, Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations, and requirements for electronic data collection and reporting. The Internet provides a range of other supporting resources to the field of genetic toxicology. The web links for key professional societies and journals in genetic toxicology are listed. Distance education, educational media resources, and job placement services are also available online in the field of genetic toxicology. As molecular biology and computational tools improve, new areas within genetic toxicology such as structural activity relationship analysis, mutational spectra databases and toxicogenomics, now have resources online as well. PMID:11955688

  20. Scanning Electron Microscope - SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website is from Boston Museum of Science and is an introduction to Scanning Electron Micrscope (SEM). It contains an image gallery of insects, plants and other items as seen with an SEM. A slide show and a movie explains how the microsope works. Teacher resources offer guidance on building your own microscope and setting up a lab, including wet mounts and staining cells. Information on how the Museum uses the scope, and additional electronic resources, completes the site.

  1. Transition Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transition

    2011-11-23

    This is a site for teachers that work with students with disabilities at the secondary level. This site is broken down into categories to help you with the transition aspect of the IEP. The categories are as follows: Employment/Training, For Students - Career Exploration and Profiles, Independent Living, Learning Styles & Trainings, Level 1 Assessments, Self-Determination, and Transition Resources. All of the resources included in this site are free! TRANSITION RESOURCES: 1.) Adult Career and Continuing Education Services (ACCES-VR) This website takes you directly to the ACCES-VR website, where you can find information about vocational rehabilitation and the referral process. 2,) Guide to Quality Individualized Education Program (IEP) Development and Implementation Created by the New York State Special Education Department to help answer questions regarding the New IEP. Great resource! Gives examples!! 3.) Indicator 13 Checklist Use this ...

  2. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  3. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation - www.arthritis.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

  4. Mold Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and caulking around windows keep the interior glass warmer and reduce condensation of moisture there. Humidifiers are ... will recur. Additional Resource U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service fact sheet - Safe Food ...

  5. Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Goodhew

    This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

  6. Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

  7. Electronics - Simple Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a free 9:55 minute video posted on Teacher Tube about Electronics: Simple Circuits. It covers an introduction to basic electronics such as Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Law, simple circuits, series and parallel circuits. The presentation is easy to follow and offers good examples of simple circuitry. The video is a great resource for any technology classroom.

  8. Electronic Design Online Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a web site for emerging electronic designs and innovations. The site features a number of articles on electronic design related topics. Multimedia resources, including videos, are included. Twitter, Facebook and RSS feeds are also available for the online magazine.

  9. Entomology Index of Internet Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Entomology Department at Iowa State University maintains the Entomology Index of Internet Resources, a comprehensive page of entomology pointers in over 20 categories, ranging from beekeeping to Usenet. WWW, gopher, FTP, electronic mailing lists, and Usenet news resources are included. While the resource is aimed mainly at the higher education community, the K-12 Educator Recommended Resources page contains nearly 50 pointers. The site has also recently established a new checklist category that contains pointers to seven insect checklists at this time. Most of the site is searchable.

  10. FAO corporate document repository [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FAO Corporate Document Depository includes FAO documents and publications, and selected non-FAO publications dealing with food, food security, agriculture, aquaculture, forestry, and rural development. Documents and publications will usually be available full-text in at least one of the FAO's official languages: English, Arabic, Chinese, French and Spanish. Documents as far back as the 1950s are included irregularly. (Updated daily)

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which aims to advance and communicate scientific knowledge of the Earth, space and the solar system, and to research the development of space for human enterprise. Its website describes current projects and research opportunities and provides access to news items and to scientific and technical information.

  12. Australasian Radiation Protection Society [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Australasian Radiation Protection Society, a professional society of over 250 members engaged in one or more aspects of radiation protection for a wide variety of applications, in medicine, pure and applied science, industry and mining. Website contains information about the society, its members, conferences, news, contact information. Links to a Radiation Safety Products and Services Database, also to abstracts of articles in the journal "Radiation Protection in Australasia".

  13. World Legal Information Institute [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A free, independent and non-profit global legal research facility developed collaboratively by the Australasian, British, Irish, Canadian, Hong Kong and Pacific Islands legal information institutes and other organisations.

  14. International Court of Justice [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Netherlands. The court is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. Discusses the functions of the court, the composition, and pending cases. Provides a list of decisions and advisory opinions brought before the court since 1946.

  15. Economic Hard Times and Electronic Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Jill E.

    2009-01-01

    Library school courses focusing on management and budgeting are as important as ever, as are continuing education opportunities for librarians who may not have encountered a severe economic recession. The journal crisis of the 1990s is still a fresh and unpleasant memory for many. However, for other librarians who may have graduated from library…

  16. European Court of Human Rights [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), based in Strasbourg, France. Discusses the historical background of the court, its organization, procedures before the court, admissibility procedure, judgements, and advisory opinions. Details pending cases, judgements, and decisions.

  17. Association of Caribbean States [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Association of Caribbean States (ACS), which works to harness, utilize, and develop the collective capabilities of the Caribbean region to achieve sustained cultural, economic, social, scientific and technological advancement. Discusses member countries, activities, and historical background.

  18. European Chamber of International Business [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the European Chamber of International Business, an imports promotion organization in the European Union, which aids development of trade, industry and tourism. ECIB was created in December 1995 to satisfy an increasing demand from European buyers for discovering new and more competitive suppliers from all over the world. The main originality of the chamber that it is the first to be conceived and initiated throughout the Internet.

  19. United Nations multilingual terminology database [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    70,000 entries of United Nations related terminology in the 6 official UN languages, updated daily. Compiled over the years in response to diverse and wide-ranging demands of UN language staff for terminology and nomenclature; facilitates the efforts of people around the world who participate in the work of the UN but do not have access to the Secretariat's intranet.

  20. Interactive terminology for Europe [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Commission's multilingual term bank. Covers a broad spectrum of human knowledge, but is particularly rich in technical and specialized terminology (agriculture, telecommunications, transport, legislation, finance) related to EU policy. Contains about five and a half million entries (terms and abbreviations), subdivided into more than 800 collections.

  1. Energy conservation through energy storage [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The R&D programme Efficient Energy End-Use Technologies contains 14 different Implementing Agreements (IAs) of which one is the IA on energy storage (Energy Conservation through Energy Storage : ECES IA)

  2. Interactive Technologies in Electronic Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimova, Tatyana Ivanovna; Krasnova, Lyubov Alekseevna

    2015-01-01

    Modern professional education in the transition to a tiered system of specialists training is focused not on the transfer of ready knowledge but on teaching to find this knowledge and to apply them in situations close to the professional conditions. The educational process, relying on use of interactive methods of teaching, which is organized with…

  3. International Chamber of Commerce [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents the International Chamber of Commerce, a non-governmental organization of over 7000 companies and business associations in 140 countries which present ICC views to their governments. Posts contact information via mailing address, e-mail, and telephone and fax numbers. Highlights the activities of the ICC Commissioners and ICC services, such as the International Court of Arbitration, the International Bureau of Chambers of Commerce, ICC conferences, the ICC Commercial Crime Services. Access to ICC's news archives; membership information.

  4. World distribution of uranium deposits [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) is a database of uranium deposits in the world. The database contains information on the classification, geological characteristics, geographical distribution and technical characteristics of the deposits.

  5. Glossary of abbreviations and acronyms [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A glossary of abbreviations and acronyms of terms used in IAEA documents. The objectives of the glossary are to save the time spent by drafters of IAEA documents in checking terms, to provide readers of these documents with a quick reference tool, to avoid the proliferation of incorrect terms in IAEA documents, to standardize terminology used in these documents, and to avoid duplication of effort by having one central list for the whole IAEA.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Describes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. LLNL focuses on global security, global ecology, and bioscience. Recounts the history of the Laboratory; includes information about the organization of LLNL, facilities, science and technology activities, education, publications, and job opportunities; offers access to news releases and other public affair information; online telephone directory. Contains a site search engine. Posts contact information via mailing address and telephone and fax numbers.

  7. Turkey & Turkish foreign policy [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consists of approximately 16,000 pages and hundreds of tables, diagrams and pictures. Features information on Turkish history, economy, social and cultural life, foreign policy, plus texts of bilateral and multilateral agreements and samples of Turkish music.

  8. Association of Southeast Asian Nations [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presents information about the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), an organization based in Bangkok, Thailand. Notes that the organization is made up of Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Includes an overview and history of ASEAN, which was developed as a joint effort to promote economic cooperation and the welfare of the people in the region. Offers profiles of member countries, as well as descriptions of programs undertaken by ASEAN. Posts a schedule of upcoming conferences and examples of regional cooperation. Links to related Internet sites.

  9. Analytical quality control services (AQCS) [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial efforts of AQCS focused on the preparation of environmental RMs containing anthropogenic radionuclides for use by those laboratories employing nuclear analytical techniques. These RMs were characterised for their radionuclide content through intercomparison runs (IC) involving a core group of some 10 to 20 specialist laboratories. The success of these early exercises led AQCS to extend its activities to encompass both terrestrial and marine RMs containing primordial radionuclides and trace elements.

  10. IEEE Xplore digital library [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content in IEEE Xplore comprises over 160 journals, over 1,200 conference proceedings, more than 3,800 technical standards, over 1,000 eBooks and over 300 educational courses. Approximately 25,000 new documents are added to IEEE Xplore each month.

  11. Teacher Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Schultz

    2007-04-04

    Find links for teachers below: (Please close all windows when done.) Garden City Schools Teacher Account - Use your current email ID as the google ID. Example schultn. Your initial password is "s12345678", and you will be required to change it when you first login. Example MRC Schedule Home - Garden City Public Schools Favorite Resources MI Star (Zangle) Aesoponline Discovery Education (United Streaming) Frontline Teacher Center (PBS) - FREE online videos, lesson plans, and Web-exclusive resources Freeology-Free Printable Graphic Organizers IT Requests -organization account number is ...

  12. Transparent electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wager, John F; Presley, Rick E

    2007-01-01

    First monograph on transparent electronicsA technological perspective rather than a scientific focusAlso of interest to researchers in printed electronics, large-area electronics, low-cost electronics and disposable electronics

  13. Introduction to Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basic of the electronics industry, including different industry categories, and the overall process that moves the industry along. There is a quiz to test what students learned in the module in the Knowledge Probe section, and the Learning Resources section contains two activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and a Knowledge Game, which consists of a crossword reiterating the material covered. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for introductory electronics classes, or for students just entering electronics technician programs.

  14. Gravidez Gemelar com Morte Fetal de Um dos Gêmeos: Avaliação Neurológica dos Gemelares Sobreviventes Neurological Evaluation of the Surviving Twin When One Dies In Utero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Araújo Rodrigues Funayama

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: verificar as intercorrências pré e perinatais e a evolução neurológica de crianças de gestações gemelares em que um dos fetos apresentou óbito intra-uterino. Métodos: foram avaliados 14 casos de gestações gemelares ocorridas no período de 1988 a 1994 com óbito de um dos fetos, acompanhadas no Setor de Patologia Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP. Dados do acompanhamento pré e perinatal, bem como de autópsia dos fetos mortos, foram obtidos. As crianças foram convocadas no ano de 1996 para exame neurológico, sendo avaliados dados evolutivos e sinais patológicos nas áreas motoras, sensitivas, sensoriais e funções corticais superiores, incluindo linguagem, praxias e agnosias. Resultados: do total de 14 casos, 10 retornaram para a avaliação neurológica tardia. Destas, apenas uma criança apresentou alteração no exame neurológico, cursando com paresia espástica de MIE de grau leve, tendo apresentado Apgar 0 no primeiro minuto e 5 no quinto minuto. A avaliação da placentação e idade gestacional mostrou 5 casos (35,7% com placentação monocoriônica e um caso com monoamniótica, 8 casos de pré-termo e 6 casos a termo. O óbito de um dos fetos ocorreu no segundo trimestre em 6 casos (42,8% e os demais no terceiro trimestre. Conclusões: o problema neurológico constatado em um único feto pode ser atribuído às intercorrências perinatais que este recém-nascido apresentou. Não tivemos como resultado outros RN com seqüelas provavelmente pela opção da conduta conservadora, tendo-se resolvido as gestações após a 32ª semana com diminuição das complicações do parto pré-termo extremo.Purpose: to analyze the effects of prenatal and perinatal complications and the neurological development of surviving twins when the other had died in utero. Methods: fourteen cases of twin pregnancies where one of the twins had died during the pregnancy were analyzed. These patients gave birth between 1988 and 1994 and were subsequently followed-up by the Department of Obstetrics, Pathology Division, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Data from prenatal and perinatal records as well as findings from the deceased twins' autopsies were analyzed. In 1996, requests were made for the children to have a neurological examination as part of the study. The examination included developmental assessment and pathological signs in the motor, sensory and sensitivy areas and superior cortical functions such as praxis and agnosia. Results: ten of the fourteen contacted subjects complied with the request for neurological examination. Of the ten examined children only one had abnormal neurological findings, presenting a light degree of spastic paresis of the left leg. The pregnancy evaluation showed five cases of monochorionic placenta and one case of monoamnionic pregnancy; six of the fourteen cases reached full-term. In six cases (42.8% one of the fetus died during the second trimester and in the other they died during the third trimester. Only one newborn, who had Apgar 0 at the first minute, developed neurological sequelae. Conclusion: the neurological problem of one fetus may be a consequence of the perinatal complications that this fetus developed. The other newborns did not develop sequelae, possibly because of the conservatory management, trying to make the pregnancy reach 32 weeks or more, thus decreasing the complications of preterm delivery.

  15. Electronics Kits - SparkFun

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides new ways to engage electronics students. Sparkfun Electronics started in 2003 with the development of the Arduino Microcontroller board and over the years has added numerous sensors and other components to its offerings. The resources were developed for tinkerers rather than education but they can be used in an electronics lab.

  16. Space Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging op

  17. Favorite Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Schultz

    2007-04-03

    Please find the links to many websites used by students and staff. Moodle-Login Michigan eLibrary MeL: The Michigan eLibrary Visit Michigan eLibrary for an array of resources including: LearningExpressLibrary 3.0-first time users after 2013 - If you already have an account \\set up before 2014 - go to ACT Test Preparation - When you get to LearningExpressLibrary Username: your student ID number Password: ...

  18. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concernstic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Summit Envirosolutions of Minneapolis, Minnesota, used remote sensing images as a source for groundwater resource management. Summit is a full-service environmental consulting service specializing in hydrogeologic, environmental management, engineering and remediation services. CRSP collected, processed and analyzed multispectral/thermal imagery and aerial photography to compare remote sensing and Geographic Information System approaches to more traditional methods of environmental impact assessments and monitoring.

  20. Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f1 sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f2 generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistenendpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out

  1. Effects of lactational and/or in utero exposure to environmental contaminants on the glucocorticoid stress-response and DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor promoter in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaulniers, D; Xiao, G-H; Cummings-Lorbetskie, C

    2013-06-01

    Perinatal events can reprogram the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis for the entire lifespan leading to abnormal glucocorticoid stress-response (GSR) in adulthood: a phenomenon reported to be mediated by changes in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene promoter. We examined whether in utero and/or lactational exposure to mixtures of environmental contaminants can also induce abnormal GSR during adulthood. The experiment included nine treatment groups. From gestation day (GD) 0 until postnatal day (PND) 20, dams were fed daily with a cookie laced with corn oil (control) or a chemical mixture (M) [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and methylmercury] at 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg/day (0.5M, and M). At birth, some control (C) and M litters were cross-fostered to create four groups with the following in utero/postnatal exposure: C/C, M/C, C/M, M/M. Other dams received 1.8ng/kg/day of a mixture of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (non-ortho PCBs, PC-dibenzodioxins and PC-dibenzofurans) without or with 0.5M (0.5MAhR). In adult male offspring the abundance of GR in treated groups was not different from the control, but the AhR and M groups were significantly different from each other with opposite effects in the hippocampus and liver. There was no change in DNA methylation of the GR promoter (exon-17 and -110). Abnormal GSRs were detected in the AhR, 0.5MAhR, CM, and MM groups. The literature associates abnormal GSR with metabolic and mental health impairments, thus these results support further investigation of the influence of developmental exposure to environmental contaminants and predisposition to stress-induced diseases. PMID:23537661

  2. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha,; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development...

  3. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C.K. [BARC, Materials Group, Mumbai (India); Singh, H. [BARC, REDS and OSD-IREL, Mumbai (India)

    2003-07-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects.

  4. English Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this section, DeafTEC provides a series of teaching resources on English, rhetoric, and writing. Specifically, the Writing in the Disciplines (WID) approach is used as a method to reach out to deaf and hard-of-hearing students, as well as high school students learning in STEM subjects. Viewers will find several pages with useful pedagogical information, including: Why Writing in the Sciences Matter; Articles: Teaching Writing and Writing to Learn; Articles: Responding to Student Writing; Articles: Writing for Second Language Users; Articles: Writing and Deafness; and Supporting English Acquisition. 

  5. Annelid Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychaetologist Dr. Geoff Read of New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) provides this stupendous resource on Annelid worms. Full of content-rich, research-driven information, this resource serves as a major hub for experts and students interested in annelids. In the Research section, users will find current information on Polychaetes, Oligochaetes/ leeches, and annelid-allies, in addition to useful software and "some miscellaneous taxonomy links." The Taxonomy section covers background information including geographical faunal lists of Annelid species as well as Annelida phylogenies, with a link to the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) for those wishing to query Annelida taxonomic hierarchy. The Field Trips section provides external links to sites from Polychaete researchers and research labs, in addition to a series of interesting (and less-scientific) links to field sites featuring curious fauna, such as Vent and Seep fauna. In addition, Dr. Read maintains and moderates the ANNELIDA mailing list, the only annelid-related list, archived and searchable at the URL above.

  6. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  7. Energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reviw of reserve estimates based on the collation performed by M. King Hubbert relates his findings with time-scale histories of cumulative reserves and production. Policy decisions which lead to a massive shift to coal will prolong the projected depletion of the other fossil fuels and shorten the availability time of coal. The exploitation of nuclear-fission fuels indicates a need for more-efficient applications to prolong the life span of limited resources. The total recoverable energy potential is derived for fossil and nuclear fuels and from solar, hydrothermal, hydroelectric, tidal, and wind energy. Summaries of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources reveal a wide variety in the estimates due partly to the lack of a systematics and standardized reporting mechanism that can define physical characteristics and economic feasibility. 57 references, 22 figures, 37 tables

  8. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in develr parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  9. Electronic Commerce Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronic Commerce Research Center, created by CIO magazine, "examines the current state and future directions of conducting commerce on the Net." The report consists of full-text articles dealing with aspects of ecommerce from the pages of CIO magazine. Dating from 1995 to the present, articles are annotated and indexed by subjects such as Case Studies, Business to Business, and Electronic Data Interchange. Also included are links to online resources that also deal with the same subjects.

  10. Correlative light and electron microscopy of intermediate stages of meiotic spindle assembly in the early Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woog, Ina; White, Silke; Büchner, Mandy; Srayko, Martin; Müller-Reichert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is an update of the previously published book chapter "Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy of Early C. elegans Embryos in Mitosis" (Müller-Reichert, Srayko, Hyman, O'Toole, & McDonald, 2007). Here, we have adapted and improved the protocol for the isolated meiotic embryos, which was necessary to meet the specific challenges a researcher faces while investigating the development of very early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos ex-utero. Due to the incompleteness of the eggshell assembly, the meiotic embryo is very fragile and much more susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions than the mitotic ones. To avoid phototoxicity associated with wide-field UV illumination, we stage the meiotic embryos primarily using transmitted visible light. Throughout the staging and high-pressure freezing, we incubate samples in an isotonic embryo buffer. The ex-utero approach allows precise tracking of the developmental events in isolated meiotic embryos, thus facilitating the comparison of structural features between wild-type and mutant or RNAi-treated samples. PMID:22857931

  11. Anestesia para tratamento intraparto extraútero (EXIT) em fetos com diagnóstico pré-natal de malformações cervical e oral: relato de casos Anestesia para el tratamiento intraparto extraútero (EXIT) en fetos con diagnóstico prenatal de malformaciones cervical y oral: relato de casos Anesthesia for ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure) in fetus with prenatal diagnosis of oral and cervical malformations: case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Corrêa Helfer; Jefferson Clivatti; Américo Massafuni Yamashita; Antonio Fernades Moron

    2012-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O feto com diagnóstico pré-natal de massa cervical, ou qualquer outra doença que obstrua as vias aéreas, não deve ser abordado de forma convencional por apresentar dois desafios ao médico assistente logo após o parto: o tempo limitado para se estabelecer o acesso a vias aéreas potencialmente difíceis e a ausência de anestesia do neonato caso seja necessária instrumentação das vias aéreas. O procedimento EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment - EXIT proce...

  12. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterdorf, Kristine HØvelt; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2012-01-01

    Protein restriction in utero may give rise to re-stricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suit-ability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbo- hydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P < 0.05), and retained less nitrogen (0.3 vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P < 0.05) than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05). LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001) and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001) than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

  13. Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Vesterdorf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein restriction in utero may give rise to restricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suitability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001 but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P < 0.05, and retained less nitrogen (0.3 vs 0.4 g.kg-0.75.day-1, P < 0.05 than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05. LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001 and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001 than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

  14. Navigating physician resources on the Internet.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenberger, B.

    1995-01-01

    By providing everything from electronic mail to "virtual patients," computer technology and the Internet have made enormous resources available to physicians. Science writer Beth Ellenberger gives an overview of the different levels of Internet access, as well as the e-mail addresses of some medical resources that will be useful to physicians.

  15. Resources Centralization System for Grid Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa F. Muhsem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing expansion of communications that is characterized by quality and availability led to interest on grid computing paradigm. The grid computing solves large-scale scientific problems, by providing the feature of sharing and selecting of various resources accessibility and utility. These resources solve intensive problems by increasing the computation and storage power. This study focuses on system with centralized resources for managing the grid resources. The proposed idea will create a resource list, which includes the resource history that will help the user to search for resources. The proposal resources list system will improve the resource serving by showing the most resources used and will save the time search time for the job request, by these points we will improve the quality of the user jobs execution and the quality type of the used resources.

  16. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

  17. Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Learning Network

    This site from the Museum of Science features an introduction to scanning electron microscopy and is suitable for high school or introductory college audiences. It includes resources for teachers, an image gallery, a self paced tour, links, and a QuickTime animation.

  18. Convoy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the theory of the production and of the transport of convoy electrons through solids are reviewed. Similarities and differences to cusp electron emission in binary ion-atom collisions and to transport of ''free'' electrons through solids are highlighted. We also discuss recent observations of convoy electron emission in ion-surface collisions at small glancing angles. 36 refs., 13 figs

  19. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... E S eRx eRx Electronic prescribing can help you. Electronic prescribing can keep you safe • Doctors have secure ...

  20. DW3 Classical Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site, hosted by the Duke University Music Library, is a sizable and well-organized metasite for classical music resources. Sections include Composer Homepages, Chronologies and Necrologies, National and Regionally Oriented Pages, Organizations and Centers for Scholarly Research, Electronic Journals and Newsletters, Genre-Specific Pages, and Databases (over 40). With the exception of the Chronologies and Necrologies and Databases sections, the featured links are not annotated. An internal search engine is also provided.

  1. Electronic Reference Works and Library Budgeting Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Ibironke O.

    2007-01-01

    The number of electronic resources has climbed up steadily in recent times. Some of these e-resources are reference sources, mostly in Science, Technology and Medicine (STM), which publishers convert to electronic for obvious reasons. The library budgets for materials usually have two main lines, budget for one time purchase (monographs) and…

  2. Electronics Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web site offers a one-stop shop for electronic projects with images, circuits with full descriptions, schematics and diagrams for printed circuit boards (PCBs), integrated circuits, and homemade electronic devices. This site supports an active electronics hobbyist community with free electronics articles, a blog, tutorials, question and answer area, design tips and hints, and an online electronics market with no registration required that allows people to buy and sell electronic parts and devices. This is a good site to search while the old soldering iron is heating up for electronics components, testing equipment, electronic kits, and detailed schematics and diagrams for almost any kind of electronic project including: amplifier, audio and noise, MIDI, counter, radio, simulators, sensors, measurement, temperature detectors, timing and timers, and video.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST TO MEASURE E-RESOURCES KNOWLEDGE (ERKT) OF HIGHER SECONDARY TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    Selvam, P.; Naga Subramani, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    -An electronic resource (E- Resource) is any information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format. E-Resource consist of e-books,e-journals,e-thesis, e-library, edatabases, e-portfolio, etc.. In this research paper an attempt has been made to construct and standardize the E- Resources Knowledge Test to measure E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers, as there is no suitable questionnaire available to measure the E- Resources knowledge of highe...

  4. Linguistics Resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site is provided by the Summer Institute of Linguistics, located at the International Linguistics Center in Dallas, Texas. The focus of the whole site is the study of minority languages and cultures around the world. The Academic domains represented include linguistics, anthropology, translation, literacy, language learning, and computing. The Linguistics Resources on the Internet section contains annotated listings of resources of interest to the linguistics, computational linguistics and natural language processing fields of study. The page is divided into eight sections including computing resources (including links to text and speech analysis, morphology and phonology, and lexical software); journals and newsletters; conferences and meetings and electronic texts, dictionaries and data. The individual sections contain extensive lists of links, many of which are briefly annotated.

  5. Resources Centralization System for Grid Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Muhsem, Zahraa F.; Adi Maaita; Ayman Nsour

    2013-01-01

    The increasing expansion of communications that is characterized by quality and availability led to interest on grid computing paradigm. The grid computing solves large-scale scientific problems, by providing the feature of sharing and selecting of various resources accessibility and utility. These resources solve intensive problems by increasing the computation and storage power. This study focuses on system with centralized resources for managing the grid resources. The proposed idea will c...

  6. Vacuum electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Eichmeier, Joseph A

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen experts from the electronics industry, research institutes and universities have joined forces to prepare this book. ""Vacuum Electronics"" covers the electrophysical fundamentals, the present state of the art and applications, as well as the future prospects of microwave tubes and systems, optoelectronics vacuum devices, electron and ion beam devices, light and X-ray emitters, particle accelerators and vacuum interrupters. These topics are supplemented by useful information about the materials and technologies of vacuum electronics and vacuum technology.

  7. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  8. Tratamiento extrauterino intraparto - Manejo del recién nacido con síndrome de obstrucción congénita de la vía aérea superior: Informe de un caso / Ex utero intrapartum treatment - Management of neonatal congenital high airway obstruction syndrome: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hugo A., Botto; Ivanna D., Boailchuk; Cecilia, García; Marcelo, Decaro; Horacio, Aiello; Juan, Copich.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En años recientes, el tratamiento extrauterino intraparto, que consiste en la intubación fetal extrauterina previa al nacimiento, ha adquirido relevancia en la reducción de la morbimortalidad de neonatos afectados por el síndrome de obstrucción congénita de la vía aérea superior. Caso clínico. Prese [...] ntamos una madre con un feto de 22 semanas de gestación y diagnóstico de estenosis de la vía aérea, que anticipaba déficit ventilatorio fetal extraparto y derivó en la aplicación del tratamiento extrauterino intraparto para garantizar el intercambio gaseoso fetal en el momento del nacimiento. Conclusiones. La práctica oportuna del procedimiento extrauterino intraparto logró en este caso, mediante el control de los factores maternos y fetales que pudieran afectar la circulación feto-placentaria, el nacimiento de un niño cuya evolución inmediata y a largo plazo fue exitosa con desarrollo de una vida normal. Abstract in english In recent years, the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT), that involves extrauterine fetal intubation prior to delivery, has become relevant for the reduction in morbidity and mortality of neonates affected by congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Clinical case. We report the case o [...] f the mother of an unborn child at pregnancy week 22, who was diagnosed a congenital pulmonary malformation that precluded intrapartum fetal circulatory deficit and resulted in the conduction of an EXIT technique, with the aim of ensuring fetal blood gas exchange at the time of delivery. Conclusions. A timely practice of the EXIT technique resulted, by monitoring both maternal and fetal factors that might affect fetoplacental circulation, in the birth of a child whose immediate and long-term outcomes were successful allowing the child live a normal life.

  9. A Guide to Internet Resources in Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homme, John, Comp.; And Others

    This paper presents a list of 154 Internet resources (listservs, freenets, telnet sites, gophers, etc.) dealing with language arts. Each entry in the list includes the name of the resource, and subscription and electronic mail addresses. Some of the entries in the list include a brief description of the resource. The paper lists 17 language arts…

  10. Integrated water resources management.

    OpenAIRE

    EM?N TA?

    1995-01-01

    Nowadays, the highest priority issue of water resources management is supply of increasing water demand with limited water resources. Water resources are a basis of sustainable development, so sustainable approach should be based on usage and management of water resources. In the twenty first century, the world is faced with a major water crisis. And the problems are originated from deficiencies and errors in the management of water resources. Thus, sustainable use of water resources is cruci...

  11. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; RØnde, Heidi S

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled.

  12. Electronics Communications: Course Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course provided by eSyst describes electronics communications. An introduction explains the traditional view and systems view of this topic. The course includes numerous instructor presentations and student guides. Topics for these include Serial Digital Interface and Bluetooth as well as labs on Transmission Line Measurements and Short Range Wireless Experimentation. A detailed course outline, student learning outcomes, and links to additional online resources are also provided. Users must create a free, quick login in order to download the materials.

  13. Electronic Commerce Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Board of Trade of Metropolitan Montreal created the Electronic Commerce Institute (ECI) in 1990 in order to promote and foster the growth of ecommerce applications within the Montreal business community. The ECI Website offers basic information about the Institute and about its courses, events, and services. Along with an excellent ecommerce guide for small businesses, Web reference resources and a suppliers directory are provided. Users should be aware that several sections and links are in French.

  14. Electronic Commerce in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronic Commerce in Canada Website is the official Web presence of the Canadian Task Force on Electronic Commerce. The task force was created in 1998 as a "focal point and catalyst for the development of a comprehensive policy, regulatory, and legal framework, and to promote the growth and use of electronic commerce in Canada." The site offers excellent news, information, and resources about the Canadian government's ecommerce initiatives. This broad-based Website provides information on consumers, business, and the government. Along with a frequently-updated Features column which includes new events, Websites, and statistics and data, the site also contains a compendium of Canadian ecommerce reports and links. The Canadian Strategy section considers opportunities and challenges for Canadian ecommerce, and addresses the Canadian government's response to ten main issues including privacy, consumer protection, taxation, and digital signatures. Advantage Canada examines the ways in which Canada is positioned to become a leader in global ecommerce, and Global Initiatives looks at Canada's international ecommerce policies and themes. The Using Electronic Commerce Section offers a collection of links that showcases the ways in which the government, consumers, and businesses of Canada can use and educate themselves about electronic commerce. Electronic Commerce in Canada shows the way Canada has positioned itself to take full advance of ecommerce.

  15. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  16. The New Resource File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Donald D.

    2011-01-01

    The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

  17. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  19. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. PMID:21433116

  20. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  1. Site Remediation Technology InfoBase: A Guide to Federal Programs, Information Resources, and Publications on Contaminated Site Cleanup Technologies. First Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Table of Contents: Federal Cleanup Programs; Federal Site Remediation Technology Development Assistance Programs; Federal Site Remediation Technology Development Electronic Data Bases; Federal Electronic Resources for Site Remediation Technology Information; Other Electronic Resources for Site Remediation Technology Information; Other Electronic Resources for Site Remediation Technology Information; Selected Bibliography: Federal Publication on Alternative and Innovative Site Remediation; and Appendix: Technology Program Contacts.

  2. Trade in mineral resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a review of current thinking on the economics of international trade in mineral resources. I first define what is meant by trade in mineral resources. I then discuss patterns of trade in mineral resources. The paper then moves on to the five topics requested by the World Trade Organization: theoretical and empirical literature on international trade in minerals; trade impacts of mineral abundance and the resource curse; the political economy of mineral trade in resource-ab...

  3. Lives, the Biography Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lives, the Biography Resource, is a comprehensive guide to more than one thousand biographical information resources available on the Web. The briefly annotated guide indexes resources by individual names and also organizes resources into several collections, which collocate related resources according to subject, region, era, profession, etc. In addition, the guide includes Inside Lives, a section that features new and noteworthy sites covering biographies, autobiographies, memoirs, oral histories, personal papers, and more. Lives is updated weekly.

  4. Electronic Publishing: The Movement From Print To Digital Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwick, R., Glazer, G

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of electronic publishing, describes how information increasingly is being exchanged within the scientific community, and discusses the scholarly qualifications of electronic venues. The following content is included: definition of electronic publishing; uses and types of electronic publishing; uses of electronic journals in nursing and health care; advantages and disadvantages of electronic journals; advantages and disadvantages of print journals; and the authors' projections for the future. Hotlinks to a variety of Internet resources on electronic resources are integrated throughout the article.

  5. Mining Frequent Closed Patterns using Sample-growth in Resource Effectiveness Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lihua Zhang; Miao Wang; Zhengjun Zhai; Guoqing Wang

    2014-01-01

    As the occurrence of failure of electronic resources is sudden, real-time record analysis on the effectiveness of all resources in the system can discover abnormal resources earlier and start using backup resources or restructure resources in time, thus managing abnormal situations and finally realizing health management of the system. This paper proposed an algorithm: MFPattern, for mining frequent closed resource patterns in resource effectiveness matrix. In order to improve the efficiency,...

  6. Electronic warfare target location methods

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Describing the mathematical development underlying current and classical methods of geolocating electronic systems that are emitting, this newly revised and greatly expanded edition of a classic Artech House book offers practical guidance in electronic warfare target location. The Second Edition features a wealth of additional material including new chapters on time delay estimation, direction finding techniques, and the MUSIC algorithm. This practical resource provides you with critical design information on geolocation algorithms, and establishes the fundamentals of existing algorithms as a

  7. Electronics Infoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    This website, presented by Electronics Infoline, has exciting electronics, computer, science projects and activities. These are free projects for professionals, students and simply enthusiasts. The page lists activities, displays images and detailed diagrams helping the user to create these projects. This website is great for student or class projects.

  8. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel A. (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  9. Electronic collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons are discussed for the enormous growth in the last 25 years in the study, both experimental and theoretical, of the collisions of electrons with atoms, ions and molecules. The theoretical developments involving electronic collisions at low, intermediate and high incident energies and also those involving transitions between highly excited states are examined. (UK)

  10. Electronic money

    OpenAIRE

    Denisenko, Y.; Chuchilina, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    Modern, quickly developing world impossible to present without electronic money. Quite soon they will become integral part of our life. Electronic money is really incredible invention of humanity. When you are citing the document, use the following link http://essuir.sumdu.edu.ua/handle/123456789/17048

  11. Legal Electronic Dictionary for Czech.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvr?ek, František; Pala, K.; Rychlý, P.

    Istambul : European Language Resources Association (ELRA), 2012 - (Calzolari, N.; Choukri, K.; Declerck, T.), s. 283-287 ISBN 978-2-9517408-7-7. [The eight international conference on Language Resources and Evaluation. Istanbul (TR), 21.05.2012-27.05.2012] Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legal dictionary * electronic database * Web interface Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://hdl.handle.net/11104/0217335

  12. Electronic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducastelle, F.; Blase, X.; Bonard, J.-M.; Charlier, J.-Ch.; Petit, P.

    This chapter is devoted to a discussion of the electronic structure of carbon and other nanotubes. It begins with a very general description of sp electronic states based on the tight-binding or Hückel approximation. This is sufficient to capture many basic electronic properties of single-walled nanotubes. This is followed by a more detailed analysis of the properties of carbon nanotubes, which is necessary when considering curvature effects, multi-walled nanotubes, bundles, etc. Although much less studied, other non-carbon nanotubes deserve also some attention: because of their ionic character boron nitride nanotubes and other mixed nanotubes offer in particular the opportunity of varying the electronic gap. This is described in a following section. The possibility of monitoring the electronic structure of carbon nanotubes as in the case of graphite, by intercalation and charge transfer are also investigated. Finally an extensive review on field emission is presented.

  13. Introduction of home electronics for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Hideyuki; Shirai, Iwao

    Development of electronics has accelerated the automation and labor saving at factories and offices. Home electronics is also expected to be needed more and more in Japan towards the 21st century, as the advanced information society and the elderly society will be accelerated, and women's participation in social affairs will be increased. Resources Council, which is the advisory organ of the Minister of State for Science and Technology, forecast to what extent home electronics will be popularized by the year of 2010. The Council expected to promote home electronics, because resource and energy saving should be accelerated and people should enjoy much more their individual lives at home.

  14. Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J mice predisposes mice to paralytic infection by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G W; Palmer, G A; Rowland, R R; Even, C; Plagemann, P G

    1995-01-01

    Certain mouse strains, such as AKR and C58, which possess N-tropic, ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviruses and are homozygous at the Fv-1n locus are specifically susceptible to paralytic infection (age-dependent poliomyelitis [ADPM]) by lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Our results provide an explanation for this genetic linkage and directly prove that ecotropic MuLV infection of spinal cord cells is responsible for rendering anterior horn neurons susceptible to cytocidal LDV infection, which is the cause of the paralytic disease. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization of total tissue RNA and in situ hybridization of tissue sections demonstrated that only mice harboring central nervous system (CNS) cells that expressed ecotropic MuLV were susceptible to ADPM. Our evidence indicates that the ecotropic MuLV RNA is transcribed in CNS cells from ecotropic MuLV proviruses that have been acquired by infection with exogenous ecotropic MuLV, probably during embryogenesis, the time when germ line proviruses in AKR and C58 mice first become activated. In young mice, MuLV RNA-containing cells were found exclusively in white-matter tracts and therefore were glial cells. An increase in the ADPM susceptibility of the mice with advancing age correlated with the presence of an increased number of ecotropic MuLV RNA-containing cells in the spinal cords which, in turn, correlated with an increase in the number of unmethylated proviruses in the DNA extracted from spinal cords. Studies with AKXD recombinant inbred strains showed that possession of a single replication-competent ecotropic MuLV provirus (emv-11) by Fv-1n/n mice was sufficient to result in ecotropic MuLV infection of CNS cells and ADPM susceptibility. In contrast, no ecotropic MuLV RNA-positive cells were present in the CNSs of mice carrying defective ecotropic MuLV proviruses (emv-3 or emv-13) or in which ecotropic MuLV replication was blocked by the Fv-1n/b or Fv-1b/b phenotype. Such mice were resistant to paralytic LDV infection. In utero infection of CE/J mice, which are devoid of any endogenous ecotropic MuLVs, with the infectious clone of emv-11 (AKR-623) resulted in the infection of CNS cells, and the mice became ADPM susceptible, whereas littermates that had not become infected with ecotropic MuLV remained ADPM resistant. PMID:7983723

  15. TES: Resources: Art and design resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    Based in Britain, the TES group provides a range of educational resources for teachers around the world. Some of their services require a fee, but the teaching materials on this site are available after a simple free registration. Visitors to the site will note that there is a featured Resource of the Week on the left-hand side of the homepage. Depending on the day, it might be an in-class exercise on dress design or a helpful handout on making an original ceramic creation. The age-grouping conventions here for different grade levels are matched to the secondary school system in Britain, but other visitors won't have a hard time navigating the three main areas. Each of the areas has about a dozen or so thematic categories, including fine art, history of art, and graphic communication. Also, the site has a listing for Latest Resources and Highly Rated Resources.

  16. Mineral Resources Data System

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral resource occurrence data covering the world, most thoroughly within the U.S. This database contains the records previously provided in the Mineral Resource...

  17. Current Resource Imagery Projects

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...

  18. Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - chronic fatigue syndrome; CFS resources ... The following organizations provide information on chronic fatigue syndrome : CFIDS Association of America - www.cfids.org U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/cfs

  19. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  20. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction to electron holography, a newly developed technique for observing and measuring microscopic structures of matter and fields using the wave nature of electrons It describes principles, experimental details, and observation examples for vortices in superconductors, the magnetic domain structure in ferromagnets, and for fundamental phenomena of quantum mechanics such as the single-electron build up of an interference pattern and the Aharonov-Bohm effect The most recent information in this rapidly evolving field is included in this new edition, for example, the dynamical observation of vortices in superconductors

  1. Electron Decay

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, T.

    2003-01-01

    The electron would decay into a photon and neutrino if the law of electric charge conservation is not respected. Such a decay would cause vacancy in closed shells of atoms giving rise to emission of x-rays and Auger electrons. Experimental searches for such very rare decay have given an estimate for the life time to be greater than $2.7 \\times 10^{23}$ years. The simplest theoretical model which would give rise to such a decay is one where the electron is regarded as the fir...

  2. Electronic prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopcroft, J.

    1987-01-01

    The potential benefits of automation in space are significant. The science base needed to support this automation not only will help control costs and reduce lead-time in the earth-based design and construction of space stations, but also will advance the nation's capability for computer design, simulation, testing, and debugging of sophisticated objects electronically. Progress in automation will require the ability to electronically represent, reason about, and manipulate objects. Discussed here is the development of representations, languages, editors, and model-driven simulation systems to support electronic prototyping. In particular, it identifies areas where basic research is needed before further progress can be made.

  3. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  4. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  5. Knowledge resources and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Naldi; Mattias Nordqvist; Thomas Zellweger

    2011-01-01

    According to the RBV, knowledge resources can be sources of competitive advantage. Yet, performance also depends on how these resources are managed and leveraged in strategy processes. We investigate how the effect of knowledge resources on performance is moderated by the involvement of the owner family in both business level and corporate level strategy. We find that family involvement in business strategy enhances the performance implications of knowledge-based resources, while family invol...

  6. WATER RESOURCES AND CLIMATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water resources engineers and managers routinely deal with changes in water availability, demand, and usage. The effects of climate change and variations on water resources represent an additional consideration among others. A book “Climate Change, Climate Variations and Water Resources Engineering...

  7. Availability of energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reserve and resource estimates for energy minerals are discussed in terms of their ability to supply future requirements. The emphasis is placed on the interpretation of reserves and resources in the light of changing conditions. This paper concentrates on the non-renewable resources of energy: coal, uranium, oil and gas, South Africa's major energy sources

  8. Assessing hydropower resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses assessing hydroelectric power resources using a standardized computer program. The computer program was developed in response to a need to identify undeveloped potential hydropower resources as part of the development of a National Energy Strategy. The topics discussed in the article include the resource assessment team established by US Department of Energy, and model development and testing

  9. World Wide Arts Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The World Wide Arts Resources site is a comprehensive registry of visual arts information world-wide on the Web. The 4000 resources have been compiled over the last year and can be searched by keyword. Categories include museums, performing arts, artists, antiques, art resources, and publications. Commercial, government, and academic sites are also offered. http://wwar.com/

  10. DC Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a website with many learning objects on DC Electronics with over 60 lessons in areas including: Basic Concepts, Electrical Circuits / Meters, Ohm's Law, Magnetism, Parallel Circuits, Series/Parallel Circuits, Series/Parallel Applications and Series Circuits.

  11. Electronics Tutorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site offers free tutorials about amplifiers, oscillators, ham radio, filters, power supply, transmitters, receivers, and radio and electronics design as well as basic electronics (Ohm's Law, voltage, resistivity, etc.). The topical pages provide fairly non-technical, clear text with hyperlinks to related topics, schematics, and formulae. For example, the tutorial page for Small Signal Amplifiers has circuit schematics of AC/DC and class A amplifiers, equations for R and Z, and links to pages on Ohm's Law, resistant current, resonant circuit, emitter degeneration, and broad band amplifiers. The "Basics" tutorials each give definitions, formulae, and examples for each of nineteen general electronics terms. Links to equipment specifications for selected amplifiers and receivers, a free monthly newsletter, and a recommended book list (note: takes user to Amazon.com) are also featured. The site's administrator is electronics buff Ian Purdie, a licensed radio amateur and former college instructor.

  12. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.)

  13. Electron Microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeff Ryan, University of South Florida

    Jeff Ryan, University of South Florida Summary Two students using the FCAEM Electron microprobe via remote operation in Jeff Ryan's GLY 3311C course. DetailsAs the core activity of petrology portion of a ...

  14. Superconducting electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraordinary performance of Josephson-junction circuits for scientific measurements, and the suitability of similar circuits for large scale integrated electronics, presage the emergence of a new technology

  15. Electronic filaments

    OpenAIRE

    Kouropoulos, C. P.

    2005-01-01

    In the one-dimensional world of a flux line beyond Bce, paired evanescent low momentum 0-Landau electron states condense into magnetized bosons of vanishing momentum. I use the results of Rojas et al. within a Coulomb potential and show that magnetic intensities and electron densities sufficient to initiate condensation can be achieved in the shockwaves of cathode hot spots; from unipolar pulses on the surface of a discontinuous micro conductor or cathode tip as a discharge ...

  16. Learning Resource Server

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Learning Resource Server at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign has as its goal the provision of resources that help learners advance from "surfing" to "serving." It has been redesigned to better serve the needs of learners and teachers at all levels. The Learning Resource Server contains resources for accessing and creating knowledge for K-12 classes, higher education students and teachers, and teacher education. Resources include exemplary lesson plans, how-to guides, and good network-based learning projects and papers.

  17. Self managing experiment resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

    2014-06-01

    Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

  18. Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founded in 1990 and based in Spain, Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN) is an international, non-governmental organization committed to ending the loss of genetic diversity (genetic erosion). GRAIN's mission is based on the premise that "the loss of biological diversity, particularly in the 'gene rich' countries of the Third World, undermines the very sense of sustainable agriculture as it destroys choices for the future and robs people of a key resource base for survival." To that end, the GRAIN homepage (in English, French or Spanish) offers the online quarterly newsletter Seedling, with relevant articles and editorials back to 1995; Books, briefings and other materials; Global Trade and Biodiversity in Conflict (a series of critical reports that examine "points of conflict between the privatization of biodiversity ... and peoples' efforts to empower local communities in biological and cultural diversity management"); and BIO-IPR, a new electronic mailing list from GRAIN. For those interested in global biodiversity issues, this is an interesting and up-to-date resource.

  19. Stressed-out, or in (utero)?

    OpenAIRE

    Avishai-eliner, Sarit; Brunson, Kristen L.; Sandman, Curt A.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2002-01-01

    The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which plasticity is induced in the mature CNS (and, specifically, in the hippocampus) by environmental input are progressively being elucidated. However, the mechanisms – and even the existence – of functional and structural effects of environmental input (and, particularly, stress) early in life are incompletely understood. Here, we discuss recent evidence that stressful stimuli have a significant impact on neonatal (rat) and prenatal (human) hipp...

  20. Gaseous Electronics Tables, Atoms, and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Raju, Gorur Govinda

    2011-01-01

    With the constant emergence of new research and application possibilities, gaseous electronics is more important than ever in disciplines including engineering (electrical, power, mechanical, electronics, and environmental), physics, and electronics. The first resource of its kind, Gaseous Electronics: Tables, Atoms, and Molecules fulfills the author's vision of a stand-alone reference to condense 100 years of research on electron-neutral collision data into one easily searchable volume. It presents most--if not all--of the properly classified experimental results that scientists, researchers,

  1. Deeplinks: Electronic Frontier Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has crafted this great resource for people interested in the world of online rights and privacy matters. A quick glance through the site will reveal a range of key commentaries on issues of copyright, moral privacy rights, and government intervention. Visitors can scroll through recent posts and then look over some of their additional projects, which include Bloggers' Rights, and HTTPS Everywhere. Also, visitors can offer comment and search posts by keywords, such as "International,� "Copyright,� and "Free Speech.� It's an exciting new project and one that will be of great interest to policy aficionados and others.

  2. Electronic Theses and Dissertations: Promoting "Hidden" Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s an increasing number of higher education institutions and organisations have been encouraging the production and submission of theses and dissertations in electronic format. Where access to electronic theses and dissertations is available via the Internet, usage figures indicate that this is a much consulted resource. However,…

  3. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro (Hamamatsu, JP); Fukasawa, Atsuhito (Hamamatsu, JP); Arisaka, Katsushi (Los Angeles, CA); Wang, Hanguo (North Hills, CA)

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  4. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  5. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  6. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry E; Sosnovtseva, Olga

    2005-01-01

    The paper investigates the special clustering phenomena that one can observe in systems of nonlinear oscillators that are coupled via a shared flow of primary resources (or a common power supply). This type of coupling, which appears to be quite frequent in nature, implies that one can no longer separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads to a number of new generic phenomena, including partial synchronization, sliding of the synchronization region with the resource supply, and coupling-induced inhomogeneity.

  7. Wind Energy Resource Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    This portal of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory offers two major links: Meteorological Field Measurements at Potential and Actual Wind Turbine Sites and Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States. In addition, a section called Links to Wind Resource Maps leads to Iowa Energy Centers Iowa Wind Resource Assessment Maps, Wind Maps on NREL's Dynamic Maps and GIS Data website, and Wind Powering America including U.S. State Maps of Wind Resources and Installed U.S. Wind Capacity. Other links include the Colorado Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP), The State of Hawaii's Wind Energy Fact Sheet and Wind Resource Database of NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC).

  8. Application of Information Systems in Electronic Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Payman Salami; Hojat Ahmadi

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) and some of the application software are very important for developing electronic insurance. In this research we try to determine and investigate the Inform ation Systems and their application software, which are effective for electronic insurance development. The electronic insurance parameter that we consider in our research are quality of services, human resources, customer benefit, increased customer services, integrated customer information, integrated customer o...

  9. Competition for finite resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates

  10. Patent and Trademark Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Created and maintained by the Louisiana State University Library, this bibliography of Web resources concentrates on patent and trademark sources. One in a collection of Webliographies, Patents and Trademarks offers a compendium of resources organized by topic. The Websites include links to other patent and trademark sites, general information, government and non-government organizations, and online journals. This is certainly a solid collection of resources.

  11. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    IOANA-JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information includ...

  12. Natural Resource Technician DACUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this DACUM, or curriculum development tool, for natural resources technician training programs. The document includes a general occupation description and required areas of competence like conducting natural resource inventories, conducting land potential assessment activities and delineating property boundaries. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item. The document is available in PDF file format.

  13. CIRRUS: A Chemistry Internet Resource for Research by Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, Dean A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes CIRRUS (the Chemistry Internet Resource for Research by Undergraduate Students), an Internet-based resource in support of the undergraduate chemical research enterprise. Supports communication and information-sharing by providing a companion electronic mail server. Presents examples of services provided by CIRRUS. (JRH)

  14. Seismology Resources for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This list of reference material was prepared by the Seismological Society of America to provide teachers (primarily grades K-12) with resource information that will be of use in teaching topics related to seismology. The resources are separated into seven categories, the first of which is reference information (primarily books, scientific papers and pamphlets). Other resources include maps, slide sets, videotapes, computer hardware/software, seismographs, and databases. Several of the references include links to order material, view it on line, or provide more information. This site also includes suggestions for "first time users" of seismology materials and some information about how to obtain copies of the resources listed at this site.

  15. CAD Resources Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    This section of Virtual Library, started by Tim Berners-Lee, provides educational resources on CAD. CAD software, used for drafting architectural and engineering drawings and for making technical illustrations in general, is widely used by engineering professionals and students. The website provides links to "important CAD resources associated with the CAD industry." The resources are organized into the following sections: Organizations Associated with CAD; CAD Research and Artificial Intelligence Links; CAD Directories, Gateways and News Centers; Important CAD Review Resources; CAD Magazines, Journals and Newsletters; and CAD Software Programs. Visitors are invited to make recommendations for additions to the library.

  16. Sharing network resources

    CERN Document Server

    Parekh, Abhay

    2014-01-01

    Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications.We start from the fund

  17. Induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 and formation of DNA adducts in C57BL/6, Balb/c, and F1 mice following in utero exposure to 3-methylcholanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3-methylcholanthrene (MC). We thus determined if differences in metabolism, adduct formation, or adduct repair influence strain-specific responses to transplacental MC exposure in C57BL/6 (B6), Balb/c (BC), and reciprocal F1 crosses between these two strains of mice. The induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 in fetal lung and liver tissue was determined by quantitative fluorescent real-time PCR. MC treatment caused maximal induction of Cyp1a1 and Cyp1b1 RNA 2-8 h after injection in both organs. RNA levels for both genes then declined in both fetal organs, but a small biphasic, secondary increase in Cyp1a1 was observed specifically in the fetal lung 24-48 h after MC exposure in all four strains. Cyp1a1 induction by MC at 4 h was 2-5 times greater in fetal liver (7000- to 16,000-fold) than fetal lung (2000- to 6000-fold). Cyp1b1 induction in both fetal lung and liver was similar and much lower than that observed for Cyp1a1, with induction ratios of 8- to 18-fold in fetal lung and 10- to 20-fold in fetal liver. The overall kinetics and patterns of induction were thus very similar across the four strains of mice. The only significant strain-specific effect appeared to be the relatively poor induction of Cypto be the relatively poor induction of Cyp1b1 in the parental strain of B6 mice, especially in fetal lung tissue. We also measured the levels of MC adducts and their disappearance from lung tissue by the P32 post-labeling assay on gestation days 18 and 19 and postnatal days 1, 4, 11, and 18. Few differences were seen between the different strains of mice; the parental strain of B6 mice had nominally higher levels of DNA adducts 2 (gestation day 19) and 4 (postnatal day 1) days after injection, although this was not statistically significant. These results indicate that differences in Phase I metabolism of MC and formation of MC-DNA adducts are unlikely to account for the marked differences observed in the Ki-ras mutational spectrum seen in previous studies. Further, the results suggest that other genetic factors may interact with chemical carcinogens in determining individual susceptibility to these agents during development

  18. Realizing what's essential: a case study on integrating electronic journal management into a print-centric technicalservices department

    OpenAIRE

    Dollar, Daniel M.; Gallagher, John; Glover, Janis; Marone, Regina Kenny; Crooker, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To support migration from print to electronic resources, the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University reorganized its Technical Services Department to focus on managing electronic resources.

  19. Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - ...

  20. Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, David L.; Church, Deanna M.; Lash, Alex E.; Leipe, Detlef D.; Madden, Thomas L.; Pontius, Joan U.; Schuler, Gregory D.; Schriml, Lynn M.; Tatusova, Tatiana A.; Wagner, Lukas; Rapp, Barbara A.

    2001-01-01

    In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides data analysis and retrieval resources that operate on the data in GenBank and a variety of other biological data made available through NCBI’s Web site. NCBI data retrieval resources include Entrez, PubMed, LocusLink and the Taxonomy Browser. Data analysis resources include BLAST, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, RefSeq, UniGene, Ho...

  1. Foreign and International Law Resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jean M.

    1998-01-01

    This metasite, recently created by Jean Wenger of the Cornell University Law Library, contains annotated pointers in four major topical areas at this time: foreign law, international law, US government sources, and topical resources. Each area is further subdivided. Selection criteria is clearly stated; authority information for many of the resources is available. This growing site joins five other Cornell Law Library legal research guides to create a powerful law reference tool of Internet, other electronic, and print resources.

  2. Electron microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors begin with a discussion of experimental methods which are divided into static and rocking probe methods. An introduction to microdiffraction theory follows the description of experimental methods. Descriptions of some current advanced applications of microdiffraction to physical research problems follow the theory section. The last section discusses the relationship between microdiffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy-loss spectroscopy

  3. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  4. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  5. Cryogenic electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the cryogenic electronics, which is used in high energy physics with appropriate device. It discuss their ability to hardening against ionization radiation and neutrons. Some partial results on the operation of microelectronics devices at cryogenic temperature are given. (TEC). 33 refs., 13 figs

  6. Learning Resources Operational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    The learning resources program at Tarrant Count Junior College calls for a district-wide resource dedicated to the support of instruction. Traditional library and media services are subsumed within this approach. The operational model consists of many interrelated subsystems most of which are described by flow charts. The systems viewpoint is…

  7. Resource Use Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Marion

    Although there is valid concern with the limited supply of natural resources and how this supply is affected by increasing population and a life style based on consumption, a more important concern is with the future quality of those natural resources. The focus in the past has been on the production of goods for sale, very little on the welfare…

  8. Uranium resources increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1989, Canada succeeded in maintaining its uranium resources base by continuing active exploration. Estimated resources were increased by 7% to about 580 Gg U. Sales contracts were signed for 10.3 Gg. Exploration was concentrated in northern Saskatchewan, but with some activity near Great Bear Lake

  9. Technological Literacy Standards Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Shelli; Dugger, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Creating programs and curricular offerings that are standards-based is a worthwhile goal that can best be achieved by using the many and varied resources available to educators and others. This article describes several such resources, including the ITEA Annual Conference, ITEA-CATTS Standards Specialists, ITEA-CATTS Engineering byDesign[TM]…

  10. World Music Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    Access to world music resources such as videos and sound recordings have increased with the advent of YouTube and the efforts of music educators working closely with ethnomusicologists to provide more detailed visual and audio information about various musical practices. This column discusses some world music resources available for music…

  11. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  12. Method and system for calorimetry probe [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is one of the most effective treatments for cancer and its success depends critically on accurate targeting and delivery of the correct radiation dose. Accurate dosimetry is therefore essential to maintain and improve patient survival rates. However, size and long wait times currently limit water and graphite based calorimeters to standards laboratories leaving field-based dosimetry to ionization chamber measurements which depend upon a reference field-specified calibration factor. It would therefore be beneficial to provide radiotherapy equipment operators a direct approach of clinical reference dosimetry wherein the dosimeter provides increased independence on dose, dose rate, radiation energy, and energy type, etc. It would be further beneficial for such novel clinical dosimeters to be compact, function as secondary standards used routinely for measurements and allow radiotherapy doses to be measured directly and in an absolute manner. According to embodiments of the invention novel compact graphite probe calorimeters are provided.

  13. Method for radiation detection signal processing [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method for radiation detection signal processing, and more particularly to a method capable of using a periodic signal to control the time of charging/discharging to a capacitor of an integrator. The method can be used for detecting the energy of incident photon of Gamma ray during the happening of an event while reducing dead time, and thereby, the count rate is increased. As the periodic signal is used as the signal for controlling the time of charging/discharging to a capacitor, the charging/discharging time of the integrator is no longer being controlled by the triggering time of the event, and thus, the present method is advantageous in that: the control method and circuit architecture are comparatively simpler since the charging/discharging time of the integrator no longer required to be controlled precisely, and thus the integration error due to insufficient resolution in delay element can be avoided.

  14. GNIP programme [electronic resource] : global network of isotopes in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GNIP is an interesting tool for climatological (interpretation of paleorecords), atmospheric (validation of global circulation models) and hydrological (large regional and global scale water balances) studies.

  15. MTA KFKI Részecske- és Magfizikai Kutatóintézet [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Website of the Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Its fields of research include experimental particle physics, theoretical physics, nuclear physics, space physics, plasma physics and biophysics. The website provides information on the institute, its facilities, research projects; links to its publications, library and online catalogue.

  16. Data dictionary [electronic resource] : technical metadata for digital still images.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is a Working Draft for review by a NISO Standards Committee. As a draft document, it may be updated at any time during the review process. Its purpose is to facilitate the development of applications to validate, manage, migrate, and otherwise process digital still images of enduring value. Such applications are viewed to be essential components of large-scale digital repositories.

  17. Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India, which conducts fundamental and applied research in plasma physics and associated technologies. Its website provides information on the Institute, its history, facilities, research areas, news; also links to its publications, including annual reports and newsletters; gives contact information.

  18. Nuclear medicine tomography systems, detectors and methods [electronic resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An N-M tomography system comprising: a carrier for the subject of an examination procedure; a plurality of detector heads; a carrier for the detector heads; and a detector positioning arrangement operable to position the detector heads during performance of a scan without interference or collision between adjacent detector heads to establish a variable bore size and configuration for the examination. Additionally, collimated detectors providing variable spatial resolution for SPECT imaging and which can also be used for PET imaging, whereby one set of detectors can be selectably used for either modality, or for both simultaneously.

  19. Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons [electronic resource].

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. Information on the organisation, its mission, member states, conferences, press releases; links to the Chemical Weapons Convention and other legal texts.

  20. Encyclopedia of materials characterization [electronic resource] : surfaces, interfaces, thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This comprehensive volume on analytical techniques used in materials science for the characterization of surfaces, interfaces and thin films is a unique, stand-alone reference for materials science practitioners, process engineers, students and anyone with a need to know about the capabilities available in materials analysis.