WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Water resources sustainability [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Written by a team of leading experts, this resource provides the latest information and thinking on the globally-critical subject of water sustainability and management. The author includes methods for analyzing water resource needs, modeling, supply reliability, irrigation, and optimization.

2

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic information resources (EIR) including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and t...

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-01-01

3

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-12-01

4

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

5

Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray

1998-01-01

6

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Document Server

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

7

Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

Whitfield, Sharon

2011-01-01

8

ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT This thesis focuses on a theoretical definition of two concepts, namely global Enterprise Resource Planning solutions and electronic commerce. Enterprise Resource Planning solutions and electronic commerce nowadays represent some of the most important advantages for a company, as they are time-saving and minimize operating costs. When a company introduces new solutions, it is vital that it chooses the right global solution, considering its needs and ensure the solutions provi...

Brac?ko, Lidija

2010-01-01

9

Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

Henry, Dennis C.

2002-01-01

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Radium uptake in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a summary of information on a stillborn girl and her mother who had been a radium watch dial painter. Although many dial painters bore children, this is the only example of simultaneous radioactivity determinations in mother and child prior to normal delivery. This case provides an opportunity to assess the degree of transfer of radium to the fetus in utero and may be unique in the study of the placental transfer of radium in humans. Until now only measurements were known of the radium contents of fetuses and unrelated adults. 12 refs.; 3 tabs

11

Collection Management and Scholarly Electronic Publishing Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

Last updated April 21st, this Webliography by C.J. Armstrong features linked listings of hundreds of resources on scholarly electronic publishing. The bibliography is divided into five separate sections, covering scholarly electronic publishing in general, licenses and copyrights, authority and digital signatures, preservation and legal deposit, and practical e-publishing. The site is maintained by Information Automation Limited, "a specialist consultancy and research company, operating in the areas of information creation, use and management."

12

Herding Cats: Options for Organizing Electronic Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines strengths and weaknesses of organizational systems developed to organize and access electronic resources available via the Internet. Highlights include library online catalogs; cataloging rules and MARC records; text encoding initiative (TEI) headers; the Internet union catalog; browsing lists; robot-generated indexes; a core data set of…

Vellucci, Sherry L.

1996-01-01

13

Radium uptake in utero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of information on a stillborn girl and her mother who had been a radium watch dial painter is provided. Although many dial painters bore children, this is the only example we have of simultaneous radioactivity determinations in mother and child prior to normal delivery. This case provides an opportunity to assess the degree of transfer of radium to the fetus in utero and may be unique in the study of the placental transfer of radium in humans. The mother (Case 00-009) worked at the US Radium Corporation, Orange, New Jersey, for 5 to 7 years beginning in 1918. She accumulated a substantial body burden of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra by mouth tipping of brushes, as was then the custom in the American dial painting industry. Years later, her husband recalled that tissues inside her mouth glowed brightly in the dark and that the front of her clothing often glowed too; he described her as a rapid worker. The child (Case 01-579) was stillborn after a gestation period listed as six months on the certificate of stillbirth. The cause of death is listed as placenta previa. The mother died on the day of birth, February 24, 1928. She was 26 years old. Mother and daughter were buried in the same casket and exhumed together August 9, 1968. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

Schlenker, R.A.; Keane, A.T.

1986-01-01

14

In utero and exo utero surgery on rodent embryos.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammalian development has been best characterized using the mouse model. Direct intervention of the postimplantation mouse embryo in utero represents one of many experimental approaches that can be used to probe mammalian embryogenesis. Experimental access to the mouse embryo is difficult, but techniques have been developed to circumvent some of the challenges of operating on the embryo in vivo. Experimental studies have been carried out on postimplantation stage embryos from E8.5 to term, so much of the gestational period is accessible for experimentation. One approach that has helped to enhance embryo accessibility was the development of surgical techniques based on the finding that embryonic development continued normally exo utero. Exo utero development refers to the surgically created condition in which the embryo develops outside of the uterine cavity, yet within the female abdominal cavity and attached, via the placenta, to the uterus. Using this approach it is feasible to carry out precise surgical manipulations of the mouse embryo without compromising embryo viability associated with postsurgery uterine contractions. In this chapter we review technical aspects of both in utero and exo utero surgical approaches and how these surgeries are used in conjunction with other experimental applications. PMID:20691868

Ngô-Muller, Valérie; Muneoka, Ken

2010-01-01

15

Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach  

CERN Document Server

To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM.

Anderson, Elsa K

2014-01-01

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Free online electronic information resources on applied science and technology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper discusses free online electronic information resources and different means of collection of the resources. The online electronic information resources on “Applied Science and Technology are compiled and linked at URL: http://www.geocities.com/ghosh_svrec and described the different free Internet resource like online electronic journals, online electronic books, online databases, organizations, virtual libraries on Applied Science and Technology and special page on earthquake info...

Ghosh, T. B.

2003-01-01

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In utero. Turvatunderuumid / Kristina Viin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Lõputöö "In utero" on põhijoones munakuju meenutav interaktiivne kunstiobjekt, mis oma funktsioonilt läheneb pigem teraapilisele ruumile, pakkudes turvatunnet ja relaksatsiooni, et saavutada "emaüsatunnetus", vabastades inimest painetest ning meenutades talle algset, prenataalset olemist. Projekt kujutab endast nii osalusskulptuuri kui ka relaksatsioonikambrit. Ka emaihalusest psühhoanalüüsis, munast kui loomise arhetüüpsest sümbolist kosmogoonias, muna ja emaüsa kujutamisest Ülo Soosteri ja Hieronymus Boschi jt. kunstis

Viin, Kristina

2011-01-01

18

In utero transplantation: Disparate ramifications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In utero stem cell transplantation, which promises treatment for a host of genetic disorders early in gestation before disease effect stems from Ray Owen’s seminal observation that self-tolerance, is acquired during gestation. To date, in utero transplantation (IUT has proved useful in characterizing the hematopoietic stem cell. Recent observations support its use as an in vivo method to further understanding of self-tolerance. Preclinical development continues for its application as a treatment for childhood hematolymphoid diseases. In addition, IUT may offer therapeutic options in the treatment of diabetes among other diseases. Thus IUT serves as a technique or system important in both a basic and applied format. This review summarizes these findings.

John S Pixley

2013-01-01

19

What Faculty Think: A Survey on Electronic Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

In the fall of 2007, ebrary surveyed 906 faculty from around the world, asking them how they used electronic resources. This article, focusing on the responses of faculty to a few survey questions, finds some expected and surprising attitudes that faculty have about electronic resources for their own and students' research. (Contains 2 notes.)

Jackson, Millie

2008-01-01

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The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

Pomerantz, Sarah B.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Using Electronic Resources to Support Problem-Based Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Students acquire skills in problem solving and critical thinking through the process as well as team work on problem-based learning courses. Many courses have started to involve the online learning environment and integrate these courses with electronic resources. Teachers use electronic resources in their classes. To overcome the problem of the…

Chang, Chen-Chi; Jong, Ay; Huang, Fu-Chang

2012-01-01

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Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overview of important international metadata frameworks and proposes a minimal metadata set for the longterm preservaton of electronic resources.

Alenka Kav?i?-?oli?

2004-01-01

23

Programación in utero: un desafío / In utero programming: a challenge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: recientemente, mediante estudios epidemiológicos realizados en distintas poblaciones se ha llegado a la conclusión de que la situación nutricional durante las etapas prenatal y posnatal puede influir en la susceptibilidad del adulto a padecer intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensión, en [...] fermedad coronaria y obesidad. Actualmente, la teoría de que los factores medioambientales en el feto, y en particular la nutrición de la madre, influyen en la susceptibilidad a padecer determinadas enfermedades en el adulto, ha logrado amplio apoyo y muy especialmente, cuando el tema se ha ido trasladando al terreno de la biología molecular. Los cambios bioquímicos que ocurren durante la vida intrauterina y la etapa prenatal implican el continuo aporte de sustratos plásticos y energéticos de la madre, así como su integración. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear que una mala nutrición materna, ambiental, así como malas condiciones al nacer y durante la infancia, pueden condicionar riesgo de padecer aterosclerosis en el adulto. Métodos: se realizó una revisión exhaustiva del tema programación in utero, añadida al conocimiento en factores de riesgo aterosclerótico por investigaciones realizadas y los conocimientos adquiridos y lógicos en esta materia. Desarrollo: la relación descrita entre medidas corporales al nacer y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de la edad gestacional en los diferentes estudios desarrollados en Sheffield. Este problema puede ser bien confirmado no solo por la malnutrición por defecto de la madre sino también por otros factores bien conocidos que causan el bajo peso al nacer; además del estado nutricional de la madre existen factores intrínsecos del embarazo como la gemelaridad, anomalías cromosómicas, malformaciones congénitas, y otros asociadas a los maternos como edad, paridad, entre otros. Conclusiones: los factores macrodeterminantes y microdeterminantes in utero durante la gestación son causantes de factores de riesgo aterosclerótico no solo en la adultez, sino desde la edad escolar, esto ocurre por injurias durante las etapas embriogénica, fetal y de la infancia y no así por la medición corporal al nacer. Abstract in english Introduction : recent epidemiological studies of different populations have shown that pre- and postnatal nutrition may influence adult susceptibility to suffer from glucose intolerance, hypertension, coronary heart disease and obesity. The theory that fetal environmental factors and in particular m [...] aternal nutrition exert an influence upon the susceptibility to suffer from certain conditions in adulthood, has achieved great support, especially because the topic has gradually gained space in molecular biology. The biochemical changes occurring during the intrauterine and prenatal stages of life involve a continuous supply by the mother of plastic and energy substrates, as well as their integration. Poor maternal nutrition, a deficient environment, and bad conditions at birth and during childhood, may result in the risk to suffer from atherosclerosis in adulthood. Methods: Based on knowledge about in utero programming obtained from an exhaustive review, data about atherosclerotic risk factors drawn from research previously conducted, and information acquired about the topic. Development: The relationship described between body measurements at birth and coronary heart disease was irrespective of gestational age in the various studies conducted in Sheffield. This problem may be confirmed not only by maternal malnutrition, but other well-known factors as well, cause low weight at birth. Alongside the mother's nutritional status, other pregnancy-related factors should also be considered, such as multiple births, chromosomal anomalies, congenital malformations, maternal age, parity and others. Conclusions: In utero macro- and microdetermining factors during pregnancy cause atherosclerotic risk factors not only in adulthood, but since school age. Body me

Nuris, Rodríguez Vargas; Tania P, Martínez Pérez; Rolando, Martínez García; Mailin, Garriga Reyes; José Emilio, Fernández-Britto; Gilda, Martínez Fure.

2014-03-01

24

Programación in utero: un desafío / In utero programming: a challenge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: recientemente, mediante estudios epidemiológicos realizados en distintas poblaciones se ha llegado a la conclusión de que la situación nutricional durante las etapas prenatal y posnatal puede influir en la susceptibilidad del adulto a padecer intolerancia a la glucosa, hipertensión, en [...] fermedad coronaria y obesidad. Actualmente, la teoría de que los factores medioambientales en el feto, y en particular la nutrición de la madre, influyen en la susceptibilidad a padecer determinadas enfermedades en el adulto, ha logrado amplio apoyo y muy especialmente, cuando el tema se ha ido trasladando al terreno de la biología molecular. Los cambios bioquímicos que ocurren durante la vida intrauterina y la etapa prenatal implican el continuo aporte de sustratos plásticos y energéticos de la madre, así como su integración. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo plantear que una mala nutrición materna, ambiental, así como malas condiciones al nacer y durante la infancia, pueden condicionar riesgo de padecer aterosclerosis en el adulto. Métodos: se realizó una revisión exhaustiva del tema programación in utero, añadida al conocimiento en factores de riesgo aterosclerótico por investigaciones realizadas y los conocimientos adquiridos y lógicos en esta materia. Desarrollo: la relación descrita entre medidas corporales al nacer y la enfermedad coronaria fue independiente de la edad gestacional en los diferentes estudios desarrollados en Sheffield. Este problema puede ser bien confirmado no solo por la malnutrición por defecto de la madre sino también por otros factores bien conocidos que causan el bajo peso al nacer; además del estado nutricional de la madre existen factores intrínsecos del embarazo como la gemelaridad, anomalías cromosómicas, malformaciones congénitas, y otros asociadas a los maternos como edad, paridad, entre otros. Conclusiones: los factores macrodeterminantes y microdeterminantes in utero durante la gestación son causantes de factores de riesgo aterosclerótico no solo en la adultez, sino desde la edad escolar, esto ocurre por injurias durante las etapas embriogénica, fetal y de la infancia y no así por la medición corporal al nacer. Abstract in english Introduction : recent epidemiological studies of different populations have shown that pre- and postnatal nutrition may influence adult susceptibility to suffer from glucose intolerance, hypertension, coronary heart disease and obesity. The theory that fetal environmental factors and in particular m [...] aternal nutrition exert an influence upon the susceptibility to suffer from certain conditions in adulthood, has achieved great support, especially because the topic has gradually gained space in molecular biology. The biochemical changes occurring during the intrauterine and prenatal stages of life involve a continuous supply by the mother of plastic and energy substrates, as well as their integration. Poor maternal nutrition, a deficient environment, and bad conditions at birth and during childhood, may result in the risk to suffer from atherosclerosis in adulthood. Methods: Based on knowledge about in utero programming obtained from an exhaustive review, data about atherosclerotic risk factors drawn from research previously conducted, and information acquired about the topic. Development: The relationship described between body measurements at birth and coronary heart disease was irrespective of gestational age in the various studies conducted in Sheffield. This problem may be confirmed not only by maternal malnutrition, but other well-known factors as well, cause low weight at birth. Alongside the mother's nutritional status, other pregnancy-related factors should also be considered, such as multiple births, chromosomal anomalies, congenital malformations, maternal age, parity and others. Conclusions: In utero macro- and microdetermining factors during pregnancy cause atherosclerotic risk factors not only in adulthood, but since school age. Body me

Nuris, Rodríguez Vargas; Tania P, Martínez Pérez; Rolando, Martínez García; Mailin, Garriga Reyes; José Emilio, Fernández-Britto; Gilda, Martínez Fure.

25

BBC news style guide [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Representing some of BBC's accumulated wisdom surrounding the use of English in written and spoken communications, this guide was written for BBC journalists but is a valuable resource for anyone who wants to write well.

26

Using Zapier with Trello for Electronic Resources Troubleshooting Workflow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Troubleshooting access problems is an important part of the electronic resources management workflow. This article discusses an opportunity to streamline and track troubleshooting using two web-based services: Trello and Zapier.

Meghan Finch

2014-10-01

27

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

28

Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correlated with their self-efficacy scores. Through statistical analysis, we found that use of the library correlated to the students' use of the library's electronic resources. We also found out that students who express an interest in learning about the library's electronic resources will be more likely to have higher self-efficacy.

Micaela Waldman

2003-01-01

29

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-06-01

30

Ex Utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The anesthesia ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure is a specialized surgical procedure used to deliver babies who have airway compression due to cystic adenomatoid malformation, bronchopulmonary sequestration, cervical teratomas, or other congenital conditions. EXIT is erroneously known as a routine cesarean section (CS, but is rather an extension of CS with discernible differences. The procedure creates an opening in the anesthetized abdomen of the mother and uterus. Once EXIT is complete, the remainder of the CS proceeds. EXIT is much more complex than a routine CS, as it requires coordination between the mother and a multidisciplinary team of surgical and neonatal personnel. This review highlights current anesthetic concepts during the EXIT procedure.

Srinivas Pentyala

2013-11-01

31

Electronic neural network for dynamic resource allocation  

Science.gov (United States)

A VLSI implementable neural network architecture for dynamic assignment is presented. The resource allocation problems involve assigning members of one set (e.g. resources) to those of another (e.g. consumers) such that the global 'cost' of the associations is minimized. The network consists of a matrix of sigmoidal processing elements (neurons), where the rows of the matrix represent resources and columns represent consumers. Unlike previous neural implementations, however, association costs are applied directly to the neurons, reducing connectivity of the network to VLSI-compatible 0 (number of neurons). Each row (and column) has an additional neuron associated with it to independently oversee activations of all the neurons in each row (and each column), providing a programmable 'k-winner-take-all' function. This function simultaneously enforces blocking (excitatory/inhibitory) constraints during convergence to control the number of active elements in each row and column within desired boundary conditions. Simulations show that the network, when implemented in fully parallel VLSI hardware, offers optimal (or near-optimal) solutions within only a fraction of a millisecond, for problems up to 128 resources and 128 consumers, orders of magnitude faster than conventional computing or heuristic search methods.

Thakoor, A. P.; Eberhardt, S. P.; Daud, T.

1991-01-01

32

Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide  

CERN Document Server

This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

Lee, Stuart D

2004-01-01

33

IBEX Electronic Resource for Museum Educators  

Science.gov (United States)

This material is a comprehensive educational resource for informal educators highlighting the major mission information and science background for the Interstellar Boundary Explorer mission, a Small Explorer Earth-orbiting spacecraft that is designed to map the distant boundary between the solar wind from our Sun and the interstellar medium. New for 2012, this material also includes a comprehensive overview of all of the science results released through mid-2011 and information about the IBEX satellite's orbital change in June 2011. All of this material can be modified to use with informal education audiences, including museum and planetarium visitors, afterâschool clubs, and others. It is available as PDF .zip file and as a PowerPoint .zip file. The PowerPoint .zip file contains the newlyârevised PowerPoint resource and its associated movie clips. The PDF .zip file contains a PDF version of the newly-revised PowerPoint resource, a PDF version of the Notes section for each of the slides, and the movie clips. Because movie clips cannot be embedded into the PDF slides, each movie clip file name contains its associated slide number so users can play the movie clip alongside the slide.

34

E-print network [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides access to scholarly and professional works electronically produced and shared by researchers with the intent of communicating research findings to colleagues. Contains e-prints in basic and applied sciences, primarily in physics but also including subject areas such as chemistry, biology and life sciences, materials science, nuclear sciences and engineering, energy research, computer and information technologies, and other disciplines of interest to the U.S. Department of Energy.

35

Chromosomal aberrations in individuals exposed in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Experiments revealed high sensitivity of the developing embryo and fetus to ionizing radiation. The epidemiological studies suggest that the risks per unit dose to the developing embryo and fetus may be considerably larger than to an adult, typically by factors ranging from 3 to 10. There are only three large populations of individuals exposed in-utero: individuals exposed in-utero from radiological examinations, the in-utero exposed A-bomb survivors, and individuals exposed in utero from 1949 onward at the Mayak Production Association, a Soviet nuclear weapons complex. The conclusions of our preliminary study are that intra-chromosomal aberrations represent a sensitive, long-lived, quantitative, low-background biomarker of densely-ionizing radiation exposure in human populations exposed many years earlier.In the present study we propose to use the mFISH technique to score chromosomal aberrations in healthy individuals exposed in-utero to gamma-ray doses in the range 5 to 20 cGy. At SUBI, a cohort of about 72,000 individuals who were born in Ozyorsk in 1948-1988 was established to evaluate various health outcomes, with an emphasis on cancer (under Dr. N.A. Koshurnikova). Within the in-utero cohort, there are 553 individuals currently living locally in Ozyorsk who were exposed in-utero only to chronic gamma-rays (Dr. A.V. Kurbatov). Within the in-utero cohort there are 97 individuals whose mothers were occupationally exposed to radiation only during pregnancy. The mean uterine gamma-ray dose in this group is 11 cGy, with a range from 1 to 218 cGy. The study we propose enables us to measure the yield of chromosomal aberrations per unit dose in individuals exposed in-utero to chronic gamma-rays in comparison with matched unexposed control individuals (same age, same gender) and individuals exposed to the same doses, but as young adults. The additional question we will address is whether the chromosomal aberrations we see are clonal, originating from one cell which was damaged in utero, or due to chromosomal instability, or due to other reasons

36

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-11-01

37

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

38

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

39

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

1999-01-01

40

Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

ASIL Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law  

Science.gov (United States)

The study and practice of international law can be a tough area to get a handle on, and with numerous online resources available for both areas, it can be difficult to separate the wheat from the chaff. Since 1997, The American Society of International Law (ASIL) has been continuously updating and revising their Guide to Electronic Resources for International Law, under the able direction of Marci Hoffman and Jill Watson. Within each of its eight primary sections, users can read about various high-quality online resources for each topical area (such as international organizations and human rights), and then read brief summaries of what each online resource features in terms of its content and scope. As might be expected, the site also contains information on relevant and helpful weblogs that deal with international law.

Hoffman, Marci.; Watson, Jill M.

2003-01-01

42

Congenital (in utero, teratogenic) effects of ionizing radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter deals with the congenital, or teratogenic, effects on the individual irradiated while the individual is in utero. The chapter is divided into 2 sections: the first examines the nonstochastic in utero effects on the central nervous system, skeleton and organ development; the second section examines the stochastic in utero induction of cancer and leukemia

43

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

44

E-Resources Management: How We Positioned Our Organization to Implement an Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

The Information Services Division (ISD) of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) positioned itself to successfully implement an electronic resources management system. This article highlights the ISD's unique ability to "team" across the organization to realize a common goal, develop leadership qualities in support of…

White, Marilyn; Sanders, Susan

2009-01-01

45

In utero repair of spina bifida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed. PMID:24819146

Moldenhauer, Julie S

2014-08-01

46

Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2011-01-01

47

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic...

P?nar Al; Umut Al

2003-01-01

48

Health condition of children irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Among the children exposed to ionizing radiation, the ones irradiated in utero constitute a group under special surveillance. The greatest sensitivity of the organism to the effects of radiative factors occurs in the neonatal period of development and the forthcoming life span with irradiation effects is the longest for these children. Children with acute exposure, with chronic exposure and control group were encompassed by this study - 1144 children altogether. 9 figs, 2 tabs

49

Diethylstilbestrol Exposure in Utero and Depression in Women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor with long-term health effects, possibly including depression, following exposure in utero. Understanding the relation between in utero DES exposure and depression will provide insight to the potential adverse effects of bisphenol A, a functionally similar and ubiquitous endocrine disruptor. The association between in utero DES exposure and depression was assessed among participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II who first reporte...

O Reilly, E?ilis J.; Mirzaei, Fariba; Forman, Michele R.; Ascherio, Alberto

2010-01-01

50

Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

Zhong Wenjuan

2014-01-01

51

Assessing Ongoing Electronic Resource Purchases: Linking Tools to Synchronize Staff Workflows  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing electronic resource purchases represent a substantial proportion of collections budgets. Recognizing the necessity of systematic ongoing assessment with full selector engagement, Columbia University Libraries appointed an Electronic Resources Assessment Working Group to promote the inclusion of such resources within our current culture of…

Carroll, Jeffrey D.; Major, Colleen; O'Neal, Nada; Tofanelli, John

2012-01-01

52

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

53

Cost-benefit analysis of electronic information resources: an evaluation on Middle East Technical University Library.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years there has been a rapid transition from print to electronic resources. Significant amount of library budgets are allocated for licensing electronic resources. Identifying and analyzing the benefits and costs of this new trend is therefore important for academic libraries. In this presentation experiences of METU (Middle East Technical University) Library on licensing and usage of electronic resources is evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage ...

Bati, Hacer

2006-01-01

54

Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

... resources Child abuse - resources Chronic fatigue syndrome - resources Chronic pain - resources Cleft palate - resources Colon cancer - resources Cystic fibrosis - resources Depression - resources Diabetes - resources Digestive disease - resources Drug abuse - ...

55

Electronic Safety Resource Tools – Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

Barilo, Nick F.

2014-09-29

56

"Not" a One-Size-Fits-All Solution: Lessons Learned from Implementing an Electronic Resources Management System in Three Days  

Science.gov (United States)

Auraria Library purchased Innovative Interfaces, Inc.'s Millennium Electronic Resources Management (ERM) to manage data about acquisitions, licensing, troubleshooting, and usage statistics of electronic resources. After 3 days of implementation, the software vendor enabled resources records to display. As a result, the electronic resources team…

Pan, Denise

2009-01-01

57

Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

Steven Shapiro

2010-01-01

58

Checklist Manifesto for Electronic Resources: Getting Ready for the Fiscal Year and Beyond  

Science.gov (United States)

Organization of electronic resources workflow is critical in the increasingly complicated and complex world of library management. A simple organizational tool that can be readily applied to electronic resources management (ERM) is the use of checklists. Based on the principles discussed in The Checklist Manifesto: How to Get Things Right, the…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li; Miller, Stephen

2011-01-01

59

Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model  

CERN Document Server

A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

Elguindi, Anne

2012-01-01

60

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

2003-01-01

62

????????????????????--?????????????? | Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

???85-97

?????????????????????88???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????www???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

The Project of Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan was subsidized by Ministry of Education and carried out by National Taichung Library. The Project started in January of 1999. Its purposes are to establish an electronic database system through WWW for all the public libraries in Taiwan to provide the public to use, and to form a public library cooperation mechanism to foster resource sharing among the libraries.

This paper introduces the brief history, current status, and achievement o

??? Li-Hsiang Lai

2001-04-01

63

Tracheoesophageal fistula in utero: 22 cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective review of 22 infants born with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) detected on in utero US was performed. In addition, ten cases reported in the literature were reviewed. TEF or esophageal atresia should be considered when there is polydramnios and the stomach is not fluid filled; these findings were seen in 32% of the cases. Amniotic fluid flows freely through some TEFs, resulting in a normal amount of amniotic fluid and a fluid-filled stomach (6 of 22 cases), while in other cases the fluid does not traverse the fistula easily and polyhydramnios results. Polyhdramnios was present in 62% of the cases we reviewed and was the most common sonographic finding. The earliest age at which polyhdramnios was diagnosed was 24 weeks. Associated abnormalities are seen in 50%-70% of cases of TEF and are a major contributing factor to morbidity and mortality. Sonography will continue to miss many cases of TEF; however, when TEF is suspected from fetal US (i.e., polyhdramnios and no fluid-filled stomach, or polyhdramnios with no etiology identified), an improved outcome is expected

64

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

65

Evaluating Electronic Resources: Personal Development Planning Resources at the Open University, a Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the evaluation of Web-based tools to support Personal Development Planning (PDP) in order to illustrate issues associated with the introduction and assessment of the effectiveness of online resources. The aims of the evaluation were based on concerns about the very complex situation that offering online resources including PDP…

Jelfs, Anne; Kelly, Patrick

2007-01-01

66

Improving Electronic Resources Management (ERM): Critical Work Flow and Operations Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Organization of electronic resources work flow and operations are critical in the increasingly complex world of library management. The way in which this management process is structured differs according to the type of library and organizational structure within. A common goal, though, is strategically sustaining access and availability to electronic resources over time and the effective management of the library staff that maintains them. In this joint session, librarians from George Mason ...

Appleton, Betsy; Regan, Shannon; England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2012-01-01

67

?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

Huang-Yu Liu

2008-03-01

68

ODLIS : Online Dictionary for Library and Information Science [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A hypertext reference resource for library and information science professionals, university students and faculty, and users of all types of libraries. Includes not only the terminology of the various specializations within library science and information studies but also the vocabulary of publishing, printing, binding, the book trade, graphic arts, book history, literature, bibliography, telecommunications, and computer science.

69

Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?  

Science.gov (United States)

Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

Barbier, Patricia

2007-01-01

70

Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

71

The role of the university library for an efficient use of the electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By means of the topic approached in the present paper we would like to highlight the crucial role of the university library for a better access to the electronic resources, from the perspective of the new information and communication technologies. In this context, we shall try to identify the factors leading to the need to use electronic resources, we shall analyze the role played by the university library in increasing the efficiency of the access to this type of resources (implicitly, instructing the users, we shall suggest ways of collaboration between academics and librarians etc. From a managerial perspective, we shall analyze a few important aspects that one needs to consider when making the decision of buying or not an electronic resource: selection, type of acquisition, legality, monitoring the usefulness etc.

Agnes Erich

2013-01-01

72

Diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero and depression in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor with long-term health effects, possibly including depression, following exposure in utero. Understanding the relation between in utero DES exposure and depression will provide insight to the potential adverse effects of bisphenol A, a functionally similar and ubiquitous endocrine disruptor. The association between in utero DES exposure and depression was assessed among participants in the Nurses' Health Study II who first reported their history of antidepressant use in 1993 and lifetime history of depressive symptoms in 2001. DES exposure was reported by 1,612 (2.2%) women. A history of depression at baseline was higher among women exposed to DES in utero compared with those not exposed (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 1.72) (P < 0.001). Incident depression (first use of antidepressants among women who also reported depressive symptoms) during follow-up (1995-2005) was reported by 19.7% of women exposed to DES and 15.9% unexposed (age-adjusted OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.63) (P < 0.001). Adjustment for risk factors of depression and correlates of DES exposure moderately attenuated the association (multivariable-adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.51) (P = 0.0004). These results suggest that the neurophysiologic effects of in utero exposure to DES could lead to an increased risk of depression in adult life. Further research should assess whether in utero exposure to bisphenol A has similar adverse effects. PMID:20332145

O'Reilly, Eilis J; Mirzaei, Fariba; Forman, Michele R; Ascherio, Alberto

2010-04-15

73

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

74

Electronic information resource use: implications for teaching and library staff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Within institutions of higher education, teaching staff and library-based information specialists have tended to occupy separate worlds. Although there has been some contact, in the main this has been partial and intermittent. For first-year students, one consequence of this state of affairs has been the absence of a systematic and co-ordinated strategy for enabling them to acquire, practise and develop information-gathering skills. Teaching staff have seen their role in this respect mainly in terms of issuing students with reading lists containing a mix of books and journal articles, and underlying this approach is the expectation that information specialists will be on hand to provide whatever additional help is needed to access these resources, for example through the provision of introductory talks and one-to-one support sessions. Relatively few teaching staff have incorporated library exercises into their teaching and assessment, or adopted a more creative approach to information gathering by students, such as helping them use bibliographic and other aids to prepare personalized reading lists. Consequently, when students have been required to do this at later stages of their studies, especially in the context of preparing a dissertation, they have not been adequately prepared, and often find it extremely difficult to access and evaluate information resources effectively.

Roger Ottewill

1997-12-01

75

We're All in This Together: Library Faculty and Staff and Their Reporting of Electronic Resource Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

Libraries continue to shift budgets toward obtaining more electronic resources. Electronic resources can develop problems at any time when a library offers access. Staff collaboration is vital in ensuring availability to those resources. Partnering with areas in the library that work most closely with patrons can help share the load of the…

Foster, Anita; Williams, Sarah C.

2010-01-01

76

MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

Aaron August Lupton

2012-01-01

77

Strategic pricing, resource allocation and infrastructure in electronic commerce  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis we identify and obtain structural results for two different problems that are motivated by electronic commerce infrastructure and bundling of information goods. Strategic implications of implementing a priority pricing scheme in an ATM-like network owned by a single firm is the subject of the first study. Network structure consists of a single link modeled as an Mx/D/1 queue with non-preemptive head-of-the-line priority service. The network manager's motive is to maximize th...

Tomak, Kerem

1999-01-01

78

IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, a professional group on nuclear science within the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, formed in 1949. The NPSS is composed of nine technical committees with a common interest in advancing nuclear and plasma sciences and engineering, including instrumentation, detection and measurement, particle accelerators, reactor systems, effects of radiation on materials and components, and applications. Its website provides information on the history of the society, lists its meetings and conferences, links to NPSS and IEEE publications and newsletters.

79

The course Electronic resources in libraries: Paris, 13–30 November 2006  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The course Electronic resources in libraries carried out by the Bibliothque nationale de France and Biblioth?que publique d’information within the scope of the programme Courants du monde in November 2006 is presented in the article. The course programme was composed in such a way as to enable the participants to become familiar with all the aspects of selection, digitization, use and preservation of electronic resources in libraries. It was conducted in the form of lectures, the most interesting of which are presented in the article, and visits connected with the lecture topics. The participants were systematically familiarized with electronic resources and were able to compare the circumstances prevailing at their home institutions among themselves.

Mojca Kotar

2007-01-01

80

A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

Aarnio Matti

2006-05-01

 
 
 
 
81

Dealing with diversity: hybrid libraries and the Distributed National Electronic Resource  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past 5 years or so the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) working on behalf of UK Higher Education has sponsored a series of initiatives in the field of electronic information. The main aim of the paper is to illustrate how this has led through successive refinements via the idea of the hybrid library to the Distributed National Electronic Resource (the DNER). Some links with related work in Australia are mentioned.

Rusbridge, Chris

2000-01-01

82

A Survey of the Use of Electronic Resources at Seven Universities in Wuhan, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on users' information behaviour in China, a topic which has not been researched extensively. The aim is to help producers and providers collect and develop more electronic resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study investigates users' information behaviour at seven "211 Project" universities…

Zhang, Liyi; Ye, Pinghao; Liu, Qihua

2011-01-01

83

Selection and Presentation of Commercially Available Electronic Resources: Issues and Practices.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report focuses on practices related to the selection and presentation of commercially available electronic resources. As part of the Digital Library Federation's Collection Practices Initiative, the report also shares the goal of identifying and propagating practices that support the growth of sustainable and scalable collections. It looks in…

Jewell, Timothy D.

84

Specific Features of Development of Electronic Information and Education Resources for the Distant Learning Systems ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????-??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is analyzed the features of distance learning and forms of its realization, is devoted to research existing technologies and tools of distance learning, as well as their possible applications in modern education system. Presents the potential for electronic information-educational resources for distance education systems.? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?????????????? ???????? ? ???? ??? ??????????. ??????????? ?????????? ? ???????? ?????????????? ????????, ? ????? ??????????? ?? ?????????? ? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ???????????? ??????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????????- ??????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????????? ???????????.

Sergienko Yelena A.

2012-07-01

85

Demographic Variables of University Teachers and Usage of Electronic Information Resources: A Case in Sri Lanka  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary aim of the study is to identify whether there are any significant mean differences amongdemographic variables such as gender, age group, faculty, teaching language and experience of universityteachers employed at the University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka on the usage of electronic information resources (EIR.The study employs independent samples t- test and one-way ANOVA (f-test to test the operational hypotheses.The survey method used in this study is a questionnaire and a total of 75 usable responses were obtained usingstratified random sampling technique. The t-test revealed a statistically significant difference between the meannumber of usage of electronic information resources and gender (t = 5.099, p < 0.05 with the highest meanvalue of male university teachers. According to the f-test, there are significant mean differences among agegroup, teaching language and experiences of teachers on the usage of electronic information resources, whereasmean usage of electronic information resources do not differ significantly among five different faculties (F =2.075, p > 0.05. This study would hopefully benefit to the academicians, researchers, policy makers, andpractitioners of Sri Lanka as well as other countries. 

Nadarajah Sivathaasan

2013-09-01

86

First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than two-fold) increased risk of congenital malformations.

Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton

2013-01-01

87

Effect of electron beam on in vitro cultured orchid organs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiations have been effective mutagen sources to overcome the limitation of the useful genetic resources in natural environment. The study was conducted to investigate an effect of electron beam on organogenesis, growth patterns and genetic variation in the irradiated orchid organs. The in utero cultured rhizomes of orchids were irradiated with the electron beam in the dose range of 15Gy to 2240Gy under the condition of various beam energy and beam current. Significant decreases in survival, growth and organogenesis were observed by increase of intensity of electron beam irradiation. The irradiation intensity of lethal dose 50 of the in utero cultured orchid was estimated as approximately 500Gy to 1000Gy under 10MeV/n, and 1000Gy was optimal for growth and organogenesis of the cultures under 10MeV/n with 0.05mA treatment, and 15Gy ? 48Gy under 2MeV/n and 0.5mA electron beam condition. RAPD and ISSR analyses for the electron beam irradiated organs were performed to analyze genetic variation under the electron beam condition. Both of RAPD and ISSR analyses showed higher polymorphic rate in the electron-beam irradiated C. gangrene and C. Kaner

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Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research.

Renwick, Shamin

2005-01-01

89

Cancer risk among in utero-exposed survivors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) continues to conduct a follow-up study initiated some years ago of cancer mortality and incidence among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki exposed in utero. Although only 18 incident cases of cancer were identified in the years 1950-1984 (of which 5 cases were in the 0 dose group), cancer risk appears to increase significantly as maternal uterine dose increases. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these individuals in the first 14 years of life; both had been exposed to ?0.30 Gy. All other cases developed cancer in adulthood, and the cancers they developed are, in the main, the ones known to be elevated in frequency among the postnatally exposed survivors. The estimated relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy (uterine dose) is 3.77. The results suggest that the in utero group may have a higher risk than seen among exposed adults because the individuals exposed in utero have not reached the major cancer prone age. However, since the observed cases are too few to allow a site-specific review, further follow-up studies are required to determine if the observed increased cancer risk can definitely be attributed to A-bomb radiation, although there appears to be a significant dose-related cancer response. (author)

90

Some Cataloging Or Real Cataloging !? Cataloging Remotely Accessed Electronic Resources : A viewpoint for Discussion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a viewpoint about cataloging Remotely Accessed Electronic Resources , Starting with revealing a professional personal experience , then it deals briefly with the field scene discussing some of its solutions , suggestions , and sub-issues of the main issue . The paper critically treats AACR2 and its adaptation for cataloging those resources , especially 2002 Revision . Ending with presenting a new vision about the adaptations needed to solve the issue , exploring types of adaptations and its areas , it proposes a dichotomy for the code . Finally it presents a preliminary frame to implement such a vision .

Hesham Tolaib

2004-06-01

91

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) in Deutschland - Stand und Entwicklung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) ist seit ein paar Jahren ein neuer Trend im Personalmanagement. Viele Unternehmen sind auf dem Weg, ihre Personalarbeit zu ?elektronisieren?. Dabei geht es allerdings nicht nur um die Veränderung der eingesetzten Medien, es geht vielmehr um die Verbesserung und Beschleunigung der Personalprozesse. Da zum E-HRM (synonym werden häufig die Begriffe ?E-HR? beziehungsweise ?elektronische Personalarbeit? verwendet) bislang keine einheitliche Defi...

Hils, Matthias; Bahner, Jens

2005-01-01

92

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

2012-09-01

93

In utero mouse embryonic imaging with OCT for ophthalmologic research  

Science.gov (United States)

Live imaging of an eye during embryonic development in mammalian model is important for understanding dynamic aspects of normal and abnormal eye morphogenesis. In this study, we used Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) for live structural imaging of mouse embryonic eye through the uterine wall. The eye structure was reconstructed in mouse embryos at 13.5 to 17.5 days post coitus (dpc). Despite the limited imaging depth of OCT in turbid tissues, we were able to visualize the whole eye globe at these stages. These results suggest that live in utero OCT imaging is a useful tool to study embryonic eye development in the mouse model.

Syed, Saba H.; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

2011-03-01

94

Resources  

...Resources Institute of Physics This site uses cookies. By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies. To ... IOP Institute of Physics For physics bull; For physicists bull; For all Home News About us Contact us Calendar MyIOP Search ...Careers Policy Resources You are here Education I am new to teaching physics Resources I am new to teaching physics Student teachers ...Newly qualified teachers (NQTs) Established teachers who are new to teaching physics Resources Blogs Events Resources Teaching Supporting Physics Teachers (SPT)A valuable ...

95

Resources  

...From fiction to fact New topic added Physics in Perspective: 2013 lectures Video: Dr Andreas Freise talks about finding black holes with lasers Innovation Award winning profiles Video profiles of businesses that use physics in exceptional ways Galileo: An educational film An educational film dramatising the life of Galileo and his scientific discoveries. A useful resource for teachers Video and audio resources Video and audio resources from the Institute of Physics ...

96

Development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors in utero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The role of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous systems is well established in adults. Cholinergic modulation of vascular functions and body fluid balance has been extensively studied. In the embryo-fetus, cholinergic receptors are widespread in the peripheral and central systems, in [...] cluding smooth muscle and the epithelial lining of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems, as well as in the brain. Fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors develop in a pattern (e.g., amount and distribution) related to gestational periods. Cholinergic mechanisms have been found to be relatively intact and functional in the control of vascular homeostasis during fetal life in utero at least during the last third of gestation. This review focuses on the development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors, and provides information indicating that central cholinergic systems are well developed in the control of fetal blood pressure and body fluid balance before birth. Therefore, the development of cholinergic systems in utero plays an important role in fetal vascular regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and urinary control.

C., Mao; J., Lv; H., Li; Y., Chen; J., Wu; Z., Xu.

97

In utero effects of chemicals on reproductive tissues in females  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chemicals found in the environment as industrial byproducts or pollutants as well as those that are prescribed or part of our daily lives can have multiple effects on the human body. The manner in which we are exposed, and the levels we are exposed to are significant contributing factors. Adults have the bodily defense mechanisms in place to combat exposures to adverse toxicants and general pollution at a variety of levels. However, developing organisms may not have adequate defense mechanisms, and toxicants can have a significant effect on their health and development. In this review, we take particular note of the toxicities of chemicals on the developing female reproductive system as a result of in utero exposure. Environmental and prescribed chemicals such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diethylstilbestrol, and genistein, as well as others, will be reviewed for their in utero toxicity in the neuroendocrine system, the ovary, oviduct, placenta, uterus, vagina, cervix, and mammary gland

98

Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the effect of alcohol exposure in utero on child academic achievement. As well as studying the effect of any alcohol exposure, we investigate the effect of the dose, pattern, and duration of exposure. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B as an instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child’s genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of maternal and paternal characteristics and behaviours. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure in utero and children’s academic attainment, but there is a strong social gradient in maternal drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In stark contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on child educational attainment. These results are very robust to an extensive set of model specifications. In addition, we show that that the effects are solely driven by the maternal genotype, with no impact of the child’s genotype.

von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L.; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

2014-01-01

99

Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

2012-01-01

100

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

 
 
 
 
101

IN UTERO EXPOSURES AND ENDOMETRIOSIS, THE ENDO STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess in utero exposures and the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis. Design Matched cohort design. Setting Fourteen participating clinical centers in geographically defined areas in Utah and California. Study cohorts The operative cohort comprised 473 women undergoing laparoscopy/laparotomy, and was matched on age and residence to a population cohort comprising 127 women undergoing pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2007–2009. Interventions None Main outcome measures Women completed standardized interviews prior to surgery or MRI regarding in utero exposures: mothers’ lifestyle during the index pregnancy, and the index woman’s gestation and birth size. Endometriosis was defined as visually confirmed disease in the operative cohort, and MRI visualized disease in the population cohort. The odds of an endometriosis diagnosis and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (AOR; 95% CI) were estimated for each exposure by cohort using logistic regression and adjusting for current smoking, age at menarche, body mass index, and study site. Results Endometriosis was diagnosed in 41% and 11% of women in the operative and population cohorts, respectively. In the primary analysis, AORs were elevated for maternal vitamin usage (1.27; 95% CI =0.85–1.91), maternal cigarette smoking (1.16; 95% CI=0.61–2.24), and low birth weight (1.1; 95% CI=0.92–1.32). Reduced odds were observed for maternal usage of caffeine (0.99; 95% CI=0.64–1.54), alcohol (0.82; 95% CI=0.35–1.94), paternal cigarette smoking (0.72; 95% CI=0.43–1.19) and preterm delivery (0.98; 95% CI=0.47–2.03). Sensitivity analyses mostly upheld the primary results except for a decreased AOR for preterm birth (0.41; 95% CI=0.18–0.94) when restricting to visualized and histologically-confirmed endometriosis in the operative cohort. Conclusions In utero exposures were not significantly associated with the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis in either cohort. PMID:23211710

Wolff, Erin Foran; Sun, Liping; Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Peterson, C. Matthew; Chen, Zhen; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

2012-01-01

102

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of electronic media use. These levels of use indicate the students' awareness of the role and benefits of electronic media use. Regarding the factors that influence the students' se of electronic resources we found that the student's use of electronic resources had significant strong positive relationships with the provision of electronic resources by the academic institution. It had significant moderate positive relationships with the resources characteristics and the course requirement, and had significant weak relationships with the instructor's support and the student's characteristics. We explained these relationships as resulting from the influence of the surrounding community. Regarding the students' opinions about the use of electronic resources, we found that the student's opinion of electronic resources has significant strong positive relationships with student's use of electronic resources, level of this use, the academic institution available facilities, student's characteristics and resources characteristics. It does not have significant relationships with the instructor's support or the course requirement. We explained these relationships depending on activity theory and its integration with ecological psychology.

Wajeeh M. Daher

2010-12-01

103

Utero-cutaneous fistula after caesarean section secondary to red degeneration of intramural fibroid.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 33 year-old woman had an emergency caesarean section for retained second twin which was complicated by utero-cutaneous fistula due to red degeneration of intramural fibroid. The utero-cutaneous communication was demonstrated by an examination under anaesthesia using dye test. She then underwent excision of the fistula tract and myomectomy. She recovered well following the surgery. This is the first case of utero-cutaneous fistula where the communication is between the endometrial cavity and skin lesion via a necrotic intramural fibroid following caesarean section. Fistulogram might fail to demonstrate the communication. In highly suspected case, other modalities of investigations could be utilised. PMID:22578758

Lim, Pei Shan; Shafiee, Mohammad Nasir; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Hashim Omar, Mohd

2012-06-01

104

Studies of children in utero during atomic bomb detonations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mortality and morbidity surveillance of about 1,800 children exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been and continues to be undertaken at RERF. While an increased frequency of mental retardation associated with exposure to radiation during the 8th through 15th week of gestation age has been well documented, late effects on cancer risk among these children remain to be determined through continued follow-up of the subjects. The two dozen cancer cases observed thus far represent less than 10% of the cases to be expected through the lifetime of these children. This presentation provides epidemiologic characteristics of the children, and summarizes cancer risk in 1946--89. It seems unlikely that a large excess of leukemia will appear in later life. However, for solid tumors, further careful study will be needed since these subjects are now entering the cancer-prone ages

105

Induction of leukemia by chronic irradiation, starting in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Beagle dogs receiving 0.1 Gy/day continuous, whole body radiation have greatly increased radiation resistance, living up to ten times longer than beagles similarly exposed after 50 days of age. In addition, nearly 100% of the animals exposed in utero at risk in either the 0.1 or 0.04 Gy/day level develop acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or preleukemic changes. In contrast, in those animals exposed after 50 days of age, only one dog (in the 0.04 Gy/day level) developed an acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. This new leukemia model will provide large numbers of beagles which have a very high probability of presenting with radiation-induced leukemia within two to three years

106

La sanctification in utero de Joseph : une proposition gersonienne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available à partir de 1413, Jean Gerson se lance dans une véritable campagne de promotion en faveur de Joseph, l’époux de Marie, à un moment où celui-ci est très rarement considéré comme un saint, et intéresse peu les théologiens et les prédicateurs, à l’exception de quelques franciscains. Or, parmi les privilèges et les vertus que le chancelier attribue à Joseph, on est surpris de rencontrer l’idée d’une sanctification in utero, qui rappelle l’immaculée conception de Marie, pour laquelle Gerson s’était battu aux côtés de son maître Pierre d’Ailly. Cette affirmation se fait cependant avec prudence, sous la forme d’une idée à laquelle on peut « croire pieusement ». à l’occasion d’un sermon prononcé au concile de Constance, Gerson précise sa pensée en distinguant la Vierge, totalement préservée du péché originel, de Joseph sanctifié dans le sein de sa mère. La logique est celle d’une comparaison avec Jean-Baptiste, que l’on considère consacré in utero au moment de la Visitation. Comme Gerson tente d’affirmer la supériorité de Joseph sur le Baptiste, il cherche à lui attribuer une grâce au moins comparable. L’enjeu est la reconnaissance de la sainteté de Joseph, dont la définition est délicate puisqu’il est sans doute mort avant la Passion et qu’il ne peut être reconnu comme un martyr.Même si la formulation gersonienne reste très originale, son idée a sans doute été mûrie au contact d’autres admirateurs de l’époux de la Vierge, tels Pierre d’Ailly ou le célestin Pierre Pocquet. Elle s’appuie également sur des sources liturgiques orientales plus délicates à identifier. Néanmoins, sa proposition ne connaîtra pas un grand succès : reprise par quelques auteurs au cours des xve et xvie siècles, elle est finalement explicitement rejetée lorsque s’affirme le culte de Joseph et que sa sainteté n’est plus contestée.Elle reste le témoignage d’un moment particulier d’audace théologique, sur les frontières encore imprécises de l’immaculée conception, de la sanctification et de la consécration, alors que les désordres du Grand Schisme rendaient plus aigu le besoin d’une pureté inaccessible.Joseph’s in utero sanctification : a gersonian suggestionIn 1413, Jean Gerson launched what could be described as a huge campaign in favour of Joseph, at a time when Mary's spouse was seldom considered a saint and was of very little interest to theologians or predicators, with the exception of a few Franciscans. However, among the privileges and virtues ascribed to Joseph by the chancellor, lies, surprisingly, the idea of in utero sanctification, a reminder of Mary’s Immaculate Conception, a notion also staunchly defended by Gerson and his master Pierre d’Ailly. This affirmation is however carefully exposed, as something that we can “piously believe in”.On the occasion of a sermon delivered at the Constance council, Gerson exposed this idea with more clarity by making a distinction between the holy Virgin who is totally preserved from the original sin, and Joseph who was sanctified while in his mother's womb. The logic in this arises from a comparison with John the Baptist considered consecrated in utero during the Visitation episode.In an attempt to assert Joseph's superiority on John the Baptist, Gerson credits him with at least one comparable virtue. What is at stake is the recognition of Joseph's holiness, a notion whose definition is a delicate matter since he probably died before the Passion and cannot be acknowledged as a martyr.Even though the gersonian formulation remains quite original, the idea of in utero sanctification has most probably matured through his association with other admirers of the holy Virgin's spouse, such as Pierre d'Ailly or the Celestin Pierre Pocquet. It also stems from oriental liturgical sources that are more difficult to identify. However, his proposition was not widely acclaimed : taken over by a few authors of the 15th and 16th centuries, it was eventually explicitly reje

Paul Payan

2012-04-01

107

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

???89-93

Nerisa Kamar

2008-04-01

108

Pregnancy outcome and neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to psychoactive drugs: the Motherisk experience.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overview of the Motherisk Program data on pregnancy outcome and neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to selected psychoactive drugs. First, the use of cocaine during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortions, abruptio placenta, premature labor, and stillbirth. Twenty-three adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine demonstrated an 8-fold increase in risk for microcephaly compared with controls. Global intelligence quotients (I...

Loebstein, R.; Koren, G.

1997-01-01

109

The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

Abbott, Michael B.

110

The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents randomly sampled from five purposively selected branches of First Bank Plc. Chi-square test was applied for data analysis. Result showed among other things that introduction of electronic banking has impacted positively on the bank's HR performance, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by bank personnel. Bank-customer relationship and customers’ satisfaction was also found to have been greatly enhanced. Hence, Government should lower the tariff on information technology-aided tools and equipment imported and possibly subsidized the cost.

Ojokuku, R. M.

2012-08-01

111

In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used non-ionic surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylate constitutes 82% of the production of all alkylphenol ethoxylates and the breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate, nonylphenol (NP) has been shown to be estrogenic in both in vitro and in vivo screening assays. To determine the potential reproductive toxicity of NP, a one-generation in utero study was conducted, Rats were dosed from gestation day 11 through 18 with NP at 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 30 mug/kg/day. DES was used as a positive control. Both substances were given orally by gavage. Male offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, or 110 and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Pup birth weight and body weight and percent motile sperm at age of 110 day were significantly reduced by DES. The absolute weight of the right epididymis was significantly reduced in the DES group. The absolute weight of the right epididymis were also significantly decreased in the animals exposed to 75 or 15 mg/kg/day NP, effects which disappeared when organ weight was related to body weight. This study showed a dose-dependent effect of nonylphenol on male reproductive development at doses of 75 and 15 mg/kg bw/day based on absolute epididymal weight.

Vinggaard, Anne; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

2001-01-01

112

True Serials: A True Solution for Electronic Resource Management Needs in a Medium-Size Academic Library  

Science.gov (United States)

A desire for more functionality seemed to clash with the fiscal reality of limited funds, but after investigating alternatives, Mount Saint Mary College was able to provide its faculty and students with a more useful and function-rich electronic resource management through a move to a hosted open source service. (Contains 8 figures.)

Milczarski, Vivian; Garofalo, Denise A.

2011-01-01

113

Clinical application of an improved utero-operator in the interventional treatment of infertility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an improved utero-operator in the interventional treatment of tube obstruction infertility, and to make a comparison with other methods. Methods: One hundred cases of infertile women with tubal obstruction were divided into 3 groups and treated separately under TV fluoroscopy with 3 different methods and follow-up examination was made up to 24 months. Among the 100 cases, 60 cases were treated with improved utero-operator (109 tubes), 20 with Cook cupped coaxial catheter (36 tubes), and 20 with emulsoid double-cavity tube (20 tubes). Result: Among the improved utero-operator group, Cook cupped coaxial catheter group, and emulsoid double-cavity tube group, the successful rate of selective catheterization was 92.7%, 80.6% and 80.0%, respectively. The successful rate of recanalization was 72.3%, 72.4% and 71.4%, respectively. The pregnancy rate was 36.4%, 35.7% and 36.4%, respectively. Improved utero-operator has the highest successful rate in selective catheterization (x2 = 4.275, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improved utero-operator has a high successful rate of selective catheterization in selective salpingography and treatment of tube obstruction infertility, and it is an easy and stable method which spends less time and received less X-ray. It is an ideal treating method at the moment

114

Successful ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure for prenatally diagnosed severe micrognathia: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of fetal severe micrognathia in which successful airway stabilization was achieved by an ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure. In this case, it was anticipated that the infant would have a vulnerable airway at birth based on in utero sonographic findings, including an extremely hypoplastic jaw, worsening polyhydramnios and absence of stomach visualization. Early sonographic recognition was helpful in preparing the parents and physicians for the possibility of airway emergencies during the perinatal period. When a severely hypoplastic mandible accompanied by polyhydramnios and absent stomach visualization is noted on ultrasound, clinicians should consider the indication for ex utero intrapartum treatment. A multidisciplinary team with technically skilled medical providers should be coordinated to perform the procedure. PMID:25131767

Suenaga, Masanori; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kido, Saki; Otera, Yuka; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

2014-08-01

115

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

116

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

117

Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma diagnosed in a phetus in utero by prenatal ultrasound in a 20-year-old woman on the 22nd week of pregnancy is reported. The follow-up by fetal echography allowed to evaluate the case. Abortion was induced and the diagnosis was confirmed. The study of the mother at the Genetics Department concluded that she was carrier of tuberous sclerosis.

Adis L. Peña Cedeño

2001-01-01

118

Ex-utero intrapartum treatment in the Indian scenario: Anesthetic challenges and positioning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is performed for fetuses diagnosed with large neck masses. A case report of a fetus diagnosed with a large cystic hygroma and cord around the neck who was delivered by EXIT is presented. The airway challenges and optimal positioning is discussed. PMID:24741216

Udayakumar, Prabha; Arunachalam, Pavai; Vijayakumar, Vinodhadevi; Kandappan, Gunavathi

2014-04-01

119

Infants Exposed to Cocaine in Utero: Implications for Developmental Assessment and Intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developmental assessment of newborns and young infants exposed to cocaine in utero suggest abnormal state control and orientation and dysfunction in motor control. Intervention should include parent education on careful positioning, handling, and feeding to improve infants' movement patterns and long-term followup by health care professionals for…

Schneider, Jane W.; And Others

1989-01-01

120

Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

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Full Text Available Background: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation.

Anthony Al-Khan

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

In utero protein restriction causes growth delay and alters sperm parameters in adult male rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have supported the concept of "fetal programming" which suggests that during the intrauterine development the fetus may be programmed to develop diseases in adulthood. The possible effects of in utero protein restriction on sexual development of rat male offspring were evaluated in the present study. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups: one group treated with standard chow (SC, n = 8, 17% protein and the other group treated with hypoproteic chow (HC, n = 10, 6% protein throughout gestation. After gestation the two experimental groups received standard chow. To evaluate the possible late reproductive effects of in utero protein restriction, the male offspring of both groups were assessed at different phases of sexual development: prepubertal (30 days old; peripubertal (60 days old; adult (90 days old. Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were utilized. Differences were considered significant when p Results We found that in utero protein restriction reduced the body weight of male pups on the first postnatal day and during the different sexual development phases (prepubertal, peripubertal and adult. During adulthood, Sertoli cell number, sperm motility and sperm counts in the testis and epididymal cauda were also reduced in HC. Furthermore, the numbers of sperm presenting morphological abnormalities and cytoplasmic drop retention were higher in HC. Conclusions In conclusion, in utero protein restriction, under these experimental conditions, causes growth delay and alters male reproductive-system programming in rats, suggesting impairment of sperm quality in adulthood.

Pedrosa Flávia PC

2011-06-01

122

Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19 mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females. In contrast, a statistically significant increase in the mutation frequency of male mice exposed in utero to DEP was observed (2-fold; Fisher's exact p < 0.05). Thus, maternal exposure to DEP results in increased mutation in sperm during development.

Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

123

The Long-Term Economic Impact of in Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Malaria  

Science.gov (United States)

I use an instrumental-variables identification strategy and historical data from the United States to estimate the long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. My research design matches adults in the 1960 Decennial Census to the malaria death rate in their respective state and year of birth. To address potential…

Barreca, Alan I.

2010-01-01

124

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. Objectives: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. Methods: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms “arsenic”, “in utero”, “transplacental”, “prenatal” and “fetal”. Discussion: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. Conclusions: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels. - Highlights: • We review in utero and early-life As exposure impacts on lifelong disease risks. • Evidence indicates that early-life As increases risks of lung disease, cancer and CVD. • Animal work largely parallels human studies and may lead to new research directions. • Prospective studies and individual exposure assessments with biomarkers are needed. • Assessing intermediary endpoints may aid early intervention and establish causality

125

Routledge German technical dictionary [electronic resource] = Routledge Universal-Wörterbuch der Technik Englisch.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic dictionary covering over 60 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in German and English, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

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Marcadores ecográficos de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero: Revisión de la literatura / Ultrasound markers for chorioamnionitis and in utero fetal infection: a literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el diagnóstico de corioamnionitis se basa en criterios clínicos que no alcanzan una sensibilidad mayor al 60%, y que tienen poca utilidad para predecir el compromiso fetal. El ultrasonido surge como una alternativa útil en el diagnóstico. Al mejorar el diagnóstico con la búsqueda de ma [...] rcadores ecográficos de infección fetal podemos impactar en la morbimortalidad perinatal al poder intervenir de forma temprana a las gestantes en riesgo de compromiso fetal, especialmente corioamnionitis con curso subclínico. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer la evidencia que soporta la asociación entre los hallazgos ecográficos del ultrasonido y la presencia de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura existente en las bases de datos medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs, SciELO desde enero de 1985 hasta octubre de 2012. Se incluyeron los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales. Resultados: en las gestantes con parto pretérmino y ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares el acortamiento cervical, la presencia de “sludge”, el oligohidramnios y la involución del timo son los marcadores que han mostrado mayor asociación con infección amniótica. Conclusiones: el ultrasonido es una herramienta por considerar en el diagnóstico de infección materna y fetal in utero. Abstract in english Introduction: A diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is based on clinical criteria which only manage 60% sensitivity and have little usefulness in predicting fetal compromise. Ultrasound emerges as a useful diagnostic alternative. An impact might be made on perinatal morbimortality by improving diagnosis t [...] hrough the search for echographic markers of fetal infection, thereby enabling early intervention in pregnant women at risk of fetal compromise, especially regarding subclinical chorioamnionitis. This review was aimed at providing evidence supporting an association between ultrasound’s echographic findings and the presence of chorioamnionitis in in utero (congenital) fetal infection. Materials and methods: A review of the existing literature was made in medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs and scielo databases from January 1985 to October 2012. Original research and review articles were included. Results: Cervical length shortening, the presence of sludge, oligohydramnios and thymus involution are the markers which have been shown to have the greatest association with intra-amniotic infection. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a tool to be considered when diagnosing in utero maternal and fetal infection.

Saulo, Molina-Giraldo; Jesús, Bermúdes-Roa; Edgar, Acuña-Osorio; Alejandro, Franco-Hernández; José Luis, Rojas-Arias.

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Visualization and Genetic Manipulation of Dendrites and Spines in the Mouse Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus using In utero Electroporation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In utero electroporation (IUE) has become a powerful technique to study the development of different regions of the embryonic nervous system 1-5. To date this tool has been widely used to study the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and neuronal migration especially in the developing cerebral cortex 6-8. Here we detail our protocol to electroporate in utero the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus and provide evidence that this approach can be used to study dendrites and spi...

Pacary, Emilie; Haas, Matilda A.; Wildner, Hendrik; Azzarelli, Roberta; Bell, Donald M.; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Guillemot, Franc?ois

2012-01-01

128

Corroboration of in utero MRI using post-mortem MRI and autopsy in foetuses with CNS abnormalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIMS: To corroborate the findings of in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy and post-mortem MRI in cases of known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities on ultrasound and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ante-natal ultrasound and in utero MRI. METHODS: Twelve pregnant women, whose foetuses had suspected central nervous system abnormalities underwent in utero MRI. The foetuses were imaged using MRi before autopsy. The data were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of in utero MRI when compared with a reference standard of autopsy and post-mortem MRI in 10 cases and post-mortem MRI alone in two cases. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI in correctly characterizing brain and spine abnormalities were 42 and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In utero MRI provides a useful adjuvant to antenatal ultrasound when assessing CNS abnormalities by providing more accurate anatomical information. Post-mortem MRI assists the diagnosis of macroscopic structural abnormalities

129

Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic heath record sources: examples include linkages between the longitudinal primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, the national registry of acute coronary syndromes (Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), hospitalization and procedure data from Hospital Episode Statistics and cause-specific mortality and social deprivation data from the Office of National Statistics. Current cohort analyses involve a million people in initially healthy populations and disease registries with ?10(5) patients. (ii) Linkages of bespoke investigator-led cohort studies (e.g. UK Biobank) to registry data (e.g. Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project), providing new means of ascertaining, validating and phenotyping disease. (iii) A common data model in which routine electronic health record data are made research ready, and sharable, by defining and curating with meta-data >300 variables (categorical, continuous, event) on risk factors, CVDs and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. (iv) Transparency: all CALIBER studies have an analytic protocol registered in the public domain, and data are available (safe haven model) for use subject to approvals. For more information, e-mail s.denaxas@ucl.ac.uk. PMID:23220717

Denaxas, Spiros C; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

2012-12-01

130

Science and technology of polymers and advanced materials [electronic resource] : emerging technologies and business opportunities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discusses composites and blends; high performance materials; materials for electronics and photonics; biomaterial and biotechnology; degradation, stabilization and recycling of materials, and environmentally friendly processing; sol-gel processed materials; advanced materials from natural and petroleum products; materials for separation technology; educational needs and trends; and business opportunities.

131

Optical coherence tomography for high-resolution imaging of mouse development in utero  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the mouse is a superior model to study mammalian embryonic development, high-resolution live dynamic visualization of mouse embryos remain a technical challenge. We present optical coherence tomography as a novel methodology for live imaging of mouse embryos through the uterine wall thereby allowing for time lapse analysis of developmental processes and direct phenotypic analysis of developing embryos. We assessed the capability of the proposed methodology to visualize structures of the living embryo from embryonic stages 12.5 to 18.5 days postcoitus. Repetitive in utero embryonic imaging is demonstrated. Our work opens the door for a wide range of live, in utero embryonic studies to screen for mutations and understand the effects of pharmacological and toxicological agents leading to birth defects.

Syed, Saba H.; Larin, Kirill V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larina, Irina V.

2011-04-01

132

In utero stem cell and gene therapy: current status and future perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in prenatal diagnosis have led to the development of fetal therapies for congenital disorders. Although in utero surgical intervention has been used successfully for correction of anatomical defects that cause fetal demise or long-term disability, its clinical indications remain limited. In contrast, prenatal stem cell and gene therapy might have tremendous potential to treat multiple inherited disorders, and could dramatically expand the use of fetal intervention to a wide range of anticipated pediatric and adult diseases. Despite encouraging results from studies in animal models of disease, the clinical utility of such therapies has been restricted by poor efficacy and concerns about safety. The aim of this review is to summarize experimental progress toward clinical application of in utero stem cell transplantation and gene transfer for the treatment of congenital disease. PMID:24945440

Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P; Flake, Alan W

2014-06-01

133

Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father)  

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This paper investigates possible (re-)constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with material...

Collins, Paul M.

2010-01-01

134

In-utero infection with HIV-1 associated with suppressed lymphoproliferative responses at birth.  

Science.gov (United States)

In-utero exposure to HIV-1 may affect the immune system of the developing child and may induce HIV-1-specific immune responses, even in the absence of HIV-1 infection. We evaluated lymphoproliferative capacity at birth among 40 HIV-1-uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers and 10 infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. Cord blood mononuclear cells were assayed using [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation for proliferation in response to HIV-1 p55-gag and the control stimuli phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), Staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) and allogeneic cells. In response to HIV-1 p55-gag, eight (20%) HIV-1-exposed, uninfected (EU) infants had a stimulation index (SI) ??2 and three (30%) in-utero?HIV-1 infected infants had SI ?2. The frequency and magnitude of responses to HIV-1 p55-gag were low overall, and did not differ statistically between groups. However, proliferative responses to control stimuli were significantly higher in EU infants than in infants infected in utero, with a median SI in response to PHA of 123 [interquartile range (IQR) 77-231] versus 18 (IQR 4-86) between EU and infected infants, respectively (P?

Lohman-Payne, B; Sandifer, T; OhAinle, M; Crudder, C; Lynch, J; Omenda, M M; Maroa, J; Fowke, K; John-Stewart, G C; Farquhar, C

2014-10-01

135

Changes in the enterocyte cytoskeleton in newborn rats exposed to ethanol in utero.  

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BACKGROUND: Cytoskeletal changes after longterm exposure to ethanol have been described in a number of cell types in adult rat and humans. These changes can play a key part in the impairment of nutrient assimilation and postnatal growth retardation after prenatal damage of the intestinal epithelium produced by ethanol intake. AIMS: To determine, in the newborn rat, which cytoskeletal proteins are affected by longterm ethanol exposure in utero and to what extent. ANIMALS: The offspring of two ...

Montes, J. F.; Estrada, G.; Lo?pez-tejero, M. D.; Garci?a-valero, J.

1996-01-01

136

Inhibition of histone deacetylase in utero causes sociability deficits in postnatal mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to sodium valproate (VPA) in utero increases the risk of language impairment and a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mice exposed to VPA while in utero have also shown postnatal social deficits. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) is one of VPA's many biological effects. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that HDAC inhibition causes these behavioral outcomes following prenatal VPA exposure in mice. We exposed embryonic mice to VPA, the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA), or vehicle controls. TSA (1mg/kg) inhibited HDAC in embryonic tissue at a level comparable to 600 mg/kg VPA, resulting in significant increases in histone H3 and H4 acetylation, and histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation. Postnatally, decreases in ultrasonic vocalization, olfactory motivation and sociability were observed in TSA and VPA-exposed pups. Treated mice exhibited elevated digging and grooming suggestive of mild restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Olfactory social preference, social novelty and habituation were normal. Together, these data indicate that embryonic HDAC inhibition alone can cause abnormal social behaviors in mice. This result serves as a molecular understanding of infant outcomes following mild VPA exposure in utero. PMID:24103642

Moldrich, Randal X; Leanage, Gayeshika; She, David; Dolan-Evans, Elliot; Nelson, Michael; Reza, Nargis; Reutens, David C

2013-11-15

137

The effect of genotype and in utero environment on interindividual variation in neonate DNA methylomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating the genotype with epigenetic marks holds the promise of better understanding the biology that underlies the complex interactions of inherited and environmental components that define the developmental origins of a range of disorders. The quality of the in utero environment significantly influences health over the lifecourse. Epigenetics, and in particular DNA methylation marks, have been postulated as a mechanism for the enduring effects of the prenatal environment. Accordingly, neonate methylomes contain molecular memory of the individual in utero experience. However, interindividual variation in methylation can also be a consequence of DNA sequence polymorphisms that result in methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) and, potentially, the interaction between fixed genetic variation and environmental influences. We surveyed the genotypes and DNA methylomes of 237 neonates and found 1423 punctuate regions of the methylome that were highly variable across individuals, termed variably methylated regions (VMRs), against a backdrop of homogeneity. MethQTLs were readily detected in neonatal methylomes, and genotype alone best explained ?25% of the VMRs. We found that the best explanation for 75% of VMRs was the interaction of genotype with different in utero environments, including maternal smoking, maternal depression, maternal BMI, infant birth weight, gestational age, and birth order. Our study sheds new light on the complex relationship between biological inheritance as represented by genotype and individual prenatal experience and suggests the importance of considering both fixed genetic variation and environmental factors in interpreting epigenetic variation. PMID:24709820

Teh, Ai Ling; Pan, Hong; Chen, Li; Ong, Mei-Lyn; Dogra, Shaillay; Wong, Johnny; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; McEwen, Lisa M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Soh, Shu-E; Chong, Mary F F; Barton, Sheila; Karnani, Neerja; Cheong, Clara Y; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Stünkel, Walter; Kobor, Michael S; Meaney, Michael J; Gluckman, Peter D; Holbrook, Joanna D

2014-07-01

138

In utero recombinant adeno-associated virus gene transfer in mice, rats, and primates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene transfer into the amniotic fluid using recombinant adenovirus vectors was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer of transgenes into the lungs and intestines. Adenovirus mediated in utero gene therapy, however, resulted in expression of the transgene for less than 30 days. Recombinant adenovirus associated viruses (rAAV have the advantage of maintaining the viral genome in daughter cells thus providing for long-term expression of transgenes. Methods Recombinant AAV2 carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP was introduced into the amniotic sac of fetal rodents and nonhuman primates. Transgene maintenance and expression was monitor. Results Gene transfer resulted in rapid uptake and long-term gene expression in mice, rats, and non-human primates. Expression and secretion of the reporter gene, GFP, was readily demonstrated within 72 hours post-therapy. In long-term studies in rats and nonhuman primates, maintenance of GFP DNA, protein expression, and reporter gene secretion was documented for over one year. Conclusions Because only multipotential stem cells are present at the time of therapy, these data demonstrated that in utero gene transfer with AAV2 into stem cells resulted in long-term systemic expression of active transgene roducts. Thus, in utero gene transfer via the amniotic fluid may be useful in treatment of gene disorders.

Marrero Luis

2003-09-01

139

In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: a model for MRKH syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phenomenon that is better studied in male offspring than females. The current study reports female reproductive tract malformations in the Sprague-Dawley rat similar to those characteristic of MRKH syndrome, following in utero exposure to a mixture of 5 PEs. We determined that females are ?2-fold less sensitive to the effects of the 5-PE mixture than males for reproductive tract malformations. We were not fully successful in defining the critical exposure period for females; however, incidence of malformations was 88% following dosing from GD8 to 19 versus 22% and 0% for GD8-13 and GD14-19, respectively. Overall, this study provides valuable information regarding female vulnerability to in utero phthalate exposure and further characterizes a potential model for the human MRKH syndrome. PMID:23542816

Hannas, Bethany R; Howdeshell, Kembra L; Furr, Johnathan; Gray, L Earl

2013-12-16

140

Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

142

In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets. Phagocytic capacity of blood monocytes against Salmonella bacteria was investigated by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst in blood monocytes and in alveolar lung macrophages was investigated by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Decreased phagocytosis against Salmonella was found in blood monocytes from 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets compared to controls. In contrast, 2-week-old infected piglets showed phagocytic responses comparable to age matched control piglets. While oxidative burst capacity was increased in blood (PBMC) from in utero PRRSV infected piglets, the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar lung macrophages was decreased, especially in 2- and 4-week-old piglets, compared to age-matched control piglets. The present results indicate that in utero infection with PRRSV inhibits phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar macrophages. These observations indicate that PRRSV in utero infection induces at state of immunosuppression in piglets paving the way for enhanced secondary infections.

Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens

2004-01-01

143

In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ?PCBs (pmol/ml), ?dioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ?PCB, ?DL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

2014-12-01

144

In Utero Electroporation: Assay System for Migration of Cerebral Cortical Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

During the development of the cerebral cortex, the majority of cortical neurons are generated in the ventricular zone (VZ) facing the lateral ventricle and then migrate toward the pial surface to form the highly organized 6-layered cerebral cortex. Detailed profiles of these processes and their molecular mechanisms had been largely unknown because of the absence of an efficient assay system. The in vivo electroporation system was initially devised for use within chick embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999; Itasaki et al., 1999; Momose et al., 1999; Muramatsu et al., 1997), and we and other groups have used that system as a basis for developing an in utero electroporation system, which allows plasmid DNA to be introduced into cortical progenitor cells in developing mouse embryos in the uterus (Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove, 2001; Saito and Nakatsuji, 2001; Tabata and Nakajima, 2001; Takahashi et al., 2002). In utero electroporation of other sites in the brain, including the hippocampus (Navarro-Quiroga et al., 2007), cerebral basal ganglia (Borrell et al., 2005; Nakahira et al., 2006), cortical hem (Takiguchi-Hayashi et al., 2004), and dorsal thalamus (Bonnin et al., 2007), has recently been reported. Introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) enables the entire processes of migration and layer formation to be visualized (Ajioka and Nakajima, 2005; Sasaki et al., 2008; Tabata and Nakajima, 2002, 2003), and the role of any gene involved in these processes can be easily assessed by overexpressing the proteins or their mutants (Ohshima et al., 2007), or by knocking down the genes by the RNA interference technique (Bai et al., 2003). Furthermore, the Tet-On/Off system and/or other plasmid- vector-based technologies will expand the potential of the analyses. In this section we review the principles and methods of gene transfer into the cortical wall of mouse embryos by means of the in utero electroporation system.

Tabata, Hidenori; Nakajima, Kazunori

145

Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is stated that induction of neoplastic transformation in vitro by x-rays and neutrons has been reported, and the authors had previously found that transformation by x-rays could be detected at doses as low as 1 R and the rate of transformation increased with dose, reaching a peak of 1% between 150 and 300 R. This frequency of neoplastic transformation in vitro is much higher than the frequency of radiation induced tumors observed after exposing animals to similar doses of radiation. Studies are here reported showing that malignant transformed cells can be obtained from embryos irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro, and that the frequency of transformation is at least tenfold lower than when the irradiations are performed in vitro, and thus closer to the incidence in animals. Hamster embryo cells were used for the studies. Questions that arise are as follows: does the host mediate in modulating transformation by radiation; is there a repair of transforming events before they can be expressed; and how significant is the state of cells during irradiation in determining the rate of transformation. It is known from in vitro studies that cell replication is required for fixation of the transformation. With the in vitro technique cells are seeded as single cells with ample opportunity to divide. In addition they are not in contact with one another, and constitute a mixture of cell types from many tissues. In utero the situation is quite different; the embryonic cells are irradiated as tissues where there is cell to cell contact in tissue-specific arrangements, and where the rate of cell replication varies with the tissue. It remains to be seen which of these factors, if any, is responsible for the lowered yield of transformed cells characteristic of in utero as opposed to in vitro irradiation. (U.K.)

146

Feasibility and potential of in utero foetal membrane-derived cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cells isolated from foetal membranes of human term placenta display multiple properties, including some features of stem/progenitor cells, together with immunomodulatory actions and the ability to secrete bioactive soluble factors. Whilst such properties support the potential applicability of these cells in transplantation settings aimed at regenerating/repairing tissues in adults, theoretically, using these cells in prenatal treatment strategies may also be achievable. To assess the feasibility of a foetal membrane-derived cell-based therapeutic treatment during foetal development, we firstly addressed the question of whether in utero transplantation using these cells was possible. To this end, we assessed postnatal microchimerism after transplantation of amniotic membrane-derived cells (a mixture of both mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and epithelial cells) in foetal sheep. Transplantation was performed with or without human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells and chorionic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, and was followed by a postnatal booster cell injection. Lambs were euthanized 2-4 months postnatally and their organs/tissues were analysed for microchimerism through detection of human DNA. Human DNA was found in almost all tissues of all of the lambs, with the seemingly random appearance of human cells in some of the analysed tissues suggesting long-term human microchimerism and donor cell migration after in utero/postnatal booster xenotransplation. Differences in microchimerism tissue distribution between animals transplanted with different cell types are discussed. This pilot study adds to ongoing efforts by different investigators to explore the potential of in utero cellular transplantation, and warrants further investigation of using foetal membrane-derived cells for prenatal cell therapies. PMID:24150776

Caruso, Maddalena; Bonassi Signoroni, Patrizia; Zanini, Roberto; Ressel, Lorenzo; Vertua, Elsa; Bonelli, Piero; Dattena, Maria; Varoni, Maria Vittoria; Wengler, Georg; Parolini, Ornella

2014-06-01

147

Pulmonary hemodynamic responses to in utero ventilation in very immature fetal sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset of ventilation at birth decreases pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR resulting in a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF. As the large cross sectional area of the pulmonary vascular bed develops late in gestation, we have investigated whether the ventilation-induced increase in PBF is reduced in immature lungs. Methods Surgery was performed in fetal sheep at 105 d GA (n = 7; term ~147 d to insert an endotracheal tube, which was connected to a neonatal ventilation circuit, and a transonic flow probe was placed around the left pulmonary artery. At 110 d GA, fetuses (n = 7 were ventilated in utero (IUV for 12 hrs while continuous measurements of PBF were made, fetuses were allowed to develop in utero for a further 7 days following ventilation. Results PBF changes were highly variable between animals, increasing from 12.2 ± 6.6 mL/min to a maximum of 78.1 ± 23.1 mL/min in four fetuses after 10 minutes of ventilation. In the remaining three fetuses, little change in PBF was measured in response to IUV. The increases in PBF measured in responding fetuses were not sustained throughout the ventilation period and by 2 hrs of IUV had returned to pre-IUV control values. Discussion and conclusion Ventilation of very immature fetal sheep in utero increased PBF in 57% of fetuses but this increase was not sustained for more than 2 hrs, despite continuing ventilation. Immature lungs can increase PBF during ventilation, however, the present studies show these changes are transient and highly variable.

Allison Beth J

2010-08-01

148

Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01). When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

2014-01-01

149

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two ? type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

150

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

2001-07-01

151

The use of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to ameliorate the hyperactivity of rat pups induced by in utero ethanol exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been demonstrated thatin utero ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces hyperactive behavior and learning disturbances in offspring. In order to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on these neurobehavioral dysfunctions of rat pups induced byin utero EtOH exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups depending on the type of oil added to the diet and drinking water as follows; (a) 5% safflower oil with tap water (TW/n-6), (b) 3% safflower oil and 2% DHA...

Furuya, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takahiko; Okazaki, Isao

2000-01-01

152

Sperm impairments in adult vesper mice (Calomys laucha) caused by in utero exposure to bisphenol A.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of in utero administration of bisphenol A (BPA) on semen parameters of vesper mice. Sixty female Calomys laucha were divided into six groups and received by gavage during gestation the following substances: Water (negative control), Olive Oil (vehicle control), Diethylstilbestrol (DES - positive control - 6.5 ?g kg(-1) bw) and BPA (40, 80 and 200 ?g kg(-1) bw). Male offspring were euthanised at 70 days of age, and sperm parameters were analysed. BPA reduced normal sperm morphology (water = 96.1 ± 0.65; BPA200 = 96.8 ± 2.3%), sperm membrane integrity (water = 88.8 ± 1,65; BPA200 = 70.6 ± 4,15%), sperm motility (water = 87.5 ± 1.71; BPA200 = 51.3 ±9.9%) and in vitro penetration rates (water = 55.0 ± 7.14; BPA200 = 7.47 ±2.96%), but it did not affect body weight, anogenital distance, sperm DNA integrity and acrosome integrity. In conclusion, in utero exposure to BPA caused a reduction in sperm parameters of adult C. laucha. Natural mating studies should be conducted to verify the effects of BPA on fertility of the animals. PMID:24147964

Vilela, J; Hartmann, A; Silva, E F; Cardoso, T; Corcini, C D; Varela-Junior, A S; Martinez, P E; Colares, E P

2014-11-01

153

Effects of in utero arsenic exposure on child immunity and morbidity in rural Bangladesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic exposure to arsenic, a potent carcinogen and toxicant, via drinking water is a worldwide public health problem. Because little is known about early-life effects of arsenic on immunity, we evaluated the impact of in utero exposure on infant immune parameters and morbidity in a pilot study. Pregnant women were enrolled at 6-10 weeks of gestation in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh, extensively affected by arsenic contamination of tubewell water. Women (n=140) delivering at local clinics were included in the study. Anthropometry and morbidity data of the pregnant women and their children, as well as infant thymic size by sonography were collected. Maternal urine and breast milk were collected for immune marker and arsenic assessment. Maternal urinary arsenic during pregnancy showed significant negative correlation with interleukin-7 (IL-7) and lactoferrin (Ltf) in breast milk and child thymic index (TI). Urinary arsenic was also positively associated with fever and diarrhea during pregnancy and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in the infants. The effect of arsenic exposure on ARI was only evident in male children. The findings suggest that in utero arsenic exposure impaired child thymic development and enhanced morbidity, probably via immunosuppression. The effect seemed to be partially gender dependent. Arsenic exposure also affected breast milk content of trophic factors and maternal morbidity. PMID:19167470

Raqib, Rubhana; Ahmed, Sultan; Sultana, Rokeya; Wagatsuma, Yukiko; Mondal, Dinesh; Hoque, A M Waheedul; Nermell, Barbro; Yunus, Mohammed; Roy, Shantonu; Persson, Lars Ake; Arifeen, Shams El; Moore, Sophie; Vahter, Marie

2009-03-28

154

In vivo genetic manipulation of cortical progenitors in gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain structures such as the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) and the inner fiber layer (IFL) in the developing cerebral cortex are especially prominent in higher mammals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the OSVZ are still largely unknown, mainly because genetic manipulations that can be applied to the OSVZ in higher mammals had been poorly available. Here we developed and validated a rapid and efficient genetic manipulation technique for germinal zones including the OSVZ using in utero electroporation in developing gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. We also determined the optimal conditions for using in utero electroporation to express transgenes in germinal zones. Using our electroporation procedure, the morphology of GFP-positive cells in the OSVZ was clearly visible even without immunostaining, and multiple genes were efficiently co-expressed in the same cells. Furthermore, we uncovered that fibers, which seemed to correspond to those in the IFL of monkeys, also existed in ferrets, and were derived from newly generated cortical neurons. Our technique promises to be a powerful tool for investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying the formation and abnormalities of the cerebral cortex in higher mammals. PMID:23336081

Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Toda, Tomohisa; Tanno, Kaori

2013-01-15

155

The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

156

Negative trends for in utero Chernobyl exposure and early childhood leukaemia in Western Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent report in Nature linked increased incidence of early infant leukaemia in Greece with 137Cs fallout density, attributing the effect to an increased in utero exposure to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As a validation exercise in a similarly affected region, we performed an analysis based on the data of the Childhood Cancer Registry for Western Germany. Using the same definitions as Petridou et al. we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children who were born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses of embryonic/foetal doses regarding areas of different contamination levels and dose rate gradients with time since the accident showed non-significant negative trends with exposure. Therefore, we conclude that the observed effect was not caused by exposure to ionizing radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. Dosimetric considerations per se, based on careful assessment of in utero doses in three different exposure categories, show doses much too small relative to natural radiation exposures to account for a significant effect on leukaemia rates. (author)

157

Ebstein's anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia: prognosis after diagnosis in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricuspid valve malformation is a rare congenital heart disease. Prenatal diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly (EA) and tricuspid valve dysplasia (TVD) is associated with high mortality. There are conflicting reports concerning accurate prognostication after diagnosis in utero. The aim of our study was to assess prognostic factors based on our experience. We reviewed 37 fetuses between 1984 and June 2010 comprising 26 cases of EA and 11 cases of TVD. There were 10 terminations, 5 intrauterine deaths, 8 neonatal deaths, and 14 survivors. We found that the major prognostic factor for outcome was the flow pattern through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram. Retrograde flow was strongly correlated with fetal or neonatal death (p = 8 × 10(-5)), and anterograde flow predicted good outcome (p = 8 × 10(-5)). In contrast, cardiothoracic indexes, right to left-ventricular ratio, and Celermajer index were not useful prognostic markers. The Simpson Andrews Sharland score, which was more complex, was well correlated with our series. Flow through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram is a simple and excellent prognostic factor when major tricuspid valve disease is diagnosed in utero. Fetuses should be monitored throughout pregnancy, particularly those with retrograde ductus arteriosus, because several hemodynamic factors may worsen the prognosis. PMID:22639000

Barre, E; Durand, I; Hazelzet, T; David, N

2012-12-01

158

17,20-desmolase deficiency in a female newborn, paradoxically virilized in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The patient was born with ambiguous genitalia (stade III of Prader). The karyotype revealed a normal female genotype. A defect in 21-hydroxylase, at first suspected, was denied by the hormonal studies. Indeed, extremely high levels of pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate, progesterone were found in association with low plasma levels of delta 4-androstenedione, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, while cortisol 17OH-progesterone and ACTH levels and plasma renin activity were normal. The hormonal pattern was thus consistent with 17,20-desmolase deficiency. The dynamic studies further supported this contention: all the progestagens rose further after ACTH stimulation and were suppressed by dexamethasone. Meanwhile, all androgens failed to rise after ACTH: the responses of cortisol were normal. The in utero virilization of the female fetus was not understood until an history of virilization was allegedly found in the mother (luteoma of pregnancy). This is the first case of 17-20 desmolase defect recognized in a female newborn. This child, born with ambiguous genitalia had presented the concurrence of two very rare conditions. The in utero virilization of maternal origin enabled us to make the diagnosis of the 17-20 desmolase defect, which otherwise would have been ignored in a XX subject in the neonatal period because it would obviously be unsymptomatic at this age. PMID:6323871

de Peretti, E; Pradon, M; Forest, M G

1984-01-01

159

Spatiotemporal molecular approach of in utero electroporation to functionally decipher endophenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have only just begun to decipher the complexity of our brain including its maturation. Correct brain development and communication among brain areas are crucial for proper cognitive behavior. Brain area-specific genes expressed within a particular time window direct neurodevelopmental events such as proliferation, migration, axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. These genes can pose as susceptibility factors in neurodevelopmental disorders eventually resulting in area-specific cognitive deficits. Therefore, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer can aid in creating valuable animal models in which the regionality and time of expression can be restricted for the targeted gene(s. Moreover, through the use of cell-type specific molecular constructs, expression can be altered in a particular neuronal subset within a distinct area such that we are now able to causally link the function of that gene in that brain region to the etiology of the disorder. Thus, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer is an attractive molecular technique to spatiotemporally address the developmental aspects of gene function in relation to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated endophenotypes.

SharonMargrietKolk

2011-11-01

160

In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 ?m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults

 
 
 
 
161

In utero programming of sexually differentiated gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has long been recognised that steroids can have both organisational and activational effects on the reproductive neuroendocrine axis of many species, including the sheep. Specifically, if the ovine foetus is exposed to testosterone during a relatively short 'window' of in utero development (from approximately day 30-90 of a 147 day pregnancy) the neural mechanisms regulating gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion become organised in a male-specific manner. In post-natal life the consequences of foetal androgen exposure are sexually differentiated responses of the GnRH neuronal network to activation by factors such as photoperiod and ovarian steroid hormones. Studies in the gonadectomized lamb have demonstrated that elevated concentrations of oestrogen (E) are unable to trigger a preovulatory-like GnRH surge in the male and the androgenized ewe lamb. Further, these animals have markedly reduced sensitivity to the inhibitory actions of progesterone on tonic GnRH release compared with normal ewes. The reasons for these abnormal steroid feedback mechanisms may reside in sexually dimorphic inputs to the GnRH neurone, including those from oestrogen-receptive neurones in the arcuate nucleus that synthetize the neuropeptide, neurokinin B (NKB). The consequences of in utero androgen exposure are reflected in a progressive and dramatic impairment of fertility in the ovary-intact ewe. PMID:12142225

Robinson, Jane E; Birch, Rachel A; Taylor, James A; Foster, Douglas L; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

2002-07-01

162

Prevention and treatment in utero of autoimmune-associated congenital heart block.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transplacental transfer of maternal anti-Ro and/or anti-La autoantibodies can result in fetal cardiac disease, including congenital heart block and cardiomyopathy, called cardiac neonatal lupus (NL). Thousands of women are faced with the risk of cardiac NL in their offspring, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. There are no known therapies to permanently reverse third-degree heart block in NL, although several treatments have shown some effectiveness in incomplete heart block and disease beyond the atrioventricular node. Fluorinated steroids taken during pregnancy have shown benefit in these situations, although adverse effects may be concerning. Published data are discordant on the efficacy of fluorinated steroids in the prevention of mortality in cardiac NL. ?-agonists have been used to increase fetal heart rates in utero. The endurance of ?-agonist effect and its impact on mortality are in question, but when used in combination with other therapies, they may provide benefit. No controlled experiments regarding the use of plasmapheresis in cardiac NL have been performed, despite its theoretical benefits. Intravenous immunoglobulin was not shown to prevent cardiac NL at a dose of 400 mg/kg, although it has shown effectiveness in the treatment of associated cardiomyopathy both in utero and after birth. Retrospective studies have shown that hydroxychloroquine may prevent the recurrence of cardiac NL in families with a previously affected child, and a prospective open-label trial is currently recruiting patients in order to fully evaluate this relationship. PMID:25050975

Saxena, Amit; Izmirly, Peter M; Mendez, Barbara; Buyon, Jill P; Friedman, Deborah M

2014-01-01

163

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm2) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37+3 weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 ?m2/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 ?m2/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 ?m2/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract

164

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37{sup +3} weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract.

Bui, T.; Daire, J.L.; Chalard, F.; Sebag, G. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Zaccaria, I.; Alberti, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Clinical Epidemiology; Elmaleh, M.; Garel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Univ. of Paris-7 (France). Faculty of Medicine; Luton, D. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Blanc, N. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Neurology Service

2006-11-15

165

In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether decrements in neonatal neurodevelopment, as determined by the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (BNBAS), were associated with in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT's primary breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (heretofore collectively referred to as DDT/DDE). Our subjects were a birth cohort of 303 infants whose mothers were low-income Latinas living in the Salinas Valley, an agricultural community in California. We assessed neonates DDT/DDE measures in maternal serum samples collected during pregnancy. We did not find any detrimental associations between in utero DDT/DDE levels and neonatal performance on the BNBAS. In this same cohort, we previously demonstrated that exposures to DDT/DDE were related to decrements in neurodevelopment at 6-24 months of age. The failure to observe effects on the BNBAS in these same children may be due to limited sensitivity of a single BNBAS assessment or a delay in the manifestations of neurodevelopmental effects of DDT/DDE until after the neonatal period. PMID:17287022

Fenster, Laura; Eskenazi, Brenda; Anderson, Meredith; Bradman, Asa; Hubbard, Alan; Barr, Dana B

2007-05-01

166

Detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding derived from in utero MRI  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding human brain development in utero and detecting cortical abnormalities related to specific clinical conditions is an important area of research. In this paper, we describe and evaluate methodology for detection and mapping of delays in early cortical folding from population-based studies of fetal brain anatomies imaged in utero. We use a general linear modeling framework to describe spatiotemporal changes in curvature of the developing brain and explore the ability to detect and localize delays in cortical folding in the presence of uncertainty in estimation of the fetal age. We apply permutation testing to examine which regions of the brain surface provide the most statistical power to detect a given folding delay at a given developmental stage. The presented methodology is evaluated using MR scans of fetuses with normal brain development and gestational ages ranging from 20.57 to 27.86 weeks. This period is critical in early cortical folding and the formation of the primary and secondary sulci. Finally, we demonstrate a clinical application of the framework for detection and localization of folding delays in fetuses with isolated mild ventriculomegaly.

Habas, Piotr A.; Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia A.; Kim, Kio; Roosta, Ahmad; Rousseau, Francois; Barkovich, A. James; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

2011-03-01

167

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

2005-10-31

168

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

169

Visual thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A tool to explore, study, and analyze the structure of the English language. By displaying the interrelationships between words and meanings as spatial maps, it translates language into a visible architecture. The Visual Thesaurus accesses data from WordNet, a publicly available lexical reference system developed by the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton University. This database contains over 50,000 words and 40,000 phrases collected into more than 70,000 sense meanings.

170

Eurovoc thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A multilingual thesaurus covering the fields in which the European Communities are active, this product provides a means of indexing the documents in the documentation systems of the European institutions and of their users. It is currently used by the European Parliament, the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, national and regional parliaments in Europe, national government departments and certain European organisations.

171

UNESCO thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A controlled vocabulary which includes subject terms for the following areas of knowledge: education, science, culture, social and human sciences, information and communication, politics, law and economics; also includes the names of countries and groupings of countries: political, economic, geographic, ethnic and religious, and linguistic groupings. Includes French and Spanish equivalents of English preferred terms.

172

Astronomy thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesaurus aims to standardise the terminology in the field of astronomy for the purposes of aiding unambiguous library cataloguing and more precise recall of data from computer databases. Intended for use by astronomy librarians and scientists.

173

ADAMS [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An information system that provides access to all documents made public by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) since November 1, 1999 and to bibliographic records (some with abstracts and full text) that were made public up to October 1999.

174

Hydropower economics [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distinctive feature of this book is to provide a social planning perspective on the optimal use of water. This is a prerequisite for understanding and evaluating newly-established electricity markets.

175

Electricity auctions [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

"This book presents a comprehensive overview of the international experience in electricity auctions, focusing on the procurement of long-term electricity contracts to foster new generation capacity"--from publisher's site.

176

DIALOGWEB [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides access to over 600 of the databases of classic Dialog via a Web browser. Subject areas of database coverage include: worldwide company information; industry information; patents and trademarks; chemistry, environment, science, and

177

Science conferences [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The OSTI Science Conferences portal provides the capability to search for conference information on multiple web sites and databases with a single query utilizing a combination of surface web and deep web tools that can reach where ordinary search engines cannot. Emphasis is on U.S. conferences hosted and/or published by scientific and professional organizations whose areas of focus relate substantially to the Department of Energy's mission. Also possible to search and access the full-text of a subscribed service, the AIP Conference Proceedings.

178

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

179

Bisphenol-A exposure in utero leads to epigenetic alterations in the developmental programming of uterine estrogen response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that is ubiquitous in the environment. The homeobox gene Hoxa10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is affected by in utero BPA exposure. We hypothesized that an epigenetic mechanism underlies BPA-mediated alterations in Hoxa10 expression. We analyzed the expression pattern and methylation profile of Hoxa10 after in utero BPA exposure. Pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with BPA (5 mg/kg IP) or vehicle control on d 9-16 of pregnancy. Hoxa10 mRNA and protein expression were increased by 25% in the reproductive tract of mice exposed in utero. Bisulfite sequencing revealed that cytosine-guanine dinucleotide methylation was decreased from 67 to 14% in the promoter and from 71 to 3% in the intron of Hoxa10 after in utero BPA exposure. Decreased DNA methylation led to an increase in binding of ER-alpha to the Hoxa10 ERE both in vitro as and in vivo as determined by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. Diminished methylation of the ERE-containing promoter sequence resulted in an increase in ERE-driven gene expression in reporter assays. We identify altered methylation as a novel mechanism of BPA-induced altered developmental programming. Permanent epigenetic alteration of ERE sensitivity to estrogen may be a general mechanism through which endocrine disruptors exert their action. PMID:20181937

Bromer, Jason G; Zhou, Yuping; Taylor, Melissa B; Doherty, Leo; Taylor, Hugh S

2010-07-01

180

EXPOSURE PARAMETERS FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure Parameters For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2 1 UNC-Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 RTD, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, RTP,NC Prenatal exposure ...

 
 
 
 
181

Associations of in Utero Exposure to Perfluorinated Alkyl Acids with Human Semen Quality and Reproductive Hormones in Adult Men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), persistent chemicals with unique water-, dirt-, and oil-repellent properties, are suspected of having endocrine-disrupting activity. The PFAA compounds perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are found globally in humans; because they readily cross the placental barrier, in utero exposure may be a cause for concern.

Vested, Anne; Ramlau-hansen, Cecilia Høst; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kristensen, Susanne Lund; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Becher, Georg; Haug, Line Sma?stuen; Ernst, Emil Hagen; Toft, Gunnar

2013-01-01

182

The Scourge of Asian Flu: In Utero Exposure to Pandemic Influenza and the Development of a Cohort of British Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon childhood development. Outcome data are provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study where all members were potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of…

Kelly, Elaine

2011-01-01

183

In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ?500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However, additional studies are needed to clarify whether in utero exposure to I-131 at levels > = 500 mGy may be associated with increases in weight/BMI and to evaluate the confounding or modifying role of thyroid disease, past iodine deficiency, maternal and prenatal/postnatal factors. PMID:24611659

Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V; Tereschenko, Valery P; Tronko, Mykola D; Brenner, Alina V

2014-03-01

184

Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

185

In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used Denmark's health and population registers to obtain information regarding prescription drugs, ASD diagnosis, and health and socioeconomic status. There were 1.5 % of cases and 0.7 % of controls exposed to SSRIs during the pregnancy period, and higher effect estimates observed with longer use. We found evidence that in utero exposure to SSRIs increases a child's risk associated with ASD. These results, while adding to the limited knowledge on prenatal pharmacological exposures as potential ASD risk factors, need to be balanced against the benefits of indicated medication use by pregnant mothers. PMID:24803368

Gidaya, Nicole B; Lee, Brian K; Burstyn, Igor; Yudell, Michael; Mortensen, Erik L; Newschaffer, Craig J

2014-10-01

186

In utero imaging of mouse embryonic development with optical coherence tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying progression of congenital diseases in animal models can greatly benefit from live embryonic imaging Mouse have long served as a model of mammalian embryonic developmental processes, however, due to intra-uterine nature of mammalian development live imaging is challenging. In this report we present results on live mouse embryonic imaging in utero with Optical Coherence Tomography. Embryos from 12.5 through 17.5 days post-coitus (dpc) were studied through the uterine wall. In longitudinal studies, same embryos were imaged at developmental stages 13.5, 15.5 and 17.5 dpc. This study suggests that OCT can serve as a powerful tool for live mouse embryo imaging. Potentially this technique can contribute to our understanding developmental abnormalities associated with mutations, toxic drugs.

Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

2011-03-01

187

Fetus, fasting, and festival: the persistent effects of in utero social shocks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fetal Origins Hypothesis (FOH), put forward in the epidemiological literature and later flourished in the economics literature, suggests that the time in utero is a critical period for human development. However, much attention has been paid to the consequences of fetal exposures to more extreme natural shocks, while less is known about fetal exposures to milder but more commonly experienced social shocks. Using two examples of under-nutrition due to mild social shocks, i.e. Ramadan fasting and festival overspending, this paper summarizes our current knowledge, especially the contribution from economics, and key challenges in exploring fetal exposures to milder social shocks. I also discuss the salient added value of identifying milder versus more extreme fetal shocks. Finally, implications are drawn on individual decisions and public policy to improve children's well-being before they are born or even before their mothers realize that they are pregnant. PMID:25279378

Chen, Xi

2014-09-01

188

A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or ?-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

189

Design and Thermal Distribution of Intra-hyperthermia Microwave Antennas for Utero-cervical Applicators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intracavitary brachytherapy combined hypertermin for utero-cervical cancer seems to be a promising method for salvage treatments in persistent tumors and inoperable or previously irradiated cervical recurrences. In order to heat the vaginal apex and uterus, power full conical antennas which are suitable for afterloading cervical applicator have been designed for use in conjunction with intracavitary radiation therapy. The antennas were constructed with conical conductive material to feed line and the effective length were designed proportional to microwave length, Power deposition profiles of 2450 MHz of conical antennas were studied in both phantom models and muscle tissue and compared to those of commonly used dipole antenna. Improvement of the heating pattern was found in both phantom and muscle tissue. The heating pattern produced by the conical antenna resembles an ellipsoid and then the temperature distribution in depth was extended to 2-3 cm from the effective antenna axis

190

In utero exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk for autism spectrum disorder  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated whether there is an association between increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) used during pregnancy. This study used Denmark's health and population registers to obtain information regarding prescription drugs, ASD diagnosis, and health and socioeconomic status. There were 1.5 % of cases and 0.7 % of controls exposed to SSRIs during the pregnancy period, and higher effect estimates observed with longer use. We found evidence that in utero exposure to SSRIs increases a child's risk associated with ASD. These results, while adding to the limited knowledge on prenatal pharmacological exposures as potential ASD risk factors, need to be balanced against the benefits of indicated medication use by pregnant mothers.

Gidaya, Nicole B; Lee, Brian K

2014-01-01

191

Fetus, Fasting, and Festival: The Persistent Effects of In Utero Social Shocks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fetal Origins Hypothesis (FOH, put forward in the epidemiological literature and later flourished in the economics literature, suggests that the time in utero is a critical period for human development. However, much attention has been paid to the consequences of fetal exposures to more extreme natural shocks, while less is known about fetal exposures to milder but more commonly experienced social shocks. Using two examples of under-nutrition due to mild social shocks, i.e. Ramadan fasting and festival overspending, this paper summarizes our current knowledge, especially the contribution from economics, and key challenges in exploring fetal exposures to milder social shocks. I also discuss the salient added value of identifying milder versus more extreme fetal shocks. Finally, implications are drawn on individual decisions and public policy to improve children’s well-being before they are born or even before their mothers realize that they are pregnant.

Xi Chen

2014-09-01

192

Do In Utero Events Contribute to Current Health Disparities in Reproductive Medicine?  

Science.gov (United States)

Health disparities exist in reproductive medicine as discussed in detail in the subsequent articles of this issue; however, in most cases, the exact cause of these differences is unknown. Some of these disparities can be linked to environmental exposures such as alcohol and other hazardous toxic exposures (polycarbonate, pesticides, nicotine) in adults. In addition, low socioeconomic status, behavioral risk factors, and lack of education have been linked to poor obstetric and reproductive outcomes in minority groups. Aside from these various environmental exposures later in life, there is evidence that adverse events in utero could contribute to poor reproductive outcome in specific minority groups. We will focus on the developmental origins of health and disease as a possible causal mechanism for health disparities in reproductive diseases, as this perspective may suggest tractable solutions of how to address and eliminate these health disparities. PMID:23934692

Sauerbrun-Cutler, May-Tal; Segars, James H.

2014-01-01

193

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ?-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing [14C] linoleic acid and [3H] palmitic acid or [14C] octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubicood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny

194

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ..beta..-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing (/sup 14/C) linoleic acid and (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid or (/sup 14/C) octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny.

Thulin, A.J.

1985-01-01

195

Murine arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons communicate with GnRH neurons in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty is a transition period of reproductive development from juvenile stages to adulthood and depends upon the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. GnRH neurons are initially activated in utero but remain quiescent throughout the juvenile period. Premature reactivation of GnRH neurons results in precocious puberty in mice and humans, but the mechanisms underlying developmental control of GnRH neuron activity remain unknown. The neuropeptide kisspeptin, a potent activator of GnRH neurons that is implicated as a critical permissive signal triggering puberty and a major regulator of the adult female hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, is paradoxically produced by neurons in the developing brain well before puberty onset. Thus, the neural circuits controlling the timing of reproductive maturation remain elusive. Here, we delineate the underlying neural circuitry using conditional genetic transsynaptic tracing in female mouse embryos. We find that kisspeptin-producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) already communicate with a specific subset of GnRH neurons in utero. We show that ARC kisspeptin neurons are upstream of GnRH neurons, and that GnRH neuron connectivity to ARC kisspeptin neurons does not depend on their spatial position in the brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the neural circuits between ARC kisspeptin and GnRH neurons are fully established and operative before birth. Finally, we find that most GnRH neurons express the kisspeptin receptor GPR54 upon circuit formation, suggesting that the signaling system implicated in gatekeeping puberty becomes operative in the embryo. PMID:24599473

Kumar, Devesh; Freese, Maria; Drexler, Dagmar; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marquardt, Annette; Boehm, Ulrich

2014-03-01

196

Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis. The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.

Jamie E. Jennings-Gee

2010-06-01

197

In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC.

Rickard, S. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samrickard@tiscali.co.uk; Morris, J. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paley, M. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Whitby, E. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2006-10-15

198

Disruption of reproductive development in male rat offspring following in utero exposure to phthalate esters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain Phthalate esters have been shown to produce reproductive toxicity in male rodents with an age dependent sensitivity in effects with foetal animals being more sensitive than neonates which are in turn more sensitive than pubertal and adult animals. While the testicular effects of phthalates in rats have been known for more than 30 years, recent attention has been focused on the ability of these agents to produce effects on reproductive development in male offspring after in utero exposure. These esters and in particular di-butyl, di-(2-ethylhexyl) and butyl benzyl phthalates have been shown to produce a syndrome of reproductive abnormalities characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), cryptorchidism and testicular injury together with permanent changes (feminization) in the retention of nipples/areolae (sexually dimorphic structures in rodents) and demasculinization of the growth of the perineum resulting in a reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Critical to the induction of these effects is a marked reduction in foetal testicular testosterone production at the critical window for the development of the reproductive tract normally under androgen control. A second Leydig cell product, insl3, is also significantly down regulated and is likely responsible for the cryptorchidism commonly seen in these phthalate-treated animals. The testosterone decrease is mediated by changes in gene expression of a number of enzymes and transport proteins involved in normal testosterone biosynthesis and transport in the foetal Leydig cell. Alterations in the foetal seminiferous cords are also noted after in utero phthalate treatment with the induction of multinucleate gonocytes that contribute to lowered spermatocyte numbers in postnatal animals. The phthalate syndrome of effects on reproductive development has parallels with the reported human testicular dysgenesis syndrome, although no cause and effect relationship exists after exposure of humans to phthalate esters. However humans are exposed to and produce the critical phthalate metabolites that have been detected in blood of the general population, in children and also human amniotic fluid. PMID:16102138

Foster, Paul M D

2006-02-01

199

Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25% less than costs of printing the reports prepared by conventional methods. Because the largest report workload in the offices conducting water resources investigations is preparation of Water-Resources Investigations Reports, Open-File Reports, and annual State Data Reports, the pilot studies only involved these projects. (USGS)

Stiltner, G.J.

1990-01-01

200

Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers  

CERN Document Server

Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

Rajendiran, P

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Utero-vaginal packing. Seven years review in the management of post partum hemorrhage due to placenta previa/accreta at a maternity hospital in Central Saudi Arabia.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Utero-vaginal packing is of benefit in achieving hemostasis in cases of post partum hemorrhage due to low lying placenta previa/accreta and conserving the uterus particularly in women with low parity.

Nawal A. Al-Harbi

2009-02-01

202

LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF ADVERSE ENVIRONMENTS DURING DEVELOPMENT: EFFECTS ON ADULTHOOD IN RATS EXPOSED TO TOXICANTS OR UNDERNUTRITION IN UTERO.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown correlations between in utero and early life environments and diseases later in life, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, obesity, schizophrenia, early onset chronic renal failure, cancer and compromised repro-duction. Current development...

203

Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure in a patient with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, using continuous spinal anesthesia and intravenous nitroglycerin for uterine relaxation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure allows for the controlled management of a potentially life-threatening difficult airway in the newborn. General anesthesia has previously been reported for the management of this procedure. We report the use of continuous spinal anesthesia in conjunction with intravenous nitroglycerin for the ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure in a woman with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, a rare syndrome characterized by rigid joints and limb contractures. PMID:17451933

Benonis, J G; Habib, A S

2008-01-01

204

Clinician?selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician?selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653?9.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour?long interviews and think?aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty?five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple?choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty?three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword?based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician?selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of one correct answer was due to the answers from 5 (10.9% questions changing from correct to incorrect, while the answers to 6 questions (13.0% changed from incorrect to correct. The ability to provide correct answers differed among the various resources. Google and Cochrane provided the correct answers about 50% of the time while PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, UpToDate, Ovid Evidence Based Medicine Reviews and InfoPOEMs were more likely to be associated with incorrect answers. Physicians also seemed unable to determine when they needed to search for informationi n order to make an accurate decision.Conclusion – Clinician?selected electronic information resources did not guarantee accuracy in the answers provided to simulated clinical questions. At times the use of these resources caused physicians to change self?determined correct answers to incorrect ones. The authors state that this was possibly due to factors such as poor choice of resources, ineffective search strategies, time constraints and automation bias. Library and information practitioners have an important role to play in identifying and advocating for appropriate information resources to be integrated into the electronic medical record systems provided by healthcare institutions to ensure evidence based health care delivery.

Martha Ingrid Preddie

2008-03-01

205

A longitudinal study of health effects of in utero radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1500 children who were born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987 (Study Groups 1 and 2) were identified from lists of children undergoing mandatory surveillance in the Minsk Chernobyl Dispensary. During pregnancy mothers of these children lived in highly contaminated territories in several areas of three Belarus Regions - Gomel, Mogilev, and Brest. Children in Study Group 1 were born between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. The mothers of these children during their pregnancy period were exposed both to radiocesium and radioiodine. Children in Study Group 2 were born between February 1, 1987 and December 31, 1987. The mothers of children from Study Group 2 lived in the same areas as the mothers of children from Study Group 1, but during their pregnancy period were mainly exposed to radiocesium. The Control Group consists of children born between April 26, 1986, and December 31, 1987, to mothers living throughout pregnancy in the uncontaminated Vitebsk Region. These children were randomly selected from medical records of family-practice clinics, and were matched to Study Groups 1 and 2 by age and sex. To assess the health effects of in utero radiation exposure among the cohort, the specific protocol for annual health examination was developed in 1988. The study protocol included collection of data on family history; history of mothers pregnancy and delivery; head circumference at birth; annual measurements of standing height and weight; examination by neurologist; clinical thyroid evaluation, and ultrasound examination of the thyroid; annual measurements of levels of thyroid hormones and antibodies in children's blood (i.e. thyrotropin (TSH), total and free thyroxin (T4), triiodthyronin (T3), thyroglobulin (TG) and TG autoantibodies, thyroid binding globulin (TBG), and anti-TPO (thyroid microsomal )assay; annual blood count; analyses of the components of the immune system (T- cells, B-cells, immunoglobulins, complement, etc.); and data on general health status of children in the study and control groups. The preliminary health survey showed that in early childhood children in Study Group 1 had higher incidence of upper respiratory tract diseases than the controls. Serum TG and TG autoantibodies levels at the age of three were significantly higher in children from Study Group 1 than in the control group. Noticeable polymorphism was also observed more frequently on thyroid sonograms of children in Study Group 1 than on those of the controls. One of the major goals of this study was to reconstruct thyroid and whole body doses for children from the study and control groups. As the first step of this effort, thyroid doses received in utero have been reconstructed for a sample of 179 full-term children from Study Group 1 born in Narovlya, Bragin, Vetka and Khoinyki Regions between April 26, 1986, and January 31, 1987. These children were randomly selected from our study database. Human fetal thyroid tissue can accumulate I 131 by the 12th week of gestation and continues to accumulate iodine throughout gestation. Among 179 children for whom in utero thyroid doses from I 131 were reconstructed, 32 children were exposed before the 12th week of gestation, and 147 children were exposed after the 12th week of gestation. Our evaluation of the fetal thyroid dose, from I 131 was based on an assessment of the thyroid dose to the mother. Estimates of individual-thyroid dose for mothers were derived from a large scale campaign to monitor I 131 activity in human thyroids of the Belarus population. This campaign was carried out within a few weeks following the accident and before I 131 decayed to negligible activities. Thyroid dose estimates for mothers were based on additional data, which consisted of answers to a detailed questionnaire with requested information on residence history, dietary habits, and use of potassium iodide during pregnancy. The interviewers were specially trained on the nature of interviewer and respondent bias, standard interviewing principles and techniques, and survey logistics. Preliminary estimation

206

The scourge of Asian Flu: In utero exposure to pandemic influenza and the development of a cohort of British children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the impact of in utero exposure to the Asian influenza pandemic of 1957 upon physical and cognitive development in childhood. Outcome data is provided by the National Child Development Study (NCDS), a panel study of a cohort of British children who were all potentially exposed in the womb. Epidemic effects are identified using geographic variation in a surrogate measure of the epidemic. Results indicate significant detrimental effects of the epidemic upon birth weight and ...

Kelly, Elaine

2009-01-01

207

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

208

Hypermethylation of homeobox A10 by in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: an epigenetic mechanism for altered developmental programming.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diethylstilbestrol (DES) is a nonsteroidal estrogen that induces developmental anomalies of the female reproductive tract. The homeobox gene HOXA10 controls uterine organogenesis, and its expression is altered after in utero DES exposure. We hypothesized that an epigenetic mechanism underlies DES-mediated alterations in HOXA10 expression. We analyzed the expression pattern and methylation profile of HOXA10 after DES exposure. Expression of HOXA10 is increased in human endometrial cells after DES exposure, whereas Hoxa10 expression is repressed and shifted caudally from its normal location in mice exposed in utero. Cytosine guanine dinucleotide methylation frequency in the Hoxa10 intron was higher in DES-exposed offspring compared with controls (P = 0.017). The methylation level of Hoxa10 was also higher in the caudal portion of the uterus after DES exposure at the promoter and intron (P estrogen and directly stimulates HOXA10 expression with short-term exposure, however, in utero exposure results in hypermethylation of the HOXA10 gene and long-term altered HOXA10 expression. We identify hypermethylation as a novel mechanism of DES-induced altered developmental programming. PMID:19299448

Bromer, Jason G; Wu, Jie; Zhou, Yuping; Taylor, Hugh S

2009-07-01

209

Bone marrow from Balb/c mice radiocontaminated with 241Am in utero shows a deficient in vitro haemopoiesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation damage from 241Am to bone marrow cells was manifest in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTC) from offspring of mice radiocontaminated at 14th day of gestation (119, 479, 803, 1754 kBq 241Am kg). Offspring were reared by their own contaminated mother for 3 weeks postnatal. LTC from these offspring were less able to support in vitro CFC proliferation than control LTC. This radiation damage persisted 71 weeks after radiocontamination in utero. Damage was observed at lower doses if 241Am contamination occurred at foetal rather than adult ages. Radiation damage was observed only using LTC. After culturing LTC in 25% FCS and recharging the stromal adherent layer with bone marrow cell suspensions originating either from control offspring or from offspring contaminated with 241Am in utero evidence was found that the proliferation capacity of haemopoietic cells was diminished. However, the nature of effects on the stromal elements is currently somewhat equivocal. Following in utero contamination stromal adherent cells appeared to support better production of in vitro CFC. (author)

210

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

211

Electronic Banker  

Science.gov (United States)

Faulkner & Gray's Electronic Banker is a new Web magazine and Internet resource guide on bank industry issues. Daily news bulletins are posted at the Newswire page, and the site also hosts a searchable archive of news articles (November 10, 1998-present). Electronic Banker's Internet resource guide features Web links organized into four basic topics: banking associations, brokerage houses, consultants, and financial services vendors.

212

Genetic manipulation of the mouse developing hypothalamus through in utero electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic modification of specific regions of the developing mammalian brain is a very powerful experimental approach. However, generating novel mouse mutants is often frustratingly slow. It has been shown that access to the mouse brain developing in utero with reasonable post-operatory survival is possible. Still, results with this procedure have been reported almost exclusively for the most superficial and easily accessible part of the developing brain, i.e. the cortex. The thalamus, a narrower and more medial region, has proven more difficult to target. Transfection into deeper nuclei, especially those of the hypothalamus, is perhaps the most challenging and therefore very few results have been reported. Here we demonstrate a procedure to target the entire hypothalamic neuroepithelium or part of it (hypothalamic regions) for transfection through electroporation. The keys to our approach are longer narcosis times, injection in the third ventricle, and appropriate kind and positioning of the electrodes. Additionally, we show results of targeting and subsequent histological analysis of the most recessed hypothalamic nucleus, the mammillary body. PMID:23912701

Haddad-Tóvolli, Roberta; Szabó, Nora-Emöke; Zhou, Xunlei; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo

2013-01-01

213

In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996 and 2003. Maternal smoking was associated with a significantly elevated risk of strabismus in the child, increasing with number of cigarettes smoked per day ( or =10 cigarettes/day: RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.30). Nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with strabismus risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffeeand tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk.

Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A

2010-01-01

214

Dietary supplementation with resveratrol protects against striatal dopaminergic deficits produced by in utero LPS exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol in pregnant dams on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic deficits in pups exposed to LPS in utero. Gravid female rats were fed with a resveratrol-enriched diet during gestational days 3-22.5 (E3-E22.5) and received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1mg/kg LPS at E10.5. The striata were isolated from the pups at postnatal days 10 (P10) and P21. LPS-induced dopaminergic deficits were noted at P21, but not P10. These DA deficits at P21 were exhibited by a loss of DA and DA metabolite [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] levels and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum. The LPS-induced loss of DA, DA metabolites, and TH expression were attenuated in the striata of pups from the dams fed with the resveratrol-supplemented diet. These data suggest that a resveratrol-supplemented diet may restore homeostasis of the striatal DA neuronal system following disruption by LPS. PMID:24863468

Rose, Katherine M; Parmar, Mayur S; Cavanaugh, Jane E

2014-07-21

215

Influence of diurnal phase on startle response in adult rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle. We speculated that this observation of increased basal startle might be influenced by diurnal phase. In the present study, adult female Sprague Dawley rats, stressed prenatally with DEX (200 ?g/kg, gestational days 14-21) and postnatally by blood sampling under restraint, were tested for the ASR during both circadian phases (light and dark). Basal startle was increased in animals tested both during the light and the dark phases of the cycle. We hereby replicated our earlier findings in a new strain and laboratory, thus strengthening the validity of our model regarding prenatal stress effects on ASR in female offspring. Our results indicate that observation of increased basal ASR is not solely dependent on diurnal phase. We found no difference in hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid receptor expression between groups.

Kjaer, S L; Hougaard, K S

2011-01-01

216

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

217

Gene delivery into mouse retinal ganglion cells by in utero electroporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The neural retina is a highly structured tissue of the central nervous system that is formed by seven different cell types that are arranged in layers. Despite much effort, the genetic mechanisms that underlie retinal development are still poorly understood. In recent years, large-scale genomic analyses have identified candidate genes that may play a role in retinal neurogenesis, axon guidance and other key processes during the development of the visual system. Thus, new and rapid techniques are now required to carry out high-throughput analyses of all these candidate genes in mammals. Gene delivery techniques have been described to express exogenous proteins in the retina of newborn mice but these approaches do not efficiently introduce genes into the only retinal cell type that transmits visual information to the brain, the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Results Here we show that RGCs can be targeted for gene expression by in utero electroporation of the eye of mouse embryos. Accordingly, using this technique we have monitored the morphology of electroporated RGCs expressing reporter genes at different developmental stages, as well as their projection to higher visual targets. Conclusion Our method to deliver ectopic genes into mouse embryonic retinas enables us to follow the course of the entire retinofugal pathway by visualizing RGC bodies and axons. Thus, this technique will permit to perform functional studies in vivo focusing on neurogenesis, axon guidance, axon projection patterning or neural connectivity in mammals.

Herrera Eloisa

2007-09-01

218

Late effects of iodine-131 in utero exposure: Toxicological effects in first generation of rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have initiated studies to evaluate the possible immunotoxic effects to both the mother and offspring following an in utero exposure to /sup 131/I, and initial observations suggest induction of antitumor immunity as measured by cell-mediated immune (CMI) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). The animal model selected for these studies was the Fischer F344 female rat intraperitoneally exposed to concentrations ranging from 4 to 3700 kBq of Na/sup 131/I during the gestation period of 16 to 18 days. The CMI results suggested the male offspring were 1.7 times more immunologically responsive than their sisters with a threshold detection level in the range of 9.25 kBq being observed. The parents of F/sub 1/ generation exposed to the /sup 131/I are now being evaluated for possible immunotoxicity according to: host resistance to E. coli endotoxin and blastogenenic responses to phytohemagglutin, concanavalin A, and lipopolysaccharide. The results of these studies suggest that perinatal /sup 131/I exposure exerts an immunotoxic effect upon the first generation

219

Rapid and efficient genetic manipulation of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher mammals such as primates and carnivores have highly developed unique brain structures such as the ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex, and the gyrus and outer subventricular zone of the cerebral cortex. However, our molecular understanding of the formation, function and diseases of these structures is still limited, mainly because genetic manipulations that can be applied to higher mammals are still poorly available. Results Here we developed and validated a rapid and efficient technique that enables genetic manipulations in the brain of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation. Transgene-expressing ferret babies were obtained within a few weeks after electroporation. GFP expression was detectable in the embryo and was observed at least 2?months after birth. Our technique was useful for expressing transgenes in both superficial and deep cortical neurons, and for examining the dendritic morphologies and axonal trajectories of GFP-expressing neurons in ferrets. Furthermore, multiple genes were efficiently co-expressed in the same neurons. Conclusion Our method promises to be a powerful tool for investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development, function and pathophysiology of brain structures which are unique to higher mammals.

Kawasaki Hiroshi

2012-06-01

220

Induction of Homologous Recombination Following in utero Exposure to DNA-Damaging Agents  

Science.gov (United States)

Much of our understanding of homologous recombination, as well as the development of the working models for these processes, has been derived from extensive work in model organisms, such as yeast and fruit flies, and mammalian systems by studying the repair of induced double strand breaks or repair following exposure to genotoxic agents in vitro. We therefore set out to expand this in vitro work to ask whether DNA-damaging agents with varying modes of action could induce somatic change in an in vivo mouse model of homologous recombination. We exposed pregnant dams to DNA-damaging agents, conferring a variety of lesions at a specific time in embryo development. To monitor homologous recombination frequency, we used the well-established retinal pigment epithelium pink-eyed unstable assay. Homologous recombination resulting in the deletion of a duplicated 70 kb fragment in the coding region of the Oca2 gene renders this gene functional and can be visualized as a pigmented eyespot in the retinal pigment epithelium. We observed an increased frequency of pigmented eyespots in resultant litters following exposure to cisplatin, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, 3-aminobenzamide, bleomycin, and etoposide with a contrasting decrease in the frequency of detectable reversion events following camptothecin and hydroxyurea exposure. The somatic genomic rearrangements that result from such a wide variety of differently acting damaging agents implies long-term potential effects from even short-term in utero exposures. PMID:24029142

Karia, Bijal; Martinez, Jo Ann; Bishop, Alexander J. R.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Anesthetic management of a patient undergoing an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure involves partial delivery of the fetus with the fetal-placental circulation maintained. This allows for management of the obstructed fetal airway via direct laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, tracheostomy, or surgical intervention. These complex and often challenging procedures have been performed about 100 times in the United States to date. Recent advances in prenatal diagnosis of fetal congenital malformations, in particular, abnormalities involving the fetal airway, have allowed for the development of the EXIT strategy to convert potentially catastrophic situations during fetal delivery to a controlled environment. Indications for the EXIT procedure have expanded to a variety of congenital abnormalities, including fetal neck masses, lung or mediastinal tumors, congenital high airway obstruction syndrome, conjoined twin separation, and acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring transitioning from EXIT to extracorporeal membrane oxygen transitioning. Various considerations must be managed by the anesthesia provider during the EXIT procedure to ensure positive maternal and fetal outcomes. Careful attention to achieving adequate uterine relaxation, maintaining maternal blood pressure, avoiding placental abruption, prioritizing fetal airway establishment, and providing return of uterine tone when indicated are examples of these considerations. In this case report, a parturient presented for an EXIT procedure secondary to fetal cystic hygroma. PMID:22400417

Choleva, Abbie J

2011-12-01

222

Connexin 43 expression in Sprague-Dawley rat seminiferous epithelium after in utero exposure to flutamide.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the expression of connexin 43 (Cx43) in the testes of prepubertal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats following in utero flutamide (Flu) exposure. Connexins constitute the major protein type in gap junctions. Connexin 43, the most prominent connexin family member expressed by testes, is localized at the base of seminiferous tubules in humans and rodents, and may be involved in fertility. Flutamide was injected subcutaneously into pregnant SD rats on gestational days 12-21 (25?mg/kg/day). Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time PCR was used to investigate the distribution and the expression of Cx43 protein and mRNA in the testis on postnatal day 20 (PD20). Following Flu-exposure, Cx43 was observed between Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. On PD20, no Cx43 protein was expressed by the spermatogonial cell layer of the seminiferous tubules in the controls, but was observed in the Flu-exposed group. Western blotting showed that Cx43 was expressed at significantly lower levels in Flu-exposed testes than controls on PD20 (p?rat embryonic period, Cx43 mRNA and protein expression were downregulated, and its distribution in the seminiferous tubules was abnormal. PMID:24865629

Cai, Chunhong; Zhao, Dan; Ma, Cao; Zhang, Yongbo; Wu, Xing; Wei, Guanghui; He, Dawei

2014-10-01

223

In utero exposure to A-bomb radiation and mental retardation; a reassessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The prevalence of mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been re-evaluated in reference to gestational age and tissue dose in the fetus. There was no risk at 0-8 weeks post-conception. The highest risk of forebrain damage occurred at 8-15 weeks of gestational age, the time when the most rapid proliferation of neuronal elements and when most, if not all, neuroblast migration to the cerebral cortex from the proliferative zones is occurring. Overall, the risk is five or more times greater in these weeks than in subsequent ones. In the critical period, damage expressed as the frequency of subsequent mental retardation appears to be linearly related to the dose received by the fetus. A linear model is not equally applicable to radiation-related mental retardation after the 15th week, the observed values suggesting that there a threshold may exist. The data are consistent with a probability of occurrence of mental retardation of 0.40% per cGy or 40% per gray. (author)

224

Novel method for in vivo hydroxyl radical measurement by microdialysis in fetal sheep brain in utero.  

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Hydroxyl radical (.OH) is a reactive oxygen species produced during severe hypoxia, asphyxia, or ischemia that can cause cell death resulting in brain damage. Generation of .OH may occur in the fetal brain during asphyxia in utero. The very short half-life of .OH requires use of trapping agents such as salicylic acid or phenylalanine for detection, but their hydroxylated derivatives are either unstable, produced endogenously, or difficult to measure in the small volume of microdialysis samples. In the present study, we used terephthalic acid (TA), hydroxylation of which yields a stable and highly fluorometric isomer (excitation, 326 nm; emission, 432 nm). In vitro studies using .OH generated by the Fenton reaction showed that hydroxylated TA formed quickly (High-performance liquid chromotography analysis showed that the fluorescence in dialysis samples was entirely due to hydroxylation of TA. Thus this study shows that it is possible to use TA as a trapping agent for detecting low concentrations of .OH both in vitro and in vivo and that low concentrations of .OH are present in fetal brain tissue and fluctuate with time. PMID:15718409

Yan, Edwin B; Unthank, Jessica K; Castillo-Melendez, Margie; Miller, Suzanne L; Langford, Steven J; Walker, David W

2005-06-01

225

Inhibition of protein synthesis in developing mouse brain after fission neutron irradiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous investigations showed that when pregnant mice were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy fission neutrons on Day 17 +/- 2 of gestation about 40% of the newborn mice died and the body and brain weights of surviving animals decreased by 30-35%. Studies presented in this paper show that after a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation on Day 18 of pregnancy protein synthesis decreased in liver and brain of 3-week-old mice irradiated in utero. Incorporation of labeled amino acids in vivo into acid soluble nuclear proteins decreased by 15% in liver and by 40% in brain. Investigations with isolated protein synthesizing systems proved that the peptide bond formation was not impaired by irradiation. The aminoacylation of transfer-RNA, however, decreased in both liver and brain by 26-34 and 34-41%, respectively. Comparing the aminoacylation capacities in the two unirradiated organs, a much lower (about one-third) capacity was found in brain than in liver. Moreover, this low aminoacylation capacity of brain decreased further by about 40% after neutron irradiation. These results suggest that in the developing irradiated brain the reduced capacity of aminoacylation of transfer-RNA might be rate limiting for the efficiency of protein synthesis

226

Superoxide dismutase in fetal rat cerebrum x-irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in fetal rat cerebrum was studied on gestational days (gd) 19 and 21 after X-irradiation with 100 R on gd 13 or no X-irradiation. Fetuses X-irradiated on gd 13 showed marked microcephalus on gd 19 and 21. Most of the SOD activity was found in the crude mitochondrial fraction in both groups and most of the SOD was Cu, Zn-SOD. The SOD activity increased about two times from gd 19 to 21. The mean SOD activity of the fetal rat cerebrum X-irradiated with 100 R showed no significant differences compared to that of the control group with Student's t test. But the activities in the irradiated group were widely distributed with a large standard deviation and so the chi-square test showed a significant difference in SOD activity between the two groups on gd 19. The SOD activity of adult rat cerebrum 6 and 8 days after X-irradiation with 100 R was increased compared to that 3 days after X-irradiation. It was suspected that X-irradiation in utero may have some lasting effect on the SOD activity in fetal rat cerebrum. (author)

227

Fetal isolated prominent left brachiocepalic vein: in utero natural history and neonatal outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this series were to describe the prenatal sonographic findings of a fetal isolated prominent left brachiocephalic vein with its in utero natural history and neonatal outcome and to discuss the differential diagnosis, especially with a total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation. We reviewed all cases referred to 2 tertiary medical centers with the presenting finding of a prominent, upper thorax transverse vein entering the superior vena cava. The primary suspicion of a subjective dilated left brachiocephalic vein, as a part of a supracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation, was investigated by a systematic anatomic evaluation. After exclusion of other cardiac and structural anomalies, we followed the pregnancies and their outcomes. Eight cases were recruited during a 7 year period. The mean maternal age was 31 years, and the mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 17 weeks. In 7 cases, the dilatation was not evident during 6 weeks of follow up. In 1 case, the dilatation was evident until delivery at 39 weeks and was not apparent on postnatal echocardiography or spiral computed tomography. All neonates developed without any heart or other complications. We conclude that after exclusion other malformations, a prominent left brachiocephalic vein is a benign transient phenomenon that does not persist post-partum in the neonate. PMID:23269724

Gilboa, Yinon; Katorza, Eldad; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Bronshtein, Moshe

2013-01-01

228

Spatiotemporal Molecular Approach of in utero Electroporation to Functionally Decipher Endophenotypes in Neurodevelopmental Disorders  

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We have only just begun to decipher the complexity of our brain, including its maturation. Correct brain development and communication among brain areas are crucial for proper cognitive behavior. Brain area-specific genes expressed within a particular time window direct neurodevelopmental events such as proliferation, migration, axon guidance, dendritic arborization, and synaptogenesis. These genes can pose as susceptibility factors in neurodevelopmental disorders eventually resulting in area-specific cognitive deficits. Therefore, in utero electroporation (IUE)-mediated gene transfer can aid in creating valuable animal models in which the regionality and time of expression can be restricted for the targeted gene(s). Moreover, through the use of cell-type-specific molecular constructs, expression can be altered in a particular neuronal subset within a distinct area such that we are now able to causally link the function of that gene in that brain region to the etiology of the disorder. Thus, IUE-mediated gene transfer is an attractive molecular technique to spatiotemporally address the developmental aspects of gene function in relation to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated endophenotypes. PMID:22065947

Kolk, Sharon Margriet; de Mooij-Malsen, Annetrude Johanne; Martens, Gerard Julianus Maria

2011-01-01

229

Induction of homologous recombination following in utero exposure to DNA-damaging agents.  

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Much of our understanding of homologous recombination, as well as the development of the working models for these processes, has been derived from extensive work in model organisms, such as yeast and fruit flies, and mammalian systems by studying the repair of induced double strand breaks or repair following exposure to genotoxic agents in vitro. We therefore set out to expand this in vitro work to ask whether DNA-damaging agents with varying modes of action could induce somatic change in an in vivo mouse model of homologous recombination. We exposed pregnant dams to DNA-damaging agents, conferring a variety of lesions at a specific time in embryo development. To monitor homologous recombination frequency, we used the well-established retinal pigment epithelium pink-eyed unstable assay. Homologous recombination resulting in the deletion of a duplicated 70 kb fragment in the coding region of the Oca2 gene renders this gene functional and can be visualized as a pigmented eyespot in the retinal pigment epithelium. We observed an increased frequency of pigmented eyespots in resultant litters following exposure to cisplatin, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, 3-aminobenzamide, bleomycin, and etoposide with a contrasting decrease in the frequency of detectable reversion events following camptothecin and hydroxyurea exposure. The somatic genomic rearrangements that result from such a wide variety of differently acting damaging agents implies long-term potential effects from even short-term in utero exposures. PMID:24029142

Karia, Bijal; Martinez, Jo Ann; Bishop, Alexander J R

2013-11-01

230

Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria  

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Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

2010-01-01

231

A partnership model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited primary care settings: experiences from two nurse-managed health centers  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To present a partnership-based and community-oriented approach designed to ease provider anxiety and facilitate the implementation of electronic health records (EHR) in resource-limited primary care settings. Materials and Methods The approach, referred to as partnership model, was developed and iteratively refined through the research team's previous work on implementing health information technology (HIT) in over 30 safety net practices. This paper uses two case studies to illustrate how the model was applied to help two nurse-managed health centers (NMHC), a particularly vulnerable primary care setting, implement EHR and get prepared to meet the meaningful use criteria. Results The strong focus of the model on continuous quality improvement led to eventual implementation success at both sites, despite difficulties encountered during the initial stages of the project. Discussion There has been a lack of research, particularly in resource-limited primary care settings, on strategies for abating provider anxiety and preparing them to manage complex changes associated with EHR uptake. The partnership model described in this paper may provide useful insights into the work shepherded by HIT regional extension centers dedicated to supporting resource-limited communities disproportionally affected by EHR adoption barriers. Conclusion NMHC, similar to other primary care settings, are often poorly resourced, understaffed, and lack the necessary expertise to deploy EHR and integrate its use into their day-to-day practice. This study demonstrates that implementation of EHR, a prerequisite to meaningful use, can be successfully achieved in this setting, and partnership efforts extending far beyond the initial software deployment stage may be the key. PMID:21828225

Dennehy, Patricia; White, Mary P; Hamilton, Andrew; Pohl, Joanne M; Tanner, Clare; Onifade, Tiffiani J

2011-01-01

232

Altered glucose transport to utero-embryonic unit in relation to delayed embryonic development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.  

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The aim of this study was to compare the changes in concentration of glucose and glucose transporters (GLUTs) in the utero-embryonic unit, consisting of decidua, trophoblast and embryo, during delayed and non-delayed periods to understand the possible cause of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. The results showed a significantly decreased concentration of glucose in the utero-embryonic unit due to decline in the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and GLUT 3, 4 and 8 proteins in the utero-embryonic unit during delayed period. The in vitro study showed suppressive effect of insulin on expression of GLUTs 4 and 8 in the utero-embryonic unit and a significant positive correlation between the decreased amount of glucose consumed by the utero-embryonic unit and decreased expression of GLUTs 4 (r=0.99; psphinx. Increased supply of fatty acid to the delayed embryo may be responsible for its survival under low glucose condition but unable to promote embryonic development in C. sphinx. PMID:21134414

Arnab, Banerjee; Amitabh, Krishna

2011-02-10

233

Histological studies in developing brain after 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant mice were irradiated with 0.5 Gy neutrons on day 13, 15 or 18 of gestation. There was no significant difference in number of living young born per litter between in neutron irradiated mice and controls. Mortality of irradiated offspings increased in the first 3 days after birth. The brain weight of 21-day old animals after neutron irradiation averaged only 55, 56 and 69% of controls, resp. At six hours after irradiation morphological analysis showed nuclear pyknosis in the central nervous system. On day 13 the telencephalon was severely affected. The 30% cells were pyknotic in the wall of the cerebral hemisphere and 20% of cells in corpus striatum. In the metencephalon marked pyknosis was established in the tectal lamina of mesencephalon (16%) and in the cerebellar anlage (21%). The olfactory plate (24%), the ventricular zone of cerebral hemisphere (30%) and colliculus ganglionaris were damaged mostly (40%) after radiation on day 15 of gestation. The tectum of the mesencephali and in metencephalon the external granular layer of cerebellum and area of the rhombic lip were affected by irradiation (17-20%). The telencephalon found pyknotic but to a less extent in group irradiated on day 18 than it was on day 15. In the olfactory bulb 10% of pyknotic cells were seen and 16% of primary cortex of cerebral hemisphere more over 30% of nucleus caudatus/putamen were affected. In metencephalon 19% of external granular layer of cerebellum and 13% of trigonum cerebelli were pyknotic. In general, lesions of irradiation were rather mild in diencephalon and myelencephalon at all examined ages. Histological examinations support that defined parts of brain are damaged after neutron irradiation in utero and it may lead to the described physiological18-20 and biochemical consequences20,23. (orig.)

234

Childhood leukaemia following medical diagnostic exposure to ionizing radiation in utero or after birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A statistical association between childhood leukaemia and an abdominal X-ray examination of the pregnant mother was first reported in 1956 from a case-control study of childhood cancer mortality conducted in Great Britain. This study, later called the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC), was continued and eventually showed a highly statistically significant ?50% proportional increase in the risk of childhood leukaemia associated with antenatal diagnostic radiography. The association has been confirmed by many case-control studies carried out around the world, the appropriately combined results of which show a highly statistically significant increase in risk that is compatible with the OSCC finding. There is no doubt about the reality of the statistical association, but a causal interpretation has been questioned. On balance, however, the evidence points to low-level irradiation of the fetus increasing the risk of leukaemia in childhood, with an excess relative risk coefficient of around 50 Gy-1 (equivalent to an excess absolute risk coefficient of about 3% Gy-1), although the uncertainty associated with these coefficients is considerable and they are likely to be overestimates. In contrast to exposure in utero, the evidence from case-control studies for an association between childhood leukaemia and postnatal exposure to medical diagnostic irradiation is equivocal and sometimes conflicting. Since standard radiation risk models predict thtandard radiation risk models predict that low-level exposure in the early years of life should produce an increased risk of childhood leukaemia that is roughly similar to that arising from fetal exposure, this absence of persuasive evidence is likely to be due to various problems with the studies. This is unfortunate given the rise in relatively high dose diagnostic procedures (e.g. paediatric CT scans) that would be predicted to materially increase the relative risk of childhood leukaemia. (authors)

235

In-Utero Exposure to Bereavement and Offspring IQ: A Danish National Cohort Study  

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Background Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. Methods We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N?=?167,900). The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement) during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. Results When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value?=?0.01). We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. Conclusion We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal life and cognitive development in the offspring. PMID:24558394

Virk, Jasveer; Obel, Carsten; Li, Jiong; Olsen, J?rn

2014-01-01

236

The effect of in utero insulin exposure on tissue iron status in fetal rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newborn infants of diabetic mothers have serum biochemical signs of iron deficiency in cord blood directly related to elevations of cord erythropoietin and Hb concentrations. In sheep, chronic fetal hyperinsulinemia results in fetal hypoxemia, expansion of the red cell mass, and decreased iron concentrations, most likely due to increased iron utilization for Hb synthesis. To determine whether fetal insulin exposure also results in reduced tissue iron concentrations, we measured liver, skeletal muscle, small intestine, heart, and brain iron concentrations in newborn rat pups after s.c. fetal injection of insulin or diluent alone on d 19 of gestation. The fetuses of 11 pregnant rats were exteriorized, injected with 2 U neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin or diluent, replaced in utero, and delivered on d 22. To determine dose dependency, the fetuses of six pregnant rats were injected with 3 U of longer-acting protamine zinc insulin and delivered on d 21. At delivery, the insulin-treated groups had higher birth weights than the placebo-treated group, although plasma insulin concentrations were not different. The 2 U neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin-treated fetuses had significantly lower mean +/- SEM liver iron concentrations than the control fetuses (910 +/- 34 versus 1014 +/- 43 micrograms/g dry tissue weight; p less than 0.05), but had similar skeletal muscle iron concentrations. The 3 U protamine zinc insulin-treated fetuses had significantly lower liver and skeletal muscle iron concentrations compared to control and to 2 U neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin-treated fetuses (p less than 0.05). No differences in small intestine, heart, or brain iron concentrations were seen among groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1594333

Georgieff, M K; Kassner, R J; Radmer, W J; Berard, D J; Doshi, S R; Stonestreet, B S

1992-01-01

237

Neutron irradiation of late mouse embryos (15-19 days) in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant female C57B1/6 mice were irradiated with a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy neutrons. The F1 hybrid embryos were exposed to the neutrons in utero on Day 17+/-2 of gestation. 178/439 (40.6%) of the irradiated fetuses and 26/217 (12%) of the control mice died within 2 weeks after birth. In both irradiated and control mice, most deaths (95 and 77%, respectively) occurred within 3 days of birth: most animals in both groups died on Day 2. There was no significant difference in the number of living young born per litter (7.2) between the neutron-irradiated mothers and their unirradiated controls. The irradiated mice weighed significantly less than their controls. Several organs were weighed at regular intervals in both irradiated and control mice. Spleens and thymus glands showed no significant differences between the two groups. The livers and kidneys of the irradiated mice weighed slightly less than their controls. The brain weight of 21-day-old neutron-irradiated mice was 30-35% less than control brains. Histological analysis of the central nervous system showed pycnotic nuclei, inhibition of mitosis in neuroblasts, and cell death in the irradiated brains. The weight reduction of the brain was not due to water loss. The hypothesis is that the early mortality after birth is related to the killing of the radiation-sensitive neuroblasts. When newborn mice (1-7 days old) were irradiated in vivo with the same neutron dose of 0.5 Gy, neither the reduction ion dose of 0.5 Gy, neither the reduction in brain weight nor the early mortality was observed

238

Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved management.

PratibhaNReebye

2012-02-01

239

Generation of topically transgenic rats by in utero electroporation and in vivo bioluminescence screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation (IUE) is a technique which allows genetic modification of cells in the brain for investigating neuronal development. So far, the use of IUE for investigating behavior or neuropathology in the adult brain has been limited by insufficient methods for monitoring of IUE transfection success by non-invasive techniques in postnatal animals. For the present study, E16 rats were used for IUE. After intraventricular injection of the nucleic acids into the embryos, positioning of the tweezer electrodes was critical for targeting either the developing cortex or the hippocampus. Ventricular co-injection and electroporation of a luciferase gene allowed monitoring of the transfected cells postnatally after intraperitoneal luciferin injection in the anesthetized live P7 pup by in vivo bioluminescence, using an IVIS Spectrum device with 3D quantification software. Area definition by bioluminescence could clearly differentiate between cortical and hippocampal electroporations and detect a signal longitudinally over time up to 5 weeks after birth. This imaging technique allowed us to select pups with a sufficient number of transfected cells assumed necessary for triggering biological effects and, subsequently, to perform behavioral investigations at 3 month of age. As an example, this study demonstrates that IUE with the human full length DISC1 gene into the rat cortex led to amphetamine hypersensitivity. Co-transfected GFP could be detected in neurons by post mortem fluorescence microscopy in cryosections indicating gene expression present at ?6 months after birth. We conclude that postnatal bioluminescence imaging allows evaluating the success of transient transfections with IUE in rats. Investigations on the influence of topical gene manipulations during neurodevelopment on the adult brain and its connectivity are greatly facilitated. For many scientific questions, this technique can supplement or even replace the use of transgenic rats and provide a novel technology for behavioral neuroscience. PMID:24084570

Vomund, Sandra; Sapir, Tamar; Reiner, Orly; Silva, Maria A de Souza; Korth, Carsten

2013-01-01

240

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell

2001-12-01

 
 
 
 
241

Organizing Internet Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

Hsueh-Hua Chen

1996-12-01

242

Mice exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in utero are less social and more active in social situations relative to controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound imaging during pregnancy has a long history of safety and diagnostic utility, as supported by numerous human case reports and epidemiological studies. However, there exist in vivo studies linking large but clinically relevant doses of ultrasound applied to mouse fetuses in utero to altered learning, memory, and neuroanatomy of those mice. Also, there exists a well-documented significant increase in the likelihood of non-right-handedness in boys exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in utero, potentially relevant given the increased prevalence of autism in males, and reports of excess non-right-handedness in this population. Motivated by these observations, we applied 30?minutes of diagnostic ultrasound to pregnant mice at embryonic day 14.5 and assayed the social behavior of their male pups 3 weeks after their birth. The ultrasound-exposed pups were significantly (P?utero can alter typical social behaviors in young mice that may be relevant for autism. There exist meaningful differences between the exposure of diagnostic ultrasound to mice versus humans that require further exploration before this work can usefully inform clinical practice. Future work should address these differences as well as clarify the extent, mechanisms, and functional effects of diagnostic ultrasound's interaction with the developing brain. PMID:24249575

McClintic, Abbi M; King, Bryan H; Webb, Sara J; Mourad, Pierre D

2014-06-01

243

Early diagnosis of in utero and intrapartum HIV infection in infants prior to 6 weeks of age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-related infant mortality. The early peak of pediatric HIV-related deaths in South Africa occurs at 3 months of age, coinciding with the earliest age at which treatment is initiated following PCR testing at 6 weeks of age. Earlier diagnosis is necessary to reduce infant mortality. The performances of the Amplicor DNA PCR, COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM), and Aptima assays for detecting early HIV infection (acquired in utero and intrapartum) up to 6 weeks of age were compared. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected at birth and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks from HIV-exposed infants enrolled in an observational cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. HIV status was determined at 6 weeks by DNA PCR on whole blood. Serial DBS samples from all HIV-infected infants and two HIV-uninfected, age-matched controls were tested with the 3 assays. Of 710 infants of known HIV status, 38 (5.4%) had in utero (n = 29) or intrapartum (n = 9) infections. By 14 weeks, when treatment should have been initiated, 13 (45%) in utero-infected and 2 (22%) intrapartum-infected infants had died or were lost to follow-up. The CAP/CTM and Aptima assays identified 76.3% of all infants with early HIV infections at birth and by 4 weeks were 96% sensitive. DNA PCR demonstrated lower sensitivities at birth and 4 weeks of 68.4% and 87.5%, respectively. All assays had the lowest sensitivity at 2 weeks of age. CAP/CTM was the only assay with 100% specificity at all ages. Testing at birth versus 6 weeks of age identifies a higher total number of HIV-infected infants, irrespective of the assay. PMID:22518871

Lilian, Rivka R; Kalk, Emma; Bhowan, Kapila; Berrie, Leigh; Carmona, Sergio; Technau, Karl; Sherman, Gayle G

2012-07-01

244

In utero exposure to TCDD alters Wnt signaling during mouse prostate development: linking ventral prostate agenesis to downregulated ?-catenin signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) causes ventral prostate agenesis in C57BL/6J mice by preventing ventral prostatic budding in the embryonic urogenital sinus (UGS). TCDD (5 ?g/kg, po) administered to pregnant dams on embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5) activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the UGS mesenchyme, disrupting the mesenchymally derived paracrine signaling that instructs epithelial prostatic budding. How TCDD alters the mesenchymal milieu is not well understood. We previously showed that TCDD disrupts some aspects of Wnt signaling in UGSs grown in vitro. Here we provide the first comprehensive, in vivo characterization of Wnt signaling in male E16.5 UGSs during normal development, and after in utero TCDD exposure. Vehicle- and TCDD-exposed UGSs were probed by in situ hybridization to assess relative abundance and localization of RNA from 46 genes that regulate Wnt signaling. TCDD altered the staining pattern of five genes, increasing staining for Wnt10a and Wnt16 and decreasing staining for Ror2, Rspo2, and Wif1. We also used immunohistochemistry to show, for the first time, activation of ?-catenin (CTNNB1) signaling in ventral basal epithelium of control UGSs at E16.5. This onset of CTNNB1 signaling occurred immediately prior to the initiation of ventral prostatic budding and is characterized by a pronounced increase in CTNNB1 nuclear localization and subsequent expression of the CTNNB1 signaling target gene, Lef1. In utero TCDD exposure prevented the onset of CTNNB1 signaling and LEF1 expression in the ventral basal epithelium, thereby elucidating a likely mechanism by which TCDD contributes to failed prostatic budding in the ventral UGS. PMID:24928892

Schneider, Andrew J; Moore, Robert W; Branam, Amanda M; Abler, Lisa L; Keil, Kimberly P; Mehta, Vatsal; Vezina, Chad M; Peterson, Richard E

2014-09-01

245

Radioresponse of postnatal erythrocytes and its modification by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice exposed to gamma radiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma radiation (150 R) was given in utero at different gestation days, namely 14 1/4, 16 1/4 and 18 1/4, to Swiss albino mice, pretreated with either MPG or double distilled water. Erythrocytes from peripheral blood were counted in young ones at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after birth. The result indicated that erythrocyte count in the MPG treated group was significantly higher than in the nonprotected ones at 1 and 2 weeks of postnatal development, after which the values of both control and experimental groups were comparable to that of the normal (orig.)

246

Utilization of electronic resources in the NDA/BLA regulatory review of bioanalytical data: perspectives from US FDA reviewers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electronic common technical document (eCTD) format is frequently used in submitting bioanalytical information as part of a new drug application (NDA) or biologics license application (BLA). While the use of the eCTD format has many advantages, the potential for further improvement exists. This review highlights issues that are commonly encountered in reviewing bioanalytical information during the review process. In addition, the authors suggest potential strategies that illustrate how the ability to locate bioanalytical data or information can be enhanced and the summary information can be more consistently organized for a NDA or a BLA that is submitted in an eCTD format. PMID:21728769

Au, Stanley; Yu, Chongwoo; Booth, Brian

2011-07-01

247

El concepto de metadato: algo más que descripción de recursos electrónicos / The metadata concept: something more than description of electronic resources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resulta evidente la necesidad de establecer mecanismos que permitan una descripción más exhaustiva de los recursos electrónicos. En este trabajo se propone como solución el uso de metadatos. Por ese motivo se estudia el concepto de metadato con el fin de determinar tanto su campo de acción como los [...] diferentes presupuestos subyacentes en este. Abstract in english It is evident the necessity to establish mechanisms that allow a more exhaustive description of the electronic resources. In this work we propose as solution the use of metadata. For that reason the concept of metadata is studied for the purpose of determining their action field and the underlying d [...] ifferent meanings in this.

José A., Senso; Antonio de la, Rosa Piñero.

248

Teacher Resources  

...ResourcesPrimary ResourcesPost Primary ResourcesTeacher ResourcesFactsheetsNanotechnologyLooking for HelpTeacher...Teacher ResourcesFactsheetsNanotechnologyLooking for HelpTeacher ResourcesLast updated: 15 May 2014TeachersWoodland...

249

A Guinea pig model for the identification of in utero alcohol exposure using fatty acid ethyl esters in neonatal hair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Measuring levels of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) in hair has been a useful way to discriminate between adult heavy and nondrinkers. Extending the use of FAEE into neonatal hair to objectively identify children exposed to alcohol in utero may revolutionize current methods used to diagnose fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Here we confirm for the first time that chronic exposure to alcohol during pregnancy in guinea pigs leads to increased levels of FAEE in both maternal and neonatal hair. The mean cumulative FAEE concentration in exposed maternal samples taken at GD57 was 0.431+/-0.140 pmol/mg (mean+/-SEM); levels observed in corresponding sucrose and water controls were 10-fold lower. Similarly, FAEE concentrations in exposed offspring samples taken at postnatal d 1 (mean cumulative FAEE=0.491+/-0.177 pmol/mg) were more than 15-fold higher than control counterparts. Sixty percent of all alcohol-exposed animal samples contained two or more quantifiable FAEE, whereas close to 90% of either water or sucrose control samples did not have more than one quantifiable level of a single FAEE. Results of this study suggest that FAEE in neonatal hair may be useful biomarkers in identifying in utero alcohol exposure and may facilitate the early diagnosis and treatment of FASD. PMID:16306186

Caprara, Daniela L; Brien, James F; Iqbal, Umar; Reynolds, James N; Klein, Julia; Koren, Gideon

2005-12-01

250

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

251

Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to triphenyltin chloride on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

The organotin compound (OTC) triphenyltin (TPT) is used extensively as a herbicide, pesticide and fungicide in agriculture as well as, together with tributyltin (TBT), in marine antifouling paints. We studied the effects of in utero exposure to 2 or 6 mg triphenyltinchloride (TPTCl)/kgb.w. on pregnancy outcome and postnatal development in rat offspring. Gravid Wistar rats were treated per gavage from gestational day 6 until the end of lactation. In the 6 mg TPTCl dose group gestational mortality in dams as well as an increased incidence of anticipated and delayed parturition was observed. Furthermore, treatment resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality, a decrease in lactational body weight gain as well as in delayed physical maturation of offspring. Similarily, exposure to 2mg TPTCl/kgb.w. resulted in a significant increase in perinatal mortality and in delayed eye opening. Lactational body weight gain and other landmarks of physical maturation were unaffected in the low dose group. We conclude, that in utero exposure to TPTCl at the described dose levels severely affected pregnancy outcome and perinatal survival of offspring. These results were unexpected, as in two earlier studies with pubertal rats TPTCl at the same dose levels no signs of general toxicity were observed. PMID:17644232

Grote, Konstanze; Hobler, Carolin; Andrade, Anderson J M; Grande, Simone Wichert; Gericke, Christine; Talsness, Chris E; Appel, Klaus E; Chahoud, Ibrahim

2007-09-01

252

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and ?26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

253

Statistical model of laminar structure for atlas-based segmentation of the fetal brain from in utero MR images  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in MR and image analysis allow for reconstruction of high-resolution 3D images from clinical in utero scans of the human fetal brain. Automated segmentation of tissue types from MR images (MRI) is a key step in the quantitative analysis of brain development. Conventional atlas-based methods for adult brain segmentation are limited in their ability to accurately delineate complex structures of developing tissues from fetal MRI. In this paper, we formulate a novel geometric representation of the fetal brain aimed at capturing the laminar structure of developing anatomy. The proposed model uses a depth-based encoding of tissue occurrence within the fetal brain and provides an additional anatomical constraint in a form of a laminar prior that can be incorporated into conventional atlas-based EM segmentation. Validation experiments are performed using clinical in utero scans of 5 fetal subjects at gestational ages ranging from 20.5 to 22.5 weeks. Experimental results are evaluated against reference manual segmentations and quantified in terms of Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). The study demonstrates that the use of laminar depth-encoded tissue priors improves both the overall accuracy and precision of fetal brain segmentation. Particular refinement is observed in regions of the parietal and occipital lobes where the DSC index is improved from 0.81 to 0.82 for cortical grey matter, from 0.71 to 0.73 for the germinal matrix, and from 0.81 to 0.87 for white matter.

Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Chandramohan, Dharshan; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Studholme, Colin

2009-02-01

254

There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.

Annie M. Hughes

2013-03-01

255

Library resources on the Internet  

Science.gov (United States)

Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

Buchanan, Nancy L.

1995-07-01

256

The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

Tsang, Verne [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Fry, Rebecca C. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Niculescu, Mihai D. [UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Rager, Julia E. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Saunders, Jesse; Paul, David S. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Zeisel, Steven H. [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); UNC Nutrition Research Institute, Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Waalkes, Michael P. [NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Stýblo, Miroslav [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Drobná, Zuzana, E-mail: drobnazu@med.unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

2012-11-01

257

The epigenetic effects of a high prenatal folate intake in male mouse fetuses exposed in utero to arsenic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a complete transplacental carcinogen in mice. Previous studies have demonstrated that in utero exposure to iAs promotes cancer in adult mouse offspring, possibly acting through epigenetic mechanisms. Humans and rodents enzymatically convert iAs to its methylated metabolites. This reaction requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) as methyl group donor. SAM is also required for DNA methylation. Supplementation with folate, a major dietary source of methyl groups for SAM synthesis, has been shown to modify iAs metabolism and the adverse effects of iAs exposure. However, effects of gestational folate supplementation on iAs metabolism and fetal DNA methylation have never been thoroughly examined. In the present study, pregnant CD1 mice were fed control (i.e. normal folate, or 2.2 mg/kg) or high folate diet (11 mg/kg) from gestational day (GD) 5 to 18 and drank water with 0 or 85 ppm of As (as arsenite) from GD8 to 18. The exposure to iAs significantly decreased body weight of GD18 fetuses and increased both SAM and S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) concentrations in fetal livers. High folate intake lowered the burden of total arsenic in maternal livers but did not prevent the effects of iAs exposure on fetal weight or hepatic SAM and SAH concentrations. In fact, combined folate-iAs exposure caused further significant body weight reduction. Notably, iAs exposure alone had little effect on DNA methylation in fetal livers. In contrast, the combined folate-iAs exposure changed the CpG island methylation in 2,931 genes, including genes known to be imprinted. Most of these genes were associated with neurodevelopment, cancer, cell cycle, and signaling networks. The canonical Wnt-signaling pathway, which regulates fetal development, was among the most affected biological pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that a combined in utero exposure to iAs and a high folate intake may adversely influence DNA methylation profiles and weight of fetuses, compromising fetal development and possibly increasing the risk for early-onset of disease in offspring. Highlights: ? We used transplacental CD1 mice model for inorganic arsenic (iAs) carcinogenesis. ? We examined the effects of gestational iAs and high folate exposure on DNA methylation. ? iAs–folate interaction resulted in low fetal weights and changes in DNA methylation. ? Epigenetically altered genes were associated with cancer and neurodevelopment. ? We showed that in utero iAs–folate interaction negatively affects fetal development.

258

Utero-placental expression of angiotensin-(1–7 and ACE2 in the pregnant guinea-pig  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental development are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs (GP and humans share common pregnancy features including extensive trophoblast invasion, transformation of the uterine spiral arteries and a haemomonochorial placenta, the GP animal model was deemed suitable to extend our knowledge on the spatio-temporal immunoreactive expression of the vasodilator arpeptide of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1–7 [Ang-(1–7] and its main generating enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2. Methods Utero-placental units were collected in days 15, 20, 40 and 60 of a 64–67 day long pregnancy in 25 Pirbright GP. Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 expression in utero-placental units were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 were detected in the endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinthine placenta, interlobium, subplacenta, giant cells, syncytial sprouts, syncytial streamers, and myometrium throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts in spiral and mesometrial arteries expressed both factors. Immunoreactive Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 were present in decidua and in the vascular smooth muscle of spiral, myometrial and mesometrial arteries, which also express kallikrein (Kal, the bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its type 2 receptor (KDR, but no endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. In addition, the signal of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 was especially remarkable in giant cells, which also show Kal, B2R. eNOS, VEGF and KDR. Conclusions The spatio-temporal expression of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 in GP, similar to that of humans, supports a relevant evolutionary conserved function of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 in decidualization, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental flow regulation, as well as the validity of the GP model to understand the local adaptations of pregnancy. It also integrates Ang-(1–7 to the utero-placental vasodilatory network. However, its antiangiogenic effect may counterbalance the proangiogenic activity of some of the other vasodilator components.

Valdés Gloria

2013-01-01

259

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactese results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

260

Consumer Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta has compiled this useful collection of links and online brochures about a variety of consumer-oriented information. The resources are mainly from government sources including other federal reserve banks, the Federal Trade Commission, the Consumer Information Center, and Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards. The brochures, which are organized by subject, cover a wide range of topics including debt issues, auto leasing, small business credit, and electronic money and direct deposits. All of the information is written for consumers in easy-to-understand language.

 
 
 
 
261

Trends in infant leukaemia in West Germany in relation to in utero exposure due to the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A temporary increase in the incidence of infant leukaemia in Greece was reported by Petridou et al., which was attributed to in utero exposure to ionising radiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. We performed a similar analysis based on the data of the German Childhood Cancer Registry in order to check whether the observation could be confirmed by means of independent data. Applying the same definitions as Petridou et al., we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses, regarding areas with different contamination levels and dose rate gradients over time after the accident, showed, however, no clear trend with regard to exposure. It would therefore appear less likely that the observed effect was caused by exposure to ionising radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. (orig.)

262

Trends in infant leukaemia in West Germany in relation to in utero exposure due to the Chernobyl accident  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A temporary increase in the incidence of infant leukaemia in Greece was reported by Petridou et al., which was attributed to in utero exposure to ionising radiation resulting from the Chernobyl accident. We performed a similar analysis based on the data of the German Childhood Cancer Registry in order to check whether the observation could be confirmed by means of independent data. Applying the same definitions as Petridou et al., we also observed an increased incidence of infant leukaemia in a cohort of children born after the Chernobyl accident. More detailed analyses, regarding areas with different contamination levels and dose rate gradients over time after the accident, showed, however, no clear trend with regard to exposure. It would therefore appear less likely that the observed effect was caused by exposure to ionising radiation due to the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) With 6 figs., 4 tabs., 20 refs.

Steiner, M.; Burkart, W.; Grosche, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene; Kaletsch, U.; Michaelis, J. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik und Dokumentation

1998-07-01

263

The Minute Virus of Mice NS2 proteins are not essential for productive infection of embryonic murine cells in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The P4 promoter of the autonomous parvovirus Minute Virus of Mice (MVM) drives the production of its non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2. The NS2 isoforms are without enzymatic activity but interact with cellular proteins. While NS2 is crucial to the viral life cycle in cultured murine cells, NS2-null mutant virus productively infects transformed host cells of other species. In the mouse, sensitivity to MVM infection is age dependent, exhibiting limited subclinical infections in adults, but sustained and potentially lethal infection in embryos. We therefore questioned whether the species-dependent requirement for NS2 function in vitro would be retained in utero. We report here that it is not. NS2-null mutant MVMp is capable of mounting a productive, albeit much reduced, infection of normal embryonic mouse cells in vivo. Based on the data, we hypothesize that NS2 may bear an as-yet undescribed immunosuppressive function. PMID:25310499

Tal, Saar; Mincberg, Michal; Rostovsky, Irina; Rommelaere, Jean; Salome, Nathali; Davis, Claytus

2014-11-01

264

Circadian cycle-dependent EEG biomarkers of pathogenicity in adult mice following prenatal exposure to in utero inflammation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intrauterine infection or inflammation in preterm neonates is a known risk for adverse neurological outcomes, including cognitive, motor and behavioral disabilities. Our previous data suggest that there is acute fetal brain inflammation in a mouse model of intrauterine exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). We hypothesized that the in utero inflammation induced by LPS produces long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) biomarkers of neurodegeneration in the exposed mice that could be determined by using continuous quantitative video/EEG/electromyogram (EMG) analyses. A single LPS injection at E17 was performed in pregnant CD1 dams. Control dams were injected with same volumes of saline (LPS n=10, Control n=8). At postnatal age of P90-100, 24-h synchronous video/EEG/EMG recordings were done using a tethered recording system and implanted subdural electrodes. Behavioral state scoring was performed blind to treatment group, on each 10s EEG epoch using synchronous video, EMG and EEG trace signatures to generate individual hypnograms. Automated EEG power spectrums were analyzed for delta and theta-beta power ratios during wake vs. sleep cycles. Both control and LPS hypnograms showed an ultradian wake/sleep cycling. Since rodents are nocturnal animals, control mice showed the expected diurnal variation with significantly longer time spent in wake states during the dark cycle phase. In contrast, the LPS-treated mice lost this circadian rhythm. Sleep microstructure also showed significant alteration in the LPS mice specifically during the dark cycle, caused by significantly longer average non-rapid eye movement (NREM) cycle durations. No significance was found between treatment groups for the delta power data; however, significant activity-dependent changes in theta-beta power ratios seen in controls were absent in the LPS-exposed mice. In conclusion, exposure to in utero inflammation in CD1 mice resulted in significantly altered sleep architecture as adults that were circadian cycle and activity state dependent. PMID:24954445

Adler, D A; Ammanuel, S; Lei, J; Dada, T; Borbiev, T; Johnston, M V; Kadam, S D; Burd, I

2014-09-01

265

Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections. PMID:24337316

Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

2014-02-01

266

Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak o [...] r malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

Eltayb M., Abuelzein; Mofeed A., Al-Khaliyfa; Ahmed A., Gameel.

267

In utero and lactational exposure to an environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture disrupts reproductive development and function in male rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

We hypothesized that in utero and lactational exposure of male rats to a mixture of more than 15 organochlorines, resembling that found in blubber from northern Quebec seals, alters reproductive development and function. Female rats were gavaged with either corn oil (controls) or the organochlorine mixture in increasing doses (low, medium, and high) for 5 wk before mating and through gestation. Developmental effects were monitored in the male offspring from Postnatal Day (PND) 2 until PND 90. The high-dose mixture reduced the number of pups per litter, percentage of live offspring, and pup weights (P < 0.05). Because only three rats from the high-dose treatment survived, data from this group beyond PND 2 were not included in the statistical analyses. As assessed by the time of preputial separation, puberty was delayed in the pups from treated dams (P < 0.05). Testes weights in the medium-dose group were greater than those in controls on PND 21 (P < 0.05). Ventral prostate weights were lower for the medium-dose group on PND 60 (P < 0.05). On PND 90, weights of the epididymis, ventral prostate, and seminal vesicle of the medium-dose rats were reduced compared to those of controls (P < 0.05). On PND 90, sperm motility parameters assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis were altered in the low- and medium-dose groups (P < 0.05). Testicular and epididymal morphology was severely affected in rats exposed to the high dose of the mixture. Serum testosterone, LH, FSH, prolactin, and total thyroxine levels did not differ because of organochlorine treatment. Therefore, in utero and lactational exposure to an environmentally relevant organochlorine mixture adversely affects the reproductive system of male rats, perhaps via antiandrogenic effects during testis development, suggesting a possible reproductive health hazard for humans and other species. PMID:15878891

Anas, Mohamed-Kheir Idris; Guillemette, Christine; Ayotte, Pierre; Pereg, Daria; Giguère, Francine; Bailey, Janice L

2005-09-01

268

Paul Scherrer Institut [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Paul Scherrer Institute, which conducts basic research in the fields of health, new materials, general and nuclear energy, particles and matter, muons, etc. The website provides information about the institute and its research projects, news, training and service facilities, gives contact information.

269

Journal impact factor [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantitative tool for ranking, evaluating, categorizing and comparing journals, journal impact factors measure the frequency with which the "average article" in a journal has been cited in a particular year or period. Includes links to Essential Science Indicators and Journal and Academic Rankings.

270

European Broadcasting Union [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), an organization for public service broadcasters headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Contact information via mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail. Information on membership, conferences and workshops, Eurovision programs and services, and publications, including a publication catalog. Provides EBU statistics and information on legal and technical activities. Links to broadcasting related sites.

271

Encyclopedia of geology [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This unrivalled, five-volume reference work covers all aspects of geology including earth history, earth materials, surface processes, regional geology, economic geology, engineering geology, petroleum geology, geochemical and mineral exploration, and the history of geology.

272

Uranium market outlook [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

CRU's Uranium Market Outlook is a deep-dive into uranium market fundamentals. The report explores and analyses the outlook for demand, supply and U3O8 prices. Forecasting models are based on robust methodologies which are tested across a variety of markets in the mining and metals industry.

273

Aluminum alloy database [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Knovel Aluminum Database is a comprehensive summary of the chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of both wrought and cast aluminum alloys including a wide variety of types of cast aluminum alloys. The values are "typical," as used in aluminum industry publications, to represent the average or mean and not any statistically calculated values intended for design. Among the properties included are: Nominal Chemical Compositions and Composition Limits, Density and Specific Gravity, Average Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Melting Range, Thermal and Electrical Conductivity, Electrical Resistivity, Specific Heat, Poisson's Ratio, Coefficient of Friction, Ultimate Tensile Strength, Tensile Yield Strength, Elongation, Brinell Hardness Number, Ultimate Shear Strength, and Modulus of Elasticity. Some fatigue and toughness property indices are also included.

274

Modern food microbiology [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Explores the fundamental elements affecting the presence, activity, and control of microorganisms in food. Incorporates the key subjects required to meet the minimum standards for degrees in food science with a wealth of practical information about the most essential factors and principles that affect microorganisms in food.

275

NDT data fusion [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides detailed case studies and practical guidelines for readers wishing to explore NDT data fusion. The first book devoted exclusively to multisensor integration and data fusion applied to NDT, it offers the most compressive introduction to NDT available.

276

Hazardous chemicals handbook [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Provides the core information about the properties of chemicals, exposure limits, flashpoints, monitoring techniques, personal protection, and other parameters and requirements for protecting people and the environment. Summarizes core information for quick reference in the workplace or in transit. Provides ready-reference to help in the often complex task of handling, using, and disposing of chemicals safely.

277

Business source elite [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Business Source Elite provides full-text coverage of scholarly business, management and economics journals. This rich collection also includes publications covering topics such as accounting, banking, finance, international business, marketing, sales, etc.

278

Project Management Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Project Management Institute, the world's foremost advocate for the project management profession. PMI sets industry standards, conducts research and provides education, certification and professional exchange opportunities designed to strengthen and further establish the profession. Its website provides information about the institute, its chapters and colleges; news, publications, seminars; also gives contact information.

279

European Environment Agency [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the European Environment Agency (EEA), launched by the European Union and based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Offers access to news articles, reports, brochures, and papers. Includes information about environmental events worldwide and provides access to environmental databases. Contains a site search engine and offers access to the European Environment Information and Observation NETwork (EIONET). Describes current projects and activities, including environmental risk assessment and management systems. Lists staff members and contains the mission and goal statements of the EEA. Links to governmental and nongovernmental organizations and other environmental Web sites, as well as an online feedback form.

280

VTT Prosessit : Ydinenergia [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the nuclear energy branch of Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus, a contractor of Finnish research assignments which co-ordinates national research programmes on reactor safety, nuclear waste management, fusion technology and contributes to energy systems research. Its website provides a gateway to all VTT nuclear services, research programmes, and publications in full-text.

 
 
 
 
281

Resource conservation through airborne electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Avionics can play a significant role in making aircraft more fuel-efficient through active controls and the accompanying structural and aerodynamic configuration changes. In addition, avionics can make aircraft operations more efficient through advanced guidance systems. This paper discusses some of these techniques, reviews their potential benefits, and examines certain related NASA programs.

Taylor, L. W., Jr.

1977-01-01

282

NASA tech briefs [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly magazine features exclusive reports of innovations developed by NASA and its industry partners/contractors that can be applied to develop new/improved products and solve engineering or manufacturing problems. Authored by the engineers or

283

World Wide Words [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

International English from a British viewpoint. Sections include topical words, turns of phrase, weird words: what they mean, where they came from, how they have evolved, the ways in which people sometimes misuse them; also issues of grammar, style and punctuation.

284

Integrum World Wide [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the Integrum World Wide database service, which includes central and regional newspapers, magazines, and bulletins in Russia. Includes a FAQ section and information on registration. Links to Russian and German versions of site information.

285

International Nuclear Network [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the International Nuclear Network, a full service independent agency providing analysis, intelligence and communications services for the world's nuclear energy professionals. Publishes Nuclear Waste Review and Country Reports.

286

Electronic Resources: which are worth preserving & what is their role in library collections? [English version presented at the International Conference] = Le risorse elettroniche: quali vale la pena di conservare e qual è il loro ruolo nelle raccolte della biblioteca? [Versione italiana presentata alla Conferenza internazionale  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Libraries across the world are spending increasing amounts of money on the acquisition of, and giving access to, electronic resources of all kinds. In addition, those libraries are devoting increasing amounts of human resources to advise and teach library users how to use electronic resources. The major issue facing libraries today is that of the preservation and onward transmission of the human record. This task has been accepted, usually tacitly, by many generations of librarians and archiv...

Gorman, Michael

2001-01-01

287

Mediagraphy: Print and Nonprint Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lists educational media-related journals, books, ERIC documents, journal articles, and nonprint resources classified by Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, Electronic Performance Support Systems; Computer-Assisted Instruction; Distance Education; Educational Research; Educational Technology; Electronic Publishing; Information Science and…

Educational Media and Technology Yearbook, 1998

1998-01-01

288

Management of Electronic Information.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the management of library collections of electronic information resources within the classical theoretical framework of collection development and management. The first section provides an overview of electronic information resources, including bibliographic databases, electronic journals, journal aggregation services, and…

Breaks, Michael

289

Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

2004-09-15

290

Haploidentical In Utero Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Can Induce Tolerance for Postnatal Same Donor Transplants in the Canine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) has been shown in the murine model to achieve low levels of allogeneic chimerism and associated donor specific tolerance permissive for minimal conditioning postnatal hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). In this pilot study, we investigate IUHCT in the canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) model. Haploidentical IUHCT resulted in stable low level donor cell chimerism in all dogs that could be analyzed by sensitive detection metho...

Peranteau, William H.; Heaton, Todd E.; Gu, Yu-chen; Volk, Susan W.; Bauer, Thomas R.; Alcorn, Keith; Tuschong, Laura M.; Johnson, Mark P.; Hickstein, Dennis D.; Flake, Alan W.

2009-01-01

291

Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as 'little adults'; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahrb-1/d ('responsive') genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahrd/d ('non-responsive') siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiin utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing

292

Improved acceptance of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids after weaning is triggered by in utero exposure but not consumption of milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the current study was to determine whether the improved post-weaning intake of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids is related to either the in utero period of the goat kids or the subsequent suckling period. It was hypothesized that kids born to dams fed C. odorata during pregnancy and receiving milk from dams not exposed to C. odorata during pregnancy show an improved acceptance to consume this plant. Twenty female goats were successfully synchronized and divided into ...

Vu Hai, P.; Schonewille, J. T.; Tien, D. V.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W. H.

2013-01-01

293

Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY) ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH). In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid d...

Montoya Rebecca; La Grange Linda; Moreland Nicol

2002-01-01

294

Visualization and genetic manipulation of dendrites and spines in the mouse cerebral cortex and hippocampus using in utero electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation (IUE) has become a powerful technique to study the development of different regions of the embryonic nervous system (1-5). To date this tool has been widely used to study the regulation of cellular proliferation, differentiation and neuronal migration especially in the developing cerebral cortex (6-8). Here we detail our protocol to electroporate in utero the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus and provide evidence that this approach can be used to study dendrites and spines in these two cerebral regions. Visualization and manipulation of neurons in primary cultures have contributed to a better understanding of the processes involved in dendrite, spine and synapse development. However neurons growing in vitro are not exposed to all the physiological cues that can affect dendrite and/or spine formation and maintenance during normal development. Our knowledge of dendrite and spine structures in vivo in wild-type or mutant mice comes mostly from observations using the Golgi-Cox method( 9). However, Golgi staining is considered to be unpredictable. Indeed, groups of nerve cells and fiber tracts are labeled randomly, with particular areas often appearing completely stained while adjacent areas are devoid of staining. Recent studies have shown that IUE of fluorescent constructs represents an attractive alternative method to study dendrites, spines as well as synapses in mutant / wild-type mice (10-11) (Figure 1A). Moreover in comparison to the generation of mouse knockouts, IUE represents a rapid approach to perform gain and loss of function studies in specific population of cells during a specific time window. In addition, IUE has been successfully used with inducible gene expression or inducible RNAi approaches to refine the temporal control over the expression of a gene or shRNA (12). These advantages of IUE have thus opened new dimensions to study the effect of gene expression/suppression on dendrites and spines not only in specific cerebral structures (Figure 1B) but also at a specific time point of development (Figure 1C). Finally, IUE provides a useful tool to identify functional interactions between genes involved in dendrite, spine and/or synapse development. Indeed, in contrast to other gene transfer methods such as virus, it is straightforward to combine multiple RNAi or transgenes in the same population of cells. In summary, IUE is a powerful method that has already contributed to the characterization of molecular mechanisms underlying brain function and disease and it should also be useful in the study of dendrites and spines. PMID:22872172

Pacary, Emilie; Haas, Matilda A; Wildner, Hendrik; Azzarelli, Roberta; Bell, Donald M; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Guillemot, François

2012-01-01

295

Effects of in utero through lactational exposure to dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p'-DDE in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-androgenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and the mechanisms between phthalate esters and p,p'-DDE are considered to be different. We performed an in utero through lactational exposure assay using dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p'-DDE to investigate the sexual differentiation of these chemicals. Pregnant CD (SD) IGS rats were given dicyclohexyl phthalate or p,p'-DDE orally from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20, and the endocrine-mediated effects in dams and their offspring were examined. The reproductive performance of offspring was also examined. The doses of dicyclohexyl phthalate were 0, 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day, and those of p,p'-DDE were 5, 15, and 50mg/kg/day. Using the dicyclohexyl phthalate, a dam in the 500 mg/kg group showed dystocia and died. The viability index of offspring on PND 4 decreased in the 500 mg/kg group. Prolonged preputial separation, reduced ano-genital distance, increased areolas/nipple retention, hypospadia, decreased ventral prostate and levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle weights and decreased testicular germ cells were observed in male offspring in the 500 mg/kg group. In the assay using p,p'-DDE, decreased viability index of offspring on PND 21, prolonged preputial separation in male offspring and early vaginal opening in female offspring were observed in the 50mg/kg group. The copulation and fertility indices decreased in the reproductive performance of offspring in the 50mg/kg group. The endocrine-mediated effects were detected in offspring of dams given 100mg/kg dicyclohexyl phthalate, and in offspring of dams given 20mg/kg p,p'-DDE. Our results suggest that the in utero through lactational exposure assay is a useful method to detect endocrine-mediated effects and that further comparative study between this assay and two-generation reproductive test are necessary when this assay becomes one of the definitive tests. PMID:19410640

Yamasaki, Kanji; Okuda, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Minobe, Yasushi

2009-08-25

296

The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53 and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child.

Mednick Sarnoff

2011-04-01

297

Evaluation of utero-placental and fetal hemodynamic parameters throughout gestation in pregnant mice using high-frequency ultrasound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Throughout gestation, changes in maternal and fetal Doppler parameters in pregnant mice, similar to those obtained in human fetuses, were detected using high-frequency ultrasound with a 55-MHz linear probe. In the uterine arteries (UtA), fetal umbilical artery (UA) and fetal ductus venosus (DV) peak systolic velocity increased (UtA, p = 0.04; UA, p = 0.0004; DV, p = 0.02), end-diastolic velocity increased (UtA, p < 0.001; UA, p < 0.0001; DV, p = 0.01) and resistance index decreased (UtA, p = 0.0004; UA, p = 0.0001; DV, p = 0.04) toward the end of pregnancy. In the middle cerebral and carotid arteries, end diastolic velocity increased (p = 0.02 and p < 0.0001) and resistance index decreased (both vessels, p < 0.0001). There was a reduction in the pulsatile pattern in the umbilical vein (p < 0.05). The increased velocities and reduced resistance index suggest a progressive increment in blood flow to the fetal mouse toward the end of pregnancy. Fetal and utero-placental vascular parameters in CD-1 mice can be reliably evaluated using high-frequency ultrasound. PMID:24342911

Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Ahn, Hyunyoung; Szalai, Gabor; Korzeniewski, Steven J; Wang, Bing; King, Mary; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto

2014-02-01

298

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

299

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

Tanja S. Zabka

2008-06-01

300

In utero domoic acid toxicity: a fetal basis to adult disease in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).  

Science.gov (United States)

California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion. PMID:18728728

Ramsdell, John S; Zabka, Tanja S

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Managing Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This resource describes the skills necessary for managing resources, including planning, project management, budget management, information management, change management, and organizational performance assessment.

ITU Leadership Development (George Mason University)

2012-01-20

302

48 CFR 1252.239-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...information technology resources. As prescribed in...Information Technology Resources (APR 2005) ...information technology resources or services in which...Contractor has physical or electronic access to...

2010-10-01

303

Operable stages IB and 2 cervical carcinomas: a retrospective study comparing between preoperative utero vaginal brachytherapy and postoperative radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. -To identify prognostic factors and treatment toxicity in a series of operable stages IB and II cervical carcinomas. Patients and methods. - Between May 1972 and January 1994, 414 patients (pts) with cervical carcinoma staged according to the 1995 FIGO staging system underwent radical hysterectomy with (n=380) or without (n=34) bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Lateral ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function was performed on 12 pts. The methods of radiation therapy (RT) were not randomized and depended on the usual practices of the surgical teams. Group I:168 pts received postoperative RT (64 pts received vaginal brachytherapy alone (mean total dose (MD): 50 Gy], 93 pts had external beam pelvis RT (EBPRT) [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] followed by vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 20 Gy], and 11 pts had EBPRT alone [MD: 50 Gy over 6 weeks]. Group II: 246 pts received preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 65 Gy], and 32 of theses 246 pts also received postoperative EBPRT [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] delivered to the parametric and the pelvic lymph nodes with a midline pelvic shield. The mean follow-up was 106 months. Results. - The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 80%. From 75 recurrences, 35 were isolated locoregional. Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors decreasing the probability of DFS were: both exo and endo-cervical tumour site (p=0.047), lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.041), age ? 51 yr (p=0.013), 1995 FIGO staging system (stage IB1 vs stage IIA, p=0.004, stage IB1 vs stage IB2, p=0.0009, and stage IB1 vs stage IIB with 1/3 proximal parametrical infiltration, p=0.00002), and histological pelvic involved lymph nodes (p=0.00009). Methods of adjuvant RT did not influence the probability of DFS (group I vs group II, p=0.10). The postoperative complication rate was 10.2% in group I and 8.9% in group II (p=0.7) but the postoperative urethral complication rate necessitating surgical intervention with re-implantation was lower in group I than in group II (0.6% vs 2.3%, respectively, p=0.03). The 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications according to the LENT-SOMA scoring system was 10.4%. EPRT significantly increased the 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications (yes vs no: 22% vs 7%, respectively, p=0.0002). Conclusion. - In our series, the methods of adjuvant RT (primary surgery vs preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy) do not seem to influence the prognosis of the stage IB, IIA, and IIB - (with 1/3 proximal parametrical involvement only) cervical carcinomas. The postoperative EPRT applied according to histopathological risk factors after surgical treatment increases the risk of late radiation complications. (author)

304

Integração e interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos em C&T: a proposta da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira / Integration and interoperability in accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descreve as opções tecnológicas e metodológicas para atingir a interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos, disponíveis na Internet, no âmbito do projeto da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira em Ciência e Tecnologia, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e [...] Tecnologia (IBICT). Destaca o impacto da Internet sobre as formas de publicação e comunicação em C&T e sobre os sistemas de informação e bibliotecas. São explicitados os objetivos do projeto da BDB de fomentar mecanismos de publicação pela comunidade brasileira de C&T, de textos completos diretamente na Internet, sob a forma teses, artigos de periódicos, trabalhos em congressos, literatura "cinzenta", ampliando sua visibilidade e acessibilidade nacional e internacional, e também de possibilitar a interoperabilidade entre estes recursos informacionais brasileiros em C&T, heterogêneos e distribuídos, através de acesso unificado via um portal, sem a necessidade de o usuário navegar e consultar cada recurso individualmente. Abstract in english This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Techn [...] ical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web on publishing and communication in science and technology and also on information systems and libraries. The work stresses the two main objectives of BDL project: promoting electronic publishing of different full text materials - theses, journal articles, papers in events, "grey" literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a gateway, interoperability among those heterogeneous electronic information resources available in the Web, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query those resources one by one separately.

Carlos Henrique, Marcondes; Luís Fernando, Sayão.

2001-12-01

305

Integração e interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos em C&T: a proposta da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira / Integration and interoperability in accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descreve as opções tecnológicas e metodológicas para atingir a interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos, disponíveis na Internet, no âmbito do projeto da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira em Ciência e Tecnologia, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e [...] Tecnologia (IBICT). Destaca o impacto da Internet sobre as formas de publicação e comunicação em C&T e sobre os sistemas de informação e bibliotecas. São explicitados os objetivos do projeto da BDB de fomentar mecanismos de publicação pela comunidade brasileira de C&T, de textos completos diretamente na Internet, sob a forma teses, artigos de periódicos, trabalhos em congressos, literatura "cinzenta", ampliando sua visibilidade e acessibilidade nacional e internacional, e também de possibilitar a interoperabilidade entre estes recursos informacionais brasileiros em C&T, heterogêneos e distribuídos, através de acesso unificado via um portal, sem a necessidade de o usuário navegar e consultar cada recurso individualmente. Abstract in english This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Techn [...] ical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web on publishing and communication in science and technology and also on information systems and libraries. The work stresses the two main objectives of BDL project: promoting electronic publishing of different full text materials - theses, journal articles, papers in events, "grey" literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a gateway, interoperability among those heterogeneous electronic information resources available in the Web, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query those resources one by one separately.

Carlos Henrique, Marcondes; Luís Fernando, Sayão.

306

Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

Scott Marsalis

2008-12-01

307

In Utero Exposure to Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds and Anogenital Distance in Newborns and Infants  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Anogenital distance in animals is used as a measure of fetal androgen action. Prenatal exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in rodents causes reproductive changes in male offspring and decreases anogenital distance. Objective: We assessed whether in utero exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds adversely influences anogenital distance in newborns and young children (median age, 16 months; range, 1–31 months). Methods: We measured anogenital distance among participants of the “Rhea” mother–child cohort study in Crete and the Hospital del Mar (HMAR) cohort in Barcelona. Anogenital distance (AGD; anus to upper penis), anoscrotal distance (ASD; anus to scrotum), and penis width (PW) were measured in 119 newborn and 239 young boys; anoclitoral (ACD; anus to clitoris) and anofourchetal distance (AFD; anus to fourchette) were measured in 118 newborn and 223 young girls. We estimated plasma dioxin-like activity in maternal blood samples collected at delivery with the Dioxin-Responsive Chemically Activated LUciferase eXpression (DR CALUX®) bioassay. Results: Anogenital distances were sexually dimorphic, being longer in males than females. Plasma dioxin-like activity was negatively associated with AGD in male newborns. The estimated change in AGD per 10 pg CALUX®–toxic equivalent/g lipid increase was –0.44 mm (95% CI: –0.80, –0.08) after adjusting for confounders. Negative but smaller and nonsignificant associations were observed for AGD in young boys. No associations were found in girls. Conclusions: Male infants may be susceptible to endocrine-disrupting effects of dioxins. Our findings are consistent with the experimental animal evidence used by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization to set recommendations for human dioxin intake. PMID:23171674

Vafeiadi, Marina; Agramunt, Silvia; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Besselink, Harrie; Mathianaki, Kleopatra; Karakosta, Polyxeni; Spanaki, Ariana; Koutis, Antonis; Chatzi, Leda; Vrijheid, Martine

2012-01-01

308

Effect of lindane on CYP-mediated steroid hormone metabolism in male mice following in utero exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

A wide number of pesticides, including highly persistent organochlorinated compounds, such as lindane (LIN), may induce reproductive and developmental alterations by directly binding to the estrogen/androgen receptors or altering steroid hormone metabolism. In the present work, we have investigated whether LIN in utero exposure of CD1 mice affects the reproductive system in male offspring by causing an impairment of the CYP-dependent steroid hormone metabolism. Dam exposure to 25 mg kg(-1) b.w. LIN occurred during critical developmental periods, from gestational days 9 to 16. Effects on hepatic CYP-mediated testosterone (TST) hydroxylase, aromatase activities and testicular parameters were tested at postnatal days (PND 50, 65-69, 100) that are critical for sexual maturation in CD1 mice. In the adult F1 mice significant changes of male reproductive endpoints (testis weight, spermatid number) as well as dramatic effects on CYP-mediated TST metabolism were observed on PND 65-69, in the absence of any of systemic toxicity. The levels of TST 6beta- and 2alpha-hydroxylation and dehydrogenation showed the highest level of reduction, suggesting CYP 3A and 2C families as the major target of LIN induced effects. All changes were almost recovered on PND 100. No effects on aromatase activity were evidenced. Overall, these findings provide useful information for a better characterization of the LIN mode of action. They suggest that LIN-induced toxicity in males is linked to an impairment of steroid hormone homeostasis, due to CYP-mediated TST catabolism modulation and differs from LIN receptor-mediated mechanism previously reported in females. PMID:19557771

Di Consiglio, Emma; De Angelis, Giovanna; Traina, Maria Elsa; Urbani, Elisabetta; Testai, Emanuela

2009-11-01

309

Effects of in utero exposure to di-n-hexyl phthalate on the reproductive development of the male rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, the plasticizer di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP) has been demonstrated to be teratogenic and adversely affect the reproductive tract in male rat fetuses. This study was undertaken to determine the long-term effects of an in utero exposure to DnHP on the reproductive development of the male offspring. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), another phthalate ester known to disrupt the androgen-dependent sexual differentiation in the male rat, was used as a positive control. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were administered DnHP or DEHP, by gavage on gestation Days 12-21, at doses of 0, 50, 125, 250, or 500 mg DnHP/kg-d and 500 mg DEHP/kg-d. DnHP had no significant effect on maternal body weight gain and pup weights during lactation. The proportion of live pups on postnatal day 1 was slightly, but not significantly, lower than control at 250 and 500 mg DnHP/kg-d. Male offspring displayed reduced anogenital distance on postnatal day 1 (PND) at 125 mg DnHP/kg-d and above, and areola/nipple retention before weaning and at adulthood at 250 and 500 mg DnHP/kg-d. At necropsy on PND 70-78 or PND 111-120, severe malformations of the reproductive tract were observed in young adult males at 125 mg DnHP/kg-d and higher doses. They mainly consisted of hypospadias, underdeveloped testis, and undescended testis. Additionally, histopathological examination revealed seminiferous tubule degeneration at the two high doses. Our results showed that prenatal exposure to DnHP caused permanent and dose-related alterations of the male rat reproductive development, with a similar profile as DEHP. PMID:19577633

Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe; Gallissot, Frédéric

2009-12-01

310

Innovative Resources for Education and Public Information: Electronic Services, Data and Information from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope and Other NASA Missions  

Science.gov (United States)

The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which supports the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope, is actively investigating and supporting innovative and experimental methods for improving science and math education content. The educational resources on the World Wide Web are derived from the latest data, scientific results, and advances in the supporting technology of the Hubble Mission. The resources and services offered are created through strategic partnerships between scientists, technical staff, educators, informal science institutions, and other key organizations. The inspirational nature of astronomical data lends itself well to multimedia applications and methods using new Internet technologies that cultivate exploration and discovery. Experiments conducted in bringing scientific content, human expertise and the technology together for the benefit of the public and the educational community are illuminating with regard to the barriers and cultural differences between the various participants. Topics discussed in this paper include: (1) astronomy and space science relevance to Web-based applications; (2) research tools and data migration; (3) STScI application, including strategic partnerships and teaming, presentation, and innovative processes; (4) other issues, including intellectual property, caching of resources, and training needs; and (5) samples of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-funded Web-based programs and resources.

Christian, Carol A.

1996-10-01

311

In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2 and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets and age-matched uninfected controls.The key observation in the present study is that high levels of CD8+ cells constitute a dominant feature in peripheral blood and BALF of piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. In BALF, the average high level of CD8+ cells in 2-week-old infected piglets (33.4±12.6%) was followed by a decline to 7.3±3.0 and 11.1±3.0% at 4 and 6 weeks of age. BALF of control piglets contained 1.6±0.9, 2.3±1.8 and 1.9±0.5% CD8+ cells, only. In peripheral blood, however, the average number of CD8+ cells remained at high levels in the infected piglets throughout the post-natal experimental period (2.8±1.9, 2.9±1.8 and 3.2±1.7×106 CD8+ cells/ml at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively). In the controls, the average levels of CD8+ cells were 0.9±0.2, 1.9±1.7 and 1.6±0.5×106/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the numbers of CD2+, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero infection with PRRSV modulates immune cell populations in peripheral blood and BALF of surviving piglets. The observed changes are characterised by high levels of CD8+ cells supporting an important role of these cells in PRRSV infection. The present results, however, do not support the existence of post-natal immunosuppression following in utero infection with PRRSV.

BØtner, Anette

2003-01-01

312

Routledge French technical dictionary [electronic resource] : French-English, English-French = Dictionnaire technique anglais : Français-Anglais, Anglais-Français.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electronic dictionary of over 75 technical subjects. Includes more than 100,000 terms in English and French, including full treatment of variant translations, subject labels, cross-references, geographic usages, headword and full-text searching, and browse capability.

313

Sex steroid hormone levels and reproductive development of eight-year-old children following in utero and environmental exposure to phthalates.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to phthalates may adversely affect reproductive development in children due to the anti-androgenic properties of the pthalates. Accordingly, we aimed to determine the effects of in utero and environmental phthalate exposure on the reproductive development of eight-year-old children. We recruited 180 children in central Taiwan during November 2001 and followed them until August 2009 when all children became eight years old. Birth outcomes were collected. Bone age, hormone concentrations, and reproductive developmental stages were determined. Phthalate metabolite levels, including mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate [MEHP], mono-n-butyl phthalate [MnBP], and mono-benzyl phthalate [MBzP], were assessed. No significant gender differences were found in in utero phthalate exposure. Maternal urinary levels of phthalate metabolites did not correlate significantly with birth outcomes, physical characteristics, and reproductive hormones of the eight-year-old children. Regarding the urinary phthalate metabolite levels of the eight-year-old children, MEHP correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MEHP levels in girls correlated significantly with serum progesterone levels. MnBP correlated significantly with serum FSH in all children. In girls, MnBP correlated with serum FSH, and MBzP correlated with serum progesterone and FSH levels. Urinary phthalate metabolite levels did not correlate with female developmental stages or the development of female reproductive organs. Phthalate metabolites did not correlate with the physical characteristics and reproductive hormones in boys. Therefore, environmental exposure to phthalates, as determined by urinary phthalate metabolite levels of eight-year-old children, may affect reproductive hormone levels in children, indicating that further studies on the environmental health effects of phthalates are warranted. PMID:25207995

Su, Pen-Hua; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Lin, Ching-Yi; Chen, Hsiao-Yen; Liao, Pao-Chi; Ying, Tsung-Ho; Wang, Shu-Li

2014-01-01

314

Characterization of placental cholesterol transport : ABCA1 is a potential target for in utero therapy of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by approximately 30%. In contrast, disruption of the Abcg1 had no effect. Treatment of pregnant C57Bl/6 female mice with TO901317, an LXR-agonist, increased both Abca1 expression and maternal-fetal cholesterol transfer to the fetus. In an SLOS mouse model (Dhcr7(-/-)), which is incapable of de novo synthesis of cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating maternal-fetal cholesterol transport has potential for in utero therapy of SLOS.

Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A

2008-01-01

315

Digit (2D:4D) ratio is associated with muscle mass (MM) and strength (MS) in older adults: possible effect of in utero androgen exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decline in MM and MS with aging, defined as sarcopenia, is related with physical disability, poor quality of life and death. Its mechanisms are not fully understood. Testosterone increases muscle protein synthesis. However, the effects of in utero androgen exposure to MM and MS in older adults have not been studied. In utero androgen exposure is inversely related with 2D:4D ratio. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between 2D:4D ratio as an indicator of in utero androgen exposure and MM and MS in elderly patients. A total of 151 older adults were included. Calf-circumference (CC) and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) were used for the assessment of MM and hand grip strength for the assessment of MS. Mean age ± SD of the patients was 73.72 ± 6.23. Fifty-two (34.4%) of patients were male, 99 (65.6%) were female. Right and left 2D:4D were significantly and negatively correlated with hand grip strength (r=-0.365, p=0.018 and r=-0.434, p=0.005, respectively), CC (r=-0.422, p=0.002 and r=-0.459, p=0.001, respectively) and SMI (r=-0.354, p=0.018 and r=-0.348, p=0.022, respectively) in men. In women, right and left 2D:4D were significantly and negatively correlated with hand grip strength (r=-0.252, p=0.022 and r=-0.234, p=0.033, respectively), CC (r=-0.229, p=0.024 and r=-0.302, p=0.003, respectively) and SMI (r=-0.382, p<0.001 and r=-0.431, p<0.001, respectively). In this study, we found that 2D:4D ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with parameters depicting MM and MS which may suggest the possible role of in utero androgen exposure in the development of MM and MS loss in the elderly. PMID:23219021

Halil, Meltem; Gurel, Esin Ileri; Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Karaismailoglu, Serkan; Yesil, Yusuf; Ozturk, Zeynel Abidin; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Ariogul, Servet

2013-01-01

316

Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

Royo Pedro

2009-01-01

317

The Electronic Volcano  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Volcano offers links to many types of information on active volcanoes, such as maps, photographs, full texts of dissertations and a few elusive documents. The Electronic Volcano will guide you to resources in libraries or resources on other information servers including catalogs of active volcanoes, datasets for literature citations, electronic and hard-copy journals, visual information, maps, observatories and institutions, and a volcano name and country index.

318

Energy Resources  

Furthermore, resources have various supply curves. .... imported oil shale step 3 \\.... module is a key area of sensitivity analysis with individual studies utilizing \\alternate ..... Bound declines by 10% per period to mimic resource depletion.

319

18 CFR 390.1 - Electronic registration.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic registration. 390...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... PROCEDURAL RULES ELECTRONIC REGISTRATION §...

2010-04-01

320

Free Technology Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Freestudy is dedicated to providing free tutorials and resources for those studying engineering from the degree level to certificate level. The site specializes mainly in Mechanical Engineering and provides materials on thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, mechanics of solids, materials, fluid power, mechatronics, control, electrical, electronics and math.

2013-07-02

 
 
 
 
321

Bilgi Teknolojilerinin Belge Yönetimine Etkisi ve Elektronik Belge Yönetimi / The Effect of Information Technologies on Resources Management and Electronic Record Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technologies have undergone rapid development in the last decade and these developments especially affected the information and records management profession. Developments in information technologies have caused changes in the way of creating, storing, sending and sharing records in organisational structures, and traditional record management has been replaced by a modern understanding of record management. In this respect, the management of electronic records let important problems arise. This study focuses on the effects of information technologies on records management, and thus on electronic record management.

Cengiz Ayd?n

2005-04-01

322

Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

2004-09-15

323

Effects of in utero exposure to finasteride on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Finasteride is a specific inhibitor of type II 5alpha-reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone (T) to the more potent androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In utero exposure to androgen receptor antagonists and T biosynthesis inhibitors have induced permanent effects on androgen-sensitive end points such as anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention, and malformations of the male rat reproductive tract. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the dose response of finasteride-mediated alterations in androgen-dependent developmental end points, (2) determine whether prenatal exposure to finasteride permanently decreases AGD or results in nipple retention, and (3) evaluate whether AGD or nipple retention is predictive of adverse alterations in the male reproductive tract. Pregnant Crl:CD(SD)BR rats (n=5-6/group) were gavaged with either vehicle or finasteride at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day on gestation days 12 to 21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy on postnatal day (PND) 90. The present study design has been used previously for other antiandrogens and is sensitive to perturbations of the male rat reproductive tract. Decreases in AGD on PND 1 and increases in areolae-nipple retention on PND 13 were significantly different from controls in all finasteride-exposed male rats. Finasteride-induced changes in AGD and nipple retention were permanent in male rats exposed to finasteride at and above 0.1 mg/kg/day. On PND 90, dorsolateral and ventral prostate lobes were absent in 21 to 24% of rats exposed to 100 mg/kg/day finasteride and weighed significantly less at and above 10 mg/kg/day. In the highest dose group, 73% of animals had ectopic testes, much higher than previously reported. The most sensitive malformation other than decreased AGD and nipple retention was the dose-dependent increase in hypospadias. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for finasteride-induced permanent effects in this study was 0.1 mg/kg/day based on permanent changes in AGD and nipple retention. Finasteride-induced changes in AGD and retention of nipples were highly predictive of hypospadias, ectopic testes, and prostate malformations even though some animals with retained nipples or decreased AGD may not have had other reproductive tract malformations. In summary, prenatal exposure to finasteride specifically inhibited DHT-mediated development with little to no change in T-mediated development. PMID:12773767

Bowman, Christopher J; Barlow, Norman J; Turner, Katie J; Wallace, Duncan G; Foster, Paul M D

2003-08-01

324

Comunidades científicas e infra-estrutura tecnológica no Brasil para uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação na pesquisa / Scientific communities and technological infrastructure in Brazil for use of electronic resources of communication and information in research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo do uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação por pesquisadores brasileiros, na geração de novos conhecimentos. A análise abrange a freqüência de participação na rede, fatores intervenientes, finalidades de uso e o grau de relevância dessa tecnologia. No acesso e uso da informaçã [...] o científica e técnica, são comparados os recursos eletrônicos/digitais e os impressos/ tradicionais. A partir dos resultados, são identificadas percepções e perspectivas, entre as quais a aproximação entre comunicação científica e divulgação científica, a confluência dos processos de comunicação e informação e o crescente interesse pela temática da pesquisa, inclusive no Brasil. Pela importância dos recursos eletrônicos para pesquisa, há necessidade de sua expansão e atualização constantes, com investimento das instituições e sua inserção nas políticas públicas nacionais. Abstract in english Usage study of communication and information electronic resources by Brazilian researchers in the generation of new knowledge. The analysis encompasses the frequency of participation in the network as well as the intervenient factors, usage aims and the relevance of this technology. Electronic resou [...] rces and traditional printed ones are compared in scientific and technical information usage and access. Results identified perceptions and perspectives, among which the coming together of scientific communication and scientific divulgation, the confluence of communication and information processes and the growing interest for research in the area, including Brazil. Considering the importance of electronic resources for research, there is a need for its constant expansion and updating, which implies investments by Brazilian institutions and its insertion in the national public policies.

Lena Vania Ribeiro, Pinheiro.

325

Effect of methanol extract of Basella alba L. (Basellaceae) on the fecundity and testosterone level in male rats exposed to flutamide in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the effect of the methanol extract of Basella alba (MEBa) on testosterone level and fecundity/fertility in male rats exposed in utero to flutamide - an androgen receptor antagonist. For this purpose, 1.5- and 2.5 -month-old male rats exposed in utero to flutamide were treated with the MEBa (1 mg kg(-1) ) for 2 and 1 month respectively. Five days before the end of treatment, rats were housed with females to assess their fecundity/fertility. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and blood collected for the quantification of testosterone. Flutamide-exposed male rats showed a decrease in their ano-genital distance (AGD, P < 0.05) and were infertile. In normal (methylcellulose-exposed) animals, MEBa provoked an increase in testosterone level in 1.5- (P < 0.008) and 2.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.01) concomitantly with the improvement in their fecundity by 25%. In flutamide-exposed male rats, MEBa increased testosterone level in 1.5 -month-old rats (P < 0.001) without any effect on their fecundity; while in 2.5- month-old rats, MEBa did not affect the testosterone level but improved fecundity (by 25%) and fertility (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated the positive effect of MEBa to enhance fecundity/fertility in normal male rats and in rats exposed to the antiandrogen flutamide during their foetal life. PMID:21592171

Nantia, E A; Manfo, P F T; Beboy, N E; Travert, C; Carreau, S; Monsees, T K; Moundipa, P F

2012-02-01

326

Effect of in utero-administered coumestrol, equol, and organic selenium on biomarkers for phase 2 enzyme capacity and redox status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in utero administration of coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast on selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes, plasma hormone levels, and markers for redox status in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The test compounds were administered via the diet to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. Within 24 h following delivery dams and offspring were sacrificed, and blood, liver and reproductive organs were sampled. Coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast did not significantly affect hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR), or RBC glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) in the offspring, whereas significant increases in GST QR, and GP(x) activities in dams were observed following administration of selenium-enriched yeast. The level of 17beta-estradiol in offspring from coumestrol-exposed dams was significantly increased compared with the control. The present results indicate that selenium-enriched yeast, coumestrol, andequol affect selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes and GP(x) in RBC in dams, whereas the offspring in general were refractive to the employed treatments. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the observed in utero effects imposed by the selected plant compounds confer permanent alterations on the health status of the animal resulting in an altered resistance to cancer.

Vinggaard, Anne; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

2003-01-01

327

Biochemical analysis of cerebrum of fetal rats X-irradiated in utero - content and composition of DNA, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero and biochemical analysis of the cerebrum was performed. The cerebral weight was significantly lower in the irradiated group on gestational day (gd) 13 with 100R than in the control group from gd 19 to postnatal day (pd) 15. In the isolation step for cerebral DNA on gd 21, decreased DNA contents of the homogenate and isolated nuclei and an increase in the ratio of protein to DNA in nuclei and isolated DNA were observed on X-irradiation. Analysis of the nucleoside composition of isolated DNA showed the radiation resistivity of dAdo. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was extremely low in fetal cerebrum. The lipid peroxide (LP) level of the cerebrum in the irradiated group was increased compared to that in the control group. Administration of vitamin E during pregnancy resulted in an increased cerebral weight and a decreased cerebral LP level in the irradiated fetuses. The low activity of SOD may be one of the factors which cause the vulnerability of the fetal brain to irradiation. The study on vitamin E supplementation showed evidence of the possibility of the prevention of microcephaly induced by X-irradiation in utero. (orig.)

328

Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data

329

Effects of in utero exposure to D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in the male rat: a comparison with finasteride.  

Science.gov (United States)

D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm fruits, consisting of a mixture of free fatty acids, that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. This study investigated the possible alterations due to D-004 of androgen-dependent development after exposure in utero and compared them with those due to finasteride. Rats were randomized into five experimental groups: a control group, three groups treated with D-004 at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively, and a group treated with finasteride (10 mg/kg/day). Male rats were treated 10 weeks before and during mating. Female rats were treated for 15 days prior mating, during mating, during pregnancy, and until lactation (day 21) except for those treated with finasteride, which were only administered the drug on gestational days 12-21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy after postnatal day 90. The results of the present study indicate that D-004 induced no alterations in androgen-dependent development after the exposure in utero. Also, the current study demonstrated a permanent reduction in anogenital distance and retention of nipples in adult male rats exposed to finasteride during late gestation. Significant alterations induced by exposure to finasteride were mainly in tissues dependent on dihydrotestosterone during development. PMID:21861713

Martínez, Ariadne Gutiérrez; Pardo, Balia; Gámez, Rafael; Mas, Rosa; Noa, Miriam; Marrero, Gisela; Valle, Maikel; García, Haydee; Curveco, Dayisell; Mendoza, Nilda; Goicochea, Edy

2011-12-01

330

48 CFR 1852.204-76 - Security requirements for unclassified information technolocgy resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...information technolocgy resources. As prescribed...Information Technology Resources (MAY 2007) (a...obtain physical or electronic (i.e., authentication...information and IT resources provided to the contractor...Have physical or electronic access to...

2010-10-01

331

Metadados para a descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica: utilização do padrão Dublin Core / Metadata for description of electronic information resources: the use of Dublin Core  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a necessidade de adoção de padrões de descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica, particularmente, no âmbito da Embrapa Informática Agropecuária. O Rural Mídia foi desenvolvido utilizando o modelo Dublin Core (DC) para descrição de seu acervo, acrescido de pequenas adaptações [...] introduzidas diante da necessidade de adequar-se a especificidades meramente institucionais. Este modelo de metadados baseado no Dublin Core, adaptado para o Banco de Imagem, possui características que endossam a sua adoção, como a simplicidade na descrição dos recursos, entendimento semântico universal (dos elementos), escopo internacional e extensibilidade (o que permite sua adaptação às necessidades adicionais de descrição). Abstract in english The objective of this article is the need of adoption of eletronic information resources patterns, particularly, in the Embrapa Agricultural Informatics area. The Rural Midia was developed using Dublin Core model for description of its collection, increased of small adaptations introduced due to the [...] need of institutional adjusts. This metadados model based on Dublin Core, adapted for the Image Bank, has characteristics that endorse its adoption, as the simplicity in the resources description, universal semantic understanding (of the elements), international uses and extensibility (what allows its adaptation to the additional description needs).

Marcia Izabel Fugisawa, Souza; Laurimar Gonçalves, Vendrusculo; Geane Cristina, Melo.

332

Water Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

333

RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las células mesenquimáticas que van a derivar en músculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los niños, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera década). Se clasifican en forma histológic [...] a en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomórficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican según la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres resultados se evalúa la sobrevida a los 2 años (90% de mortalidad a los dos años). A continuación presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patológico se demostró un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de útero Abstract in english Rabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade). They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, [...] botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

Ernesto, Hurel M; Gregorio, Evans M; Ronald, Poulsen R; Hugo, Gómez P.

334

RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las células mesenquimáticas que van a derivar en músculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los niños, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera década. Se clasifican en forma histológica en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomórficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican según la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres resultados se evalúa la sobrevida a los 2 años (90% de mortalidad a los dos años. A continuación presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patológico se demostró un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de úteroRabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade. They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

Ernesto Hurel M

2003-01-01

335

Energy resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cuba, like most island nations, lacks a large energy resource base and satisfies most of its energy needs with imported fossil fuels. The evaluation of the availability of domestic energy reserves and resources, as well as their future extraction potential, is a necessary task in an assessment of sustainable energy development. When estimates of potential availability of fossil fuels are carried out, a distinction is made between reserves and resources. In this study, reserves are known quantities that can be extracted with current technology at current prices. Resources are either less certain as to their existence or known to be technically or economically unfeasible or both. In the case of renewables, the concept of resources needs to be modified. Renewable resources are part of a natural flow that can be regenerated in a time frame that is suitable for human activities. For this reason, it is necessary to refer to renewable energy potential rather than resources. Both resources and reserves change as new technologies become available or due to changes in the market. This is another reason to distinguish between resources, reserves and energy potential

336

Artslynx International Dance Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive directory for resources in the performance, history, and scholarship of dance is offered by Artslynx, a gateway for Web-based materials on the creative and performing arts. The site provides annotated links on dance related organizations, academies, schools, and companies; research and scholarship; publications and magazines; international competitions; dance-affiliated art; physical theater and performance art; ethnic and international dance resources; electronic mailing lists and Usenet groups; and much more. A search engine that encompasses the entire Artslynx gateway is available for users who wish to search the site.

337

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a [...] consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT), masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea. Abstract in english Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anestheti [...] c considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia) by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Juan Camilo, Ospina-García; Carolina, Wuesthoff-Prieto; Santiago, Eslava-Cerón.

338

Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

How to cite this article: Abuelzein, E.M., Al-Khaliyfa, M.J. & Gameel, A.A., 2011, ‘Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1, Art. #318, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.318

Eltayb M. Abuelzein

2011-02-01

339

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 750, or 1,500 mg/kg/day, per os) from gestation day 3 through postnatal day (PND) 21. Dose-related effects on male offspring included reduced anogenital distance, areola and nipple retention, undescended testes, and permanently incomplete preputial separation. Testis, epididymis, glans penis, ventral prostate, dorsolateral prostate, anterior prostate, and seminal vesicle weights were reduced at PND 21, 63, and/or 105-112. Additional dose-related effects included a high incidence of anterior prostate agenesis, a lower incidence of partial or complete ventral prostate agenesis, occasional dorsolateral prostate and seminal vesicle agenesis, reduced sperm counts, and testicular, epididymal, and penile malformations. Many DEHP-exposed males were sexually inactive in the presence of receptive control females, but sexual inactivity did not correlate with abnormal male reproductive organs. These results suggest that in utero and lactational DEHP exposure also inhibited sexually dimorphic central nervous system development. No major abnormalities were found in any of eight control litters, but DEHP caused severe male reproductive system toxicity in five of eight litters at 375 mg/kg/day, seven of eight litters at 750 mg/kg/day, and five of five litters at 1,500 mg/kg/day. These results demonstrate that the male reproductive system is far more sensitive to DEHP early in development than when animals are exposed as juveniles or adults. The effects of DEHP on male reproductive organs and sexual behaviors and the lack of significant effects on time to vaginal opening and first estrus in their littermates demonstrate that DEHP (and/or its metabolites) affects development of the male reproductive system primarily by acting as an antiandrogen. The pattern of effects of in utero and lactational DEHP exposure differed from patterns caused by other phthalate esters, and the preponderance of anterior prostate agenesis appears to be unique among all chemicals. These results suggest that DEHP acts partly by mechanisms distinct from those of other antiandrogens. PMID:11333183

Moore, R W; Rudy, T A; Lin, T M; Ko, K; Peterson, R E

2001-03-01

340

Rethinking Resourcing.  

Science.gov (United States)

This adaptation of an excerpt from a book, "The Business Value Web: Resourcing Business Processes and Solutions in Higher Education," addresses ways to look at college business processes systematically, take fresh approaches to resourcing, and create real value for stakeholders. (EV)

Norris, Donald M.; Olson, Mark A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

2005-01-01

342

The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development...

Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy

2011-01-01

343

DiscoveryResources.org  

Science.gov (United States)

An interesting site that is packed full of up-to-date info, discoveryresources.org is "where you will find the most up-to-date information, resources and news available about electronic discovery...(the site) offers much needed resources for legal professionals who seek to understand the many new technological and legal challenges associated with electronic discovery." As fast as the technology revolution is booming, so too is are all of the legal strings attached. This site seeks to provide professionals in the field with a means to stay up on discovery news. With links to Legal News, Featured Articles, a weblog, and a Reading Room, there is lots of useful information on this unique site.

344

Intellectual development of children exposed to radioactive iodine in utero and up to the age of 1.5 years old as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of intellectual development of 235 children who were irradiated with radioiodine in utero and within the first year of life was performed in 1998-1999. The control group consisted of 105 children examined in ecologically clean zone. The study of intelligence was performed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - WISC-III UK. In the group exposed to radiation prenatally (mean thyroid dose = 18.77 cGy, SD=28.77), comparisons of test scores didn't show statistically significant differences as compared with the control group. In the group exposed to radiation after birth (mean thyroid dose = 83.02 cGy, SD=66.05), significantly lower scores of the subtests Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and level of Performance IQ as compared to the controls were detected

345

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects bone tissue in rhesus monkeys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone tissue is one of the target tissues for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on bone tissue in rhesus monkey, the most human-like experimental model available. Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; age 4-10 years) were exposed to TCDD with a total dose of 40.5-42.0 or 405-420 ng/kg bodyweight by repeated subcutaneous injections starting at gestational day 20 and followed by injections every 30 days until 90 days after delivery. At a mean age of 7 years the offspring were sacrificed and the femur bone dissected. Results from peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) analyses of the metaphyseal part of the femur bones in female offspring showed significant increases in trabecular bone mineral content (BMC; +84.6%, p < 0.05, F-value (F) = 5.9) in the low-dose treatment group compared with the controls. In the same animals, analysis of the mid-diaphyseal part revealed increases in total BMC (+21.3%, p < 0.05, F = 5.2) and cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; +16.4%, p < 0.01, F = 7.4) compared with the controls. In males, changes in biomechanical properties indicating more fragile bone were observed. Displacement at failure were significantly increased in the male low-dose group compared to the controls (+38.0%, p < 0.05, F = 11). The high dose of TCDD did not induce any significant changes in bone morphology. In conificant changes in bone morphology. In conclusion, in utero and lactational low-dose, but not high-dose exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced disruption of bone tissue development in rhesus monkey, a result suggesting that similar effects might occur in humans also

346

Qualitatively and quantitatively similar effects of active and passive maternal tobacco smoke exposure on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced mutagenesis in utero is likely to have life-long repercussions for the exposed fetus, affecting survival, birth weight and susceptibility to both childhood and adult-onset diseases, such as cancer. In the general population, such exposures are likely to be a consequence of the lifestyle choices of the parents, with exposure to tobacco smoke one of the most pervasive and easily documented. Previous studies attempting to establish a direct link between active smoking and levels of somatic mutation have largely discounted the effects of passive or secondary exposure, and have produced contradictory results. Methods Data from three studies of possible smoking effects on in utero mutagenesis at the HPRT locus were compiled and reanalyzed, alone and in combination. Where possible, passive exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was considered as a separate category of exposure, rather than being included in the non-smoking controls. Molecular spectra from these studies were reanalyzed after adjustment for reported mutation frequencies from the individual studies and the entire data set. Results A series of related studies on mutation at the X-linked HPRT locus in human newborn cord blood samples has led to the novel conclusion that only passive maternal exposure to tobacco mutagens has a significant effect on the developing baby. We performed a pooled analysis of the complete data from these studies, at the levels of both induced mutation frequency and the resulting mutational spectrum. Conclusion Our analysis reveals a more commonsensical, yet no less cautionary result: both active maternal smoking and secondary maternal exposure produce quantitatively and qualitatively indistinguishable increases in fetal HPRT mutation. Further, it appears that this effect is not perceptibly ameliorated if the mother adjusts her behavior (i.e. stops smoking when pregnancy is confirmed, although this conclusion may also be affected by continued passive exposure.

Grant Stephen G

2005-06-01

347

In utero exposure to butyl benzyl phthalate induces modifications in the morphology and the gene expression profile of the mammary gland: an experimental study in rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental estrogens are exogenous estrogen-mimicking compounds that can interfere with endogenous endocrine systems. Several of these endocrine disruptors have been shown to alter normal development and influence tumorigenesis in experimental models. N-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP, a widely used plasticizer, is a well-known endocrine disruptor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of prenatal exposure to BBP on the morphology, proliferative index, and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages. Methods In utero exposure was performed by gavage of pregnant Sprague Dawley CD rats with 120mg or 500mg BBP/kg/day from day 10 post-conception to delivery. Female litters were euthanized at 21, 35, 50 and 100 days. The morphology and proliferative index of the mammary gland were studied from whole mount preparations and BrdU incorporation, respectively. Gene expression profile was assessed by microarrays. Several genes found differentially expressed and related to different functional categories were further validated by real time RT-PCR. Results Prenatal exposure of BBP induced delayed vaginal opening and changes in the post-natal mammary gland long after the end of the treatment, mainly by 35 days of age. Exposure to the high dose resulted in modifications in architecture and proliferative index of the mammary gland, mostly affecting the undifferentiated terminal end buds. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gland in the exposed rats were modified in a dose-dependent fashion. Analysis of functional categories showed that modified genes were related to immune function, cell signaling, proliferation and differentiation, or metabolism. Conclusions Our data suggest that in utero exposure to BBP induced a delayed pubertal onset and modified morphology of the mammary gland. These alterations were accompanied by modifications in gene expression previously associated with an increased susceptibility to carcinogenesis.

Russo Irma H

2011-01-01

348

?-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether ?-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether ?-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with ?-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and ?-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b(+) dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b(-) dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with ?-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b(+) dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that ?-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with ?-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with ?-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W; Cook-Mills, Joan M

2014-09-15

349

Effects of in utero exposure to linuron on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male Crl:CD(SD)BR rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) is a herbicide that blocks androgen action in the male rat. Studies were undertaken to characterize the ability of linuron to activate transcription through the human androgen receptor (AR) in vitro and to determine whether in utero linuron exposure induces dose-responsive alterations in androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male rat. In vitro, linuron competitively antagonized transcriptional activity of the AR induced by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in a dose-responsive manner with an equilibrium dissociation constant (K(B)) of 75.8 x 10(-8) M. Pregnant rats were administered linuron by gavage at 0, 12.5, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (n = 11/group) from gestation day 12 to 21. Anogenital distance of resulting offspring was unaffected, whereas male areola/nipple retention was increased in a dose-responsive manner. Hypoplastic testes in adult offspring were seen in 2/56 rats (2/10 litters), 8/69 rats (4/11 litters), and 5/44 rats (3/8 litters), while hypoplastic epididymides occurred in 1/56 rats (1/10 litters), 8/69 rats (4/11 litters), and 2/44 rats (1/8 litters) in the 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg/day dose groups, respectively. Partial agenesis of the epididymides was observed in 3/44 rats (2/8 litters) only in the 50 mg/kg/day group. These data indicate that in utero exposure to linuron preferentially impairs testosterone-mediated, rather than DHT-mediated, reproductive development. This effect is distinctly different from the effects induced by flutamide, an AR antagonist that shares structural similarities with linuron. Furthermore, these data suggest that dose-response studies utilizing late gestational exposure to endocrine-active compounds may be more robust than the traditional or EPA-modified multigeneration protocols in identifying adverse effects. PMID:10964759

McIntyre, B S; Barlow, N J; Wallace, D G; Maness, S C; Gaido, K W; Foster, P M

2000-09-01

350

Study of time-lapse processing for dynamic hydrologic conditions. [electronic satellite image analysis console for Earth Resources Technology Satellites imagery  

Science.gov (United States)

The usefulness of dynamic display techniques in exploiting the repetitive nature of ERTS imagery was investigated. A specially designed Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console (ESIAC) was developed and employed to process data for seven ERTS principal investigators studying dynamic hydrological conditions for diverse applications. These applications include measurement of snowfield extent and sediment plumes from estuary discharge, Playa Lake inventory, and monitoring of phreatophyte and other vegetation changes. The ESIAC provides facilities for storing registered image sequences in a magnetic video disc memory for subsequent recall, enhancement, and animated display in monochrome or color. The most unique feature of the system is the capability to time lapse the imagery and analytic displays of the imagery. Data products included quantitative measurements of distances and areas, binary thematic maps based on monospectral or multispectral decisions, radiance profiles, and movie loops. Applications of animation for uses other than creating time-lapse sequences are identified. Input to the ESIAC can be either digital or via photographic transparencies.

Serebreny, S. M.; Evans, W. E.; Wiegman, E. J.

1974-01-01

351

afterdeployment: Wellness Resources for the Military Community  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... depression may change brain function News Feeds: Brain development in utero observed by researchers News Feeds: Activity ... collaboration with military, VA and civilian health partners, local communities, families and individuals with TBI. DVBIC is ...

352

Arthritis - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation - www.arthritis.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

353

Transmission Electron Microscopy Basics  

Science.gov (United States)

This extensive site from the University of Liverpool is a set of resources based on the textbook Transmission Electron Microscopy - Basics by D.B.Williams and C.B.Carter. The tutorial is designed to accompany an introductory course on transmission electron microscopy for students with an understanding of elementary physics. Topics include electron scattering, electron atom interactions, the electron gun, probe size, lenses, depth of field and depth of focus, and others. Each chapter includes interactive Java applets that facilitate understanding of the concepts presented.

Goodhew, Peter; Matter.org

354

Lunar Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This slide presentation reviews the lunar resources that we know are available for human use while exploration of the moon. Some of the lunar resources that are available for use are minerals, sunlight, solar wind, water and water ice, rocks and regolith. The locations for some of the lunar resouces and temperatures are reviewed. The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission, and its findings are reviewed. There is also discussion about water retention in Permament Shadowed Regions of the Moon. There is also discussion about the Rock types on the lunar surface. There is also discussion of the lunar regolith, the type and the usages that we can have from it.

Edmunson, Jennifer

2010-01-01

355

Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group  

...Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group institute,physics,iop,electron,microscopy,analysis,groups Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group This site uses cookies. By continuing ...Activities Careers Policy Resources You are here Activities Groups All Groups Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Groups All Groups Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group ...Group calendar Committee Contact Newsletter Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group The Group was formed as the Electron Microscopy Group in 1946, the title ...Group's members, as over the years the use of electron beams for microscopy, lithography, structural and chemical analysis has become an indispensable ...

356

Electronic Information and Applications in Musicology and Music Theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes electronic publishing and information resources in the field of music. Topics addressed include bibliographic citations of books, journal articles, scores, and sound recordings; bibliographic utilities; computer network resources; electronic music applications; tutorial and laboratory projects; interactive multimedia publications; and…

Duggan, Mary Kay

1992-01-01

357

18 CFR 35.7 - Electronic filing requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing requirements...Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...Application § 35.7 Electronic filing...

2010-04-01

358

Resource Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

Conrad, Jon M.

2000-01-01

359

Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

360

Resource abundance and resource dependence in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reconsiders the 'curse of resources' hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence varies with institutional quality. Resource abundance/rents has a positive impact on economic growth, while resource dependence has a negative impact. The impact of the 'West China Development Drive' policy, started in 2000, is substantial, and this is investigated through a comparative analysis based on cross-section samples, and through a panel-data timevarying coefficient approach for West and East provinces. Resource effects do change after the policy shock.

 
 
 
 
361

The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. PMID:20955817

Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

2011-02-01

362

Curriculum Resources for Schools  

...PupilsPlaces to VisitCurriculum ResourcesPrimary ResourcesPost Primary ResourcesTeacher ResourcesFactsheetsNanotechnologyLooking for HelpCurriculum Resources for SchoolsLast updated: 2 April 2010We...

363

Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

364

In vivo analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp sequence/integrin ?5?1-mediated signal involvement in embryonic enchondral ossification by exo utero development system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enchondral ossification is a fundamental mechanism for longitudinal bone growth during vertebrate development. In vitro studies suggested that functional blockade with RGD peptides or with an antibody that interferes with integrin ?5?1-ligand interactions inhibited pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate in vivo the roles of the integrin ?5?1-mediated signal through the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction in embryonic enchondral ossification by an exo utero development system. We injected Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) peptides and anti-integrin ?5?1 antibody (?5?1 ab) in the upper limbs of mouse embryos at embryonic day (E) 15.5 (RGDS-injected limbs, ?5?1 ab-injected limbs), and compared the effects on enchondral ossification with those found in the control limbs (Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser peptide-, mouse IgG-, or vehicle-injected, and no surgery) at E16.5. In the RGDS-injected limbs, the humeri were shorter and there were fewer BrdU-positive cells than in the control limbs. The ratios of cartilage length and area to those of the humerus were higher in the RGDS-injected limbs. The ratios of type X collagen to type 2 collagen mRNA and protein (Coll X/Coll 2) were significantly lower in the RGDS-injected limbs. In those limbs, TUNEL-positive cells were hardly observed, and the ratios of fractin to the Coll X/Coll 2 ratio were lower than in the control limbs. Furthermore, the ?5?1 ab-injected limbs showed results similar to those of RGDS-injected limbs. The present in vivo study by exo utero development system showed that RGDS and ?5?1 ab injection decreased chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in enchondral ossification, and suggested that the integrin ?5?1-mediated ECM signal through the RGD sequence is involved in embryonic enchondral ossification. PMID:24375788

Inoue, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuju; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Jahan, Esrat; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Udagawa, Jun; Hatta, Toshihisa; Otani, Hiroki

2014-07-01

365

Carcinogenic effect of in utero 252Cf and 60Co irradiation in C57BL/6N x C3H/He F1 (B6C3F1) mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C57BL/6N x C3H/He F1 mice were exposed in utero to 0, 1.0 and 2.7 Gy of 252Cf or 60Co at day 16.5th of gestation. Mice of both sexes were observed for 2 years. The females in the irradiated groups showed increases in the incidences of pituitary, mammary gland, liver and lung tumors. 252Cf was more effective in inducing tumors than was 60Co. Interestingly, the incidence of hematopoietic tumors decreased by irradiations with 252Cf but not with 60Co. The incidences of liver tumors in males increased by 252Cf-irradiation, whereas, the incidences of skin and soft tissue tumors increased by 60Co-irradiation. These results indicate that irradiation in utero during the late embryonic stage can induce tumors postnatally after a long latency. Moreover, females irradiated in utero had disfunction of the ovaries, evidence of impairment of the female's specific hormonal environment. This may be the cause of the low incidence of ovarian tumors and the high incidences of liver, lung and pituitary tumors in these female mice. Females with pituitary tumors had a high serum prolactin, which might be responsible for the concurrence of mammary gland tumors. These results indicate the importance of host factors in the development of radiation-induced tumors. (author)

366

Space Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging op

McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

1992-01-01

367

Encyclopedia of smart materials [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smart materials, materials and structures that can impart information about their environment to an observer or monitoring device are revolutionizing fields as diverse as engineering, optics, and medical technology. Advances in smart materials are impacting disciplines across the scientific and technological landscape. This encyclopedia is as broad in scope as the technology itself, addressing daily, commercial applications as well as sophisticated units designed to operate in space, underwater, underground, and within the human body. Extensively cross-referenced and generously supplemented with bibliographies and indexes, this book's treatment also broaches the specialized properties and coatings that are required for the use of materials in extreme conditions.

368

Encyclopedia of molecular biology [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Focusing on the fundamentals of molecular biology and encompassing all aspects of the expression of genetic information, this encyclopedia will become the first point of reference for both newcomers and established professionals in molecular biology needing to learn about any particular aspect of the field.

369

The elements of style [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Asserting that one must first know the rules to break them, this classic reference book is a must-have for any student and conscientious writer. It gives the principal requirements of plain English style and concentrates attention on the rules of usage and principles of composition most commonly violated.

370

International Chamber of Commerce [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the International Chamber of Commerce, a non-governmental organization of over 7000 companies and business associations in 140 countries which present ICC views to their governments. Posts contact information via mailing address, e-mail, and telephone and fax numbers. Highlights the activities of the ICC Commissioners and ICC services, such as the International Court of Arbitration, the International Bureau of Chambers of Commerce, ICC conferences, the ICC Commercial Crime Services. Access to ICC's news archives; membership information.

371

Nuclear Society of Slovenia [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Nuclear Society of Slovenia, which aims to disseminate knowledge of nuclear technology use in peaceful purposes. Its website provides information about the association, its statute, activities, publications; gives contact information.

372

Transactions of Korean Nuclear Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Korean Nuclear Society, a non-profit scientific organization which aims to contribute to the development of nuclear science and technology, pursue academic and technological progress, and promote cooperation between the members. Its website provides information about the society, its history, organization, officers, departments, research projects, conferences; links to its publications. Also gives contact information.

373

Economic Hard Times and Electronic Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library school courses focusing on management and budgeting are as important as ever, as are continuing education opportunities for librarians who may not have encountered a severe economic recession. The journal crisis of the 1990s is still a fresh and unpleasant memory for many. However, for other librarians who may have graduated from library…

Grogg, Jill E.

2009-01-01

374

Organization of American States [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Organization of American States, headquartered in Washington, D.C., an organization that encourages regional cooperation in the Americas. The OAS focuses on strengthening democracy, working towards peace, defending human rights, fostering free trade, combating drugs, and promoting sustainable development. Links to full texts of press releases, public speeches, weekly and annual reports, selected international trade agreements, bilateral investment treaties, dispute settlements, and intellectual property rights.

375

Analytical quality control services (AQCS) [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The initial efforts of AQCS focused on the preparation of environmental RMs containing anthropogenic radionuclides for use by those laboratories employing nuclear analytical techniques. These RMs were characterised for their radionuclide content through intercomparison runs (IC) involving a core group of some 10 to 20 specialist laboratories. The success of these early exercises led AQCS to extend its activities to encompass both terrestrial and marine RMs containing primordial radionuclides and trace elements.

376

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, which aims to advance and communicate scientific knowledge of the Earth, space and the solar system, and to research the development of space for human enterprise. Its website describes current projects and research opportunities and provides access to news items and to scientific and technical information.

377

China Atomic Energy Authority [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the China Atomic Energy Authority, the governmental agency responsible for drawing up policies, regulations and industrial standards on peaceful uses of nuclear energy; supervising and coordinating nuclear R&D projects, carrying out nuclear material control and export management; and taking part in IAEA and its activities in the name of the Chinese government. The website provides information on the mission of the Agency, press releases, legal documents.

378

International journal of cancer [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The International Journal of Cancer is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering experimental and clinical cancer research. It publishes original research articles, mini reviews, short reports, and letters to the editor.

379

Handbook of green chemicals [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Handbook is designed to serve as a starting point and guideline in the decision-making process of chemical and material selection. The chemicals and materials included are used in every aspect of the chemical industry.

380

European Free Trade Association [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the European Free Trade Association (EFTA). Lists the member states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland. Discusses the responsibilities of the EFTA Secretariat, Surveillance Authority, and Court. Links to EFTA legal texts and publications, including its annual report.

 
 
 
 
381

Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new seventh edition of the world-famous classic provides you with unrivaled, state-of-the art coverage of all aspects of chemical engineering, from the fundamentals to details on computer applications and control. Definitive reference for chemical and process engineers.

382

Engineering optimization [electronic resource] : theory and practice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A comprehensive professional reference or graduate-level textbook, presenting the theory, techniques, and applications of engineering optimization. Essential proofs and explanations of the various techniques are presented in a simple manner, and new concepts are illustrated with numerical examples. The coverage includes linear and nonlinear programming, integer programming, and stochastic programming techniques, as well as some recently developed methods such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, neural-network-based methods, and fuzzy optimization. Includes a large number of solved examples and review questions.

383

International Fund for Agricultural Development [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Profiles the International Fund for Agricultural Development, a specialized agency of the United Nations launched to assist the rural poor. Information about the agency, its mission, history, operations, events and meetings, international partners. Contains press releases and full-texts of official documents; photo and video gallery; contact information for the headquarters via mailing address, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail; information on the Popular Coalition to Eradicate Hunger and Poverty.

384

Canadian Intellectual Property Office [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Canadian Intellectual Property Office, which administers the intellectual property (IP) system in Canada and disseminates IP information. The website links to the patents database, trademarks database, and copyrights database; also to news, frequently asked questions, publications and contact information.

385

Turkey & Turkish foreign policy [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consists of approximately 16,000 pages and hundreds of tables, diagrams and pictures. Features information on Turkish history, economy, social and cultural life, foreign policy, plus texts of bilateral and multilateral agreements and samples of Turkish music.

386

Handbook of hazardous chemical properties [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book provides chemical specific information pertinent to safe handling and transportation of chemicals, worker protection, emergency response information to address spills, explosions on fire situations, and chemical stability/reactivity data.

387

National Research Centre : Kurchatov Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kurchatov Institute was founded in Moscow in 1943 in order to solve a defence issue of the development of nuclear weapon. It was known under a name of "Laboratory B-2 of the USSR Academy of Sciences". Since 1960 it was named Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. The Institute got the status of the Russian Research Centre in 1991 and in 2010 it became the National Research Centre (NRC "Kurchatov Institute").

388

Results and performance accountability [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Website of the Fiscal Policy Studies Institute, established in 1996 to assist communities, cities, counties, states and nations working to improve the well-being of their citizens. The site links to publications on results-based decision making and budgeting, performance measurement, trading results accountability for fund flexibility and financing. Provides information on results and performance accountability workshops.

389

Scientific and technical aerospace reports [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lists citations with abstracts for aerospace related reports obtained from world wide sources and announces documents that have recently been entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database.

390

On Korea [electronic resource] : academic paper series.  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

KEI commissions 10 papers per year with diverse perspectives on original subjects of current interest to Korea watchers. This year-long program provides both leading Korea scholars and new voices from around the world to speak and write on trends and events affecting the Korean peninsula.

391

IEEE Xplore digital library [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The content in IEEE Xplore comprises over 160 journals, over 1,200 conference proceedings, more than 3,800 technical standards, over 1,000 eBooks and over 300 educational courses. Approximately 25,000 new documents are added to IEEE Xplore each month.

392

Technion : Israel Institute of Technology [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features Technion, the oldest university in Israel, which offers degrees in science and engineering and related fields such as architecture, medicine, industrial management and education. The website provides information about the institute, its history, mission, publications, contacts.

393

Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear, an association of Brazilian nuclear scientists and engineers. It aims to exchange information on the peaceful applications of nuclear energy in the fields of electricity, medicine, agriculture and environment. Its website gives information on the association, news events, links to full-texts of its publication Revista Brasil Nuclear.

394

Uranium resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

395

Water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concernstic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

396

77 FR 66863 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Electronic Stakeholder Survey...  

Science.gov (United States)

...subject proposal. The Electronic Stakeholder Survey...and align ideas and resources by working across public...Title of Proposed: Electronic Stakeholder Survey-Office...proposed use: The Electronic Stakeholder Survey...and align ideas and resources by working across...

2012-11-07

397

32 CFR 2001.23 - Classification marking in the electronic environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...classified information in an electronic environment cannot...containing a uniform resource locator (URL) or...dynamic page contains electronic information derived...information sharing. Resources such as classification...manually or utilizing an electronic classification...

2010-07-01

398

48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Technology Resources. As prescribed in...Information Technology Resources (SEP 2007) (a...information technology resources or services in which...Contractor has physical or electronic access to DOS's...OMB Circular A-130. Examples of tasks that...

2010-10-01

399

48 CFR 1252.239-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...information technology resources. As prescribed in...Information Technology Resources (APR 2005) ...information technology resources or services in which...Contractor has physical or electronic access to DOT's...OMB Circular A-130. Examples of tasks that...

2010-10-01

400

48 CFR 1552.211-79 - Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Policies for Information Resources Management (OCT 2000...Definition. Information Resources Management (IRM...information and related resources such as personnel...funds, and technology. Examples of these services include...Data communications; electronic messaging services...

2010-10-01

 
 
 
 
401

48 CFR 3052.204-70 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Technology Resources (JUN 2006) ...information technology resources or services for which...must have physical or electronic access to sensitive...appropriate security of IT resources that are developed...telecommunications systems. (c) Examples of tasks that...

2010-10-01

402

14 CFR 1274.937 - Security requirements for unclassified information technology resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...information technology resources. Security Requirements...Information Technology Resources July 2002 ...information technology resources or services in which...must have physical or electronic access to NASA's...telecommunications systems. Examples of tasks that...

2010-01-01

403

48 CFR 652.239-71 - Security Requirements for Unclassified Information Technology Resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Information Technology Resources. As prescribed in...Information Technology Resources (SEP 2007) (a...information technology resources or services in which...Contractor has physical or electronic access to...

2010-10-01

404

In utero electroporation as a tool for genetic manipulation in vivo to study psychiatric disorders: from genes to circuits and behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many genetic risk factors for major mental disorders have key roles in brain development. Thus, exploring the roles for these genetic factors for brain development at the molecular, cellular, and neuronal circuit level is crucial for discovering how genetic disturbances affect high brain functions, which ultimately lead to disease pathologies. However, it is a tremendously difficult task, given that most mental disorders have genetic complexities in which many genetic risk factors have multiple roles in different cell types and brain regions over a time-course dependent manner. Furthermore, some genetic risk factors are likely to act epistatically in common molecular pathways. For this reason, a technique for spatial and temporal manipulation of multiple genes is necessary for understanding how genetic disturbances contribute to disease etiology. Here, the authors will review the said technique, in utero electroporation, which investigates the molecular disease pathways in rodent models for major mental disorders. This technique is also useful to examine the effect of genetic risks at the behavioral level. Furthermore, the authors will discuss the recent progress of this technology, such as inducible and cell type-specific targeting, as well as nonepisomal genetic manipulation, which provide further availability of this technique for research on major mental disorders. PMID:21551077

Taniguchi, Yu; Young-Pearse, Tracy; Sawa, Akira; Kamiya, Atsushi

2012-04-01

405

In utero electroporation as a tool for genetic manipulation in vivo in order to study psychiatric disorders: from genes to circuits and behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Many genetic risk factors for major mental disorders have key roles in brain development. Thus, exploring the roles for these genetic factors for brain development at the molecular, cellular, and neuronal circuit level is crucial for discovering how genetic disturbances affect high brain functions which ultimately lead to disease pathologies. However, it is a tremendously difficult task, given that most mental disorders have genetic complexities in which many genetic risk factors have multiple roles in different cell types and brain regions over a time-course dependent manner. Furthermore, some genetic risk factors are likely to act epistatically in common molecular pathways. For this reason, a technique for spatial and temporal manipulation of multiple genes is necessary for understanding how genetic disturbances contribute to disease etiology. Here we will review the said technique, in utero electroporation, which investigates the molecular disease pathways in rodent models for major mental disorders. This technique also is useful to examine the effect of genetic risks at the behavioral level. Furthermore, we will discuss the recent progress of this technology, such as inducible and cell type-specific targeting as well as nonepisomal genetic manipulation, which provide us further availability of this technique for research on major mental disorders. PMID:21551077

Taniguchi, Yu; Young-Pearse, Tracy; Sawa, Akira; Kamiya, Atsushi

2012-01-01

406

The roles of DNA methylation of NR3C1 and 11?-HSD2 and exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero on newborn neurobehavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to maternal mood disorder in utero may program infant neurobehavior via DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ( 11?-HSD-2), two placental genes that have been implicated in perturbations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We tested the relations among prenatal exposure to maternal depression or anxiety, methylation of exon 1F of NR3C1 and 11?-HSD-2, and newborn neurobehavior. Controlling for relevant covariates, infants whose mothers reported depression during pregnancy and showed greater methylation of placental NR3C1 CpG2 had poorer self-regulation, more hypotonia, and more lethargy than infants whose mothers did not report depression. On the other hand, infants whose mothers reported anxiety during pregnancy and showed greater methylation of placental 11?-HSD-2 CpG4 were more hypotonic compared with infants of mothers who did not report anxiety during pregnancy. Our results support the fetal programming hypothesis and suggest that fetal adjustments to cues from the intrauterine environment, in this case an environment that could be characterized by increased exposure to maternal cortisol, may lead to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. PMID:24135662

Conradt, Elisabeth; Lester, Barry M; Appleton, Allison A; Armstrong, David A; Marsit, Carmen J

2013-12-01

407

Cancer incidence among a cohort of subjects exposed to low-dose rate chronic radiation exposure in utero and after birth in the techa riverbank villages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a result of releases of liquid radioactive waste by the Mayak Production Association (PA) into the Techa River since 1949 till 1956 the population of the Riverside villages was exposed to a protracted effect of combined (external and internal) radiation. The 1-st-generation offspring of exposed residents born on 01.01.1950 and later were exposed both in utero and after birth. In all, 46 cancer cases, including 4 cases of leukemia, were registered among the study cohort members numbering 7,890 subjects born in the Techa Riverside villages in the Chelyabinsk province over the period since 1950 till 1998. No significant differences were noted in cancer incidence rates between men and women. Cancer incidence in the offspring's cohort was by 30-35% higher compared with the unexposed population of the USSR and Russia, the differences, however, are statistically insignificant. No influence of the parents total gonadal dose on cancer development in offspring was observed. The positive dose-effect dependence of cancer incidence on both antenatal and postnatal exposure was traced

408

ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE RESISTANCE IN ADULT FEMALE RATS EXPOSED TO POTASSIUM DICHROMATE (Cr VI IN UTERO, DURING SUCKLING AND PRE-PUBERTY PERIOD  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to relieve the impact of chromium hexavalent ions on the resistance of erythrocyte membrane in female rats at sexual maturity but exposed “in utero”or during the suckling or pre-puberty period. Concrete objectives were to establish the effect of 25 ppm (E1 group, 50 ppm (E2 groupt and 75 ppm (E3 group chromium doses on haemoglobin (Hb and erythrocyte membrane resistance (R.O. (in terms of haemolysis degree in NaCl hypotonic solutions. The consequence of Cr(VI exposure was the high significant decrease (p<0,01 of Hb in all E groups compared to control (C (E1/C:-24.66%; E2/C: - 37.36%; E3/C: - 42.67%, under physiologic limits in E2 and E3 groups and at the lowest physiologic limit in E1. Maxim R.O. was equal in all groups and in physiologic limits. Minim R.O. decreased to 0.7% NaCl in E1 and to 0.8% NaCl in E2 and E3. It was asserted the increase of haemolyse degree in direct relation with the dose. Increasing the chromium intake level a haemolytic effect was induced.

LETI?IA STANA

2013-07-01

409

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: application of salivary and urinary biomarkers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for