WorldWideScience
 
 
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Electronic Resource Management Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

Mark Ellingsen

2004-09-01

2

Fundamentals of Electronics Educational Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from UBM Tech provides links to a variety of technical papers, webinars, videos and tutorials pertaining to fundamental electronics. At the top of the page, users will find current spotlight resources.

2013-07-10

3

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-12-01

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Wrangling Electronic Resources: A Few Good Tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are several freely available tools today that fill the needs of librarians tasked with maintaining electronic resources, that assist with tasks such as editing MARC records and maintaining web sites that contain links to electronic resources. This article gives a tour of a few tools the author has found invaluable as an Electronic Resources Librarian.

Brandy Klug

2010-03-01

5

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Document Server

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

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Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray

1998-01-01

7

Ex Utero Intrapartum Therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ex Utero Intrapartum Therapy (EXIT) procedure was initially developed to secure the airway in fetuses at delivery after they had undergone in utero tracheal occlusion for congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Indications for the EXIT procedure have been expanded to include any delivery in which prenatal diagnosis is concerned for neonatal airway compromise, such as large neck masses and Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome, or when a difficult resuscitation is anticipated such as with large lung lesions. Uteroplacental blood flow and gas exchange are maintained through the use of inhalational anesthetics to allow optimal uterine relaxation with partial delivery of the fetus and amnioinfusion to sustain uterine distension. Using the EXIT procedure, sufficient time is provided on placental bypass to perform life-saving procedures such as bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, tracheostomy, cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and resection of lung masses or resection of neck masses in a controlled setting, thus avoiding a potential catastrophe. PMID:23395145

Moldenhauer, Julie S

2013-02-01

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Resource Letter: TE-1: Teaching electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This Resource Letter examines the evolution, roles, and content of courses in electronics in the undergraduate physics curriculum, and provides a guide to resources for faculty teaching such courses. It concludes with a brief section addressing problems of electromagnetic interference in electronic systems, and provides an introduction to the literature and practice of electromagnetic compatibility. I have included textbooks, reference books, articles, collections of laboratory experiments and projects, sources of equipment and parts, software packages, videos, and websites.

Henry, Dennis C.

2002-01-01

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Managing Electronic Resources with Open Source Software  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Simon Fraser University Library has been a leader in developing open source solutions for libraries for more than a decade.  This session will provide an overview of the complex world of library systems (Link Resolvers, Knowledgebases, Integrated Library Systems, Electronic Resource Management Systems, Discovery Services, Off-campus authentication systems) used by the modern academic library to efficiently manage electronic resources.  The session will present perspectives from ...

Roën Janyk; Sandra Wong

2012-01-01

10

Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of the kidney in newborn rats exposed to gentamicin in utero.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kidneys of newborn rats, whose mothers were given 75 mg/kg of gentamicin daily from the tenth day of gestation to its term, were examined by light and electron microscopy, as were kidneys of control rats whose mothers were given saline during the same period. In the gentamicin-treated group, the numbers of differentiated glomeruli and of S-shaped bodies counted in a median cross-section of the kidney were reduced, compared with those in the control group, but the glomerular volume was the sam...

1988-01-01

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Radium uptake in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a summary of information on a stillborn girl and her mother who had been a radium watch dial painter. Although many dial painters bore children, this is the only example of simultaneous radioactivity determinations in mother and child prior to normal delivery. This case provides an opportunity to assess the degree of transfer of radium to the fetus in utero and may be unique in the study of the placental transfer of radium in humans. Until now only measurements were known of the radium contents of fetuses and unrelated adults. 12 refs.; 3 tabs

1987-01-01

12

Light- and electron-microscopic analysis of the kidney in newborn rats exposed to gentamicin in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kidneys of newborn rats, whose mothers were given 75 mg/kg of gentamicin daily from the tenth day of gestation to its term, were examined by light and electron microscopy, as were kidneys of control rats whose mothers were given saline during the same period. In the gentamicin-treated group, the numbers of differentiated glomeruli and of S-shaped bodies counted in a median cross-section of the kidney were reduced, compared with those in the control group, but the glomerular volume was the same. In newborn rats issued from gentamicin-treated mothers, the proximal tubular lumen of the mature nephron lying in the deepest cortex was dilated, and their proximal tubular cells exhibited extensive damage, resembling that described in tubular cells of adult rats exposed to gentamicin. The subcapsular nephrogenic zone exhibited focal alterations of cytoplasmic organelle membranes, as well as nuclear lesions of several types, in cells of the nephron anlagen of the undifferentiated metanephric blastema, which were otherwise of normal appearance. PMID:3337212

Gilbert, T; Nabarra, B; Merlet-Bénichou, C

1988-01-01

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Reviewing the Electronic Resources & Libraries Conference  

Science.gov (United States)

The third Electronic Resources & Libraries (ER&L) conference gathered at Georgia Institute of Technology's Global Learning and Conference Center in Atlanta, Georgia, March 18-21, 2008. Over 360 attendees, from six countries and from 80% of the United States, represented their libraries and organizations resulting in a diverse and informative…

Tijerina, Bonnie

2008-01-01

14

Electronic Resources and Web Sites: Replacing a Back-end Database with Innovative's Electronic Resource Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the fall of 2002, Ohio State University along with the University of Washington, the University of Western Australia, Washington State University, and Glasgow University entered into a development partnership with Innovative Interfaces. The goal was to develop a module to manage electronic resources, integrated into Innovative’s Millennium library system. The product, Electronic Resource Management (ERM), became available in 2004 and is based on the work of the Digital Library Federation...

Tull, Laura

2013-01-01

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Bilateral In Utero Cerebellar Infarction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report a case of complete bilateral cerebellar infarction diagnosed in utero by routine prenatal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in a 26-week-old fetus. This posterior fossa ischemic stroke with secondary hemorrhage caused transient obstructive hydrocephalus and likely occurred subsequent to vertebrobasilar artery thrombosis. Such posterior fossa ischemic insults diagnosed in utero are rare with scarce clinical reports. The serial imaging characteristics, clinical, and developmen...

Ansari, Safdar A.; Hunter, Jill V.; Nassif, Lisa M.; Clark, Gary D.; Ramocki, Melissa B.

2011-01-01

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Making sense of the electronic resource marketplace: trends in health-related electronic resources.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in the practice of medicine and technological developments offer librarians unprecedented opportunities to select and organize electronic resources, use the Web to deliver content throughout the organization, and improve knowledge at the point of need. The confusing array of available products, access routes, and pricing plans makes it difficult to anticipate the needs of users, identify the top resources, budget effectively, make sound collection management decisions, and organize th...

Blansit, B. D.; Connor, E.

1999-01-01

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FORMATION AND USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????????? ??????????? ???????-???????? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article presents the results of a study of one of the components of typical scientific electronic libraries – electronic information resources. The structure of electronic scientific information and educational resources allocated to their structure. The distribution of electronic information resources for the essential attributes: their properties, typology, for the creation, formation and storage technology. Based on the fact that the most promising way of information support of s...

????????, ?. ?.

2010-01-01

18

In utero antiepileptic drug exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Pregnancy outcomes following in utero exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are uncertain, limiting an evidenced-based approach. Objective To determine if fetal outcomes vary as a function of different in utero AED exposures. Methods This ongoing prospective observational study across 25 epilepsy centers in the USA and UK enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy from October 1999 to February 2004 to determine if differential long-term cognitive and behavioral neurodevelopmental effects exist across the four most commonly used AEDs. This initial report focuses on the incidence of serious adverse outcomes including major congenital malformations (which could be attributable to AEDs) or fetal death. A total of 333 mother/child pairs were analyzed for monotherapy exposures: carbamazepine (n = 110), lamotrigine (n = 98), phenytoin (n = 56), and valproate (n = 69). Results Response frequencies of pregnancies resulting in serious adverse outcomes for each AED were as follows: carbamazepine 8.2%, lamotrigine 1.0%, phenytoin 10.7%, and valproate 20.3%. Distribution of serious adverse outcomes differed significantly across AEDs and was not explained by factors other than in utero AED exposure. Valproate exhibited a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions More adverse outcomes were observed in pregnancies with in utero valproate exposure vs the other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). These results combined with several recent studies provide strong evidence that valproate poses the highest risk to the fetus. For women who fail other AEDs and require valproate, the dose should be limited if possible.

Meador, K.J.; Baker, G.A.; Finnell, R.H.; Kalayjian, L.A.; Liporace, J.D.; Loring, D.W.; Mawer, G.; Pennell, P.B.; Smith, J.C.; Wolff, M.C.

2007-01-01

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In utero. Turvatunderuumid / Kristina Viin  

Index Scriptorium Estoniae

Lõputöö "In utero" on põhijoones munakuju meenutav interaktiivne kunstiobjekt, mis oma funktsioonilt läheneb pigem teraapilisele ruumile, pakkudes turvatunnet ja relaksatsiooni, et saavutada "emaüsatunnetus", vabastades inimest painetest ning meenutades talle algset, prenataalset olemist. Projekt kujutab endast nii osalusskulptuuri kui ka relaksatsioonikambrit. Ka emaihalusest psühhoanalüüsis, munast kui loomise arhetüüpsest sümbolist kosmogoonias, muna ja emaüsa kujutamisest Ülo Soosteri ja Hieronymus Boschi jt. kunstis

Viin, Kristina

2011-01-01

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You Have "How Many" Spreadsheets? Rethinking Electronic Resource Management  

Science.gov (United States)

As libraries face a veritable explosion of electronic resources and as the interconnectedness of print and online resources becomes increasingly complicated, many librarians are challenged to find efficient and cost-friendly ways to manage these resources. In this article, the authors describe how a team of people from various library departments…

Rux, Erika; Borchert, Theresa

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

Pomerantz, Sarah B.

2010-01-01

22

The impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process using ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As part of a UK wide study attempting to assess the impact libraries have on the work and study of their members, Edinburgh University Library (EUL) decided to “measure the impact of subject-specific electronic resources on the research process”, using the ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) and SciFinder Scholar electronic resources as exemplars.

Love-rodgers, Christine; Stewart, Rowena

2006-01-01

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Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overview of important international metadata frameworks and proposes a minimal metadata set for the longterm preservaton of electronic resources.

Alenka Kav?i?-?oli?

2004-01-01

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Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overvie...

2004-01-01

25

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-06-01

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User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

27

Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide  

CERN Document Server

This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

Lee, Stuart D

2004-01-01

28

Developing an Electronic Resource Management System: Verde from Ex Libris  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rapid growth in the number of electronic resources and the complexity of managing e-collections has posed new challenges for libraries and hence requires the development of new tools. To meet this need, Ex Libris is developing a new product, an electronic resource management (ERM system. The development process began in 2002 and has benefited from the company's 25 years of experience in providing libraries with various products - an integrated library system, digital asset management system, library portal, and link server. Working with an international focus group and development partners and interacting with the Digital Library Federation's Electronic Resource Management Initiative (DLF ERMI committee, Ex Libris explored the various aspects of the e-resource life cycle. As a result, the Ex Libris ERM system was designed to address the issues raised through this collaboration and the DLF requirements. The interface of the system represents all of its components; it includes navigation options and facilitates workflows that support the various activities that librarians perform when dealing with electronic resources. This paper describes the development process of the Ex Libris ERM system. The emphasis is on the particular functionality required for managing e-resources and the ways in which existing systems in the library arena can handle specific tasks.

Tamar Sadeh

2004-09-01

29

Maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To determine the extent of maternal morbidity associated with in utero transfer. DESIGN--Retrospective study of 190 consecutive cases over two years. SETTING--Liverpool Maternity Hospital. PATIENTS--190 Pregnant women were transferred to the hospital under the in utero transfer arrangements from district general hospitals both within and outside the Mersey region. The women admitted were divided into two categories: those in threatened or established uncomplicated preterm labour an...

Ryan, T. D.; Kidd, G. M.

1989-01-01

30

A Mouse Model of in Utero Transplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency.1,2 In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success.3 Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell tra...

Nijagal, Amar; Le, Tom; Wegorzewska, Marta; Mackenzie, Tippi C.

2011-01-01

31

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

32

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma

2004-01-01

33

Chromosomal aberrations in individuals exposed in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Experiments revealed high sensitivity of the developing embryo and fetus to ionizing radiation. The epidemiological studies suggest that the risks per unit dose to the developing embryo and fetus may be considerably larger than to an adult, typically by factors ranging from 3 to 10. There are only three large populations of individuals exposed in-utero: individuals exposed in-utero from radiological examinations, the in-utero exposed A-bomb survivors, and individuals exposed in utero from 1949 onward at the Mayak Production Association, a Soviet nuclear weapons complex. The conclusions of our preliminary study are that intra-chromosomal aberrations represent a sensitive, long-lived, quantitative, low-background biomarker of densely-ionizing radiation exposure in human populations exposed many years earlier.In the present study we propose to use the mFISH technique to score chromosomal aberrations in healthy individuals exposed in-utero to gamma-ray doses in the range 5 to 20 cGy. At SUBI, a cohort of about 72,000 individuals who were born in Ozyorsk in 1948-1988 was established to evaluate various health outcomes, with an emphasis on cancer (under Dr. N.A. Koshurnikova). Within the in-utero cohort, there are 553 individuals currently living locally in Ozyorsk who were exposed in-utero only to chronic gamma-rays (Dr. A.V. Kurbatov). Within the in-utero cohort there are 97 individuals whose mothers were occupationally exposed to radiation only during pregnancy. The mean uterine gamma-ray dose in this group is 11 cGy, with a range from 1 to 218 cGy. The study we propose enables us to measure the yield of chromosomal aberrations per unit dose in individuals exposed in-utero to chronic gamma-rays in comparison with matched unexposed control individuals (same age, same gender) and individuals exposed to the same doses, but as young adults. The additional question we will address is whether the chromosomal aberrations we see are clonal, originating from one cell which was damaged in utero, or due to chromosomal instability, or due to other reasons

2003-08-17

34

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisati...

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

35

Enhancing the use of electronic resources on a university library's website : herding electronic resources into subject groupings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integration of five separate websites from the campus libraries at Texas A&M University in 2002 resulted in the creation of a unified listing of all electronic resources, with well over 20,000 entries. This was the first time we were able to provide library users with a single, comprehensive list of electronic resources. But it quickly became clear that it was not very usable. In June 2002 the University Libraries Web Implementation Team (WIT) identified a diverse group of library staff t...

Carrigan, Esther; Sewell, Robin; Wilson, Mary Dabney; Highsmith, Anne L.

2005-01-01

36

Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century  

Science.gov (United States)

The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic

Stachokas, George

2009-01-01

37

Electronic Resources Evaluation Central: Using Off-the-Shelf Software, Web 2.0 Tools, and LibGuides to Manage an Electronic Resources Evaluation Process  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical part of electronic resources management, the electronic resources evaluation process is multi-faceted and includes a seemingly endless range of resources and tools involving numerous library staff. A solution is to build a Web site to bring all of the components together that can be implemented quickly and result in an organizational…

England, Lenore; Fu, Li

2011-01-01

38

An electronic approach to evaluating healthcare Web resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information literacy skills, which include the ability to evaluate electronic healthcare sites, are critical to the decision-making responsibilities of students and professionals. The authors describe the experiences of nursing and library services faculty in the development and implementation of a Web-delivered module for the evaluation of healthcare Web resources. A range of electronic tools was used for both the collaborative creation of the module as well as the instructional delivery of the content. Evaluation of the module revealed its usefulness to the students and the potential of the collaborative development model for other content areas. PMID:10795251

Hodson-Carlton, K; Dorner, J L

1999-01-01

39

Open Source Electronic Resource Management System: A Collaborative Implementation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Librarians and strategists at Simon Fraser University (SFU) have collaborated with a team of middle-sized libraries to expand the open-source CUFTS Researcher suite of tools to include an Electronic Resources Management (ERM) system. This paper focuses on: the development and implementation of the CUFTS ERM; interoperability between CUFTS ERM and integrated library systems (Millennium); impact of the ERM on acquisitions, serials, and collections workflows and staffing at SFU Library and the U...

Taylor, Donald; Dodd, Frances; Murphy, James

2010-01-01

40

In utero incarceration of congenital diaphragmatic hernia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In utero diagnosis of incarcerated congenital diaphragmatic hernia has never been reported. In our case, congenital diaphragmatic hernia presented at 34 weeks of gestation with dilated bowel loops, pleural effusion, and ascites on fetal ultrasound. Preterm delivery and emergency exploration revealed a tight posterolateral diaphragmatic defect with extensive bowel infarction

Cserni, Tamas; Polonkai, Edit; Torok, Olga; Nagy, Andrea; Pataki, Istvan; Long, Anna May; Cserni, Peter; Orosz, Laszlo; Balla, Gyorgy; Cserni Tamás (1967-) (gyermeksebész)

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

In utero repair of spina bifida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Open spina bifida or myelomeningocele (MMC) is the most common congenital malformation of the central nervous system compatible with long-term survival and is associated with significant lifelong disabilities. Postnatal care of MMC involves covering the exposed spinal cord, infection prevention, and ventricular shunting for hydrocephalus. The aim of postnatal MMC surgery is not to reverse or prevent the neurologic injury seen in MMC, but to palliate. The neurologic defects result from primary incomplete neurulation and secondary chronic in utero damage to the exposed neural elements through mechanical and chemical trauma-the two-hit hypothesis. With the ability to accurately diagnose spina bifida prenatally and the concept of the two-hit hypothesis, in utero repair to decrease exposure and alter the antenatal course of neurologic destruction was conceived. Through animal models and human pilot studies, the feasibility of fetal spina bifida repair was demonstrated. Subsequently, the prospective randomized multicenter Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS trial) revealed a decreased need for shunting, reversal of hindbrain herniation, and preservation of neurologic function, making in utero repair an accepted care alternative for select women carrying a fetus with spina bifida. This article will highlight the background and rationale for in utero repair, and the progression to becoming an alternative standard of care. The future directions of fetal spina bifida repair will also be addressed. PMID:24819146

Moldenhauer, Julie S

2014-08-01

42

COLLECTIONS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES AND THEIR METADESCRIPTIONS AS COMPONENTS OF SCIENTIFIC ELECTRONIC LIBRARY ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?? ????????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific research components of digital libraries, the main ones being the collection of electronic scientific information resources. An important specific characteristics of collections of scientific information resources, resources of their formation, structure collections, methods of their organization, technology creation, support and use of scientific collections, the role and function of metadata in collections and metadata management technology are represented. On the stage of planning and introduction of scientific e-libraries there can be used results of researches presented in the article, namely: chart of forming of collections of scientific informative resources; stages of planning and development of metadescriptions, and similarly the use of standard the Dublin kernel, creation of metadescriptions.? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ???????? ??????????? ?????????, ????????? ? ???? ? ???????? ???????? ??????????? ????????????? ????????. ???????? ???????????? ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????, ??????? ?? ??????????, ????????? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????? ?????????, ???????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ???????? ????????; ???? ? ??????? ????????? ? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????. ?? ????? ???????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ??????????? ????????? ?????? ???? ??????????? ?????????? ???????????, ????????? ? ??????, ? ????: ????? ?????????? ???????? ???????? ????????????? ????????; ????? ???????????? ? ???????? ?????????? ? ???????????? ????????? ?????????? ????, ????????? ??????????.

?.?. ????????

2011-02-01

43

First trimester in utero exposure to methylphenidate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom, four children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than twofold) increased risk of congenital malformations. PMID:23136875

Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Aagaard, Lise; Damkier, Per

2013-02-01

44

Research on the Construction and Management of Electronic Resources in PDA Mode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PDA Patron Driven Acquisitions (PDA is literature resources construction mode dominating by user, it is approved by the user because of getting real-time and purchasing user needs. In this mode, the construction of electronic resources tends to get the required resources at this moment. The librarians face more challenge that how to coordinate the permanent preservation and used in real-time on the construction and management of library electronic resources. The article try to put forward some tactics of electronic resources reasonable construction and standardized management from allocation of funds, adjustment of the resource type, performance evaluation of electronic resources, improving electronic resources management system, building institutional repository, analyzing and mining user data and other aspects.

Zhong Wenjuan

2014-01-01

45

A mouse model of in utero transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success. Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy is critical to advance this field. We and others have used the mouse model of IUT to study factors affecting successful engraftment of in utero transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in both wild-type mice and those with genetic diseases. The fetal environment also offers considerable advantages for the success of in utero gene therapy. For example, the delivery of adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, retroviral, and lentiviral vectors into the fetus has resulted in the transduction of multiple organs distant from the site of injection with long-term gene expression. in utero gene therapy may therefore be considered as a possible treatment strategy for single gene disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis. Another potential advantage of IUT is the ability to induce immune tolerance to a specific antigen. As seen in mice with hemophilia, the introduction of Factor IX early in development results in tolerance to this protein. In addition to its use in investigating potential human therapies, the mouse model of IUT can be a powerful tool to study basic questions in developmental and stem cell biology. For example, one can deliver various small molecules to induce or inhibit specific gene expression at defined gestational stages and manipulate developmental pathways. The impact of these alterations can be assessed at various timepoints after the initial transplantation. Furthermore, one can transplant pluripotent or lineage specific progenitor cells into the fetal environment to study stem cell differentiation in a non-irradiated and unperturbed host environment. The mouse model of IUT has already provided numerous insights within the fields of immunology, and developmental and stem cell biology. In this video-based protocol, we describe a step-by-step approach to performing IUT in mouse fetuses and outline the critical steps and potential pitfalls of this technique. PMID:21307829

Nijagal, Amar; Le, Tom; Wegorzewska, Marta; Mackenzie, Tippi C

2011-01-01

46

TENDENCIES OF CREATION AND USE OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATIION RESOURCES AND SERVICES ????????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the article there are considered the most essential tendencies of creation and use of electronic information resources and services in the field of information providing of science and education, namely: modern libraries, publishing houses, control system by information resources.? ?????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ????????? ????????? ?? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?...

????, ?. ?.; ???????, ?. ?.

2010-01-01

47

Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklar?n?n Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

P?nar Al

2003-04-01

48

The Relevancy of Graduate Curriculum to Human Resource Professionals' Electronic Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic communications of human resource professionals and the content of 23 university human resource management courses were categorized using the Human Resource Certification Institute's body of knowledge. Differences between proportion of topics discussed and topics covered in curricula suggest some topics are over- or undertaught.…

Hoell, Robert C.; Henry, Gordon O.

2003-01-01

49

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

50

Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model  

CERN Document Server

A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

Elguindi, Anne

2012-01-01

51

Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

Steven Shapiro

2010-01-01

52

????????????????????--?????????????? | Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

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?????????????????????88???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????www???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

The Project of Electronic Resource Sharing of Public Libraries in Taiwan was subsidized by Ministry of Education and carried out by National Taichung Library. The Project started in January of 1999. Its purposes are to establish an electronic database system through WWW for all the public libraries in Taiwan to provide the public to use, and to form a public library cooperation mechanism to foster resource sharing among the libraries.

This paper introduces the brief history, current status, and achievement o

??? Li-Hsiang Lai

2001-04-01

53

CREATION OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES IN STATE SCIENTIFIC AND PEDAGOGICAL LIBRARY BY V.A.SUHOMLINSKIY ?????????? ??????????? ???????? ? ????????? ???????-???????????? ?????????? ??????? ????? ?. ?. ??????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main directions of development of the work of SSPL of Ukraine by V.A. Suhomlinskiy on creation of electronic information resources on psychology-pedagogical questions: the electronic directory, the database, the electronic library are considered in the article.?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??????? ??. ?. ?. ?????????????? ?? ????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ?? ?????????-???????????? ??????: ??????????? ???????, ???? ?????, ?????????? ??????????

?.?. ?????????

2010-08-01

54

Methodical aspects on quantitative determination of utero-placental perfusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of utero-placental perfusion by radionuclide methods is examined. Possible errors are discussed. The determination of placental perfusion on the basis of the activity maximum is proposed as an alternative to evaluation methods used until now. (author)

1985-01-01

55

Fecundity of F/sub 1/ male mice exposed to lead acetate in-utero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four studies were performed to examine the reproductive capacity of male mice exposed to lead in-utero. These studies concerned the fecundity/fertility, sperm and semen analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis of the testis, and the analysis of seminiferous tubule cell populations for chromosomal aberrations. The fecundity study revealed that male mice exposed to lead acetate in-utero showed a significant reduction in the following parameters for the F/sub 2/ litters they produced. There was a significant reduction in the number of pups produced per litter, the number of females per litter, the number of pups weaned per litter, and the percent survival of those pups. Sperm and semen analysis revealed a decrease in sperm numbers and motility. It was concluded that lead acertate exposure in-utero resulted in a decrease in reproductive capacity which was evidenced by the reduction in certain fecundity parameters pups weaned per litter, etc. It was concluded that lead acetate causes a mutation or functional change in the stem cell population of the embryonic gonad that resulted in a slowed transition from spermatocyte to spermatid during spermatogenesis in the adult. This slowed transition may have been translated into decreased sperm production, a decrease in x-bearing sperm, and genetic changes that caused decreased numbers of pups and decreased survivorship of the pups in those litters. This was not demonstrated by microscopic analysis of the sperm and testis but was suggested by an analysis of a sample population of cells from the seminiferous tubules.

Figgs, L.W.

1983-01-01

56

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiation

2006-04-01

57

Fetal spina bifida: Loss of neural function in utero  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The devastating neurological deficit associated with myelomeningocele (MMC) has previously been assumed to be a direct and inevitable consequence of the primary malformation, failure of neural tube closure. An alternative view, however, is that secondary damage to the pathologically exposed spinal cord tissue in utero is responsible for the neurological deficiency. If the latter mechanism was shown to be correct, it would provide an objective rationale for the performance of in utero surgery ...

Stiefel, Dorothea; Copp, Andrew J.; Meuli, Martin

2007-01-01

58

Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the neurodevelopment of adopted children who had been exposed in utero to cocaine. DESIGN: A case-control observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three children aged 14 months to 6.5 years exposed in utero to cocaine and their adoptive mothers, and 23 age-matched control children not exposed to cocaine and their mothers, matched with the adoptive mothers for IQ and socioeconomic status. SETTING: The Motherisk Programme at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, a consu...

Nulman, I.; Rovet, J.; Altmann, D.; Bradley, C.; Einarson, T.; Koren, G.

1994-01-01

59

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8 out of the twelve (12 faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS. Responses were received from 225 (90% academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN

2011-11-01

60

Assessment of the utilisation of Makerere University electronic information resources by academic staff; challenges and prospects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated the utilization of electronic information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined academic staff awareness of the resources’ availability, the types of resources provided by the University Library , factors affecting their utilization, problems faced, and it offers recommendations for the way forward. The study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature, employing questionnaire, interview and content analysis methods. Finding...

Agaba, Didace Mulamira

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Availability And Use Of Electronic Resources In Spspm Libraries: A Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper describes availability and use of electronic resource by faculty members of SPSPM libraries. Now a day's e - resources are growing tremendously in the world and demands of the same are also increasing day by day from users.

Kamble M.G

2012-10-01

62

Interactive Printouts Integrating Multilingual Multimedia and Sign Language Electronic Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article we outline our previous implementations of multilingual multimedia dictionaries and discuss possibilities for adding new functionalities and expanding their coverage. Independently developed sign language dictionary resources are further explored and considered for inclusion in an integrated multilingual multimedia dictionary with…

Kanev, Kamen; Barneva, Reneta P.; Brimkov, Valentin E.; Kaneva, Dimitrina

2010-01-01

63

Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

2003-12-09

64

Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

2002-10-15

65

Marks' standard handbook for mechanical engineers [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fully updated to reflect current industry standards and practices, this edition of the classic handbook known simply as "Marks" offers more than 100 essential mechanical engineering topics - from the mechanics of solids and fluids to machine elements, from electrical and electronics engineering to environmental control, and from industrial engineering to instruments and controls.

1996-01-01

66

MULER: Building an Electronic Resource Management (ERM Solution at York University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many university libraries now utilize an Electronic Resource Management (ERM system to assist with operations related to electronic resources. An ERM is a relational database containing information such as suppliers, costs, holdings, and renewal dates for electronic resources, both at the database and title levels. While commercial ERM products are widely available, some institutions are custom building their own ERM in- house. This article describes how York University in Toronto, Canada, did just that by building a system called Managing University Library Electronic Resources (MULER. The article details the background and history of how electronic resources were managed pre-MULER; why a new ERM was needed; the planning process; the current and innovative functions of MULER, including integration of MULER data into York University Libraries search and discovery layer, Vufind; subject tagging in MULER; new functions to be added; and lessons learned from the project. Positive and negative implications of choosing an in-house project over paying for a commercial product are also discussed.

Aaron August Lupton

2012-01-01

67

In-utero exposed atomic bomb survivors: cancer risk update  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is special interest in cancer risk estimates derived from the continuing follow-up of persons who were exposed in utero to radiation from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This letter updates a previous paper with five more years of observation in a cohort being studied by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The intent of the letter is to draw attention to a rather different outlook on the cancer risk associated with in-utero exposure to atomic bomb radiation than that suggested in 1988. (UK)

1994-07-30

68

Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and a...

Wenxian Zhang

1997-01-01

69

Library Electronic Resource Sharing Among Liberal Arts Colleges: ACS Palladian Alliance Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?Effective electronic resource sharing is critical to library information services of the 1990s. Explosion of data and increased cost of information force libraries to work together, and technological advancements present the library service profession a platform for resource sharing. The Palladian Alliance Project of the Associated Colleges of the South is designed to provides ACS member institutions an effective means to enhance information access for their faculty and students, and achieve significant cost containment in the years to come.

Wenxian Zhang

1997-03-01

70

Evaluating a scalable model for implementing electronic health records in resource-limited settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current models for implementing electronic health records (EHRs) in resource-limited settings may not be scalable because they fail to address human-resource and cost constraints. This paper describes an implementation model which relies on shared responsibility between local sites and an external three-pronged support infrastructure consisting of: (1) a national technical expertise center, (2) an implementer's community, and (3) a developer's community. This model was used to implement an op...

Were, Martin C.; Emenyonu, Nneka; Achieng, Marion; Shen, Changyu; Ssali, John; Masaba, John P. M.; Tierney, William M.

2010-01-01

71

Connecting knowledge resources to the veterinary electronic health record: opportunities for learning at point of care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs. PMID:22023919

Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M

2011-01-01

72

Disseminating context-specific access to online knowledge resources within electronic health record systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinicians' patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians' questions and provide automated links to relevant information in knowledge resources. This paper describes OpenInfobutton (www.openinfobutton.org): a standards-based, open source Web service that was designed to disseminate infobutton capabilities in multiple EHR systems and healthcare organizations. OpenInfobutton has been successfully integrated with 38 knowledge resources at 5 large healthcare organizations in the United States. We describe the OpenInfobutton architecture, knowledge resource integration, and experiences at five large healthcare organizations. PMID:23920641

Del Fiol, Guilherme; Curtis, Clayton; Cimino, James J; Iskander, Andrew; Kalluri, Aditya S D; Jing, Xia; Hulse, Nathan C; Long, Jie; Overby, Casey L; Schardt, Connie; Douglas, David M

2013-01-01

73

Improving access to information – defining core electronic resources for research and wellbeing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research and innovation are listed as the key success factors for the future development of Finnish prosperity and the Finnish economy. The Finnish libraries have developed a scenario to support this vision. University, polytechnic and research institute libraries as well as public libraries have defined the core electronic resources necessary to improve access to information in Finland. The primary aim of this work has been to provide information and justification for central funding for electronic resources to support the national goals. The secondary aim is to help with the reallocation of existing central funds to better support access to information.

Kristiina Hormia-Poutanen

2007-12-01

74

The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

Xiaohua Zhu

2011-06-01

75

The Acquisition and Management of Electronic Resources: Can Use Justify Cost?  

Science.gov (United States)

As library collections increasingly become digital, libraries are faced with many challenges regarding the acquisition and management of electronic resources. Some of these challenges include copyright and fair use, the first-sale doctrine, licensing versus ownership, digital preservation, long-term archiving, and, most important, the issue of…

Koehn, Shona L.; Hawamdeh, Suliman

2010-01-01

76

Innovative's Electronic Resource Management as catalyst for change at Glasgow University Library  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In March 2003 Glasgow University Library joined with Innovative and several other Innovative customers to develop a new Electronic Resource Management (ERM) module. This paper will outline the ways in which the development and implementation of ERM has acted as a catalyst and facilitator for further enhancements and developments in the area of e-journals at Glasgow University Library.

2006-01-01

77

Power resource management and low-power remote wireless RF electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Battery power resource management becomes a critical issue in the case of self-powered remote wireless RF electronics, where the basic parameter is time of system operation before battery recharging or battery replacement. In such cases, very often related to physical protection against antitampering (AT), proper theoretical modeling of a battery driven power supply in the context of a given digital electronic system is of utmost importance. Such modeling should include various types of batteries (primary and secondary), various self-discharge processes in different temperatures, and even energy harvesting, the latter to supply power for long-term content, low-power electronic subsystems. In this paper we analyze simple modeling of resource power management, including variations of all of these parameters and energy harvesting.

Jannson, Tomasz; Forrester, Thomas; Degrood, Kevin; Lee, Kang; Gans, Eric; Walter, Kevin

2009-05-01

78

Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research.

Renwick, Shamin

2005-01-01

79

First-Trimester In Utero Exposure to Methylphenidate  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case-reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom 4 children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than two-fold) increased risk of congenital malformations.

Dideriksen, Dorthe; Pottegård, Anton

2013-01-01

80

Early Determinants of Obesity: Genetic, Epigenetic, and In Utero Influences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is an emerging body of work indicating that genes, epigenetics, and the in utero environment can impact whether or not a child is obese. While certain genes have been identified that increase one's risk for becoming obese, other factors such as excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes mellitus, and smoking can also influence this risk. Understanding these influences can help to inform which behaviors and exposures should be targeted if we are to decrease the prevalence of ob...

Rhee, Kyung E.; Phelan, Suzanne; Mccaffery, Jeanne

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

In utero surgery - current state of the art - part II  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background Fetal surgery, also referred to as in utero, prenatal or intrauterine surgery, consists of treatment of congenital malformations during the fetal period. The idea of treating malformations diagnosed in the course of intrauterine life dates back to 1963, when Lilly performed the first blood transfusion in a fetus. Since then it has been introduced as a treatment option in a series of lethal malformations. Efforts are being made to treat nonlethal malformations by means of fetal surgery. Material/Methods A comprehensive search of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed between 1925 and February 2009 was performed. Search terms for MEDLINE and PubMed were: fetal surgery, foetal surgery, in utero surgery, prenatal surgery, and in utero treatment. In addition, information was obtained at Web sites of the International Medicine and Surgery Society and the University of California Fetal Treatment Centre. Results Authors’ attention focused on the survey of indications to intrauterine operations. We outline potential directions of its development, quoting the groundwork of the most experienced researchers and clinicians. Moreover, owing to the authors’ interest in plastic surgery, some remarks on the role of intrauterine medicine and surgery in this branch of medicine are made. Conclusions In utero surgery may be regarded as an efficient tool of preventive medicine. It offers some advantages that no other branch of medicine may offer. However, its implementation is more troublesome than in the past, therefore only selected cases may benefit from its advantages. Nevertheless, current tendencies are to include, after thorough evaluation of benefit-risk ratio, some new indications for fetal surgery.

Wojcicki, Piotr; Drozdowski, Piotr; Wojcicka, Karolina

2011-01-01

82

Mouse in Utero Electroporation: Controlled Spatiotemporal Gene Transfection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to understand the function of genes expressed in specific region of the developing brain, including signaling molecules and axon guidance molecules, local gene transfer or knock- out is required. Gene targeting knock-in or knock-out into local regions is possible to perform with combination with a specific CRE line, which is laborious, costly, and time consuming. Therefore, a simple transfection method, an in utero electroporation technique, which can be performed with short time,...

Matsui, Asuka; Yoshida, Aya C.; Kubota, Mayumi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Shimogori, Tomomi

2011-01-01

83

Fetal myelomeningocele: natural history, pathophysiology, and in-utero intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Myelomeningocele (MMC) is a common birth defect that is associated with significant lifelong morbidity. Little progress has been made in the postnatal surgical management of the child with spina bifida. Postnatal surgery is aimed at covering the exposed spinal cord, preventing infection, and treating hydrocephalus with a ventricular shunt. In-utero repair of open spina bifida is now performed in selected patients and presents an additional therapeutic alternative for expectant mothers carryin...

Adzick, N. Scott

2010-01-01

84

Bilateral fetal chylothorax: results of unilateral in utero therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimal method for antenatal treatment of pleural effusions from congenital chylothorax unknown. A fetus with bilateral congenital chylothorax and hydrops had a pleural catheter placed in utero on only one side of the fetal chest for 14 days prior to delivery. The fetal hydrops partially resolved. After birth there was significantly less drainage from the pleural space that had been antenatally drained. This case demonstrates potential neonatal advantages of pleuro-amniotic shunt placement. PMID:8672183

Watson, W J; Munson, D P; Christensen, M W

1996-02-01

85

Human cytomegalovirus elicits fetal ?? T cell responses in utero  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fetus and infant are highly susceptible to viral infections. Several viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (CMV), cause more severe disease in early life compared with later life. It is generally accepted that this is a result of the immaturity of the immune system. ?? T cells are unconventional T cells that can react rapidly upon activation and show major histocompatibility complex–unrestricted activity. We show that upon CMV infection in utero, fetal ?? T cells expand and becom...

Vermijlen, David; Brouwer, Margreet; Donner, Catherine; Liesnard, Corinne; Tackoen, Marie; Rysselberge, Michel; Twite?, Nicolas; Goldman, Michel; Marchant, Arnaud; Willems, Fabienne

2010-01-01

86

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación / Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad univ [...] ersitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to [...] determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality through the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Maria, Pinto; Carmen, Gomez-Camarero; Andrés, Fernández-Ramos.

87

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) in Deutschland - Stand und Entwicklung  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic Human Resource Management (E-HRM) ist seit ein paar Jahren ein neuer Trend im Personalmanagement. Viele Unternehmen sind auf dem Weg, ihre Personalarbeit zu ?elektronisieren?. Dabei geht es allerdings nicht nur um die Veränderung der eingesetzten Medien, es geht vielmehr um die Verbesserung und Beschleunigung der Personalprozesse. Da zum E-HRM (synonym werden häufig die Begriffe ?E-HR? beziehungsweise ?elektronische Personalarbeit? verwendet) bislang...

2005-01-01

88

A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded). Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per c...

Romanov Kalle; Aarnio Matti

2006-01-01

89

Resources  

...Education I am new to teaching physics Resources I am new to teaching physics Student teachers Newly qualified teachers (NQTs) Established teachers who are new to teaching physics Resources Blogs Events Resources Teaching Supporting Physics Teachers (SPT)A valuable source of inspiration for lessons for 11-16-year-olds. SPT is packed full of interactive animations and tips to help you plan your teaching approach and spot when your pupils are on the wrong ...

90

Resources  

...From fiction to fact New topic added Physics in Perspective: 2013 lectures Video: Dr Andreas Freise talks about finding black holes with lasers Innovation Award winning profiles Video profiles of businesses that use physics in exceptional ways Galileo: An educational film An educational film dramatising the life of Galileo and his scientific discoveries. A useful resource for teachers Video and audio resources Video and audio resources from the Institute of Physics ...

91

In Utero Exposure to Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Decreases Mineralocorticoid Receptor Expression in the Adult Testis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In utero exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) has been shown to result in decreased androgen formation by fetal and adult rat testes. In the fetus, decreased androgen is accompanied by the reduced expression of steroidogenic enzymes. The mechanism by which in utero exposure results in reduced androgen formation in the adult, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that deregulation of the nuclear steroid receptors might explain the effects of in utero DEHP exposure on adult testosteron...

Martinez-arguelles, D. B.; Culty, M.; Zirkin, B. R.; Papadopoulos, V.

2009-01-01

92

Global DNA hypomethylation is associated with in utero exposure to cotinine and perfluorinated alkyl compounds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Environmental exposures in utero may alter the epigenome, thus impacting chromosomal stability and gene expression. We hypothesized that in utero exposures to maternal smoking and perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are associated with global DNA hypomethylation in umbilical cord serum. Our objective was to determine if global DNA methylation could be used as a biomarker of in utero exposures to maternal smoking and PFCs. Using an ELISA-based method, global DNA methylation was quantified in umbil...

2010-01-01

93

Librarians' perceptions on the use of electronic resources at Catalan academic libraries: results of a focus group  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to expand on previous quantitative and qualitative research into the use of electronic information resources and its impact on the information behaviour of academics at Catalan universities.

Olle?, Candela; Borrego, A?ngel

2010-01-01

94

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

2011-01-01

95

??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER????????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

Hui-Hsin Yeh

2006-06-01

96

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Chidi Nnorom, Innocent; Osibanjo, Oladele; Onyedikachi Nnorom, Stanley

97

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom

2007-01-01

98

Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

2013-01-01

99

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66% questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9% of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.
Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

Itunu Bamidele

2012-06-01

100

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

Friege, Henning

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS, workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.

???89-93

Nerisa Kamar

2008-04-01

102

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

103

Studies of children in utero during atomic bomb detonations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mortality and morbidity surveillance of about 1,800 children exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been and continues to be undertaken at RERF. While an increased frequency of mental retardation associated with exposure to radiation during the 8th through 15th week of gestation age has been well documented, late effects on cancer risk among these children remain to be determined through continued follow-up of the subjects. The two dozen cancer cases observed thus far represent less than 10% of the cases to be expected through the lifetime of these children. This presentation provides epidemiologic characteristics of the children, and summarizes cancer risk in 1946--89. It seems unlikely that a large excess of leukemia will appear in later life. However, for solid tumors, further careful study will be needed since these subjects are now entering the cancer-prone ages

1992-04-05

104

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES) is...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.; Blazes, David L.

2011-01-01

105

Neurobehavioral changes in mice exposed to fast neutrons in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Epidemiological studies have revealed that radiation causes brain development abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero. Rat and mouse studies have also shown that prenatal exposure to low-linear energy transfer radiation induces developmental brain anomalies. Because the effects of prenatal irradiation on adult behavior patterns remain largely unknown, the present study investigated the effects of neutron exposure in utero on postnatal behavior patterns in mice. [C57BL/6J x C3H/He] hybrid (B6C3F1) mice were exposed to cyclotron-derived fast neutrons with peak energy of 10 MeV (0.02-0.2 Gy) or Cs-137 gamma-rays (0.2-1.5 Gy) on embryonic day 13.5. At 5.5-8 months of age, the neurobehavior of male offspring was examined by Rota-rod treadmill and locomotor activity. The accumulation of radio-labeled drug at muscarinic acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in mice from control and neutron-irradiated groups was determined by the tracer method. Locomotor activity during the dark period increased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. Furthermore, at 5.5 months of age, tracer binding in vivo to the muscarinic acetylcholine increased and to the serotonin receptors decreased in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group. In conclusion, the present study reveals that a certain ''low-dose window'' may exist for radiation-induced changes in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors, because there was correlation in neurobehavior and binding to neurotransmitter receptors in the 0.02 Gy neutron-irradiated group though there was not correlation in the neutron-irradiated groups more than 0.05 Gy. (author)

2011-05-01

106

La sanctification in utero de Joseph : une proposition gersonienne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available à partir de 1413, Jean Gerson se lance dans une véritable campagne de promotion en faveur de Joseph, l’époux de Marie, à un moment où celui-ci est très rarement considéré comme un saint, et intéresse peu les théologiens et les prédicateurs, à l’exception de quelques franciscains. Or, parmi les privilèges et les vertus que le chancelier attribue à Joseph, on est surpris de rencontrer l’idée d’une sanctification in utero, qui rappelle l’immaculée conception de Marie, pour laquelle Gerson s’était battu aux côtés de son maître Pierre d’Ailly. Cette affirmation se fait cependant avec prudence, sous la forme d’une idée à laquelle on peut « croire pieusement ». à l’occasion d’un sermon prononcé au concile de Constance, Gerson précise sa pensée en distinguant la Vierge, totalement préservée du péché originel, de Joseph sanctifié dans le sein de sa mère. La logique est celle d’une comparaison avec Jean-Baptiste, que l’on considère consacré in utero au moment de la Visitation. Comme Gerson tente d’affirmer la supériorité de Joseph sur le Baptiste, il cherche à lui attribuer une grâce au moins comparable. L’enjeu est la reconnaissance de la sainteté de Joseph, dont la définition est délicate puisqu’il est sans doute mort avant la Passion et qu’il ne peut être reconnu comme un martyr.Même si la formulation gersonienne reste très originale, son idée a sans doute été mûrie au contact d’autres admirateurs de l’époux de la Vierge, tels Pierre d’Ailly ou le célestin Pierre Pocquet. Elle s’appuie également sur des sources liturgiques orientales plus délicates à identifier. Néanmoins, sa proposition ne connaîtra pas un grand succès : reprise par quelques auteurs au cours des xve et xvie siècles, elle est finalement explicitement rejetée lorsque s’affirme le culte de Joseph et que sa sainteté n’est plus contestée.Elle reste le témoignage d’un moment particulier d’audace théologique, sur les frontières encore imprécises de l’immaculée conception, de la sanctification et de la consécration, alors que les désordres du Grand Schisme rendaient plus aigu le besoin d’une pureté inaccessible.Joseph’s in utero sanctification : a gersonian suggestionIn 1413, Jean Gerson launched what could be described as a huge campaign in favour of Joseph, at a time when Mary's spouse was seldom considered a saint and was of very little interest to theologians or predicators, with the exception of a few Franciscans. However, among the privileges and virtues ascribed to Joseph by the chancellor, lies, surprisingly, the idea of in utero sanctification, a reminder of Mary’s Immaculate Conception, a notion also staunchly defended by Gerson and his master Pierre d’Ailly. This affirmation is however carefully exposed, as something that we can “piously believe in”.On the occasion of a sermon delivered at the Constance council, Gerson exposed this idea with more clarity by making a distinction between the holy Virgin who is totally preserved from the original sin, and Joseph who was sanctified while in his mother's womb. The logic in this arises from a comparison with John the Baptist considered consecrated in utero during the Visitation episode.In an attempt to assert Joseph's superiority on John the Baptist, Gerson credits him with at least one comparable virtue. What is at stake is the recognition of Joseph's holiness, a notion whose definition is a delicate matter since he probably died before the Passion and cannot be acknowledged as a martyr.Even though the gersonian formulation remains quite original, the idea of in utero sanctification has most probably matured through his association with other admirers of the holy Virgin's spouse, such as Pierre d'Ailly or the Celestin Pierre Pocquet. It also stems from oriental liturgical sources that are more difficult to identify. However, his proposition was not widely acclaimed : taken over by a few authors of the 15th and 16th centuries, it was eventually explicitly reje

Paul Payan

2012-04-01

107

Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

2011-01-01

108

Assessment of Fetal Brain Uptake of Paraquat In Utero Using In Vivo PET/CT Imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prenatal in utero conditions are thought to play a role in the development of adult diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Paraquat is a common herbicide with chemical structure similar to 1-methyl-4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin known to induce parkinsonism. In order to assess the role of in utero paraquat exposure in PD, uptake in maternal and fetal brains were measured using positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging. Two anesthetized pregna...

2011-01-01

109

Maternal Immunization Affects In Utero Programming of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maternal immunization with oxidized lipoproteins prior to pregnancy protects against atherogenic in utero programming by gestational hypercholesterolemia and enhances beneficial lymphocyte-dependent immune responses in offspring. To determine whether in utero programming and immunomodulation also affect insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes, we investigated the effects of immunization on glucose and insulin responses in LDL receptor-deficient mice fed regular or 60% sucrose diets, as we...

Eberle, Claudia; Merki, Esther; Yamashita, Tomoya; Johnson, Susie; Armando, Aaron M.; Quehenberger, Oswald; Napoli, Claudio; Palinski, Wulf

2012-01-01

110

Pregnancy outcome and neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to psychoactive drugs: the Motherisk experience.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents an overview of the Motherisk Program data on pregnancy outcome and neurodevelopment of children exposed in utero to selected psychoactive drugs. First, the use of cocaine during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of spontaneous abortions, abruptio placenta, premature labor, and stillbirth. Twenty-three adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine demonstrated an 8-fold increase in risk for microcephaly compared with controls. Global intelligence quotients (I...

Loebstein, R.; Koren, G.

1997-01-01

111

Respiratory Effects of Chronic in utero Methadone or Morphine Exposure in the Neonatal Guinea Pig  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study uses a neonatal guinea pig model to compare the effects of in utero methadone or morphine exposure upon breathing control. We hypothesize that in utero methadone exposure will result in similar respiratory disturbances to those seen in morphine exposed neonates, but that the onset will be slower and the duration longer, due to methadone’s longer elimination half-life. Pregnant Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs received once-daily injections of methadone, morphine, or vehicle (saline) du...

Nettleton, Rosemary T.; Wallisch, Michael; Olsen, George D.

2008-01-01

112

Fetal cerebral responses to ventilation and oxygenation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have shown that cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO2) increases by nearly 50% at birth. The perinatal factors responsible for this increase are unknown; however, one possibility is that fetal CMRO2 is constrained by the normal intrauterine arterial Po2 (Pa02) of ?20 mmHg. The authors investigated this possibility in seven near-term chronically instrumented fetal sheep (131-138 days gestation) in which they inserted vascular catheters and an endotracheal tube. After 1-3 days recovery, they measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) with radiolabeled microspheres and calculated CMRO2. Measurements were made in utero under three conditions for each fetus: (1) nonventilated control; (2) ventilation with 3% O2-5% CO2-92% N2; and (3) ventilation with an inspired oxygen concentration sufficient to raise fetal Pa02 to normal newborn levels. The results showed that increasing fetal arterial Po2 to postnatal levels did not consistently increase CMRO2. CBF decreased as arterial O2 content (Ca02) rose, with an inverse hyperbolic response similar to that previously found to relate CBF to Ca02 during fetal hypoxic hypoxia. This indicates that the normally low intrauterine Pa02 does not intrinsically limit CMRO2 and implies that the rapid increase in CMRO2 at birth reflects the activation of specific cellular and physiological processes at (or near) this unique developmental event

1988-01-01

113

Intention to Use and Actual Use of Electronic Information Resources: Further Exploring Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following up a previous study that examined public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments, the present study proposed two models to investigate whether or not public health students actually used the e-resources they intended to use and whether or not the determinants of intention to use predict actual use of e-resources. Focus groups and pre- and post-questionnaires were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structu...

Tao, Donghua

2009-01-01

114

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam. The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8 and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0 seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B

2012-01-01

115

Factors Influencing Students' Use of Electronic Resources and their Opinions About this Use: The Case of Students at An-Najah National University  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electronic resources are becoming an integral part of the modern life and of the educational scene, especially the high education scene. In this research we wanted to verify what influences first degree university students' use of electronic resources and their opinions regarding this use. Collecting data from 202 students and analyzing it using SPSS, we found that more than one half of the participants had high level of electronic media use and more than one third had moderate level of elect...

Ali Shaqour; Daher, Wajeeh M.

2010-01-01

116

Clinical application of an improved utero-operator in the interventional treatment of infertility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an improved utero-operator in the interventional treatment of tube obstruction infertility, and to make a comparison with other methods. Methods: One hundred cases of infertile women with tubal obstruction were divided into 3 groups and treated separately under TV fluoroscopy with 3 different methods and follow-up examination was made up to 24 months. Among the 100 cases, 60 cases were treated with improved utero-operator (109 tubes), 20 with Cook cupped coaxial catheter (36 tubes), and 20 with emulsoid double-cavity tube (20 tubes). Result: Among the improved utero-operator group, Cook cupped coaxial catheter group, and emulsoid double-cavity tube group, the successful rate of selective catheterization was 92.7%, 80.6% and 80.0%, respectively. The successful rate of recanalization was 72.3%, 72.4% and 71.4%, respectively. The pregnancy rate was 36.4%, 35.7% and 36.4%, respectively. Improved utero-operator has the highest successful rate in selective catheterization (x2 = 4.275, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Improved utero-operator has a high successful rate of selective catheterization in selective salpingography and treatment of tube obstruction infertility, and it is an easy and stable method which spends less time and received less X-ray. It is an ideal treating method at the moment

2002-01-01

117

Fetal Surgery: The Ochsner Experience with In Utero Spina Bifida Repair  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Myelomeningocele is the most common form of congenital central nervous system defect that is compatible with life. Most patients with myelomeningocele have significant functional impairment of ambulation and bowel and bladder function, require permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion with shunting, and have significant morbidity and mortality from hindbrain herniation (Chiari II malformation). The advent of intrauterine surgery has provided new opportunities to better address this lifelong debilitating disease. Case Report The patient was a 19-year-old gravida 2 para 1 at 22-6/7 weeks whose fetus was diagnosed with an open neural tube defect and further demonstrated to have ventriculomegaly and hindbrain herniation. Amniocentesis confirmed normal karyotype and the presence of acetylcholinesterase. After an intrauterine procedure, the patient underwent cesarean section at 35-5/7 weeks and delivered a male infant. His spinal incision was well healed at birth without any evidence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage, and his extremities were normal in appearance, range of motion, and movement. The infant also has maintained relatively normal, age-appropriate bowel and bladder function and has no obvious neurologic deficit. Conclusion As the benefit of fetal surgery becomes more widely accepted, quality of care and patient safety must be at the forefront of any institution's effort to offer fetal surgery. Given the current prevalence of spina bifida and the amount of resources required to treat this disease effectively either in utero or postnatally, it is our opinion that the treatment of spina bifida should be regionalized to tertiary referral centers with the interdisciplinary expertise to offer comprehensive treatment for all aspects of the disease and all phases of care for the patients.

Kahn, Lora; Mbabuike, Nnenna; Valle-Giler, Edison P.; Garces, Juanita; Moore, R. Clifton; Hilaire, Hugo St.; Bui, Cuong J.

2014-01-01

118

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??

Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.

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???????????

2007-04-01

119

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection w...

Omeluzor, Saturday U.; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Itunu Bamidele; Ogbuiyi, Susan U.

2012-01-01

120

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods T...

Soto Giselle; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Neyra Joan; Fernandez Miguel; Leturia Carlos; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

‘I’ll just Google it!’: Should lawyers’ perceptions of Google inform the design of electronic legal resources?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lawyers, like many user groups, regularly use Google to find information for their work. We present results of a series of interviews with academic and practicing lawyers, where they discuss in what situations they use various electronic resources and why. We find lawyers use Google due to a variety of factors, many of which are related to the need to find information quickly. Lawyers also talk about Google with a certain affection not demonstrated when discussing other r...

Makri, S.; Blandford, A.; Cox, A. L.

2007-01-01

122

Understanding Intention to Use Electronic Information Resources: A Theoretical Extension of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students’ intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceiv...

Tao, Donghua

2008-01-01

123

Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma diagnosed in a phetus in utero by prenatal ultrasound in a 20-year-old woman on the 22nd week of pregnancy is reported. The follow-up by fetal echography allowed to evaluate the case. Abortion was induced and the diagnosis was confirmed. The study of the mother at the Genetics Department concluded that she was carrier of tuberous sclerosis.

Adis L. Peña Cedeño

2001-01-01

124

Data resource profile: cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

Denaxas, S. C.; George, J.; Herrett, E.; Shah, A. D.; Kalra, D.; Hingorani, A. D.; Kivimaki, M.; Timmis, A. D.; Smeeth, L.; Hemingway, H.

2012-01-01

125

Data Resource Profile: Cardiovascular disease research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of cardiovascular disease (CVD) research using linked bespoke studies and electronic health records (CALIBER) is to provide evidence to inform health care and public health policy for CVDs across different stages of translation, from discovery, through evaluation in trials to implementation, where linkages to electronic health records provide new scientific opportunities. The initial approach of the CALIBER programme is characterized as follows: (i) Linkages of multiple electronic he...

Denaxas, Spiros C.; George, Julie; Herrett, Emily; Shah, Anoop D.; Kalra, Dipak; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Kivimaki, Mika; Timmis, Adam D.; Smeeth, Liam; Hemingway, Harry

2012-01-01

126

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in dev...

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

127

In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

128

Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation.

Anthony Al-Khan

2002-01-01

129

Varicella Vaccination During Early Pregnancy: A Cause of in utero Miliary Fetal Tissue Calcifications and Hydrops?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation.

Joseph Apuzzio; Vijaya Ganesh; Leslie Iffy; Anthony Al-Khan

2002-01-01

130

PERIODS OF VERTEBRAL COLUMN SENSITIVITY TO BORIC ACID TREATMENT IN CD-1 MICE IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

Periods of vertebral column sensitivity to boric acid treatment in CD-1 mice in utero. Cherrington JW, Chernoff N. Department of Toxicology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA. jana_cherrington@hotmail.com Boric acid (BA) has many uses as...

131

EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1 1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort...

132

Germline mutation rates in mice following in utero exposure to diesel exhaust particles by maternal inhalation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The induction of inherited DNA sequence mutations arising in the germline (i.e., sperm or egg) of mice exposed in utero to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) via maternal inhalation compared to unexposed controls was investigated in this study. Previous work has shown that particulate air pollutants (PAPs) from industrial environments cause DNA damage and mutations in the sperm of adult male mice. Effects on the female and male germline during critical stages of development (in utero) are unknown. In mice, previous studies have shown that expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci exhibit high rates of spontaneous mutation, making this endpoint a valuable tool for studying inherited mutation and genomic instability. In the present study, pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to 19mg/m3 DEP from gestational day 7 through 19, alongside air exposed controls. Male and female F1 offspring were raised to maturity and mated with control CBA mice. The F2 descendents were collected and ESTR germline mutation rates were derived from full pedigrees (mother, father, offspring) of F1 male and female mice. We found no evidence for increased ESTR mutation rates in females exposed in utero to DEP relative to control females. In contrast, a statistically significant increase in the mutation frequency of male mice exposed in utero to DEP was observed (2-fold; Fisher's exact p

Ritz, Caitlin; Ruminski, Wojciech

2011-01-01

133

HEPATIC GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES OF RATS EXPOSED TO PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic Gene Expression Profiles of Rats Exposed to Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in utero. J.A. Bjork1, J.M. Berthiaume1, C. Lau2, J. L. Butenhoff3, and K.B. Wallace1 1Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Dulut...

134

The effects of in utero irradiation on mutation induction and transgenerational instability in mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Epidemiological evidence suggests that the deleterious effects of prenatal irradiation can manifest during childhood, resulting in an increased risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth. However, the mechanisms underlying the long-term effects of foetal irradiation remain poorly understood. This study was designed to analyse the impact of in utero irradiation on mutation rates at expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) DNA loci in directly exposed mice and their first-generation (F{sub 1}) offspring. ESTR mutation frequencies in the germline and somatic tissues of male and female mice irradiated at 12 days of gestation remained highly elevated during adulthood, which was mainly attributed to a significant increase in the frequency of singleton mutations. The prevalence of singleton mutations in directly exposed mice suggests that foetal irradiation results in genomic instability manifested both in utero and during adulthood. The frequency of ESTR mutation in the F{sub 1} offspring of prenatally irradiated male mice was equally elevated across all tissues, which suggests that foetal exposure results in transgenerational genomic instability. In contrast, maternal in utero exposure did not affect the F{sub 1} stability. Our data imply that the passive erasure of epigenetic marks in the maternal genome can diminish the transgenerational effects of foetal irradiation and therefore provide important clues to the still unknown mechanisms of radiation-induced genomic instability. The results of this study offer a plausible explanation for the effects of in utero irradiation on the risk of leukaemia and solid cancers after birth.

Barber, Ruth C.; Hardwick, Robert J.; Shanks, Morag E.; Glen, Colin D.; Mughal, Safeer K.; Voutounou, Mariel [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2009-05-12

135

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

136

Linking Basic Skills to Entry-Level Electronics Test Technician Tasks. Instructional Resources. Assessments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This project first identified the specific mathematics, reading, writing, listening, and speaking skills required of an entry-level electronics testing technician (ETT), using a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) occupational analysis process. This approach involves a panel of expert workers from the electronics industry who analyze and…

Gaillard, Don; Mostaghel, Debbie

137

Integrated Electronic Warfare System Advanced Development Model (ADM); Appendix 9 - RMP Resource Management Module.  

Science.gov (United States)

The resource management function shall determine whether each emitter constitutes a threat, and if so, a response shall be determined. This function shall assign a lethality to each threat emitter based on the degree of threat to the IEWS airframe. The em...

1977-01-01

138

Challenges for international students in using electronic resources in the Learning Centre :a case study of Oslo University College  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to find out the challenges facing by international students in using electronic resources in the OUC learning center. This research has used a qualitative approach and purposive, a non-probability techniques used for sampling of this study. A semi-structured face-to-face interviews method is used for the collection of data. The interview questions were open ended and the discourse analysis method has been used for analysing data. In the data analysis section the r...

Rahman, Md Anisur

2011-01-01

139

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is:

Dicarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

2000-01-01

140

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources...

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar

2013-06-01

142

Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology; Protocolo y resultados de las estimaciones de dosis equivalente en utero en 500 exploraciones de radiodiagnostico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

Gago Gomez, P.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.; Gomez Cores, S.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Gomez Calvar, R.; Herranz Crespo, R.

2011-07-01

143

Marcadores ecográficos de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero: Revisión de la literatura / Ultrasound markers for chorioamnionitis and in utero fetal infection: a literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el diagnóstico de corioamnionitis se basa en criterios clínicos que no alcanzan una sensibilidad mayor al 60%, y que tienen poca utilidad para predecir el compromiso fetal. El ultrasonido surge como una alternativa útil en el diagnóstico. Al mejorar el diagnóstico con la búsqueda de ma [...] rcadores ecográficos de infección fetal podemos impactar en la morbimortalidad perinatal al poder intervenir de forma temprana a las gestantes en riesgo de compromiso fetal, especialmente corioamnionitis con curso subclínico. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer la evidencia que soporta la asociación entre los hallazgos ecográficos del ultrasonido y la presencia de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura existente en las bases de datos medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs, SciELO desde enero de 1985 hasta octubre de 2012. Se incluyeron los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales. Resultados: en las gestantes con parto pretérmino y ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares el acortamiento cervical, la presencia de “sludge”, el oligohidramnios y la involución del timo son los marcadores que han mostrado mayor asociación con infección amniótica. Conclusiones: el ultrasonido es una herramienta por considerar en el diagnóstico de infección materna y fetal in utero. Abstract in english Introduction: A diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is based on clinical criteria which only manage 60% sensitivity and have little usefulness in predicting fetal compromise. Ultrasound emerges as a useful diagnostic alternative. An impact might be made on perinatal morbimortality by improving diagnosis t [...] hrough the search for echographic markers of fetal infection, thereby enabling early intervention in pregnant women at risk of fetal compromise, especially regarding subclinical chorioamnionitis. This review was aimed at providing evidence supporting an association between ultrasound’s echographic findings and the presence of chorioamnionitis in in utero (congenital) fetal infection. Materials and methods: A review of the existing literature was made in medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs and scielo databases from January 1985 to October 2012. Original research and review articles were included. Results: Cervical length shortening, the presence of sludge, oligohydramnios and thymus involution are the markers which have been shown to have the greatest association with intra-amniotic infection. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a tool to be considered when diagnosing in utero maternal and fetal infection.

Molina-Giraldo, Saulo; Bermúdes-Roa, Jesús; Acuña-Osorio, Edgar; Franco-Hernández, Alejandro; Rojas-Arias, José Luis.

144

Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. PMID:22147497

Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

2012-06-01

145

Fetal lung compliance in premature and term lambs after two methods of in utero repair of diaphragmatic hernia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND--In utero surgery was used to correct a surgically induced model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) in premature and term lambs, resulting in an improvement in lung mechanics at birth. METHODS--The differences between the in utero "patch" repair method and the "silo" repair method were assessed in 55 lambs by measuring the static respiratory system compliance (CST,RS) at birth in term (approximately 145 day) and in premature (128 day) animals. RESULTS--Both methods resulted i...

Parsons, D. W.; Ford, W. D.; Cool, J. C.; Martin, A. J.; Staugas, R. E.; Kennedy, J. D.

1994-01-01

146

Induction of cross-reactive serum neutralizing antibody to human rotavirus in calves after in utero administration of bovine rotavirus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sera from calves infected in utero or postnatally with bovine rotavirus NCDV or postnatally with human rotavirus D (serotype 1) were tested by plaque reduction neutralization assay for antibody to bovine rotavirus and to three serotypes of human rotavirus. Homologous antibody developed in all animals, but antibody to heterologous rotaviruses developed mainly in animals exposed in utero to bovine rotavirus. The development of heterologous antibody may explain the immunological implications for...

Wyatt, R. G.; Kapikian, A. Z.; Mebus, C. A.

1983-01-01

147

Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

Do?an At?lgan

2009-12-01

148

Collaboration in electronic resource provision in university libraries: SHEDL, a Scottish case study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study examines the growth of collaboration among Scottish higher education institutions. Following a summary of the work of the Scottish Confederation of University and Research Libraries (SCURL), more detailed information is provided on collaboration in the fields of acquisition, licensing, selection, and purchasing. Some of the UK background is outlined, relating to NESLi2 in particular, in order to illuminate the options within Scotland. The origins of negotiations on electronic ...

Kidd, T.

2009-01-01

149

Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. PMID:21316077

Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

2011-06-01

150

Corroboration of in utero MRI using post-mortem MRI and autopsy in foetuses with CNS abnormalities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIMS: To corroborate the findings of in utero magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with autopsy and post-mortem MRI in cases of known or suspected central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities on ultrasound and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ante-natal ultrasound and in utero MRI. METHODS: Twelve pregnant women, whose foetuses had suspected central nervous system abnormalities underwent in utero MRI. The foetuses were imaged using MRi before autopsy. The data were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of in utero MRI when compared with a reference standard of autopsy and post-mortem MRI in 10 cases and post-mortem MRI alone in two cases. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy of antenatal ultrasound and in utero MRI in correctly characterizing brain and spine abnormalities were 42 and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In utero MRI provides a useful adjuvant to antenatal ultrasound when assessing CNS abnormalities by providing more accurate anatomical information. Post-mortem MRI assists the diagnosis of macroscopic structural abnormalities.

Whitby, E.H. E-mail: e.whitby@sheffield.ac.uk; Variend, S.; Rutter, S.; Paley, M.N.J.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Davies, N.P.; Sparey, C.; Griffiths, P.D

2004-12-01

151

Review of peripheral blood parameters in leukemic dogs that had been irradiated continuously beginning in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Continuous whole body exposure of dogs to high dose rate 60Co gamma irradiation is known to induce a high incidence of bone marrow disorders, including myeloid leukemia. As part of a study of the mechanisms of radiation leukemogenesis, we investigated the influence of age at the onset of exposure. We have observed striking differences in cumulative leukemia incidence in beagle dogs which are exposed beginning in utero as compared to dogs initially exposed post-natally

1983-08-01

152

In utero exposure to low doses of environmental pollutants disrupts fetal ovarian development in sheep  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Epidemiological studies of the impact of environmental chemicals on reproductive health demonstrate consequences of exposure but establishing causative links requires animal models using ‘real life’ in utero exposures. We aimed to determine whether prolonged, low-dose, exposure of pregnant sheep to a mixture of environmental chemicals affects fetal ovarian development. Exposure of treated ewes (n = 7) to pollutants was maximized by surface application of processed sewage sludge to pasture...

2008-01-01

153

Varicella vaccination during early pregnancy: a cause of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and hydrops?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: It is the purpose of this article to describe a suspected association of inadvertent vaccination with varicella vaccine during early pregnancy with the subsequent development of in utero miliary fetal tissue calcifications and fetal hydrops detected by sonogram at 15 weeks of gestation. CASE: This is a case presentation of a pregnant patient who received varicella vaccination during the same menstrual cycle that she became pregnant, and is supplemented by a literary review. The fe...

Apuzzio, Joseph; Ganesh, Vijaya; Iffy, Leslie; Al-khan, Anthony

2002-01-01

154

Percutaneous angio-embolization of a post laparoscopy complex utero-adenexal vascular malformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vascular abnormalities are uncommon causes of uterine bleeding. Laparoscopic surgeries, however, require expertise and improper techniques can lead to major vascular complications. We report an unusual case of utero-adenexal arterio- venous fistula with arterio - venous malformation due to pelvic trauma caused during laparoscopic sterilisation procedure, which was treated by percutaneous embolisation technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of such a complex va...

Verma Ashish; Mohan Suyash; Chandra Tripti; Kathuria Manoj; Baijal Sanjay

2008-01-01

155

Histological study of timing and embryology of notochordal abnormalities in rat exposed in utero to Doxorubicin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experimental Doxorubicin-exposure in utero is correlated with foetal oesophageal atresia, tracheooesophageal fistula, axial alterations. While gastrointestinal and respiratory defects have been larg e l y investigated, only sporadic data have been published to date on notochordal and vertebral defects. The aim of this work was the study of the genesis of chordal and vertebral abnormalities in rat embryos and foetuses exposed to Doxorubicin and the study of thei...

Menegola, E.; Broccia, M. L.; Di Renzo, F.

2002-01-01

156

Resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice infected as neonates or exposed in utero.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mice were exposed to the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii in utero or were infected as neonates in order to identify and characterize resistance mechanisms that function protectively during the first weeks after birth. About one-half of the mice born of mothers fed T. gondii cysts at 11 days of gestation survived to weaning age or beyond. No effect of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype on early survival was observed in a group of backcross progeny; however, long-term surviva...

Johnson, L. L.

1994-01-01

157

Local tissue growth patterns underlying normal fetal human brain gyrification quantified in utero  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Existing knowledge of growth patterns in the living fetal human brain is based upon in utero imaging studies by MRI and ultrasound, which describe overall growth and provided mainly qualitative findings. However, formation of the complex folded cortical structure of the adult brain requires, in part, differential rates of regional tissue growth. To better understand these local tissue growth patterns, we applied recent advances in fetal MRI motion correction and computational image analysis t...

2011-01-01

158

In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Setting Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Participants Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. Primary and secondary outcome measures Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. Results We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ?5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3?months (95% CI ?2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9?months (95% CI ?0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. Conclusions We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further.

Hakonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, J?rn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H?st

2014-01-01

159

In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: A model for MRKH syndrome?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mayer–Rokitansky–Kuster–Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phenomenon that is better studied in male offspring than females. The current study reports female reproductive tract malformations in the Sprague–Dawley rat similar to those characteristic of MRKH syndrome, following in utero exposure to a mixture of 5 PEs. We determined that females are ~2-fold less sensitive to the effects of the 5-PE mixture than males for reproductive tract malformations. We were not fully successful in defining the critical exposure period for females; however, incidence of malformations was 88% following dosing from GD8 to 19 versus 22% and 0% for GD8–13 and GD14–19, respectively. Overall, this study provides valuable information regarding female vulnerability to in utero phthalate exposure and further characterizes a potential model for the human MRKH syndrome.

Hannas, Bethany R.; Howdeshell, Kembra L.; Furr, Johnathan; Gray, L. Earl

2014-01-01

160

Utero-tubal embryo transfer and vasectomy in the mouse model.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transfer of preimplantation embryos to a surrogate female is a required step for the production of genetically modified mice or to study the effects of epigenetic alterations originated during preimplantation development on subsequent fetal development and adult health. The use of an effective and consistent embryo transfer technique is crucial to enhance the generation of genetically modified animals and to determine the effect of different treatments on implantation rates and survival to term. Embryos at the blastocyst stage are usually transferred by uterine transfer, performing a puncture in the uterine wall to introduce the embryo manipulation pipette. The orifice performed in the uterus does not close after the pipette has been withdrawn, and the embryos can outflow to the abdominal cavity due to the positive pressure of the uterus. The puncture can also produce a hemorrhage that impairs implantation, blocks the transfer pipette and may affect embryo development, especially when embryos without zona are transferred. Consequently, this technique often results in very variable and overall low embryo survival rates. Avoiding these negative effects, utero-tubal embryo transfer take advantage of the utero-tubal junction as a natural barrier that impedes embryo outflow and avoid the puncture of the uterine wall. Vasectomized males are required for obtaining pseudopregnant recipients. A technique to perform vasectomy is described as a complement to the utero-tubal embryo transfer. PMID:24637845

Bermejo-Alvarez, Pablo; Park, Ki-Eun; Telugu, Bhanu P

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The effect of genotype and in utero environment on interindividual variation in neonate DNA methylomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Integrating the genotype with epigenetic marks holds the promise of better understanding the biology that underlies the complex interactions of inherited and environmental components that define the developmental origins of a range of disorders. The quality of the in utero environment significantly influences health over the lifecourse. Epigenetics, and in particular DNA methylation marks, have been postulated as a mechanism for the enduring effects of the prenatal environment. Accordingly, neonate methylomes contain molecular memory of the individual in utero experience. However, interindividual variation in methylation can also be a consequence of DNA sequence polymorphisms that result in methylation quantitative trait loci (methQTLs) and, potentially, the interaction between fixed genetic variation and environmental influences. We surveyed the genotypes and DNA methylomes of 237 neonates and found 1423 punctuate regions of the methylome that were highly variable across individuals, termed variably methylated regions (VMRs), against a backdrop of homogeneity. MethQTLs were readily detected in neonatal methylomes, and genotype alone best explained ?25% of the VMRs. We found that the best explanation for 75% of VMRs was the interaction of genotype with different in utero environments, including maternal smoking, maternal depression, maternal BMI, infant birth weight, gestational age, and birth order. Our study sheds new light on the complex relationship between biological inheritance as represented by genotype and individual prenatal experience and suggests the importance of considering both fixed genetic variation and environmental factors in interpreting epigenetic variation. PMID:24709820

Teh, Ai Ling; Pan, Hong; Chen, Li; Ong, Mei-Lyn; Dogra, Shaillay; Wong, Johnny; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; McEwen, Lisa M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Soh, Shu-E; Chong, Mary F F; Barton, Sheila; Karnani, Neerja; Cheong, Clara Y; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Stünkel, Walter; Kobor, Michael S; Meaney, Michael J; Gluckman, Peter D; Holbrook, Joanna D

2014-07-01

162

Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2014-05-01

163

Maternal in utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects the blood pressure of adult male offspring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used industrially to add flexibility to polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymers and is ubiquitously found in the environment, with evidence of prenatal, perinatal and early infant exposure in humans. In utero exposure to DEHP decreases circulating testosterone levels in the adult rat. In addition, DEHP reduces the expression of the angiotensin II receptors in the adrenal gland, resulting in decreased circulating aldosterone levels. The latter may have important effects on water and electrolyte balance as well as systemic arterial blood pressure. Therefore, we determined the effects of in utero exposure to DEHP on systemic arterial blood pressure in the young (2 month-old) and older (6.5 month-old) adult rats. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were exposed from gestational day 14 until birth to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and activity data were collected using an intra-aortal transmitter in the male offspring at postnatal day (PND) 60 and PND200. A low (0.01%) and high-salt (8%) diet was used to challenge the animals at PND200. In utero exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced activity at PND60. At PND200, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial pressures as well as activity were reduced in response to DEHP exposure. This is the first evidence showing that in utero exposure to DEHP has cardiovascular and behavioral effects in the adult male offspring. Highlights: ? In utero exposure to 300 mg DEHP/kg/day decreases activity at postnatal day 60. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases aldosterone levels at postnatal day 200. ? In utero exposure to DEHP decreases systolic blood pressure at postnatal day 200. ? An 8% salt diet recovers the decreased blood pressure at postnatal day 200.

Martinez–Arguelles, D.B. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); McIntosh, M.; Rohlicek, C.V. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Culty, M. [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Zirkin, B.R. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Papadopoulos, V., E-mail: vassilios.papadopoulos@mcgill.ca [The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G 1A4 (Canada); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

2013-01-01

164

Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

2013-01-01

165

Electronics  

... Electronics Electronics, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. Electronics Submit to Electronics Login Register MDPI Journals A-Z For Authors For Editors ...Computers Cosmetics Crystals Dentistry Journal Diagnostics Diseases Diversity Econometrics Economies Education Sciences Electronics Energies Entropy Environments Fibers Foods Forests Future Internet Galaxies Games Genes ...Project Report Reply Retraction Review Short Note Technical Note Special Issue Page Electronics Electronics Home About this journal Indexing & Abstracting Instructions for ... 1 (2012) Electronics — Editors Journal Contact Electronics Editorial Office MDPI AG, Klybeckstrasse 64, 4057 Basel, Switzerland E-Mail: electronics@mdpi.com ...

166

Pulmonary hemodynamic responses to in utero ventilation in very immature fetal sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset of ventilation at birth decreases pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR resulting in a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF. As the large cross sectional area of the pulmonary vascular bed develops late in gestation, we have investigated whether the ventilation-induced increase in PBF is reduced in immature lungs. Methods Surgery was performed in fetal sheep at 105 d GA (n = 7; term ~147 d to insert an endotracheal tube, which was connected to a neonatal ventilation circuit, and a transonic flow probe was placed around the left pulmonary artery. At 110 d GA, fetuses (n = 7 were ventilated in utero (IUV for 12 hrs while continuous measurements of PBF were made, fetuses were allowed to develop in utero for a further 7 days following ventilation. Results PBF changes were highly variable between animals, increasing from 12.2 ± 6.6 mL/min to a maximum of 78.1 ± 23.1 mL/min in four fetuses after 10 minutes of ventilation. In the remaining three fetuses, little change in PBF was measured in response to IUV. The increases in PBF measured in responding fetuses were not sustained throughout the ventilation period and by 2 hrs of IUV had returned to pre-IUV control values. Discussion and conclusion Ventilation of very immature fetal sheep in utero increased PBF in 57% of fetuses but this increase was not sustained for more than 2 hrs, despite continuing ventilation. Immature lungs can increase PBF during ventilation, however, the present studies show these changes are transient and highly variable.

Allison Beth J

2010-08-01

167

In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys : a pregnancy cohort study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. SETTING: Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. RESULTS: We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to â?¥5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3â??months (95% CI -2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9â??months (95% CI -0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further.

HÃ¥konsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise

2014-01-01

168

Involvement of testicular growth factors in fetal Leydig cell aggregation after exposure to phthalate in utero  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposures to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) have been shown to be associated with decreased adult testosterone (T) levels and increased Leydig cell numbers. As yet, little is known about DEHP effects in utero on fetal Leydig cells (FLC). The present study investigated effects of DEHP on FLC function. Pregnant Long–Evans female rats received vehicle (corn oil) or DEHP at 10, 100, or 750 mg/kg by oral gavage from gestational day (GD)2–20. At GD21, T production, FLC numbers and distribut...

Lin, Han; Ge, Ren-shan; Chen, Guo-rong; Hu, Guo-xin; Dong, Lei; Lian, Qing-quan; Hardy, Dianne O.; Sottas, Chantal M.; Li, Xiao-kun; Hardy, Matthew P.

2008-01-01

169

The use of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to ameliorate the hyperactivity of rat pups induced by in utero ethanol exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been demonstrated thatin utero ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces hyperactive behavior and learning disturbances in offspring. In order to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on these neurobehavioral dysfunctions of rat pups induced byin utero EtOH exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups depending on the type of oil added to the diet and drinking water as follows; (a) 5% safflower oil with tap water (TW/n-6), (b) 3% safflower oil and 2% DHA...

Furuya, Hiroyuki; Aikawa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takahiko; Okazaki, Isao

2000-01-01

170

THE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO NUTRITION IN BALI CATTLE ON THE SUBSEQUENT GROWTH OF THE OFFSPRINGS FROM BIRTH TO WEANING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of in utero nutrition given during different ages of gestation : (1) along gestation period (0 m to paturation ??? positive control), (2) the 1st trimester (0-3 m of gestation), (3) the 2nd trimester (3-6 m of gestation) and (4) the 3rd trimester (6-9 m of gestation), and (5) without in utero nutrition (0 ??? parturition ??? negative control) of Bali cows (n = 25) on the subsequent growth and the development of the offsprings. In addi...

Rahardja, D. P.; Toleng, A. L.; Hasan, S.; Antsir, A.; Yusuf, M.

2012-01-01

171

THE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO NUTRITION IN BALI CATTLE ON THE SUBSEQUENT GROWTH OF THE OFFSPRINGS FROM BIRTH TO WEANING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of in utero nutrition given during different ages of gestation : (1) along gestation period (0 m to paturation ??? positive control), (2) the 1st trimester (0-3 m of gestation), (3) the 2nd trimester (3-6 m of gestation) and (4) the 3rd trimester (6-9 m of gestation), and (5) without in utero nutrition (0 ??? parturition ??? negative control) of Bali cows (n = 25) on the subsequent growth and the development of the offsprings. In addi...

Rahardja, D. P.; Toleng, A. L.; Hasan, S.; Natsir, A.; Yusuf, M.

2013-01-01

172

Compuscience [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bibliographic computer science database produced by FIZ Karlsruhe covering literature in the field of computer science and technology with over 412,000 citations from 1972 to the present. It is updated monthly with about 500 citations drawn from more than 320 journals, books, conference proceedings and non-conventional literature from all areas of computer science.

173

Astronomy thesaurus [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thesaurus aims to standardise the terminology in the field of astronomy for the purposes of aiding unambiguous library cataloguing and more precise recall of data from computer databases. Intended for use by astronomy librarians and scientists.

174

Spatiotemporal molecular approach of in utero electroporation to functionally decipher endophenotypes in neurodevelopmental disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We have only just begun to decipher the complexity of our brain including its maturation. Correct brain development and communication among brain areas are crucial for proper cognitive behavior. Brain area-specific genes expressed within a particular time window direct neurodevelopmental events such as proliferation, migration, axon guidance, dendritic arborization and synaptogenesis. These genes can pose as susceptibility factors in neurodevelopmental disorders eventually resulting in area-specific cognitive deficits. Therefore, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer can aid in creating valuable animal models in which the regionality and time of expression can be restricted for the targeted gene(s. Moreover, through the use of cell-type specific molecular constructs, expression can be altered in a particular neuronal subset within a distinct area such that we are now able to causally link the function of that gene in that brain region to the etiology of the disorder. Thus, in utero electroporation-mediated gene transfer is an attractive molecular technique to spatiotemporally address the developmental aspects of gene function in relation to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated endophenotypes.

SharonMargrietKolk

2011-11-01

175

The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

1997-11-01

176

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37{sup +3} weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract.

Bui, T.; Daire, J.L.; Chalard, F.; Sebag, G. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Zaccaria, I.; Alberti, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Clinical Epidemiology; Elmaleh, M.; Garel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Univ. of Paris-7 (France). Faculty of Medicine; Luton, D. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Blanc, N. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Neurology Service

2006-11-15

177

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm2) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37+3 weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 ?m2/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 ?m2/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 ?m2/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract

2006-11-01

178

In utero and postnatal exposure to arsenic alters pulmonary structure and function  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to cancer endpoints, arsenic exposures can also lead to non-cancerous chronic lung disease. Exposures during sensitive developmental time points can contribute to the adult disease. Using a mouse model, in utero and early postnatal exposures to arsenic (100 ppb or less in drinking water) were found to alter airway reactivity to methacholine challenge in 28 day old pups. Removal of mice from arsenic exposure 28 days after birth did not reverse the alterations in sensitivity to methacholine. In addition, adult mice exposed to similar levels of arsenic in drinking water did not show alterations. Therefore, alterations in airway reactivity were irreversible and specific to exposures during lung development. These functional changes correlated with protein and gene expression changes as well as morphological structural changes around the airways. Arsenic increased the whole lung levels of smooth muscle actin in a dose dependent manner. The level of smooth muscle mass around airways was increased with arsenic exposure, especially around airways smaller than 100 ?m in diameter. This increase in smooth muscle was associated with alterations in extracellular matrix (collagen, elastin) expression. This model system demonstrates that in utero and postnatal exposure to environmentally relevant levels of arsenic can irreversibly alter pulmonary structure and function in the adults

2009-02-15

179

Testicular effects following in utero exposure to the antivirals acyclovir and ganciclovir in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to the antivirals acyclovir and ganciclovir has been reported to induce gross structural defects in rat offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal antiviral treatment on gestation day 10 on reproductive and nonreproductive organs in male rat offspring with a particular focus on the testes. Vehicle and two doses of acyclovir and ganciclovir, 75 and 300 mg/kg, were administered to rat dams. The total doses were fractioned into three subcutaneous applications (3 × distilled water, 3 × 25 mg/kg, and 3 × 100 mg/kg) that were administered on gestation day 10 at 8:00 a.m., 1:00 p.m., and 6:00 p.m. The antiviral concentrations were measured in the serum of the dams 1 h after the last administration. Exposure to 300 mg/kg ganciclovir induced germ cell deficiency in both fetal and adult testes, an effect that was not seen in any other treatment group. Adult rats exposed in utero to this high ganciclovir dose exhibited Sertoli cell-only tubules intermingled with seminiferous tubules that displayed a normal size and normal cell counts, alterations that resemble focal Sertoli cell-only syndrome in humans. The serum concentrations of ganciclovir were markedly higher than those of acyclovir, particularly at the high dose tested. However, although 300 mg/kg acyclovir did not induce germ cell deficiency, other specific effects were seen in exposed animals, including incomplete eye opening and reduced thymus weight. PMID:24496639

Nihi, Fabíola; Moreira, Davyson; Santos Lourenço, Ana Carolina; Gomes, Caroline; Araujo, Samanta Luiza; Zaia, Renata Mercer; Trevisani, Natalia Botelho; Athayde Pinto, Leonardo de; Moura-Costa, Daniele Dietrich; de Morais, Rosana Nogueira; Roma Paumgartten, Francisco José; Martino-Andrade, Anderson Joel

2014-05-01

180

Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru): a prospective evaluation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Me...

Huaman Moises A; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Soto Giselle; Neyra Joan M; Quispe Jose A; Fernandez Miguel F; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters on Fetal Rodent Testosterone Production and Gene Expression Following In Utero Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Phthalate esters(PE) are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of common products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables, and wall/floor coverings. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that in utero treatment with PE such as di-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) du...

182

Correction of congenital hydronephrosis in utero II. Decompression reverses the effects of obstruction on the fetal lung and urinary tract.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urethral obstruction and urachal ligation at 93-107 days gestation produced severe hydronephrosis, hydroureter, megacystis, and urinary ascites as well as significant pulmonary hypoplasia in 17 fetal lambs. Obstructions in 9 fetuses subsequently were relieved in utero by suprapubic cutaneous cystostomy. At birth, all 4 liveborn obstructed lambs had respiratory insufficiency, and only 1 survived. Four others were stillborn. The lungs were significantly hypoplastic by weight and volume (p less than 0.025). All 8 had advanced megacystis, hydroureter, and hydronephrosis but no cystic or dysplastic renal changes. In contrast, 7 liveborn lambs diverted in utero had far less respiratory difficulty and all survived (p = 0.002). Two were stillborn. The lung weight was significantly increased (p less than 0.05). All lambs undergoing in utero decompression showed significant resolution of the severe urinary tract dilatation seen in the obstructed lambs. In utero decompression of the obstructed fetal urinary tract allows the abnormally small lungs to grow and develop and hydronephrosis to resolve. PMID:7161685

Harrison, M R; Nakayama, D K; Noall, R; de Lorimier, A A

1982-12-01

183

In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ?500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However, additional studies are needed to clarify whether in utero exposure to I-131 at levels > = 500 mGy may be associated with increases in weight/BMI and to evaluate the confounding or modifying role of thyroid disease, past iodine deficiency, maternal and prenatal/postnatal factors. PMID:24611659

Neta, Gila; Hatch, Maureen; Kitahara, Cari M; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Bolshova, Elena V; Tereschenko, Valery P; Tronko, Mykola D; Brenner, Alina V

2014-03-01

184

Natural killer cell activity in rats exposed in utero to iodine-131  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors' efforts have been directed toward the detection of a carcinogenic exposure by demonstrating the existence of specific anti-tumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Data indicate that this phenomenon is attributable to specific T-cell education resulting in the recognition of cultured tumor cells of endodermal origin. This concept has been employed to detect exposures to ionizing radiation, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. Recently the authors saw an induction of CMI in the first generation of rats exposed perinatally to iodine-131. The model consists of an in utero exposure, at days 16-18 of gestation, in the Fischer F-344 inbred rat. This study was initiated to determine if any component of this enhanced cellular immunity might be attributable to a non-specific induction of Natural Killer (NK) cell activity. Preliminary studies indicate that there is little if any NK contribution to the observed cell-mediated immunity

1985-01-01

185

Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu [National Cheng Kung Univ. Medical College, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Lambert, G.H. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

1995-09-01

186

A novel method of mouse ex utero transplantation of hepatic progenitor cells into the fetal liver  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Avoiding the limitations of the adult liver niche, transplantation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells into fetal liver is desirable to analyze immature cells in a hepatic developmental environment. Here, we established a new monitor tool for cell fate of hepatic progenitor cells transplanted into the mouse fetal liver by using ex utero surgery. When embryonic day (ED) 14.5 hepatoblasts were injected into the ED14.5 fetal liver, the transplanted cells expressed albumin abundantly or ?-fetoprotein weakly, and contained glycogen in the neonatal liver, indicating that transplanted hepatoblasts can proliferate and differentiate in concord with surrounding recipient parenchymal cells. The transplanted cells became mature in the liver of 6-week-old mice. Furthermore, this method was applicable to transplantation of hepatoblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. These data indicate that this unique technique will provide a new in vivo experimental system for studying cell fate of hepatic stem/progenitor cells and liver organogenesis.

2009-04-03

187

Ultrasonography of wallaby prenatal development shows that the climb to the pouch begins in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Marsupials have a functional placenta for a shorter period of time compared to that of eutherian species, and their altricial young reach the teats without any help from the mother. We have monitored the short intrauterine development of one marsupial, the tammar wallaby, with high-resolution ultrasound from reactivation of the 100-cell diapausing blastocyst to birth. The expanding blastocyst could be visualized when it had reached a diameter of 1.5 mm. From at least halfway through pregnancy, there are strong undulating movements of the endometrium that massage the expanding vesicle against the highly secretory endometrial surface. These unique movements possibly enhance exchange of uterine secretions and gases between the mother and embryo. There was a constant rate of development measured ultrasonographically from mid-gestation, regardless of when the blastocyst reactivated. Interestingly climbing movements by the fetus began in utero about 3 days before birth, mimicking those required to climb to the pouch. PMID:23492830

Drews, Barbara; Roellig, Kathleen; Menzies, Brandon R; Shaw, Geoff; Buentjen, Ina; Herbert, Catherine A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Renfree, Marilyn B

2013-01-01

188

Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers  

CERN Document Server

Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

Rajendiran, P

2006-01-01

189

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ..beta..-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of (/sup 14/C)..beta..-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing (/sup 14/C) linoleic acid and (/sup 3/H) palmitic acid or (/sup 14/C) octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny.

Thulin, A.J.

1985-01-01

190

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with ["1"4C]?-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ?-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of ["1"4C]?-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing ["1"4C] linoleic acid and ["3H] palmitic acid or ["1"4C] octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) for MCT pigs. Glucose and creatinine levels showed quadratic effects, while FFA and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) exhibited cubic patterns during the fasting period. Although creatine levels were similar, BUN concentrations were higher (P < 0.01) for MCT progeny

1985-01-01

191

In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC.

Rickard, S. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: samrickard@tiscali.co.uk; Morris, J. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Paley, M. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, P. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Whitby, E. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

2006-10-15

192

Murine arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons communicate with GnRH neurons in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Puberty is a transition period of reproductive development from juvenile stages to adulthood and depends upon the activity of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. GnRH neurons are initially activated in utero but remain quiescent throughout the juvenile period. Premature reactivation of GnRH neurons results in precocious puberty in mice and humans, but the mechanisms underlying developmental control of GnRH neuron activity remain unknown. The neuropeptide kisspeptin, a potent activator of GnRH neurons that is implicated as a critical permissive signal triggering puberty and a major regulator of the adult female hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, is paradoxically produced by neurons in the developing brain well before puberty onset. Thus, the neural circuits controlling the timing of reproductive maturation remain elusive. Here, we delineate the underlying neural circuitry using conditional genetic transsynaptic tracing in female mouse embryos. We find that kisspeptin-producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) already communicate with a specific subset of GnRH neurons in utero. We show that ARC kisspeptin neurons are upstream of GnRH neurons, and that GnRH neuron connectivity to ARC kisspeptin neurons does not depend on their spatial position in the brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the neural circuits between ARC kisspeptin and GnRH neurons are fully established and operative before birth. Finally, we find that most GnRH neurons express the kisspeptin receptor GPR54 upon circuit formation, suggesting that the signaling system implicated in gatekeeping puberty becomes operative in the embryo. PMID:24599473

Kumar, Devesh; Freese, Maria; Drexler, Dagmar; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Marquardt, Annette; Boehm, Ulrich

2014-03-01

193

Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis. The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.

Jamie E. Jennings-Gee

2010-06-01

194

Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

1982-01-01

195

Electronics  

CERN Multimedia

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

196

Electrons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fast electrons are used to produce isotopes for studying the cooper metabolism: Cu-64 in a cyclotron and Cu-67 in a linear accelerator. Localized electrons are responsible for the chemical and physiological characteristics of the trace elements. Studied are I, Cu, Co, Zn, Mo, Mn, Fe, Se, Mg. The Cu/Mo and Cu/Zn interactions are investigated. The levels of molybdenum, sulfate and zinc in the food are analysed. The role of the electrons in free radicals is discussed. The protection action of peroxidases and super oxidases against electron dangerous effect on normal physiology is also considered. Calculation of radiation damage and radiation protection is made. (author)

1994-09-12

197

In Utero Exposure to the Antiandrogen Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Decreases Adrenal Aldosterone Production in the Adult Rat1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously reported that in utero exposure of the male fetus to the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) resulted in decreased circulating levels of testosterone in the adult without affecting Leydig cell numbers, luteinizing hormone levels, or steroidogenic enzyme expression. Fetal exposure to DEHP resulted in reduced mineralocorticoid receptor (MR; NR3C2) expression in adult Leydig cells. In the present studies, treatment of pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams from Gestational Day 14 ...

Martinez-arguelles, Daniel B.; Guichard, Theodore; Culty, Martine; Zirkin, Barry R.; Papadopoulos, Vassilios

2011-01-01

198

Fetal Onset of Aberrant Gene Expression Relevant to Pulmonary Carcinogenesis in Lung Adenocarcinoma Development Induced by In Utero Arsenic Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Arsenic is a human pulmonary carcinogen. Our work indicates that in utero arsenic exposure in mice can induce or initiate lung cancer in female offspring. To define early molecular changes, pregnant C3H mice were given 85 ppm arsenic in drinking water from days 8 to 18 of gestation and expression of selected genes in the fetal lung or in lung tumors developing in adults was examined. Transplacental arsenic exposure increased estrogen receptor-? (ER-?) transcript and protein levels in the fe...

Shen, Jun; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yaxiong; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Waalkes, Michael P.

2007-01-01

199

Postnatal onset of severe growth retardation after in utero exposure to carbamazepine and phenobarbital: a case report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Anticonvulsant drugs taken by pregnant women to prevent seizures are among the most common causes of potential harm to the fetus. While the immediate harmful effects manifesting as congenital abnormalities are well known, the long-term effects on growth of children exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs are still uncertain. Case presentation A 7-year-old boy presented to our clinic with severe short stature. His height was 110.4 c...

Liguori Alice; Cianfarani Stefano

2009-01-01

200

Correction of ADAMTS13 Deficiency by In Utero Gene Transfer of Lentiviral Vector encoding ADAMTS13 Genes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deficiency of A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin (ADAMTS13) results in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Plasma infusion or exchange is the only effective treatment to date. We show in this study that an administration of a self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding human full-length ADAMTS13 and a variant truncated after the spacer domain (MDTCS) in mice by in utero injection at embryonic days 8 and 14 resulted in detectable plasma proteolytic activity (~5–70%...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohisto...

Valdés Gloria; Erices Rafaela; Chacón Cecilia; Corthorn Jenny

2008-01-01

202

Congenital Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum Antigens: Prevalence and Antigenic Specificity of In Utero-Produced Antimalarial Immunoglobulin M Antibodies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Congenital Plasmodium falciparum malaria in newborns is uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa. A significant number of infants, however, become infected or exposed to malarial antigens either in utero or at delivery and have the potential to produce antimalarial antibodies and memory cells before their first natural infection. In Yaounde, Cameroon, parasite-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) was detected in 14% of cord blood samples. The IgM antibodies reacted with a wide range of asexual-stage antigen...

Xi, Guoling; Leke, Rose G. F.; Thuita, Lucy W.; Zhou, Ainong; Leke, Robert J. I.; Mbu, Robinson; Taylor, Diane Wallace

2003-01-01

203

The orl Rat with Inherited Cryptorchidism Has Increased Susceptibility to the Testicular Effects of In Utero Dibutyl Phthalate Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Phenotype results from interactions between genetics and environment, but for most environmental chemical exposures, such interactions are theoretical. The phenotypic response of the testis to in utero dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure was compared between two strains of Long-Evans (LE) rats, the orl substrain with inherited cryptorchidism and an outbred (wt) strain. orl and wt LE rats were exposed daily between gestational day (GD) 12 and GD21 to DBP dose levels ranging from 50 to 200 mg/kg b...

Johnson, Kamin J.; Mccahan, Suzanne M.; Si, Xiaoli; Campion, Liam; Herrmann, Revital; Barthold, Julia S.

2008-01-01

204

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

2001-01-01

205

Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários / Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciê [...] ncia da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science [...] are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

Guilherme Ataíde, Dias.

206

Mental and behavioural disorders in Belarusian persons exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0.01) and borderline intellectual functioning (r=0.56; P<0.05) of the same people at age 10-12.

2007-10-17

207

In utero exposure to benzene increases embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels in CD-1 mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Benzene is a known human leukemogen, but its role as an in utero leukemogen remains controversial. Epidemiological studies have correlated parental exposure to benzene with an increased incidence of childhood leukemias. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to benzene may cause leukemogenesis by affecting the embryonic c-Myb/Pim-1 signaling pathway and that this is mediated by oxidative stress. To investigate this hypothesis, pregnant CD-1 mice were treated with either 800 mg/kg of benzene or corn oil (i.p.) on days 10 and 11 of gestation and in some cases pretreated with 25 kU/kg of PEG-catalase. Phosphorylated and total embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels were assessed using Western blotting and maternal and embryonic oxidative stress were assessed by measuring reduced to oxidized glutathione ratios. Our results show increased oxidative stress at 4 and 24 h after exposure, increased phosphorylated Pim-1 protein levels 4 h after benzene exposure, and increased Pim-1 levels at 24 and 48 h after benzene exposure. Embryonic c-Myb levels were elevated at 24 h after exposure. PEG-catalase pretreatment prevented benzene-mediated increases in embryonic c-Myb and Pim-1 protein levels, and benzene-induced oxidative stress. These results support a role for ROS in c-Myb and Pim-1 alterations after in utero benzene exposure

2008-05-01

208

Transient in utero knockout (TIUKO of C-MYC affects late lung and intestinal development in the mouse  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmentally important genes often result in early lethality in knockout animals. Thus, the direct role of genes in late gestation organogenesis cannot be assessed directly. In utero delivery of transgenes was shown previously to result in high efficiency transfer to pulmonary and intestinal epithelial stem cells. Thus, this technology can be used to evaluate late gestation development. Results In utero gene transfer was used to transfer adenovirus with either an antisense c-myc or a C-MYC ubiquitin targeting protein to knockout out c-myc expression in late gestation lung and intestines. Using either antisense or ubiquitin mediated knockout of C-MYC levels in late gestation resulted in similar effects. Decreased complexity was observed in both intestines and lungs. Stunted growth of villi was evident in the intestines. In the lung, hypoplastic lungs with disrupted aveolarization were observed. Conclusions These data demonstrated that C-MYC was required for cell expansion and complexity in late gestation lung and intestinal development. In addition they demonstrate that transient in utero knockout of proteins may be used to determine the role of developmentally important genes in the lungs and intestines.

Zhou Pengbo

2004-04-01

209

Postnatal onset of severe growth retardation after in utero exposure to carbamazepine and phenobarbital: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Anticonvulsant drugs taken by pregnant women to prevent seizures are among the most common causes of potential harm to the fetus. While the immediate harmful effects manifesting as congenital abnormalities are well known, the long-term effects on growth of children exposed in utero to antiepileptic drugs are still uncertain. Case presentation A 7-year-old boy presented to our clinic with severe short stature. His height was 110.4 cm (?2.4 standard deviation score, with a target height of 177 cm (+0.35 standard deviation score. Height corrected for target height was ?2.75 standard deviation score. He presented with mild dysmorphic facial features, hypospadias and postnatal onset of severe growth retardation. Biochemical and endocrine tests were in the normal range. The child was exposed in utero to both carbamazepine and phenobarbital. Conclusion This case report shows for the first time that prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs may induce postnatal onset of severe growth retardation, suggesting the need for growth and endocrine monitoring of offspring exposed in utero to anticonvulsant drugs.

Liguori Alice

2009-06-01

210

Electronics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the electronic equipment used in pulse counting and mean current radiation detection systems is described. This includes the high voltage supply, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, scalers or counters, ratemeters, single-channel pulse height analyser, multi-channel pulse height analyser, d.c. amplifiers, coincidence and anticoincidence units and gain stabilisers

1982-10-01

211

Risk of cancer among children exposed in utero to A-bomb radiations, 1950-84  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over 40 years among in-utero exposed survivors of atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the 0.30+ Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but incidence continues to increase, and crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the 0.3+ Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus as estimated by the 1986 dosimetry system (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire 0.01 + Gy dose group the average excess risk per 104 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9-90.2%). (author)

1988-09-17

212

Dietary supplementation with resveratrol protects against striatal dopaminergic deficits produced by in utero LPS exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with the anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol in pregnant dams on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dopaminergic deficits in pups exposed to LPS in utero. Gravid female rats were fed with a resveratrol-enriched diet during gestational days 3-22.5 (E3-E22.5) and received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 1mg/kg LPS at E10.5. The striata were isolated from the pups at postnatal days 10 (P10) and P21. LPS-induced dopaminergic deficits were noted at P21, but not P10. These DA deficits at P21 were exhibited by a loss of DA and DA metabolite [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA)] levels and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the striatum. The LPS-induced loss of DA, DA metabolites, and TH expression were attenuated in the striata of pups from the dams fed with the resveratrol-supplemented diet. These data suggest that a resveratrol-supplemented diet may restore homeostasis of the striatal DA neuronal system following disruption by LPS. PMID:24863468

Rose, Katherine M; Parmar, Mayur S; Cavanaugh, Jane E

2014-07-21

213

Array comparative genomic hybridization and flow cytometry analysis of spontaneous abortions and mors in utero samples  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that 10-15% of all clinically recognised pregnancies result in a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. Previous studies have indicated that in up to 50% of first trimester miscarriages, chromosomal abnormalities can be identified. For several decades chromosome analysis has been the golden standard to detect these genomic imbalances. A major drawback of this method is the requirement of short term cultures of fetal cells. In this study we evaluated the combined use of array CGH and flow cytometry (FCM, for detection of chromosomal abnormalities, as an alternative for karyotyping. Methods In total 100 spontaneous abortions and mors in utero samples were investigated by karyotyping and array CGH in combination with FCM in order to compare the results for both methods. Results Chromosome analysis revealed 17 abnormal karyotypes whereas array CGH in combination with FCM identified 26 aberrations due to the increased test success rate. Karyotyping was unsuccessful in 28% of cases as compared to only two out of hundred samples with inconclusive results for combined array CGH and FCM analysis. Conclusion This study convincingly shows that array CGH analysis for detection of numerical and segmental imbalances in combination with flow cytometry for detection of ploidy status has a significant higher detection rate for chromosomal abnormalities as compared to karyotyping of miscarriages samples.

Buysse Karen

2009-09-01

214

Inhibition of protein synthesis in developing mouse brain after fission neutron irradiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous investigations showed that when pregnant mice were exposed to a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy fission neutrons on Day 17 +/- 2 of gestation about 40% of the newborn mice died and the body and brain weights of surviving animals decreased by 30-35%. Studies presented in this paper show that after a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy neutron irradiation on Day 18 of pregnancy protein synthesis decreased in liver and brain of 3-week-old mice irradiated in utero. Incorporation of labeled amino acids in vivo into acid soluble nuclear proteins decreased by 15% in liver and by 40% in brain. Investigations with isolated protein synthesizing systems proved that the peptide bond formation was not impaired by irradiation. The aminoacylation of transfer-RNA, however, decreased in both liver and brain by 26-34 and 34-41%, respectively. Comparing the aminoacylation capacities in the two unirradiated organs, a much lower (about one-third) capacity was found in brain than in liver. Moreover, this low aminoacylation capacity of brain decreased further by about 40% after neutron irradiation. These results suggest that in the developing irradiated brain the reduced capacity of aminoacylation of transfer-RNA might be rate limiting for the efficiency of protein synthesis

1985-07-01

215

In utero exposure to A-bomb radiation and mental retardation; a reassessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The prevalence of mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been re-evaluated in reference to gestational age and tissue dose in the fetus. There was no risk at 0-8 weeks post-conception. The highest risk of forebrain damage occurred at 8-15 weeks of gestational age, the time when the most rapid proliferation of neuronal elements and when most, if not all, neuroblast migration to the cerebral cortex from the proliferative zones is occurring. Overall, the risk is five or more times greater in these weeks than in subsequent ones. In the critical period, damage expressed as the frequency of subsequent mental retardation appears to be linearly related to the dose received by the fetus. A linear model is not equally applicable to radiation-related mental retardation after the 15th week, the observed values suggesting that there a threshold may exist. The data are consistent with a probability of occurrence of mental retardation of 0.40% per cGy or 40% per gray.

Otake, M.; Schull, W.J. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan))

1984-05-01

216

PiggyBac Transposon-Mediated Cellular Transgenesis in Mammalian Forebrain by In Utero Electroporation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation (IUE) is an effective transfection method for delivering plasmid DNA into neural progenitor cells and neurons of mammalian neocortex in vivo. Although IUE is effective at delivering multiple DNA plasmids into populations of cells, unfortunately plasmids delivered into neural progenitor cells remain largely episomal and often get inactivated or lost after cell division. This results in a form of "birthdate" labeling in which only the cell types that do not undergo a second cell division continue to express the transfected plasmids. This limits the application of IUE with standard plasmids and precludes its use in experiments where manipulating or labeling the complete cell lineage of a progenitor is desired. To circumvent this episomal loss of plasmid in IUE, we have used a binary piggyBac transposon system to induce nonviral genomic integration of transgenes. These transgenes do not appear to inactivate after cell division, and this results in stable somatic cellular transgenesis of neurons and glia. Like standard IUE, the system can be used with multiple combinations of plasmids to achieve multicolor labeling and both loss-of-function and gain-of-function manipulations. In this protocol, we describe the method for delivering a binary piggyBac transposon plasmid system by IUE. PMID:24987137

Chen, Fuyi; Maher, Brady J; LoTurco, Joseph J

2014-01-01

217

Influence of diurnal phase on startle response in adult rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle. We speculated that this observation of increased basal startle might be influenced by diurnal phase. In the present study, adult female Sprague Dawley rats, stressed prenatally with DEX (200 μg/kg, gestational days 14-21) and postnatally by blood sampling under restraint, were tested for the ASR during both circadian phases (light and dark). Basal startle was increased in animals tested both during the light and the dark phases of the cycle. We hereby replicated our earlier findings in a new strain and laboratory, thus strengthening the validity of our model regarding prenatal stress effects on ASR in female offspring. Our results indicate that observation of increased basal ASR is not solely dependent on diurnal phase. We found no difference in hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid receptor expression between groups.

Kjaer, S L; Hougaard, K S

2011-01-01

218

In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996 and 2003. Maternal smoking was associated with a significantly elevated risk of strabismus in the child, increasing with number of cigarettes smoked per day ( or =10 cigarettes/day: RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.30). Nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with strabismus risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffeeand tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk.

Torp-Pedersen, Christian Tobias; Boyd, Heather A

2010-01-01

219

Superoxide dismutase in fetal rat cerebrum x-irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in fetal rat cerebrum was studied on gestational days (gd) 19 and 21 after X-irradiation with 100 R on gd 13 or no X-irradiation. Fetuses X-irradiated on gd 13 showed marked microcephalus on gd 19 and 21. Most of the SOD activity was found in the crude mitochondrial fraction in both groups and most of the SOD was Cu, Zn-SOD. The SOD activity increased about two times from gd 19 to 21. The mean SOD activity of the fetal rat cerebrum X-irradiated with 100 R showed no significant differences compared to that of the control group with Student's t test. But the activities in the irradiated group were widely distributed with a large standard deviation and so the chi-square test showed a significant difference in SOD activity between the two groups on gd 19. The SOD activity of adult rat cerebrum 6 and 8 days after X-irradiation with 100 R was increased compared to that 3 days after X-irradiation. It was suspected that X-irradiation in utero may have some lasting effect on the SOD activity in fetal rat cerebrum. (author)

1986-01-01

220

Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2-/-) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2-/- and Folbp2+/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

2005-02-15

 
 
 
 
221

Mapping fetal brain development in utero using magnetic resonance imaging: the Big Bang of brain mapping.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of tools to construct and investigate probabilistic maps of the adult human brain from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has led to advances in both basic neuroscience and clinical diagnosis. These tools are increasingly being applied to brain development in adolescence and childhood, and even to neonatal and premature neonatal imaging. Even earlier in development, parallel advances in clinical fetal MRI have led to its growing use as a tool in challenging medical conditions. This has motivated new engineering developments encompassing optimal fast MRI scans and techniques derived from computer vision, the combination of which allows full 3D imaging of the moving fetal brain in utero without sedation. These promise to provide a new and unprecedented window into early human brain growth. This article reviews the developments that have led us to this point, examines the current state of the art in the fields of fast fetal imaging and motion correction, and describes the tools to analyze dynamically changing fetal brain structure. New methods to deal with developmental tissue segmentation and the construction of spatiotemporal atlases are examined, together with techniques to map fetal brain growth patterns. PMID:21568716

Studholme, Colin

2011-08-15

222

Accessibility and Use of Web-Based Electronic Resources by Physicians in a Psychiatric Institution in Nigeria  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: This study aims to examine the accessibility and use of web-based electronic databases on the Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative (HINARI) portal by physicians in the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro--a psychiatry health institution in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Collection of data was through the use of a three-part…

Oduwole, Adebambo Adewale; Oyewumi, Olatundun

2010-01-01

223

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

224

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell

2001-12-01

225

Generation of topically transgenic rats by in utero electroporation and in vivo bioluminescence screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation (IUE) is a technique which allows genetic modification of cells in the brain for investigating neuronal development. So far, the use of IUE for investigating behavior or neuropathology in the adult brain has been limited by insufficient methods for monitoring of IUE transfection success by non-invasive techniques in postnatal animals. For the present study, E16 rats were used for IUE. After intraventricular injection of the nucleic acids into the embryos, positioning of the tweezer electrodes was critical for targeting either the developing cortex or the hippocampus. Ventricular co-injection and electroporation of a luciferase gene allowed monitoring of the transfected cells postnatally after intraperitoneal luciferin injection in the anesthetized live P7 pup by in vivo bioluminescence, using an IVIS Spectrum device with 3D quantification software. Area definition by bioluminescence could clearly differentiate between cortical and hippocampal electroporations and detect a signal longitudinally over time up to 5 weeks after birth. This imaging technique allowed us to select pups with a sufficient number of transfected cells assumed necessary for triggering biological effects and, subsequently, to perform behavioral investigations at 3 month of age. As an example, this study demonstrates that IUE with the human full length DISC1 gene into the rat cortex led to amphetamine hypersensitivity. Co-transfected GFP could be detected in neurons by post mortem fluorescence microscopy in cryosections indicating gene expression present at ?6 months after birth. We conclude that postnatal bioluminescence imaging allows evaluating the success of transient transfections with IUE in rats. Investigations on the influence of topical gene manipulations during neurodevelopment on the adult brain and its connectivity are greatly facilitated. For many scientific questions, this technique can supplement or even replace the use of transgenic rats and provide a novel technology for behavioral neuroscience. PMID:24084570

Vomund, Sandra; Sapir, Tamar; Reiner, Orly; Silva, Maria A de Souza; Korth, Carsten

2013-01-01

226

Affect Expression and Self-Regulation Capacities of Infants Exposed In Utero to Psychotropics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the affect expression and self-regulation capacities of eight month old infants exposed in utero to psychotropic medications. This is a continuation of our previous study conducted on the same cohort when infants were three months old. Psychotropics implicated are antidepressant medications: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, and a benzodiazepine derivative anxiolytic (clonazepam. The three comparison groups were: control (n=23 (infants gestationally non-exposed to psychotropics, SSRI-alone (n=22 (infants exposed to SSRIs only and having mothers who had a primary diagnosis of depressive disorder without having comorbid anxiety disorder, and SSRI+ group (n=15 (infants gestationally exposed to SSRIs and Clonazepam and having mothers that had both clinical depression and anxiety disorder. Thirty-seven participants from the initial cohort were recruited. Using the Parent Child Early Relational Assessment Scale (PCERA, infants were assessed in a dyadic context during free play and a structured task. There were clear significant differences in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed dyads regarding infant negative affect management. Notable findings were that the SSRI+ group mothers showed significant associations with only one infant affect: i.e. infant negative affect. This group of mothers also showed significant associations with infant’s averting and avoiding behaviors. These associations were seen in both free play and structured task situations signifying probable established pattern. SSRI-alone group was similar to control mothers and showed variable associations with infant’s positive, negative and sober moods unlike SSRI+ group. There were no differences in infants’ capacity for self–regulation in psychotropic exposed and non-exposed groups. Increased awareness of these vulnerable subgroups (SSRI-alone and SSRI+ is needed, in order to safeguard these dyads through better support systems and improved management.

PratibhaNReebye

2012-02-01

227

Radiation-induced adaptive response. In vitro and in utero studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pre-exposure to low dose radiation reduces the biological effects of a subsequent higher challenging dose and the phenomenon is called radiation-induced adaptive response (AR). Described here are author's experimental findings of AR in mice during late embryogenesis and in human lymphoblastoid cells irradiated by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. In the former, pregnant ICR mice at the gestation day 11 (E11) were exposed to priming X-irradiation with 0.3 Gy at 0.34 or 4.2 Gy/min where AR had been known to be induced, or with 0.3-1 Gy at 2.5-0.34 Gy/min, the ineffective doses/dose rates for AR. On E12, fetal RNA was subjected to microarray analysis for gene expression levels. In utero, AR specific gene modulations were firstly observed in such genes as for signal transduction, p53, development, etc. In the latter human cell system above, cells of TK6 (p53 +/+), AHH-1 (+/-) and NH32 (p53-knockout) were exposed to priming radiation of either X-ray or heavy ion (0.02 Gy to AHH-1, 0.1 Gy to TK6) and after 6hr, to challenging radiation of different LETs (X-ray, C-ion: 15 and 40 keV/?m and Ne-ion: 150 keV/?m). Mutation was examined with hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) test, and DNA double strand breaks and their repair, with flow cytometry following ?-H2AX phosphorylation kinetics. LET-dependent mutation by challenging heavy ions was observed but its frequency was decreased by pre-exposure in p53+/+ and +/- cells; and neither cell cycle effect nor apoptosis was involved in AR mechanism but DNA repair was suggested involved. Further studies on AR were thought necessary incorporating the factors of bystander effect and genomic instability. (K.T.)

2009-03-01

228

Mice exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in utero are less social and more active in social situations relative to controls.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical use of diagnostic ultrasound imaging during pregnancy has a long history of safety and diagnostic utility, as supported by numerous human case reports and epidemiological studies. However, there exist in vivo studies linking large but clinically relevant doses of ultrasound applied to mouse fetuses in utero to altered learning, memory, and neuroanatomy of those mice. Also, there exists a well-documented significant increase in the likelihood of non-right-handedness in boys exposed to diagnostic ultrasound in utero, potentially relevant given the increased prevalence of autism in males, and reports of excess non-right-handedness in this population. Motivated by these observations, we applied 30?minutes of diagnostic ultrasound to pregnant mice at embryonic day 14.5 and assayed the social behavior of their male pups 3 weeks after their birth. The ultrasound-exposed pups were significantly (P?utero can alter typical social behaviors in young mice that may be relevant for autism. There exist meaningful differences between the exposure of diagnostic ultrasound to mice versus humans that require further exploration before this work can usefully inform clinical practice. Future work should address these differences as well as clarify the extent, mechanisms, and functional effects of diagnostic ultrasound's interaction with the developing brain. Autism Res 2014, 7: 295-304. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24249575

McClintic, Abbi M; King, Bryan H; Webb, Sara J; Mourad, Pierre D

2014-06-01

229

Neuroblastoma in monozygotic twins with distinct presentation pathology and outcome: is it familial or in utero metastasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date ten sets of monozygotic twins with neuroblastoma have been reported in the literature. Twin-to-twin in utero metastasis have been proposed as the mechanism of tumor development in the second twin; based on similar pathology, presence of metastatic disease, absence of a primary tumor, and/or later presentation in the second twin. Hereditary neuroblastoma has not been described in this context. We propose that primary neuroblastoma can occur in monozygotic twins without twin-twin transmission; due to the different ages of presentation, histology, ploidy, and tumor behavior. PMID:24376049

Abu-Arja, Rolla; Hashem, Hasan; El-Sheikh, Ayman; Abusin, Ghada

2014-06-01

230

Radioresponse of postnatal erythrocytes and its modification by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice exposed to gamma radiation in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma radiation (150 R) was given in utero at different gestation days, namely 14 1/4, 16 1/4 and 18 1/4, to Swiss albino mice, pretreated with either MPG or double distilled water. Erythrocytes from peripheral blood were counted in young ones at 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after birth. The result indicated that erythrocyte count in the MPG treated group was significantly higher than in the nonprotected ones at 1 and 2 weeks of postnatal development, after which the values of both control and experimental groups were comparable to that of the normal (orig.)

1982-12-01

231

In utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate promotes local adipose and systemic inflammation in adult male offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used to increase the flexibility of polyvinyl chloride. DEHP and its active metabolite mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are detected in many biological fluids during fetal and postnatal life. In rodent models, in utero DEHP exposure has been shown to alter sexual organ development, decrease testosterone and aldosterone production, increase body and epididymal adipose tissue weight, and raise serum lipids and glucose levels in male offspring.Objectives:The objective of this study is to characterize the effects of in utero DEHP exposure on adipose tissue development and function in male offspring.Methods:Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were gavaged 1, 20, 50 or 300?mg DEHP per kg per day from gestational day 14 until birth.Results:Global gene expression analyses of postnatal day 60 male offspring that were exposed in utero to 300?mg DEHP per kg per day revealed increased expression of immune response and inflammation markers, and increased expression of differentiation pathway genes in the epididymal whole-adipose tissue and isolated stromal vascular fraction. C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) serum levels were increased in the 300?mg DEHP in utero-exposed offspring. TNF levels in adipose tissue homogenates were increased in the 50 and 300?mg DEHP in utero-exposed offspring. Immunofluorescence studies revealed focal macrophage infiltration in whole-adipose tissue confirmed by increased CD163 tissue content.Conclusions:In utero DEHP exposure promotes local adipose tissue inflammation and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Moreover, evidence is presented, suggesting that DEHP increases the differentiation capacity of the pre-adipocytes of male offspring without affecting total body weight. PMID:24799162

Campioli, E; Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Papadopoulos, V

2014-01-01

232

In utero lung gene transfer using adeno-associated viral and lentiviral vectors in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Virus-mediated gene transfer to the fetal lung epithelium holds considerable promise for the therapeutic management of prenatally diagnosed, potentially life-threatening inherited lung diseases. In this study we hypothesized that efficient and life-long lung transduction can be achieved by in utero gene therapy, using viral vectors. To facilitate diffuse entry into the lung, viral vector was injected into the amniotic sac of C57BL/6 mice on embryonic day 16 (term, ?20 days) in a volume of 10??l. Vectors investigated included those based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) (serotypes 5, 6.2, 9, rh.64R1) and vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein (VSV-G)-pseudotyped HIV-1-based lentivirus (LV). All vectors expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the transcriptional control of various promoters including chicken ?-actin (CB) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) for AAV and CMV or MND (myeloproliferative sarcoma virus enhancer, negative control region deleted) for LV. Pulmonary GFP gene expression was detected by fluorescence stereoscopic microscopy and immunohistochemistry for up to 9 months after birth. At equivalent vector doses (mean, 12×10(10) genome copies per fetus) three AAV vectors resulted in long-term (up to 9 months) pulmonary epithelium transduction. AAV2/6.2 transduced predominantly cells of the conducting airway epithelium, although transduction decreased 2 months after vector delivery. AAV2/9-transduced cells of the alveolar epithelium with a type 1 pneumocyte phenotype for up to 6 months. Although minimal levels of GFP expression were observed with AAV2/5 up to 9 months, the transduced cells immunostained positive for F480 and were retrievable by bronchoalveolar lavage, confirming an alveolar macrophage phenotype. No GFP expression was observed in lung epithelial cells after AAV2/rh.64R1 and VSV-G-LV vector-mediated gene transfer. We conclude that these experiments demonstrate that prenatal lung gene transfer with AAV vectors engineered to target pulmonary epithelial cells may provide sustained long-term levels of transgene expression, supporting the therapeutic potential of prenatal gene transfer for the treatment of congenital lung diseases. PMID:24660751

Joyeux, Luc; Danzer, Enrico; Limberis, Maria P; Zoltick, Philip W; Radu, Antoneta; Flake, Alan W; Davey, Marcus G

2014-06-01

233

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P<0.05) and in 1, 7% of the third group (out of 932 persons). The separation of the irradiated in utero subjects (group 2) to subgroups in dependence of the gestation period, showed the highest prevalence of thyroid hypoplasia among the irradiated in the first trimester of gestation: 7, 7% (P<0.05), in the second trimester: 5, 3%, in the third trimester: 4, 7%

Drozd, V.; Danilova, L.; Lushchyk, M.; Leonova, T.; Platonova, T. [International Fund Arnica, Minsk (Belarus); Grigorovich, A.; Sivuda, V. [Brest Regional Endocrinological Dispensary, Brest (Belarus); Branovan, I. [Chernobyl Project, New-York (United States); Biko, I.; Reiners, C. [Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, University of Wurzburg, Wursburg (Germany)

2012-07-01

234

Lung development and postnatal survival for rats exposed in utero to a high-boiling coal liquid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study reported determines postnatal viability and development of survivors following in utero exposure to Harmarville process solvent (HPS), a wide-boiling-range (150 to > 455/sup 0/C) coal liquid. For this study, 0.74 g kg/sup -1/ of the coal liquid was administered (by intragastric intubation) to rats from 12 to 14 dg. Offspring were evaluated for postnatal survival, growth and lung and thymus weights. Fifty-four percent of the exposed pups and 9% of the control pups died between birth and 3 days postpartum. Of the treated pups that died, 10% (6/5; pups/litters) had cleft palate, 27% (17/9) had small lungs and 33% (21/8) had both cleft palate and small lungs. No gross malformations were observed in the remaining 30% of the dead pups. Microscopic examination of lungs from HPS-treated pups revealed no evident histological abnormalities. Body, lung and thymus weights for treated animals that died were significantly less than those of controls. Surviving exposed pups weighed significantly less than control pups from 0.25 to 21 days postpartum and their thymus weights were also depressed through 21 days postpartum. These data suggest that retarded lung growth during prenatal life as a result of in utero exposure to the coal liquid contributes to a significant portion of the observed neonatal mortality. Furthermore, lung weights of survivors, although significantly lower than control values through 7 days postpartum, appeared to have recovered by 21 days postpartum.

Springer, D.L.; Hackett, P.L.; Miller, R.A.; Buschbom, R.L.

1986-01-01

235

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and ?26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

1994-04-01

236

Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

Quispe Jose A

2009-03-01

237

FETAL TESTOSTERONE LEVELS ARE DIFFERENTIALLY AFFECTED IN MALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY AND WISTAR RATS AFTER IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE: A DOSE RESPONSE STUDY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to phthalate esters during sexual differentiation disrupts testosterone resulting in malformations of androgen-dependent tissues. We have found that gubernacular lesions are more prevalent in in utero diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-treated Wistar male than in the SD rat o...

238

In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

239

Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

240

Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in a 4-day-old cria: Support for in utero transmission by use of a polymerase chain reaction assay  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blood smear examination in a 4-day-old alpaca revealed massive erythrocyte parasitism by Mycoplasma haemolamae. Blood collected from both the nonparasitemic dam and the cria were positive for M. haemolamae by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These findings suggest in utero transmission of M. haemolamae in camelids, even when the dam is not parasitemic.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Engraftment of genetically modified human amniotic fluid-derived progenitor cells to produce coagulation factor IX after in utero transplantation in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human amniotic fluid derived progenitor cells (hAFPCs) may be multipotent and can be considered a potential tool in the field of cell therapy for haemophilia B. Their capacity to express human coagulation factor IX (hFIX) after transduction and their fate after in utero transplantation is unknown. hAFPCs isolated from second trimester pregnancies were assessed for their phenotypic markers, multilineage capacity, and expression of hFIX after transduction. Their engraftment potential was analysed in a mouse model after in utero transplantation at embryonic day 12.5. Immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ, ELISA and PCR were used to assess post-transplant chimeras. hAFPCs expressed several pluripotent markers, including NANOG, SOX2, SSEA4 and TRA-1-60, and could differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes. In vitro, after transduction with hFIX and EGFP cDNAs, constitutive hFIX protein expression and clotting activity were found. Engraftment was achieved in various foetal tissues after in utero transplantation. Safe engraftment without oncogenesis was confirmed, with low donor cell levels, but persistent engraftment, into different organs (liver, heart and lung) through to 12 weeks of age. Transgenic expression of circulating hFIX was detected in recipient mice for up to 12 weeks. hAFPCs can be engrafted long-term in immunocompetent mice after in utero transplantation. Thus, cell transplantation approaches using genetically engineered hAFPCs may prove valuable for the prenatal treatment for haemophilia B. PMID:23504762

Yang, Chen-Min; Gong, Xiu-Li; Qiu, Jin; Tang, Hui-Xiang; Gong, Zhi-Juan; Huang, Shu-Zhen; Zeng, Fanyi

2013-05-01

242

COMBINED ENDOCRINE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGENS BUTYLBENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP) AND LINURON (LIN) ON FETAL TESTOSTERONE (T) SYNTHESIS AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT  

Science.gov (United States)

COMBINED ENDOCRINE EFFECTS OF IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO THE ANTIANDROGENS BUTYLBENZYL PHTHALATE (BBP) AND LINURON (Lin) ON FETAL TESTOSTERONE (T) SYNTHESIS AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT Parks LG , Hotchkiss AK, Ostby J, Lambright C and Gray LE, Jr. Lin and BBP are toxic...

243

Utero-placental expression of angiotensin-(1–7 and ACE2 in the pregnant guinea-pig  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental development are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs (GP and humans share common pregnancy features including extensive trophoblast invasion, transformation of the uterine spiral arteries and a haemomonochorial placenta, the GP animal model was deemed suitable to extend our knowledge on the spatio-temporal immunoreactive expression of the vasodilator arpeptide of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1–7 [Ang-(1–7] and its main generating enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2. Methods Utero-placental units were collected in days 15, 20, 40 and 60 of a 64–67 day long pregnancy in 25 Pirbright GP. Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 expression in utero-placental units were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 were detected in the endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinthine placenta, interlobium, subplacenta, giant cells, syncytial sprouts, syncytial streamers, and myometrium throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts in spiral and mesometrial arteries expressed both factors. Immunoreactive Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 were present in decidua and in the vascular smooth muscle of spiral, myometrial and mesometrial arteries, which also express kallikrein (Kal, the bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and its type 2 receptor (KDR, but no endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. In addition, the signal of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 was especially remarkable in giant cells, which also show Kal, B2R. eNOS, VEGF and KDR. Conclusions The spatio-temporal expression of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 in GP, similar to that of humans, supports a relevant evolutionary conserved function of Ang-(1–7 and ACE2 in decidualization, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental flow regulation, as well as the validity of the GP model to understand the local adaptations of pregnancy. It also integrates Ang-(1–7 to the utero-placental vasodilatory network. However, its antiangiogenic effect may counterbalance the proangiogenic activity of some of the other vasodilator components.

Valdés Gloria

2013-01-01

244

Chemistry central [electronic resource] : [website  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

Chemistry Central is a service publishing peer-reviewed open access research in chemistry, from BioMed Central. This site features chemistry-related articles published in Chemistry Central Journal, BioMed Central journals and independent journals utilizing BioMed Central's open access publishing services. All original research articles published by, or in cooperation with, Chemistry Central are made freely and permanently accessible online immediately upon publication.

245

NASA tech briefs [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The monthly magazine features exclusive reports of innovations developed by NASA and its industry partners/contractors that can be applied to develop new/improved products and solve engineering or manufacturing problems. Authored by the engineers or

246

Project Management Institute [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Project Management Institute, the world's foremost advocate for the project management profession. PMI sets industry standards, conducts research and provides education, certification and professional exchange opportunities designed to strengthen and further establish the profession. Its website provides information about the institute, its chapters and colleges; news, publications, seminars; also gives contact information.

247

Measuring hypoxia-induced RNA in maternal blood: a new way to identify critically hypoxic fetuses in utero?  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe fetal hypoxia causes stillbirth and permanent childhood disability. Unfortunately, none of the current tests is precise at determining the degree of fetal hypoxia in utero. We recently showed that hypoxia-induced RNA abundance in the maternal circulation (of likely fetoplacental origin) was tightly correlated with the degree of fetal hypoxia, suggesting it may be possible to generate a maternal blood test to more precisely determine the severity of fetal hypoxia. Such a test could drastically improve outcomes and decrease stillbirth rates. We are running a large prospective study to validate this test, and will use microarrays, RNA-seq and digital PCR to identify RNA transcripts that best correlate with the severity of fetal hypoxia. Finally, we note our data hints at the possibility of measuring dynamic changes in the fetoplacental transcriptome, measured in serial maternal blood samples. This could afford exciting new insights into the pathology of major obstetric diseases. PMID:24779397

Whitehead, Clare L; Tong, Stephen

2014-06-01

248

Effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants on cognitive functioning in young children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related contaminants has been associated with reduced birth weight, neonatal behavioral anomalies, and poorer recognition memory in infants born to women who have consumed Lake Michigan sports fish, 236 children, previously evaluated for PCB-related deficits in infancy, were assessed at 4 years of age. Prenatal exposure (indicated by umbilical cord serum PCB level) predicted poorer short-term memory function on both verbal and quantitative tests in a dose-dependent fashion. These effects cannot be attributed to a broad range of potential confounding variables, the impact of which was evaluated statistically. Although much larger quantities of PCBs are transferred postnatally via lactation than prenatally across the placenta, exposure from nursing was unrelated to cognitive performance. The data demonstrate the continuation of a toxic impact received in utero and observed initially during infancy on a dimension of cognitive functioning fundamental to learning.

Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

1990-01-01

249

Ureaplasma parvum undergoes selection in utero resulting in genetically diverse isolates colonizing the chorioamnion of fetal sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ureaplasmas are the microorganisms most frequently isolated from the amniotic fluid of pregnant women and can cause chronic intrauterine infections. These tiny bacteria are thought to undergo rapid evolution and exhibit a hypermutatable phenotype; however, little is known about how ureaplasmas respond to selective pressures in utero. Using an ovine model of chronic intraamniotic infection, we investigated if exposure of ureaplasmas to subinhibitory concentrations of erythromycin could induce phenotypic or genetic indicators of macrolide resistance. At 55 days gestation, 12 pregnant ewes received an intraamniotic injection of a nonclonal, clinical Ureaplasma parvum strain followed by (i) erythromycin treatment (intramuscularly, 30 mg/kg/day, n = 6) or (ii) saline (intramuscularly, n = 6) at 100 days gestation. Fetuses were then delivered surgically at 125 days gestation. Despite injecting the same inoculum into all the ewes, significant differences between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas were detected following chronic intraamniotic infection. Numerous polymorphisms were observed in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene of ureaplasmas isolated from the chorioamnion (but not the amniotic fluid), resulting in a mosaiclike sequence. Chorioamnion isolates also harbored the macrolide resistance genes erm(B) and msr(D) and were associated with variable roxithromycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Remarkably, this variability occurred independently of exposure of ureaplasmas to erythromycin, suggesting that low-level erythromycin exposure does not induce ureaplasmal macrolide resistance in utero. Rather, the significant differences observed between amniotic fluid and chorioamnion ureaplasmas suggest that different anatomical sites may select for ureaplasma subtypes within nonclonal, clinical strains. This may have implications for the treatment of intrauterine ureaplasma infections. PMID:24337316

Dando, Samantha J; Nitsos, Ilias; Polglase, Graeme R; Newnham, John P; Jobe, Alan H; Knox, Christine L

2014-02-01

250

Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak o [...] r malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

Eltayb M., Abuelzein; Mofeed A., Al-Khaliyfa; Ahmed A., Gameel.

251

Socratic Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Tony R. Kuphaldt, this web site from the Open Book Project provides educational resources for learning and teaching electronics. It is promotes student discussion and individual research. The web site contains essays that describe this style of teaching, a collection of worksheets for teachers to use to stimulate student discussion and research about electronics, and a link to animations that help describe dynamic processes in electric and electronic circuits.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-08-07

252

The glucocorticoid receptor resource.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The glucocorticoid receptor resource focuses on the structure-function relationships of the glucocorticoid receptor. As well as links to sequence and bibliographic databases via the World Wide Web, the database contains sequence comparisons of receptors from different species and source information for glucocorticoid receptor clones, probes, cell lines and antibodies. The resource allows the electronic publication of essays, unpublished data and reviews on steroid receptors. These publication...

Danielsen, M.; Martinez, E.

1996-01-01

253

MFISH Measurements of Chromosomal Aberrations Individuals Exposed in Utero to Gamma-ray Doses from 5 to 20 cGy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our plan was to identify and obtain blood from 36 individuals from the Mayak-in-utero exposed cohort who were exposed in utero only to gamma ray does doses fro 5 to 20 cGy. Our goal is to do mFISH and in a new development, single-arm mFISH on these samples to measure stable chromosome aberrations in these now adult individuals. The results were compared with matched control individuals (same age, same gender) available from the large control population which we are studying in the context of our plutonium worker study. The long term goal was to assess the results both in terms of the sensitivity of the developing embryo/fetus to low doses of ionizing radiation, and in terms of different potential mechanisms (expanded clonal origin vs. induced instability) for an increased risk.

Brenner, David J.

2009-11-17

254

Merge of terminological resources  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration â?? or merging â?? of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects.

Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

2012-01-01

255

The use of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation to ameliorate the hyperactivity of rat pups induced by in utero ethanol exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been demonstrated thatin utero ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces hyperactive behavior and learning disturbances in offspring. In order to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on these neurobehavioral dysfunctions of rat pups induced byin utero EtOH exposure, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into four treatment groups depending on the type of oil added to the diet and drinking water as follows; (a) 5% safflower oil with tap water (TW/n-6), (b) 3% safflower oil and 2% DHA with tap water (TW/n-3), (c) 5% safflower oil with 10%-EtOH (ET/n-6), (d) 3% safflower oil and 2% DHA with 10%-EtOH (ET/n-3) at gestational day (GD) 7.10%-EtOH was administered to dams in ET/n-6 and ET/n-3 groups from GD 7 to the pups' weaning (postnatal week 4), and all pups were fed with the same diet that was given to their dams during the entire examination period. The open-field test and the water E-maze test were conducted for all pups, and a spontaneous motor activity test and the Sidman electric shock avoidance test were performed for some of male pups. Amounts of monoamine metabolites in striatum were then determined, and fatty acid analyses of total brain lipids were performed.The male pups in the ET/n-6 group showed significandy more rearing and square-crossing movements in the open-field test, and significandy higher spontaneous motor activity during the dark period in the daily cycle compared to the males in the TW/n-6 group. The male pups in the ET/n-3 group showed fewer of these behaviors in the open-field test compared to the ET/n-6 group males, and a normal pattern of spontaneous motor activity.Learning disturbance induced byin utero EtOH exposure was not observed in the E-shaped water maze, but was observed in the avoidance rates in the Sidman electric shock avoidance test. However, there was no significant modifying effect of DHA on the avoidance rates in EtOH exposed pups.The analysis of the fatty acid composition of total lipids in the brains of the pups revealed high levels of DHA in the diet reflected an increased level of brain DHA and caused a decreased level of the brain arachidonic acid. Retroco nversion from DHA to eicosapentaenoic acid was also observed. However, there was no significant effect of DHA on the levels of monoamine metabolites.These results support the hypothesis that DHA can counteract the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:21432193

Furuya, H; Aikawa, H; Yoshida, T; Okazaki, I

2000-10-01

256

Abnormalities of sexual development in male rats with in utero and lactational exposure to the antiandrogenic plasticizer Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several members of the phthalate ester family have antiandrogenic properties, yet little is known about how exposure to these ubiquitous environmental contaminants early in development may affect sexual development. We conducted experiments to determine effects of in utero and lactational exposure to the most prevalent phthalate ester, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on male reproductive system development and sexual behavior. Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with corn oil or DEHP (0, 375, 7...

Moore, R. W.; Rudy, T. A.; Lin, T. M.; Ko, K.; Peterson, R. E.

2001-01-01

257

EFFECTS OF IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DI(2-ETHYL-HEXYL) PHTHALATE (DEHP) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN MICE: REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY AND MULTIGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several studies indicate that in utero and peri-natal exposure to some classes of endocrine disruptors induces adverse reproductive effects, but it remains unclear whether such effects may be transmitted to subsequent generations. The present study examined the effects in mice of exposure to di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) or to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) throughout pregnancy and lactation on reproductive health in male and female offspring, at adult age, over three generations.

Fiandanese, Nadia

2012-01-01

258

Different Regions of HIV-1 Subtype C env Are Associated with Placental Localization and In Utero Mother-to-Child Transmission ? †  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV infections are initiated by a limited number of variants that diverge into a diverse quasispecies swarm. During in utero mother-to-child transmission (IU MTCT), transmitted viral variants must pass through multiple unique environments, and our previously published data suggest a nonstochastic model of transmission. As an alternative to a stochastic model of viral transmission, we hypothesize that viral selection in the placental environment influences the character of the viral quasispeci...

2011-01-01

259

Haploidentical In Utero Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Can Induce Tolerance for Postnatal Same Donor Transplants in the Canine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCT) has been shown in the murine model to achieve low levels of allogeneic chimerism and associated donor specific tolerance permissive for minimal conditioning postnatal hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). In this pilot study, we investigate IUHCT in the canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) model. Haploidentical IUHCT resulted in stable low level donor cell chimerism in all dogs that could be analyzed by sensitive detection metho...

Peranteau, William H.; Heaton, Todd E.; Gu, Yu-chen; Volk, Susan W.; Bauer, Thomas R.; Alcorn, Keith; Tuschong, Laura M.; Johnson, Mark P.; Hickstein, Dennis D.; Flake, Alan W.

2009-01-01

260

A longitudinal study of the long-term consequences of drinking during pregnancy: heavy in utero alcohol exposure disrupts the normal processes of brain development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Exposure to alcohol in utero can cause birth defects including face and brain abnormalities, and is the most common preventable cause of intellectual disabilities. Here we use structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure cortical volume change longitudinally in a cohort of human children and youth with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a group of unexposed control subjects, demonstrating that the normal processes of brain maturation are disrupted in individuals whose mothers drank...

Lebel, C.; Mattson, S. N.; Riley, E. P.; Jones, K. L.; Adnams, C. M.; May, P. A.; Bookheimer, S. Y.; O’connor, M. J.; Narr, K. L.; Kan, E.; Abaryan, Z.; Sowell, E. R.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Neuronal specificity of HSV/Sleeping Beauty amplicon transduction in utero is driven primarily by tropism and cell type composition during embryogenesis  

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A novel bipartite vector system consisting of the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) amplicon and the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon was previously shown to efficiently deliver a “transgenon” (integrating transgene) in utero. This vector platform facilitated long-term transgenon expression specifically within neurons and neuronal precursor cells of the rodent brain. However, the mechanism underlying the neurospecificity of the HSV/SB amplicon in the setting of mouse embryogenesis is unknown. We ...

Peterson, Elise B.; Mastrangelo, Michael A.; Federoff, Howard J.; Bowers, William J.

2007-01-01

262

Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin  

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Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY) ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH). In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid d...

Moreland Nicol; La Grange Linda; Montoya Rebecca

2002-01-01

263

In utero transplantation of adult bone marrow decreases perinatal lethality and rescues the bone phenotype in the knockin murine model for classical, dominant osteogenesis imperfecta  

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Autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) caused by glycine substitutions in type I collagen is a paradigmatic disorder for stem cell therapy. Bone marrow transplantation in OI children has produced a low engraftment rate, but surprisingly encouraging symptomatic improvements. In utero transplantation (IUT) may hold even more promise. However, systematic studies of both methods have so far been limited to a recessive mouse model. In this study, we evaluated intrauterine transplantation ...

Panaroni, Cristina; Gioia, Roberta; Lupi, Anna; Besio, Roberta; Goldstein, Steven A.; Kreider, Jaclynn; Leikin, Sergey; Vera, Juan Carlos; Mertz, Edward L.; Perilli, Egon; Baruffaldi, Fabio; Villa, Isabella; Farina, Aurora; Casasco, Marco; Cetta, Giuseppe

2009-01-01

264

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

2005-05-15

265

Does induction of labor for constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetuses identified in utero reduce maternal morbidity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The number of infants with a birth weight?>?97th percentile for gestational age has increased over the years. Although some studies have examined the interest of inducing labor for fetuses with macrosomia suspected in utero, only a few have analyzed this suspected macrosomia according to estimated weight at each gestational age. Most studies have focused principally on neonatal rather than on maternal (and still less on perineal) outcomes. The principal aim of this study was to assess whether a policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus might reduce the occurrence of severe perineal tears; the secondary aims of this work were to assess whether this policy would reduce either recourse to cesarean delivery during labor or neonatal complications. Methods This historical cohort study (n?=?3077) analyzed records from a French perinatal database. Women without diabetes and with a cephalic singleton term pregnancy were eligible for the study. We excluded medically indicated terminations of pregnancy and in utero fetal deaths. Among the pregnancies with fetuses suspected, before birth, of being large-for-gestational-age, we compared those for whom labor was induced from???37 weeks to???38 weeks+ 6 days (n?=?199) to those with expectant obstetrical management (n?=?2878). In this intention-to-treat analysis, results were expressed as crude and adjusted relative risks. Results The mean birth weight was 4012 g?±?421 g. The rate of perineal lesions did not differ between the two groups in either primiparas (aRR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.86-1.31) or multiparas (aRR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.84-1.05). Similarly, neither the cesarean rate (aRR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.82-1.50) nor the risks of resuscitation in the delivery room or of death in the delivery room or in the immediate postpartum or of neonatal transfer to the NICU (aRR?=?0.94; 95% CI: 0.59-1.50) differed between the two groups. Conclusions A policy of induction of labor for women with a constitutionally large-for-gestational-age fetus among women without diabetes does not reduce maternal morbidity.

2014-01-01

266

Gestational diabetes mellitus impairs Nrf2-mediated adaptive antioxidant defenses and redox signaling in fetal endothelial cells in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altered in GDM and associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation, protein oxidation, DNA damage, and diminished glutathione (GSH) synthesis. In GDM cells, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) failed to induce nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and mRNA and/or protein expression of Nrf2 and its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), Bach1, cystine/glutamate transporter, and glutamate cysteine ligase. Although methylation of CpG islands in Nrf2 or NQO1 promoters was unaltered by GDM, decreased DJ-1 and increased phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3? levels may account for impaired Nrf2 signaling. HNE-induced increases in GSH and NQO1 levels were abrogated by Nrf2 small interfering RNA in normal cells, and overexpression of Nrf2 in GDM cells partially restored NQO1 induction. Dysregulation of Nrf2 in fetal endothelium may contribute to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in offspring. PMID:23974919

Cheng, Xinghua; Chapple, Sarah J; Patel, Bijal; Puszyk, William; Sugden, David; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; Siow, Richard C M; Mann, Giovanni E

2013-12-01

267

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

Tanja S. Zabka

2008-06-01

268

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-07-01

269

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

1994-07-01

270

Electronic Library: A TERI Experiment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the development of Electronic Library at TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi). Highlights include: hardware and software used; the digital library/Virtual Electronic Library; directory of Internet journals; virtual reference resources; electronic collection/Physical Electronic Library; downloaded online full-length…

Kar, Debal C.; Deb, Subrata; Kumar, Satish

2003-01-01

271

Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

Scott Marsalis

2008-12-01

272

Resource war  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first issue is, is the resource war real. The second issue is what are the broad strategic questions surrounding resources that are emphasized in the so-called resource war; and finally, what should the United States government and people be doing about these issues.

Vogely, W.A.

1982-01-01

273

In utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and reduced neonatal physiological development from Guiyu, China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primitive electronic-waste recycling resulted in serious pollution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment of Guiyu, China. We aimed to assess body burdens of PCBs and potential health risks for neonates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from Guiyu, and the control area of Chaonan, China. PCBs in UCB were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The median ?PCBs concentration was 338.56 ng g?¹ lipid in UCB samples from Guiyu, vs. 140.16 ng g?¹ lipid in samples from Chaonan. Mothers' involvement in electronic-waste recycling activities and house used as family workshop were the significant factors that contributed to ?PCBs level. Some individual PCB congeners were found to correlate with reduced neonatal height, weight, Apgar scores, gestational age, and body mass index (BMI). Difference of ?PCBs level was found between normal birth and adverse birth outcomes. Neonates from Guiyu are exposed to high levels of PCBs; prenatal exposure to PCBs appears to influence neonatal health, but still needs further confirmation. PMID:21851983

Wu, Kusheng; Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Guo, Yongyong; Huo, Xia

2011-11-01

274

Integração e interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos em C&T: a proposta da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira / Integration and interoperability in accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Descreve as opções tecnológicas e metodológicas para atingir a interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos, disponíveis na Internet, no âmbito do projeto da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira em Ciência e Tecnologia, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e [...] Tecnologia (IBICT). Destaca o impacto da Internet sobre as formas de publicação e comunicação em C&T e sobre os sistemas de informação e bibliotecas. São explicitados os objetivos do projeto da BDB de fomentar mecanismos de publicação pela comunidade brasileira de C&T, de textos completos diretamente na Internet, sob a forma teses, artigos de periódicos, trabalhos em congressos, literatura "cinzenta", ampliando sua visibilidade e acessibilidade nacional e internacional, e também de possibilitar a interoperabilidade entre estes recursos informacionais brasileiros em C&T, heterogêneos e distribuídos, através de acesso unificado via um portal, sem a necessidade de o usuário navegar e consultar cada recurso individualmente. Abstract in english This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Techn [...] ical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web on publishing and communication in science and technology and also on information systems and libraries. The work stresses the two main objectives of BDL project: promoting electronic publishing of different full text materials - theses, journal articles, papers in events, "grey" literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a gateway, interoperability among those heterogeneous electronic information resources available in the Web, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query those resources one by one separately.

Carlos Henrique, Marcondes; Luís Fernando, Sayão.

275

Resource Accounts 2008–09  

Jul 20, 2009 ... Presented pursuant to the Government Resources and Accounts Act 2000 c.20, s\\.6 (4). Department for .... through sharing the management of risk with industry ..... \\Loss of inadequately protected electronic equipment, devices ...

276

Operable stages IB and 2 cervical carcinomas: a retrospective study comparing between preoperative utero vaginal brachytherapy and postoperative radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose. -To identify prognostic factors and treatment toxicity in a series of operable stages IB and II cervical carcinomas. Patients and methods. - Between May 1972 and January 1994, 414 patients (pts) with cervical carcinoma staged according to the 1995 FIGO staging system underwent radical hysterectomy with (n=380) or without (n=34) bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Lateral ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function was performed on 12 pts. The methods of radiation therapy (RT) were not randomized and depended on the usual practices of the surgical teams. Group I:168 pts received postoperative RT (64 pts received vaginal brachytherapy alone (mean total dose (MD): 50 Gy], 93 pts had external beam pelvis RT (EBPRT) [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] followed by vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 20 Gy], and 11 pts had EBPRT alone [MD: 50 Gy over 6 weeks]. Group II: 246 pts received preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 65 Gy], and 32 of theses 246 pts also received postoperative EBPRT [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] delivered to the parametric and the pelvic lymph nodes with a midline pelvic shield. The mean follow-up was 106 months. Results. - The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 80%. From 75 recurrences, 35 were isolated locoregional. Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors decreasing the probability of DFS were: both exo and endo-cervical tumour site (p=0.047), lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.041), age ? 51 yr (p=0.013), 1995 FIGO staging system (stage IB1 vs stage IIA, p=0.004, stage IB1 vs stage IB2, p=0.0009, and stage IB1 vs stage IIB with 1/3 proximal parametrical infiltration, p=0.00002), and histological pelvic involved lymph nodes (p=0.00009). Methods of adjuvant RT did not influence the probability of DFS (group I vs group II, p=0.10). The postoperative complication rate was 10.2% in group I and 8.9% in group II (p=0.7) but the postoperative urethral complication rate necessitating surgical intervention with re-implantation was lower in group I than in group II (0.6% vs 2.3%, respectively, p=0.03). The 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications according to the LENT-SOMA scoring system was 10.4%. EPRT significantly increased the 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications (yes vs no: 22% vs 7%, respectively, p=0.0002). Conclusion. - In our series, the methods of adjuvant RT (primary surgery vs preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy) do not seem to influence the prognosis of the stage IB, IIA, and IIB - (with 1/3 proximal parametrical involvement only) cervical carcinomas. The postoperative EPRT applied according to histopathological risk factors after surgical treatment increases the risk of late radiation complications. (author)

2002-06-01

277

Cardiac structure/function, protein expression, and DNA methylation are changed in adult female mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detrimental effects of in utero exposure to the non-steroidal estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) are particularly marked in women. Fetal hearts express estrogen receptors, making them potentially responsive to DES. To examine whether gestational exposure to DES would impact the heart, we exposed pregnant C57bl/6n dams to DES (0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 ?g·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1)) on gestation days 11.5-14.5, and examined the measured cardiac structure/function and calcium homeostasis protein expression in adult females. At baseline, echocardiography revealed eccentric hypertrophy in mice treated with 10.0 ?g·(kg body mass)(-1)·day(-1) DES, and immunoblots showed increased SERCA2a in all DES-treated mice. Mice were swim-trained to assess cardiac remodeling. Swim-trained vehicle-treated mice developed eccentric hypertrophy without changing SERCA2 or calsequestrin 2 expression. In contrast, no DES-treated mice hypertrophied, and all increased in SERCA2a and calsequestrin 2 expression after training. To determine whether DES-induced changes in DNA methylation is part of the mechanism for its long-term effects, we measured DNA methyltransferase expression and DNA methylation. Global DNA methylation and DNA methyltransferase 3a expression were unchanged. However, DES-treated mice had increased DNA methylation in the calsequestrin 2 promoter. Thus, gestational exposure to DES altered female ventricular DNA, cardiac structure/function, and calcium homeostasis protein expression. We conclude that gestational exposure to estrogenizing compounds may impact cardiac structure/function in adult females. PMID:23984849

Haddad, Rami; Kasneci, Amanda; Sebag, Igal A; Chalifour, Lorraine E

2013-09-01

278

Study of adolescents exposed in utero: clinical and laboratory data 1958 to 1959, Nagasaki. Report 1. General aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An intensive two-year study of 286 Nagasaki adolescents, ages 13 to 14, was conducted as part of a long term program to determine possible differences in growth and development which might be attributed to in utero exposure to the atomic bomb. Three comparison groups were studied: Group I whose mothers were 0 to 1999 m from the hypocenter; Group II whose mothers were 3000 to 4999 m from the hypocenter; Group III whose mothers were not in the city at the time of the bomb. A significantly higher frequency of mental retardation and minor congenital malformations were found in Group I males but not in the females. Although Group I females who were in the 1st trimester of gestation at the time of the bomb and whose mothers experienced the acute radiation syndrome had poorer visual acuity than comparable children of asymptomatic mothers, the small number of observations requires caution in interpretation of this finding. Parasitic infestation occurred in about one third of the subjects, and Group I had significantly greater infestation than did the other comparison groups. Trichocephalus and Ascaris infestation accounted for the higher prevalence in Group I. Hookworm occurred less frequently. It was suggested that these findings probably are associated with differences in dietary and living habits. No cases of leukemia or malignancy were found, but the sample was not large enough to detect even a 10-fold increase in incidence. No consistent significant differences attributable to a radiation effect were noted among the comparison groups in regard to radial pulse, blood pressure, hematologic or urologic examinations. 43 references, 1 figure, 17 tables.

Burrow, G.N.; Hamilton, H.B.; Hrubec, Z.; Amamoto, K.; Matsunaga, F.; Brill, A.B.

1963-10-01

279

In Utero and Postnatal Exposure to Antiretrovirals Among HIV-Exposed But Uninfected Children in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract An increasing number of antiretroviral agents (ARVs) are approved for use, but their use during pregnancy in the United States has not been completely described. We used data from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities (SMARTT) study, a United States-based prospective cohort study of HIV-exposed but uninfected children, to assess temporal trends and maternal characteristics associated with the use of ARVs during pregnancy. The proportion of children exposed in utero to ARVs was calculated over time. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to estimate associations of maternal characteristics with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during pregnancy. We studied 1768 HIV-exposed but uninfected children born between 1995 and 2009 and enrolled in SMARTT. Prenatal HAART exposure increased from 19% in 1997 to 88% in 2009. Of children born in 2009, 99% had prenatal exposure to NRTIs (including zidovudine, 73%; lamivudine, 72%; tenofovir, 39%; and emtricitabine, 37%). Exposure to protease inhibitors increased from 15% in 1997 to 86% in 2009, while exposure to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) declined from 33% in 2003 to 11% in 2009. Higher maternal HIV RNA viral load (VL) concentration, lower maternal CD4 count, and earlier timing of the first maternal CD4 or VL measurement during pregnancy were associated with increased odds of HAART exposure. Prenatal HAART exposure has increased but is not universal. As ARV use during pregnancy continues to evolve, follow-up of children is needed to assess long-term effects of ARV exposures.

Williams, Paige L.; Read, Jennifer S.; Seage, George R.; Crain, Marilyn; Yogev, Ram; Hazra, Rohan; Rich, Kenneth

2011-01-01

280

Managing the quality of the design and implementation of common task assessment in Sedibeng-East and Sedibeng-West schools|h[electronic resource] / Anna Lebohang Malapo  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines the design and implementation of Common Task Assessment as a Grade 9 summative assessment specifically of Economic Management Sciences. The main focus is on understanding how the quality of the design and implementation thereof at Sedibeng-West and Sedibeng-East schools are managed. The research was undertaken in response to the researcher’s personal observation and experience of how educators were struggling to implement Common Task Assessment, due to lack of resources ...

Malapo, Anna Lebohang

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Characterization of placental cholesterol transport : ABCA1 is a potential target for in utero therapy of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by approximately 30%. In contrast, disruption of the Abcg1 had no effect. Treatment of pregnant C57Bl/6 female mice with TO901317, an LXR-agonist, increased both Abca1 expression and maternal-fetal cholesterol transfer to the fetus. In an SLOS mouse model (Dhcr7(-/-)), which is incapable of de novo synthesis of cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating maternal-fetal cholesterol transport has potential for in utero therapy of SLOS.

Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A

2008-01-01

282

In utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces long-term changes in gene expression in the adult male adrenal gland.  

Science.gov (United States)

The plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used to add flexibility to polyvinylchloride polymers and as a component of numerous consumer and medical products. DEHP and its metabolites have been detected in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood, suggesting fetal exposure. In the present study, we used an in utero exposure model in which pregnant rat dams were exposed to 1- to 300-mg DEHP/kg·d from gestational day 14 until birth. We previously reported that this window of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP resulted in reduced levels of serum testosterone and aldosterone in adult male offspring and that the effects on aldosterone were sustained in elderly rats and resulted in decreased blood pressure. Here, we characterized the long-term effects of in utero DEHP exposure by performing global gene expression analysis of prepubertal (postnatal d 21) and adult (postnatal d 60) adrenal glands. We found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and lipid metabolism pathways were affected by DEHP exposure. Expression of 2 other DEHP targets, hormone-sensitive lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1), correlated with reduced aldosterone levels and may account for the inhibitory effect of DEHP on adrenal steroid formation. The angiotensin II and potassium pathways were up-regulated in response to DEHP. In addition, the potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel Kcnn2 and 2-pore-domain potassium channel Knck5 were identified as DEHP targets. Based on this gene expression analysis, we measured fatty acid-binding protein 4 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in sera from control and DEHP-exposed rats and identified both proteins as putative serum biomarkers of in utero DEHP exposure. These results shed light on molecular targets that mediate DEHP long-term effects and, in doing so, provide means by which to assess past DEHP exposure. PMID:24564399

Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Campioli, E; Lienhart, C; Fan, J; Culty, M; Zirkin, B R; Papadopoulos, V

2014-05-01

283

Lymphoma and lung cancer in offspring born to pregnant mice dosed with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene: The importance of in utero vs. lactational exposure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The fetus and neonate cannot be viewed as 'little adults'; they are highly sensitive to toxicity from environmental chemicals. This phenomenon contributes to the fetal basis of adult disease. One example is transplacental carcinogenesis. Animal models demonstrate that environmental chemicals, to which pregnant women are daily exposed, can increase susceptibility of the offspring to cancer. It is uncertain to what degree in utero vs. lactational exposure contributes to cancer, especially for hydrophobic chemicals such as polyhalogenated biphenyls, ethers, dioxins, furans, etc., which can partition into breast milk. We developed a pregnant mouse model in which exposure to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP), during late gestation, produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma in offspring between 3 and 6 months of age. Survivors exhibit multiple lung and liver (males) tumors. Here, we adopt a cross-foster design with litters born to dams treated with DBP exchanged with those born to dams treated with vehicle. Exposure to DBP in utero (about 2 days) produced significantly greater mortality than residual DBP exposure only through breast milk (3 weeks of lactation). As previously observed pups in all groups with an ahrb-1/d ('responsive') genotype were more susceptible to lymphoma mortality than ahrd/d ('non-responsive') siblings. At termination of the study at 10 months, mice exposed in utero also had greater lung tumor multiplicity than mice exposed only during lactation. Our results demonstrate that short exposure to DBP during late gestation presents a greater risk to offspring than exposure to this very hydrophobic PAH following 3 weeks of nursing

2008-12-15

284

Genistein enhancement of respiratory allergen trimellitic anhydride-induced IgE production by adult B6C3F1 mice following in utero and postnatal exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) during immune development had any effects on the production of IgE by adult mice following dermal treatment with trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a respiratory allergen. B6C3F1 mice were exposed to GEN either by feeding at 500 ppm or by gavage (20 mg/kg) for varied periods from gestation day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 84. In utero exposure to GEN by feeding increased the production of IgE at PND 84 in male mice but not in female mice. In male mice, continuous exposure to GEN postnatally diminished the in utero exposure-induced enhancement in serum total IgE production. However, continuous exposure to GEN from GD 14 to PND 84 was required to increase serum total IgE production in female mice. In utero exposure to GEN by gavage increased the production of IgE at PND 84 in female mice but not in male mice when the mice were maintained on the NIH-07 rodent diet in which a medium level of phytoestrogens was present. The enhancement in IgE production after GEN exposure in females but not in males was associated with decreases in the percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+) T suppressor cells, and increases in the natural killer (NK) cell activity, the basal splenocyte proliferation, the expression of CD86 by B cells, and the production of IL-2 and IL-4. Overall, the results demonstrated that GEN differentially modulated the developing immune system in male and female mice, and that more IgE was produced upon exposure to TMA in the adult. PMID:16049267

Guo, Tai L; Auttachoat, W; Chi, Rui P

2005-10-01

285

The frequency of Pig-a mutant red blood cells in rats exposed in utero to N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pig-a assay has been developed as a rapid sensitive measure of gene mutation in adult rats; however, no data exist on its ability to detect mutation following in utero exposures or in neonatal animals. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily on gestational days 12-18 with oral doses of 0, 6, or 12 mg/kg/day N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU); following parturition, the offspring and dams were monitored over a period of 5 months for the frequency of CD59-deficient erythrocytes as a marker of Pig-a mutation. Significant dose-related increases in Pig-a mutant red blood cells (RBCs) were observed in ENU-treated dams. However, only very weak increases in RBC Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) were noted in offspring treated in utero with the lower ENU dose. The higher ENU dose produced extremely variable responses in the offspring as a function of age, even among littermates, ranging from a steady low or moderately high Pig-a MF to a rapidly increasing or decreasing Pig-a MF. The manifestation kinetics of Pig-a mutant RBCs in the offspring suggest that the change from predominantly hepatic to predominantly bone marrow erythropoiesis that occurs during early development may have contributed to this variability. Our results indicate that using the RBC Pig-a model for mutation detection in animals treated in utero may require analysis of multiple offspring from the same litter to account for potential "jack pot" effects, and that detection of the earliest treatment effect (i.e., in neonates using the hepatic RBC fraction) may require optimization of blood processing. PMID:22730214

Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Heflich, Robert H; Ferguson, Sherry A

2012-07-01

286

In Utero and Lactational Exposures to Diethylhexyl-Phthalate Affect Two Populations of Leydig Cells in Male Long-Evans Rats1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) has been classified as an antiandrogen. However, whether in utero and lactational exposures of DEHP affect Leydig cells has not been well established. In the present study, the effects of DEHP exposures on fetal Leydig cells (FLCs) and adult Leydig cells (ALCs) were assessed. Pregnant dams of Long-Evans rats were treated with 0, 10, and 750 mg/kg body weight DEHP from Gestational Day 12.5 to Postnatal Day (PND) 21.5. Fetal Leydig cell clustering and FLC-specific g...

Lin, Han; Lian, Qing-quan; Hu, Guo-xin; Jin, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhui; Hardy, Dianne O.; Chen, Guo-rong; Lu, Zhong-qiu; Sottas, Chantal M.; Hardy, Matthew P.; Ge, Ren-shan

2009-01-01

287

Absence of mechanical loading in utero influences bone mass and architecture but not innervation in Myod-Myf5-deficient mice.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the responses of bone to increased loading or exercise have been studied in detail, our understanding of the effects of decreased usage of the skeleton has been limited by the scarcity of suitable models. Such models should ideally not affect bone innervation, which appears to be a mediator of physiological responses of bone to unloading. MyoD-/-/Myf5-/- (dd/ff) mice lack skeletal muscle, so the fetuses develop without any active movement in utero and die soon after birth. We used mi...

Gomez, Ce?dric; David, Valentin; Peet, Nicola M.; Vico, Laurence; Chenu, Chantal; Malaval, Luc; Skerry, Timothy M.

2007-01-01

288

Genistein Enhancement of Respiratory Allergen Trimellitic Anhydride-induced IgE Production by Adult B6C3F1 Mice Following In Utero and Postnatal Exposure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to determine if exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein (GEN) during immune development had any effects on the production of IgE by adult mice following dermal treatment with trimellitic anhydride (TMA), a respiratory allergen. B6C3F1 mice were exposed to GEN either by feeding at 500 ppm or by gavage (20 mg/kg) for varied periods from gestation day (GD) 14 to postnatal day (PND) 84. In utero exposure to GEN by feeding increased the production of IgE at P...

Guo, Tai L.; Auttachoat, W.; Chi, Rui P.

2005-01-01

289

Comunidades científicas e infra-estrutura tecnológica no Brasil para uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação na pesquisa / Scientific communities and technological infrastructure in Brazil for use of electronic resources of communication and information in research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo do uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação por pesquisadores brasileiros, na geração de novos conhecimentos. A análise abrange a freqüência de participação na rede, fatores intervenientes, finalidades de uso e o grau de relevância dessa tecnologia. No acesso e uso da informaçã [...] o científica e técnica, são comparados os recursos eletrônicos/digitais e os impressos/ tradicionais. A partir dos resultados, são identificadas percepções e perspectivas, entre as quais a aproximação entre comunicação científica e divulgação científica, a confluência dos processos de comunicação e informação e o crescente interesse pela temática da pesquisa, inclusive no Brasil. Pela importância dos recursos eletrônicos para pesquisa, há necessidade de sua expansão e atualização constantes, com investimento das instituições e sua inserção nas políticas públicas nacionais. Abstract in english Usage study of communication and information electronic resources by Brazilian researchers in the generation of new knowledge. The analysis encompasses the frequency of participation in the network as well as the intervenient factors, usage aims and the relevance of this technology. Electronic resou [...] rces and traditional printed ones are compared in scientific and technical information usage and access. Results identified perceptions and perspectives, among which the coming together of scientific communication and scientific divulgation, the confluence of communication and information processes and the growing interest for research in the area, including Brazil. Considering the importance of electronic resources for research, there is a need for its constant expansion and updating, which implies investments by Brazilian institutions and its insertion in the national public policies.

Lena Vania Ribeiro, Pinheiro.

290

Metadados para a descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica: utilização do padrão Dublin Core / Metadata for description of electronic information resources: the use of Dublin Core  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a necessidade de adoção de padrões de descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica, particularmente, no âmbito da Embrapa Informática Agropecuária. O Rural Mídia foi desenvolvido utilizando o modelo Dublin Core (DC) para descrição de seu acervo, acrescido de pequenas adaptações [...] introduzidas diante da necessidade de adequar-se a especificidades meramente institucionais. Este modelo de metadados baseado no Dublin Core, adaptado para o Banco de Imagem, possui características que endossam a sua adoção, como a simplicidade na descrição dos recursos, entendimento semântico universal (dos elementos), escopo internacional e extensibilidade (o que permite sua adaptação às necessidades adicionais de descrição). Abstract in english The objective of this article is the need of adoption of eletronic information resources patterns, particularly, in the Embrapa Agricultural Informatics area. The Rural Midia was developed using Dublin Core model for description of its collection, increased of small adaptations introduced due to the [...] need of institutional adjusts. This metadados model based on Dublin Core, adapted for the Image Bank, has characteristics that endorse its adoption, as the simplicity in the resources description, universal semantic understanding (of the elements), international uses and extensibility (what allows its adaptation to the additional description needs).

Souza, Marcia Izabel Fugisawa; Vendrusculo, Laurimar Gonçalves; Melo, Geane Cristina.

291

The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to Enable Resource Discovery in Clinical and Translational Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development...

Tenenbaum, Jessica D.; Whetzel, Patricia L.; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D.; Dinov, Ivo D.; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R.; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy

2011-01-01

292

Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

2005-01-01

293

PAH Particles Perturb Prenatal Processes and Phenotypes: Protection from Deficits in Object Discrimination Afforded by Dampening of Brain Oxidoreductase Following In Utero Exposure to Inhaled Benzo(a)pyrene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The wild-type (WT) Cprlox/lox (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, Cpr) mouse is an ideal model to assess the contribution of P450 enzymes to the metabolic activation and disposition of environmental xenobiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] aerosol on Sp4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–dependent systems as well as a resulting behavioral phenotype (object discrimination) in Cpr offspring. Results from in utero exposure of WT Cprlox...

Li, Zhu; Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Ramesh, Aramandla; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Maguire, Mark; Safe, Stephen; Rhoades, Raina E.; Clark, Ryan; Jules, George; Mccallister, Monique; Aschner, Michael; Hood, Darryl B.

2012-01-01

294

In utero exposure to a low concentration of diesel exhaust affects spontaneous locomotor activity and monoaminergic system in male mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have suggested that suspended particulate matter (SPM causes detrimental health effects such as respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and that diesel exhaust particles from automobiles is a major contributor to SPM. It has been reported that neonatal and adult exposure to diesel exhaust damages the central nervous system (CNS and induces behavioral alteration. Recently, we have focused on the effects of prenatal exposure to diesel exhaust on the CNS. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal exposure to low concentration of diesel exhaust on behaviour and the monoaminergic neuron system. Spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA and monoamine levels in the CNS were assessed. Methods Mice were exposed prenatally to a low concentration of diesel exhaust (171 ?g DEP/m3 for 8 hours/day on gestational days 2-16. SLA was assessed for 3 days in 4-week-old mice by analysis of the release of temperature-associated infrared rays. At 5 weeks of age, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were used for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Results and Discussion Mice exposed to a low concentration of diesel exhaust showed decreased SLA in the first 60 minutes of exposure. Over the entire test period, the mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust showed decreased daily SLA compared to that in control mice, and the SLA in each 3 hour period was decreased when the lights were turned on. Neurotransmitter levels, including dopamine and noradrenaline, were increased in the prefrontal cortex (PFC in the exposure group compared to the control group. The metabolites of dopamine and noradrenaline also increased in the PFC. Neurotransmitter turnover, an index of neuronal activity, of dopamine and noradrenaline was decreased in various regions of the CNS, including the striatum, in the exposure group. The serum corticosterone level was not different between groups. The data suggest that decreased SLA in mice exposed prenatally to diesel exhaust is due to facilitated release of dopamine in the PFC. Conclusions These results indicate that exposure of mice in utero to a low concentration of diesel exhaust decreases SLA and alters the neurochemical monoamine metabolism of several regions of the brain.

Odagiri Takashi

2010-03-01

295

Angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator network in utero-placental units along pregnancy in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The angiogenic and invasive properties of the cytotrophoblast are crucial to provide an adequate area for feto-maternal exchange. The present study aimed at identifying the localization of interrelated angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the feto-maternal interface in pregnant guinea-pigs. Methods Utero-placental units were collected from early to term pregnancy. VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and the intensity of the signals in placenta and syncytial streamers was digitally analysed. Flt1 and eNOS content of placental homogenates was determined by western blotting. Statistical analysis used one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Results In the subplacenta, placental interlobium and labyrinth VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS were expressed in all stages of pregnancy. Syncytial streamers in all stages of gestation, and cytotrophoblasts surrounding myometrial arteries in early and mid pregnancy – and replacing the smooth muscle at term – displayed immunoreactivity for VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, eNOS and B2R. In partly disrupted mesometrial arteries in late pregnancy cytotrophoblasts and endothelial cells expressed VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS. Sections incubated in absence of the first antibody, or in presence of rabbit IgG fraction and mouse IgG serum, yielded no staining. According to the digital analysis, Flt-1 increased in the placental interlobium in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.016, and in the labyrinth in day 60 as compared to days 20 and 40 (P = 0.026, while the signals for VEGF, KDR, B2R, and eNOS showed no variations along pregnancy. In syncytial streamers the intensity of VEGF immunoreactivity was increased in day 40 in comparison to day 20 (P = 0.027, while that of B2R decreased in days 40 and 60 as compared to day 20 (P = 0.011; VEGF, Flt-1, KDR, B2R and eNOS expression showed no variations. Western blots for eNOS and Flt-1 in placental homogenates showed no significant temporal differences along pregnancy. Conclusion The demonstration of different angiogenic, hyperpermeability and vasodilator factors in the same cellular protagonists of angiogenesis and invasion in the pregnant guinea-pig, supports the presence of a functional network, and strengthens the argument that this species provides an adequate model to understand human pregnancy.

Chacón Cecilia

2008-03-01

296

Unusual outcome of in utero infection and subsequent postnatal super-infection with different PCV2b strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

VC2002, isolated from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS)-affected pig, is a mixture of two porcine circovirus genotype 2b (PCV2b) viruses, K2 and K39. Preliminary experiments disclosed short-term adverse effects of K39, but not K2, on porcine foetuses. These findings led to the hypothesis that infection of immuno-incompetent foetuses with K2 confers a status of immunotolerance, and postnatal super-infection with K39 triggers PMWS. To explore this hypothesis, nine 55-day-old foetuses were inoculated in utero (three with K2-10(4.3)TCID50, three with K39-10(4.3)TCID50 and three with medium), and foeto-pathogenicity examined. At 21 days post-inoculation (dpi), K2 did not induce pathology, whereas pathological effects of K39 were evident. Twenty-four 45-day-old foetuses were subsequently inoculated to examine the long-term effect of K2, including six with K2-high dose-10(4.3)TCID50, six with K2-low dose-10(2.3)TCID50 and 12 mock-inoculated controls. Both doses resulted in five mummified foetuses and one live-born piglet each (69dpi). K2 was recovered from all mummies. K2 and K2-specific antibodies were not detected in serum of the two live-born piglets at birth, indicating full control of K2 infection. The K2-low dose-infected piglet was immunostimulated at day 2, but not the K2-high dose-infected piglet. Both non-stimulated and stimulated K2-infected piglets were super-inoculated with K39 at day 6 or 8 (taken as 0 days post super-inoculation). Low viral replication was observed in the non-stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(3.3)TCID50/g; identified as K39). In contrast, viral replication was extremely high in the stimulated K2-K39 piglet (up to 10(5.6)TCID50/g) and identified as K2, indicating that K2 infection is controlled during foetal life, but emerges after birth upon immunostimulation. However, none of the piglets showed any signs of PMWS. PMID:24950783

Saha, Dipongkor; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Huang, Liping; Geldhof, Marc; Vanhee, Merijn; Lefebvre, David J; Meerts, Peter; Ducatelle, Richard; Doorsselaere, Jan V; Nauwynck, Hans J

2014-06-01

297

Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

2004-09-15

298

Evaluating the use of a simulated electronic health record and online drug reference in a case study to enhance nursing students' understanding of pharmacologic concepts and resources.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nursing students should learn to navigate the complexities of the healthcare arena, such as integrating use of electronic health records (EHRs) and online drug references into patient care. Using a simulated EHR in a nursing pharmacology course allowed students to interact with these technologies while learning and applying pharmacologic concepts to a case study. The authors discuss how they created and facilitated such a case study, as well as students' outcomes. PMID:24937292

Vana, Kimberly D; Silva, Graciela E

2014-01-01

299

Biochemical analysis of cerebrum of fetal rats X-irradiated in utero - content and composition of DNA, superoxide dismutase and lipid peroxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero and biochemical analysis of the cerebrum was performed. The cerebral weight was significantly lower in the irradiated group on gestational day (gd) 13 with 100R than in the control group from gd 19 to postnatal day (pd) 15. In the isolation step for cerebral DNA on gd 21, decreased DNA contents of the homogenate and isolated nuclei and an increase in the ratio of protein to DNA in nuclei and isolated DNA were observed on X-irradiation. Analysis of the nucleoside composition of isolated DNA showed the radiation resistivity of dAdo. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was extremely low in fetal cerebrum. The lipid peroxide (LP) level of the cerebrum in the irradiated group was increased compared to that in the control group. Administration of vitamin E during pregnancy resulted in an increased cerebral weight and a decreased cerebral LP level in the irradiated fetuses. The low activity of SOD may be one of the factors which cause the vulnerability of the fetal brain to irradiation. The study on vitamin E supplementation showed evidence of the possibility of the prevention of microcephaly induced by X-irradiation in utero. (orig.)

1986-01-01

300

Effects of in utero exposure to D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in the male rat: a comparison with finasteride.  

Science.gov (United States)

D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm fruits, consisting of a mixture of free fatty acids, that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. This study investigated the possible alterations due to D-004 of androgen-dependent development after exposure in utero and compared them with those due to finasteride. Rats were randomized into five experimental groups: a control group, three groups treated with D-004 at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively, and a group treated with finasteride (10 mg/kg/day). Male rats were treated 10 weeks before and during mating. Female rats were treated for 15 days prior mating, during mating, during pregnancy, and until lactation (day 21) except for those treated with finasteride, which were only administered the drug on gestational days 12-21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy after postnatal day 90. The results of the present study indicate that D-004 induced no alterations in androgen-dependent development after the exposure in utero. Also, the current study demonstrated a permanent reduction in anogenital distance and retention of nipples in adult male rats exposed to finasteride during late gestation. Significant alterations induced by exposure to finasteride were mainly in tissues dependent on dihydrotestosterone during development. PMID:21861713

Martínez, Ariadne Gutiérrez; Pardo, Balia; Gámez, Rafael; Mas, Rosa; Noa, Miriam; Marrero, Gisela; Valle, Maikel; García, Haydee; Curveco, Dayisell; Mendoza, Nilda; Goicochea, Edy

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Effect of in utero-administered coumestrol, equol, and organic selenium on biomarkers for phase 2 enzyme capacity and redox status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in utero administration of coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast on selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes, plasma hormone levels, and markers for redox status in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The test compounds were administered via the diet to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. Within 24 h following delivery dams and offspring were sacrificed, and blood, liver and reproductive organs were sampled. Coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast did not significantly affect hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR), or RBC glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) in the offspring, whereas significant increases in GST QR, and GP(x) activities in dams were observed following administration of selenium-enriched yeast. The level of 17beta-estradiol in offspring from coumestrol-exposed dams was significantly increased compared with the control. The present results indicate that selenium-enriched yeast, coumestrol, andequol affect selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes and GP(x) in RBC in dams, whereas the offspring in general were refractive to the employed treatments. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the observed in utero effects imposed by the selected plant compounds confer permanent alterations on the health status of the animal resulting in an altered resistance to cancer.

Kramer, F.; Jensen, P. S.

2003-01-01

302

Arthritis - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation - www.arthritis.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

303

Practical resources  

Part of the Climate Ready programme, which provides advice and support to the public sector and business to help them adapt to climate change. This page provides a list of practical adaptation resources that users can access.

304

What Can Electrons Do? Electron Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

From the NanoEd Resource Portal, this course aims to "educate students about important roles of electron microscopy in nanoscience and nanotechnology." Topics covered here include "electrons, principles of electron microscopy, applications of electron microscopy in characterizing nano-scale materials, and the development of electron microscopy to meet challenges in nanotechnology." Here, visitors will find the lecture notes of Dr. Jian-Guo Zheng from Northwestern University as pdf forms of PowerPoint presentations, which illustrate each topic. This is a helpful and ready-to-use lecture for any educator in a nanotechnology classroom to help students understand electron microscopy.

Zheng, Jian-Guo

2012-04-12

305

External resources  

...You are here Policy Diversity External resources Diversity Current initiatives External resources Athena SWAN Athena forum ASSET survey The WISE Campaign Equality Challenge Unit ... Athena SWANA charter to recognise excellence in Science, Engineering and Technology (SET) employment in higher education Athena forumA partnership of ...in science, engineering and technology in higher education and research ASSET surveyThe Athena Survey of Science Engineering and Technology, providing a firm basis ...

306

RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las células mesenquimáticas que van a derivar en músculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los niños, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera década). Se clasifican en forma histológic [...] a en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomórficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican según la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres resultados se evalúa la sobrevida a los 2 años (90% de mortalidad a los dos años). A continuación presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patológico se demostró un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de útero Abstract in english Rabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade). They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, [...] botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

Ernesto, Hurel M; Gregorio, Evans M; Ronald, Poulsen R; Hugo, Gómez P.

307

Electrical and electronic equipment waste  

Feb 5, 2003 ... The EC Directive on waste electrical and electronic equipment ... from electrical \\and electronic equipment and increase its re-use, recovery and recycling. ... \\Environment Agency · WRAP - the Waste and Resources Action ...

308

INDUCTION OF CYP1A1 AD CYP1B1 AND FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN C57BL/6, BALB/C, AND F1 MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3¿m...

309

Dose-response assessment of fetal testosterone production and gene expression levels in rat testes following in utero exposure to diethylhexyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, diisoheptyl phthalate and diisononyl phthalate  

Science.gov (United States)

Several phthalate esters have been linked to the Phthalate Syndrome, affecting male reproductive development when administered to pregnant rats during in utero sexual differentiation. The goal of the current study was to enhance understanding of this class of compounds in the Spr...

310

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT, masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea.Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anesthetic considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Juan Camilo Ospina-García

2012-06-01

311

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura / EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a [...] consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT), masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea. Abstract in english Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anestheti [...] c considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia) by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Juan Camilo, Ospina-García; Carolina, Wuesthoff-Prieto; Santiago, Eslava-Cerón.

312

Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

How to cite this article: Abuelzein, E.M., Al-Khaliyfa, M.J. & Gameel, A.A., 2011, ‘Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1, Art. #318, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.318

Eltayb M. Abuelzein

2011-02-01

313

Curriculum Resources for Schools  

...ResourcesPrimary ResourcesPost Primary ResourcesTeacher ResourcesFactsheetsNanotechnologyLooking for HelpCurriculum Resources for SchoolsLast updated: 2 April 2010We are proud of our commitment to the...

314

Resource Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

Conrad, Jon M.

2000-01-01

315

Water resources  

Water resources * Valuing peatlands as a carbon store: Peatscapes, North Pennines Peat landscapes can help us both limit and adapt to climate change. This is because, if managed properly, peat acts as a carbon store to prevent carbon being lost to the atmosphere, as well as absorbing heavy rainfall…

316

Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

317

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome in the breech presentation managed by ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure after intraoperative external cephalic version.  

Science.gov (United States)

Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) caused by laryngeal atresia was diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound in a male fetus at 26 weeks of gestation. Findings included massive ascites, subcutaneous edema, enlarged hyperechogenic lungs with diaphragmatic inversion, dilated trachea, polyhydramnios, and breech presentation. Those findings of CHAOS spontaneously returned to normal by 33 weeks of gestation. However, the placenta was localized to the anterior uterine wall. In addition, the fetal position had been breech until delivery. At 36 weeks of gestation, a planned ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure was performed following intraoperative external cephalic version (ECV) in which the fetus was approached from the posterior wall of the uterus. Laryngoscopy revealed the predicted laryngeal obstruction, and tracheostomy was placed. Intraoperative ECV may be a useful technique in breech presentation before EXIT procedure. PMID:22435362

Miwa, Ichiro; Sase, Masakatsu; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Hasegawa, Keiko; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Ueda, Kazuyuki

2012-05-01

318

Intellectual development of children exposed to radioactive iodine in utero and up to the age of 1.5 years old as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study of intellectual development of 235 children who were irradiated with radioiodine in utero and within the first year of life was performed in 1998-1999. The control group consisted of 105 children examined in ecologically clean zone. The study of intelligence was performed by using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - WISC-III UK. In the group exposed to radiation prenatally (mean thyroid dose = 18.77 cGy, SD=28.77), comparisons of test scores didn't show statistically significant differences as compared with the control group. In the group exposed to radiation after birth (mean thyroid dose = 83.02 cGy, SD=66.05), significantly lower scores of the subtests Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and level of Performance IQ as compared to the controls were detected

2003-01-01

319

Bifid scrotum and anocutaneous fistula associated with a perineal lipomatous tumor complicated by temporary bilateral cryptorchidism in utero mimicking ambiguous genitalia: 2-D/3-D fetal ultrasonography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambiguous genitalia (AG) is a morphological diagnosis defined as genitalia not typical of a male or female. Findings mimicking AG, such as penoscrotal anomalies, anorectal malformations, and perineal lipomatous tumors, may prevent accurate identification of the fetal sex. We report a case of bifid scrotum and anocutaneous fistula associated with a perineal lipomatous tumor complicated by temporary bilateral cryptorchidism in utero, which were findings mimicking AG. Several perineal anomalies are associated developmental occurrences. In the present case, the combination of bifid scrotum and temporary bilateral cryptorchidism in the male fetus mimicked the combination of clitoromegaly and prominent labia, which are commonly observed in female fetuses. However, serial systemic assessments using prenatal 2-D/3-D ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging were unable to detect the anocutaneous fistula and differentiate the perineal lipomatous tumor. This case report suggests that the prenatal detection of perineal abnormalities may warn obstetricians of potentially undetected congenital perineal anomalies. PMID:24738127

Inde, Yusuke; Terada, Yusuke; Ikegami, Ei; Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Nakai, Akihito; Takeshita, Toshiyuki

2014-03-01

320

In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular dynamics in lambs and modulate the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2011.

Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

2004-09-15

322

The effects of in utero exposure of lambs to a beta-adrenergic agonist on prenatal and postnatal muscle growth, carcass cutability, and meat tenderness.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of the present experiment were to examine the effects of in utero exposure to a beta-adrenergic agonist (L644,969) on prenatal and postnatal muscle growth and meat tenderness of lambs. Thirty twin-pregnant Composite IV (1/2 Finnsheep, 1/8 Dorset, 1/8 Rambouillet, 1/8 Targhee, 1/8 Suffolk) ewe lambs were used for this experiment. All ewes were fed an alfalfa hay-corn-based diet throughout gestation and lactation. From d 25 to 95 of gestation, the diet of one-half of the ewes contained 2 ppm of L644,969 on an as-fed basis. Treatment did not ( P > .05) affect lamb weights at any point in the growth cycle (birth to 43 kg). Heart weights of neonatal and market lambs were increased ( P .05). Additionally, treatment did not alter the activities of any of the components of the calpain proteolytic system in neonatal or market lambs. Concomitantly, there was no effect of treatment on myofibril fragmentation index or Warner-Bratzler shear force. Moreover, there was no effect of treatment on muscle fiber type distributions, fiber sizes, or apparent fiber number. It seems that the lack of an effect of treatment on apparent fiber number would explain the lack of an effect on muscle weight. Thus, in utero exposure to L644,969 does not seem to have promise as a method for improving lamb carcass cutability. Other methods of improving the rate and composition of lamb carcass growth while maintaining acceptable meat tenderness must be developed. PMID:8617669

Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

1995-10-01

323

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects bone tissue in rhesus monkeys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bone tissue is one of the target tissues for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on bone tissue in rhesus monkey, the most human-like experimental model available. Pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; age 4-10 years) were exposed to TCDD with a total dose of 40.5-42.0 or 405-420 ng/kg bodyweight by repeated subcutaneous injections starting at gestational day 20 and followed by injections every 30 days until 90 days after delivery. At a mean age of 7 years the offspring were sacrificed and the femur bone dissected. Results from peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) analyses of the metaphyseal part of the femur bones in female offspring showed significant increases in trabecular bone mineral content (BMC; +84.6%, p < 0.05, F-value (F) = 5.9) in the low-dose treatment group compared with the controls. In the same animals, analysis of the mid-diaphyseal part revealed increases in total BMC (+21.3%, p < 0.05, F = 5.2) and cortical cross-sectional area (CSA; +16.4%, p < 0.01, F = 7.4) compared with the controls. In males, changes in biomechanical properties indicating more fragile bone were observed. Displacement at failure were significantly increased in the male low-dose group compared to the controls (+38.0%, p < 0.05, F = 11). The high dose of TCDD did not induce any significant changes in bone morphology. In conclusion, in utero and lactational low-dose, but not high-dose exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced disruption of bone tissue development in rhesus monkey, a result suggesting that similar effects might occur in humans also

2008-11-20

324

Pathway modeling of microarray data: a case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data. PMID:20850466

Ovacik, Meric A; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y; Gaido, Kevin W; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P

2013-09-15

325

Uranium resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

1976-01-01

326

Water resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

2002-07-01

327

Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) (Poster)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster introduces the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR), an electronic database with demographic, health outcome, and exposure information for over a million DOE nuclear plant and laboratory workers.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE)

2012-12-12

328

Developable resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the United States, it has become the conventional wisdom that all developable conventional hydropower resources have been exhausted. Studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies find differently. The root of disagreement may lie in the definition of what is developable. Environmental special interest groups now define developable hydropower sites as those having zero effect on the environment. As a result they conclude there are no additional developable hydropower sites. By contrast, the definition used by DOE and others is broader as it balances economic, technical, and environmental factors in accordance with the Federal Power Act.

Hunt, R.T.; Hunt, J.M.

1995-01-01

329

Electronic Information and Applications in Musicology and Music Theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes electronic publishing and information resources in the field of music. Topics addressed include bibliographic citations of books, journal articles, scores, and sound recordings; bibliographic utilities; computer network resources; electronic music applications; tutorial and laboratory projects; interactive multimedia publications; and…

Duggan, Mary Kay

1992-01-01

330

Resources Centralization System for Grid Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The increasing expansion of communications that is characterized by quality and availability led to interest on grid computing paradigm. The grid computing solves large-scale scientific problems, by providing the feature of sharing and selecting of various resources accessibility and utility. These resources solve intensive problems by increasing the computation and storage power. This study focuses on system with centralized resources for managing the grid resources. The proposed idea will create a resource list, which includes the resource history that will help the user to search for resources. The proposal resources list system will improve the resource serving by showing the most resources used and will save the time search time for the job request, by these points we will improve the quality of the user jobs execution and the quality type of the used resources.

Zahraa F. Muhsem

2013-09-01

331

Introduction to Electronics Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basic of the electronics industry, including different industry categories, and the overall process that moves the industry along. There is a quiz to test what students learned in the module in the Knowledge Probe section, and the Learning Resources section contains two activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and a Knowledge Game, which consists of a crossword reiterating the material covered. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for introductory electronics classes, or for students just entering electronics technician programs.

2008-09-04

332

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presents the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the central research and development organization of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Includes information on DARPA programs, news releases, archives, and budget information.

333

Transactions of Korean Nuclear Society [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features the Korean Nuclear Society, a non-profit scientific organization which aims to contribute to the development of nuclear science and technology, pursue academic and technological progress, and promote cooperation between the members. Its website provides information about the society, its history, organization, officers, departments, research projects, conferences; links to its publications. Also gives contact information.

334

Mechanical engineer's reference book [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book is one of the most comprehensive sources of information for engineers. Among the many subjects covered are tribology, nuclear and offshore engineering, health and safety, and the many applications of computers in engineering.

1998-01-01

335

Soil mechanics in engineering practice [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents both theoretical and practical knowledge of soil mechanics in engineering. It features expanded coverage of vibration problems, mechanics of drainage, passive earth pressure, and consolidation.

1996-01-01

336

Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new seventh edition of the world-famous classic provides you with unrivaled, state-of-the art coverage of all aspects of chemical engineering, from the fundamentals to details on computer applications and control. Definitive reference for chemical and process engineers.

1997-01-01

337

Perry's chemical engineers' handbook [electronic resource  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This new seventh edition of the world-famous classic provides you with unrivaled, state-of-the art coverage of all aspects of chemical engineering, from the fundamentals to details on computer applications and control. Definitive reference for chemical and process engineers.

2008-01-01

338

CMU artificial intelligence repository [electronic resource  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

Contains AI programming language implementations, including Lisp, Prolog, and Scheme, software in all areas of AI, announcements of current conferences, courses, talks, and workshops, including calls for papers, technical reports, abstracts, bibliographies, theses, books, book reviews, survey articles, and frequently asked questions (FAQ) postings, archives of mailing lists and newsgroups.

339

Communications and Information Technology Ontario [electronic resource  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

A not for profit organization whose goal is to encourage the collaboration between the university research community and Ontario's private industries. Site includes information about research projects, news, etc.

340

International travel and health [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Offers guidance on the full range of health risks likely to be encountered at specific destinations and associated with different types of travel - from business, humanitarian and leisure travel to backpacking and adventure tours.

 
 
 
 
341

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Describes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, which is operated by the University of California under a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy. LLNL focuses on global security, global ecology, and bioscience. Recounts the history of the Laboratory; includes information about the organization of LLNL, facilities, science and technology activities, education, publications, and job opportunities; offers access to news releases and other public affair information; online telephone directory. Contains a site search engine. Posts contact information via mailing address and telephone and fax numbers.

342

United Nations multilingual terminology database [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

70,000 entries of United Nations related terminology in the 6 official UN languages, updated daily. Compiled over the years in response to diverse and wide-ranging demands of UN language staff for terminology and nomenclature; facilitates the efforts of people around the world who participate in the work of the UN but do not have access to the Secretariat's intranet.

343

Interactive terminology for Europe [electronic resource].  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The European Commission's multilingual term bank. Covers a broad spectrum of human knowledge, but is particularly rich in technical and specialized terminology (agriculture, telecommunications, transport, legislation, finance) related to EU policy. Contains about five and a half million entries (terms and abbreviations), subdivided into more than 800 collections.

344

In utero onset of long QT syndrome with atrioventricular block and spontaneous or lidocaine-induced ventricular tachycardia: Compound effects of hERG pore region mutation and SCN5A N-terminus variant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND Mexiletine may protect patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 3 from arrhythmias. However, we had found an unusual in utero presentation of intermittent atrioventricular block and ventricular tachycardia, spontaneous or lidocaine-induced, in a fetus and his sibling with LQTS. OBJECTIVE This study was to investigate the underlying channelopathy and functional alteration. METHODS Mutations were searched in KCNQ1, HERG, KCNE1, KCNE2, and SCN5A genes. In expressed mutants, whole-ce...

Lin, Ming-tai; Wu, Mei-hwan; Chang, Chien-chih; Chiu, Shuenn-nan; The?riault, Olivier; Huang, Hai; Christe?, Georges; Ficker, Eckhard; Chahine, Mohamed

2009-01-01

345

Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

2001-12-01

346

In Vivo Analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp Sequence/Integrin ?5?1-Mediated Signal Involvement in Embryonic Enchondral Ossification by Exo Utero Development System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Enchondral ossification is a fundamental mechanism for longitudinal bone growth during vertebrate development. In vitro studies suggested that functional blockade with RGD peptides or with an antibody that interferes with integrin ?5?1-ligand interactions inhibited pre-hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. The purpose of this study is to elucidate in vivo the roles of the integrin ?5?1-mediated signal through the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence in the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction in embryonic enchondral ossification by an exo utero development system. We injected Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS) peptides and anti-integrin ?5?1 antibody (?5?1 ab) in the upper limbs of mouse embryos at embryonic day (E) 15.5 (RGDS-injected limbs, ?5?1 ab-injected limbs), and compared the effects on enchondral ossification with those found in the control limbs (Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser peptide-, mouse IgG-, or vehicle-injected, and no surgery) at E16.5. In the RGDS-injected limbs, the humeri were shorter and there were fewer BrdU-positive cells than in the control limbs. The ratios of cartilage length and area to those of the humerus were higher in the RGDS-injected limbs. The ratios of type X collagen to type 2 collagen mRNA and protein (Coll X/Coll 2) were significantly lower in the RGDS-injected limbs. In those limbs, TUNEL-positive cells were hardly observed, and the ratios of fractin to the Coll X/Coll 2 ratio were lower than in the control limbs. Furthermore, the ?5?1 ab-injected limbs showed results similar to those of RGDS-injected limbs. The present in vivo study by exo utero development system showed that RGDS and ?5?1 ab injection decreased chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in enchondral ossification, and suggested that the integrin ?5?1-mediated ECM signal through the RGD sequence is involved in embryonic enchondral ossification. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:24375788

Inoue, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Ryuju; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Jahan, Esrat; Rafiq, Ashiq Mahmood; Udagawa, Jun; Hatta, Toshihisa; Otani, Hiroki

2014-07-01

347

Teacher Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This section of the Windows to the Universe web site provides information and resources for teachers including activities about astronomy, earth science, physical science, and NASA; educational links on such topics as biology, earth science, math, mythology, space science, and physics; and Share-a-thon, which allows users to share curriculum and activities with fellow teachers. Users can also search educational standards of Windows to the Universe content pages and access a teacher workbook for use with the Windows to the Universe website. Windows to the Universe is a user-friendly learning system pertaining to the Earth and Space sciences. The objective of this project is to develop an innovative and engaging web site that spans the Earth and Space sciences and includes a rich array of documents, including images, movies, animations, and data sets that explore the Earth and Space sciences and the historical and cultural ties between science, exploration and the human experience.

Johnson, Roberta

2000-07-01

348

Mineral resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

1991-01-01

349

Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group  

...Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group institute,physics,iop,electron,microscopy,analysis,groups Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group This site uses cookies. By continuing ...Activities Careers Policy Resources You are here Activities Groups All Groups Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group Groups All Groups Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group ...Group calendar Committee Contact Newsletter Electron Microscopy and Analysis Group The Group was formed as the Electron Microscopy Group in 1946, the title ...Group's members, as over the years the use of electron beams for microscopy, lithography, structural and chemical analysis has become an indispensable ...

350

Carcinogenic effect of in utero 252Cf and 60Co irradiation in C57BL/6N x C3H/He F1 (B6C3F1) mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

C57BL/6N x C3H/He F1 mice were exposed in utero to 0, 1.0 and 2.7 Gy of 252Cf or 60Co at day 16.5th of gestation. Mice of both sexes were observed for 2 years. The females in the irradiated groups showed increases in the incidences of pituitary, mammary gland, liver and lung tumors. 252Cf was more effective in inducing tumors than was 60Co. Interestingly, the incidence of hematopoietic tumors decreased by irradiations with 252Cf but not with 60Co. The incidences of liver tumors in males increased by 252Cf-irradiation, whereas, the incidences of skin and soft tissue tumors increased by 60Co-irradiation. These results indicate that irradiation in utero during the late embryonic stage can induce tumors postnatally after a long latency. Moreover, females irradiated in utero had disfunction of the ovaries, evidence of impairment of the female's specific hormonal environment. This may be the cause of the low incidence of ovarian tumors and the high incidences of liver, lung and pituitary tumors in these female mice. Females with pituitary tumors had a high serum prolactin, which might be responsible for the concurrence of mammary gland tumors. These results indicate the importance of host factors in the development of radiation-induced tumors. (author)

1992-12-01

351

Electronic Books for Secondary Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the definition, purposes, and advantages and disadvantages of electronic books. Notes the types of embedded resources present in them, offers an example of an electronic book, and suggests three steps to evaluate and select electronic books for the curriculum. (SR)

Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark

1997-01-01

352

In utero and neonate exposure to nonylphenol develops hyperadrenalism and metabolic syndrome later in life. I. First generation rats (F(1)).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor (ENDR). It is a chemical associated with the production and degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE). NPE is widely used as nonionic surfactants. Previously, we observed that NP increased the production of corticosterone and aldosterone from zona fasciculata-reticularis, and zona glomerulosa cells, respectively. By the "fetal origins adult diseases" (Barker hypothesis), we examined the possible impact of NP exposure during developmental (in utero and neonatal) period with focus on disturbed adrenal function and related hyperadrenal syndrome, i.e. Cushings syndrome/metabolic syndrome. In this study, female rats drink NP water during pregnancy and lactation conferred F(1) generation: (1) increase the corticosterone, aldosterone concentration in plasma; (2) increase 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) activity in liver and adipose tissue; (3) increase aldosterone synthase activity in adrenal for adult offspring. Furthermore, it can increase body weight, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) concentration in plasma, 11?-HSD1 protein expression in liver, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression and 11?-hydroxylase activity in adrenal for male adult offspring. In summary, NP exposure during developmental period bestowed F(1) generation with hyperadrenalism and its consequence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22765982

Chang, Ling-Ling; Wun, Wan-Song A; Wang, Paulus S

2012-11-15

353

Effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate exposure on offspring development and male reproduction of rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was conducted to assess the effects of in utero di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) exposure during late gestation on offspring's development and reproductive system of male rats. Pregnant rats were treated orally with DBP (2, 10, 50 mg/kg), BBP (4, 20, 100 mg/kg), and diethylstilbestrol (DES) 6 ?g/kg (positive control) from GD14 to parturition. A significant reduction in dams' body weight on GD21 in DBP-, BBP-, and DES-treated groups was observed. The gestation length was considerably elevated in the treated groups. Decline in male pups' body weight was significant at PND75 in DBP- (50 mg/kg), BBP- (20,100 mg/kg), and DES-treated groups. The weight of most of the reproductive organs and sperm quality parameters was impaired significantly in DBP- (50 mg/kg) and BBP- (100 mg/kg) treated groups. Further, a non-significant decline in testicular spermatid count and daily sperm production was also monitored in treated groups. A significant reduction in serum testosterone level in BBP (100 mg/kg), whereas the testicular activity of 17?-HSD was declined non-significantly in the treated groups with respect to control. The data suggests that DBP and BBP exposure during late gestation period might have adverse effects on offspring's development, spermatogenesis, and steroidogenesis in adult rats. PMID:24213843

Ahmad, Rahish; Gautam, A K; Verma, Y; Sedha, S; Kumar, Sunil

2014-02-01

354

Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Nitrate after In Utero Exposure in Rats and of Nitrate and Nitrite in the H295R and T-Screen Assay  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studies of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in vitro assays, the H295R assay and T-screen. There were no consistent indications that nitrate induces anti-androgenic effects in male fetuses or that prenatal nitrate exposure affected the thyroid axis. However, a more comprehensive study with long-term exposure before and during pre- and postnatal development would be relevant to sufficiently address the concerns based on the indications for endocrine disrupting effects in adult animals.

Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla

2009-01-01

355

Providing Security Services in a Resource Discovery System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays, portable electronic devices allow users to access available resources wherever they are. In this sense, announcement and discovering of services and resources are two central problems to be solved in ubiquitous computing. Despite the fact that many service and resource discovery protocols exist, they are limited to...

Juan Vera del Campo; Josep Pegueroles; Miguel Soriano

2007-01-01

356

Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group  

...Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group Institute of Physics institute,physics,iop,quantum,electronics,photonics,groups Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group This site uses cookies.... IOP Institute of Physics For physics bull; For physicists bull; For all Home News About us Contact us Calendar MyIOP Search ...Activities Careers Policy Resources You are here Activities Groups All Groups Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group Groups All Groups Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group ...Committee Contact Group calendar Group prize Newsletter Quantum Electronics and Photonics Group The Quantum Electronics Group was founded in 1972 to provide a forum ...

357

DW3 Classical Music Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This site, hosted by the Duke University Music Library, is a sizable and well-organized metasite for classical music resources. Sections include Composer Homepages, Chronologies and Necrologies, National and Regionally Oriented Pages, Organizations and Centers for Scholarly Research, Electronic Journals and Newsletters, Genre-Specific Pages, and Databases (over 40). With the exception of the Chronologies and Necrologies and Databases sections, the featured links are not annotated. An internal search engine is also provided.

358

Electron-electron interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, the authors derive several new identities for the correlation functions which are evaluated for electron-electron interactions. These exact results are useful for checking numerous approximations

1992-10-20

359

Infant cynomolgus monkeys exposed to denosumab in utero exhibit an osteoclast-poor osteopetrotic-like skeletal phenotype at birth and in the early postnatal period.  

Science.gov (United States)

RANKL is a key regulator of bone resorption and osteoclastogenesis. Denosumab is a fully human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that inhibits bone resorption by binding and inhibiting the activity of RANKL. To determine the effects of denosumab on pre- and postnatal skeletal growth and development, subcutaneous injections of 0 (control) or 50mg/kg/month denosumab were given to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from approximately gestation day (GD) 20 until parturition (up to 6 doses). For up to 6months postpartum (birth day [BD] 180/181), evaluation of the infants included skeletal radiographs, bone biomarkers, and oral examinations for assessment of tooth eruption. Infant bones were collected at necropsy for densitometry, biomechanical testing, and histopathologic evaluation from control and denosumab-exposed infants on BD1 (or within 2weeks of birth) and BD181, and from infants that died or were euthanized moribund from BD5 to BD69. In all denosumab-exposed infants, biomarkers of bone resorption and formation were markedly decreased at BD1 and BD14 and slightly greater at BD91 vs control, then similar to control values by BD181. Spontaneous long bone fractures were detected clinically or radiographically in 4 denosumab-exposed infants at BD28 and BD60, with evidence of radiographic healing at ?BD60. In BD1 infants exposed to denosumab in utero, radiographic evaluations of the skeleton revealed decreased long bone length; a generalized increased radio-opacity of the axial and appendicular skeleton and bones at the base of the skull with decreased or absent marrow cavities, widened growth plates, flared/club-shaped metaphysis, altered jaw/skull shape, and reduced jaw length; and delayed development of secondary ossification centers. Densitometric evaluations in these infants demonstrated a marked increase in bone mineral density at trabecular sites, but cortical bone mineral density was decreased. Histologically, long bone cortices were attenuated and there was an absence of osteoclasts. Bones with active endochondral ossification consisted largely of a dense network of retained primary spongiosa with reduced marrow space consistent with an osteopetrotic phenotype. A minimal increase in growth plate thickness largely due to the expansion of the hypertrophic zone was present. Retained woven bone was observed in bones formed by intramembranous ossification, consistent with absence of bone remodeling. These changes in bone tissue composition and geometry were reflected in reduced biomechanical strength and material properties of bones from denosumab-exposed infants. Material property changes were characterized by increased tissue brittleness reflected in reductions in calculated material toughness at the femur diaphysis and lack of correlation between energy and bone mass at the vertebra; these changes were likely the basis for the increased skeletal fragility (fractures). Although tooth eruption was not impaired in denosumab-exposed infants, the reduced growth and increased bone density of the mandible resulted in dental abnormalities consisting of tooth malalignment and dental dysplasia. Radiographic changes at BD1 persisted at BD28, with evidence of resumption of bone resorption and remodeling observed in most infants at BD60 and/or BD90. In 2 infants euthanized on BD60 and BD69, there was histologic and radiographic evidence of subphyseal/metaphyseal bone resorption accompanied by multiple foci of ossification in growth plates that were markedly increased in thickness. In infants necropsied at BD181, where systemic exposure to denosumab had been below limits of quantitation for approximately 3months, there was largely full recovery from all bone-related changes observed earlier postpartum, including tissue brittleness. Persistent changes included dental dysplasia, decreased bone length, reduced cortical thickness, and decreased peak load and ultimate strength at the femur diaphysis. In conclusion, the skeletal and secondary dental effects observed in infant monkeys exposed in utero to denosumab are consistent with the anticipated p

Boyce, Rogely W; Varela, Aurore; Chouinard, Luc; Bussiere, Jeanine L; Chellman, Gary J; Ominsky, Michael S; Pyrah, Ian T

2014-07-01

360

Alterations of brain tissue in fetal rats exposed to nicotine in utero: possible involvement of nitric oxide and catecholamines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histopathological changes in the brains of embryos from female rats treated with nicotine during pregnancy and possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and catecholamines in the nicotine-induced abnormalities of developing brain were investigated. Sexually mature female Wistar rats were given 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT) subcutaneously for 20 days after mating. Levels of cotinine, a nicotine metabolite, in the maternal plasma increased dose-dependently. Fetus and fetal brain weights were significantly lower in all nicotine-treated groups. Light microscopy of hippocampal CA1 area showed a decrease in the number of cells per unit area. Electron microscopy of the same region revealed a dose-dependent increase in intracytoplasmic edema, mitochondrial swelling, dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, nuclear configurative abnormalities, and condensation of the nuclear chromatin. Nitrate + nitrite levels in fetal brain homogenates were significantly lower in the groups treated with 2 and 3 mg/kg NHT. Norepinephrine and normetanephrine (NMN) levels were significantly higher in 2 and 3 mg/kg NHT groups, as well as dopamine, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycole (MHPG), and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in the 3-mg/kg NHT group. In conclusion, maternal nicotine exposure may lead to structural abnormalities of the fetal brain tissue and may result in decreased levels of NO and increased levels of catecholamines and their metabolites. PMID:15001219

Onal, Aytül; Uysal, Ay?egül; Ulker, Sibel; Delen, Yasemin; Yurtseven, Mine E; Evinç, Akgün

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 ?g benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

1984-01-01

362

In utero and lactational exposure to a mixture of environmental contaminants detected in Canadian Arctic human populations alters retinoid levels in rat offspring with low margins of exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctic inhabitants are highly exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP), which may produce adverse health effects. This study characterized alterations in tissue retinoid (vitamin A) levels in rat offspring and their dams following in utero and lactational exposure to the Northern Contaminant Mixture (NCM), a mixture of 27 contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and methylmercury (MeHg), present in maternal blood of the Canadian Arctic Inuit population. Further, effect levels for retinoid system alterations and other endpoints were compared to the Arctic Inuit population exposure and their interrelationships were assessed. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were dosed with NCM from gestational day 1 to postnatal day (PND) 23. Livers, kidneys and serum were obtained from offspring on PND35, PND77, and PND350 and their dams on PND30 for analysis of tissue retinoid levels, hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes, and serum thyroid hormones. Benchmark doses were established for all endpoints, and a partial least-squares regression analysis was performed for NCM treatment, hepatic retinoid levels, CYP enzyme induction, and thyroid hormone levels, as well as body and liver weights. Hepatic retinoid levels were sensitive endpoints, with the most pronounced effects at PND35 though still apparent at PND350. The effects on tissue retinoid levels and changes in CYP enzyme activities, body and liver weights, and thyroid hormone levels were associated and likely driven by dioxin-like compounds in the mixture. Low margins of exposure were observed for all retinoid endpoints at PND35. These findings are important for health risk assessment of Canadian Arctic populations and further support the use of retinoid system analyses in testing of endocrine-system-modulating compounds. PMID:24588224

Elabbas, Lubna E; Esteban, Javier; Barber, Xavier; Hamscher, Gerd; Nau, Heinz; Bowers, Wayne J; Nakai, Jamie S; Herlin, Maria; Åkesson, Agneta; Viluksela, Matti; Borg, Daniel; Håkansson, Helen

2014-01-01

363

Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 ..mu..g benzol(a)pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

1984-01-01

364

Reducing perinatal complications and preterm delivery for patients undergoing in utero closure of fetal myelomeningocele: further modifications to the multidisciplinary surgical technique.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object As more pediatric neurosurgeons become involved with fetal myelomeningocele closure efforts, examining refined techniques in the overall surgical approach that could maximize beneficial outcomes becomes critical. The authors compared outcomes for patients who had undergone a modified technique with those for patients who had undergone fetal repair as part of the earlier Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS). Methods Demographic and outcomes data were collected for a series of 43 delivered patients who had undergone in utero myelomeningocele closure at the Fetal Center at Vanderbilt from March 2011 through January 2013 (the study cohort) and were compared with data for 78 patients who had undergone fetal repair as part of MOMS (the MOMS cohort). For the study cohort, no uterine trocar was used, and uterine entry, manipulation, and closure were modified to minimize separation of the amniotic membrane. Weekly ultrasound reports were obtained from primary maternal-fetal medicine providers and reviewed. A test for normality revealed that distribution for the study cohort was normal; therefore, parametric statistics were used for comparisons. Results The incidence of premature rupture of membranes (22% vs 46%, p = 0.011) and chorioamnion separation (0% vs 26%, p intervention, and both were believed to be associated with placental disruption; one of these mothers had previously unidentified thrombophilia. Mortality rates did not statistically differ between the cohorts. Conclusions These early results suggest that careful attention to uterine entry, manipulation, and closure by the surgical team can result in a decreased rate of premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnion separation and can reduce early preterm delivery. Although these results are promising, their confirmation will require further study of a larger series of patients. PMID:24784979

Bennett, Kelly A; Carroll, Mary Anne; Shannon, Chevis N; Braun, Stephane A; Dabrowiak, Mary E; Crum, Alicia K; Paschall, Ray L; Kavanaugh-McHugh, Ann L; Wellons, John C; Tulipan, Noel B

2014-07-01

365

Does Genetic Regulation of IgE Begin In-Utero? Evidence from TH1/TH2 Gene Polymorphisms and Cord Blood Total IgE  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Elucidation of early life factors is critical to understand the development of allergic diseases, especially those manifesting in early life such as food allergies and atopic dermatitis. Cord blood IgE (CBIgE) is a recognized risk factor for the subsequent development of allergic diseases. In contrast to numerous genetic studies of total serum IgE in children and adults, limited genetic studies on CBIgE have been conducted. Objective To test the associations between functional or tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the TH1/TH2 pathway and CBIgE in a large U.S. inner-city birth cohort. Methods CBIgE, measured by Phadia ImmnunoCAP, was analyzed as a continuous and a binary variable. The association of each SNP with the two outcomes was tested using tobit and logistic regression models, respectively, with adjustment for pertinent covariates, ancestral proportion, and multiple testing. Ethnic heterogeneity and gene-gene interactions were also explored. Results Three SNPs (rs1800925, rs2069743 and rs1295686) in the IL13 gene were significantly associated with CBIgE concentration (p?6×10-4, pFDR<0.05). These SNPs jointly influenced CBIgE in a dose-response manner (ptrend=9×10-8). Significant associations also were observed for SNPs in the IL13RA1 (rs5956080) and STAT6 (rs11172106) genes. Ethnicity-specific genetic effects were observed for SNPs in the IL5 and GATA3 genes. Several gene-gene interactions (including IL13-IL4R and IL13-STAT6 interactions) were detected in relation to CBIgE. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that multiple SNPs were individually and jointly associated with CBIgE, with evidence of gene-gene interactions and ethnic heterogeneity. These findings suggest that genetic regulation of IgE may begin in-utero.

Hong, Xiumei; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Liu, Xin; Arguelles, Lester; Kumar, Rajesh; Wang, Guoying; Kuptsova-Clarkson, Nataliya; Pearson, Colleen; Ortiz, Kathryn; Bonzagni, Anthony; Apollon, Stephanie; Fu, Lingling; Pongracic, Jacqueline A; Schleimer, Robert; Holt, Patrick G.; Bauchner, Howard; Wang, Xiaobin

2010-01-01

366

The New Resource File  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of the resource file is a common experience in teacher preparation programs. The author examines strategies for transforming what has been a project composed of physical resources to one emphasizing digital resources. Methods for finding, tagging, storing and retrieving resources are explored.

Luck, Donald D.

2011-01-01

367

Resources, Instruction, and Research  

Science.gov (United States)

Many researchers who study the relations between school resources and student achievement have worked from a causal model, which typically is implicit. In this model, some resource or set of resources is the causal variable and student achievement is the outcome. In a few recent, more nuanced versions, resource effects depend on intervening…

Cohen, David K.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Ball, Deborah Loewenberg

2003-01-01

368

Effects of In Utero Exposure to 4-hydroxy-2,3,3',4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (4-OH-CB107) on Developmental Landmarks, Steroid Hormone Levels, and Female Estrous Cyclicity in Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have revealed that one of the major metabolites of PCBs detected in human blood, 4-OH-2,3,3',4',5-pentaCB (4-OH-CB107), accumulated in fetal liver, brain, and plasma and reduced maternal and fetal thyroid hormone levels after prenatal exposure to pregnant rats from gestational days (GD) 10¿16. In the present study, the effects of 4-OH-CB-107 on developmental landmarks, steroid hormone levels, and estrous cyclicity of rat offspring after in utero exposure to 4-OH-CB107 was in...

Meerts, I. A. T. M.; Hoving, S.; Berg, J. H. J.; Weijers, B. M.; Swarts, J. J. M.; Beek, E. M.; Bergman, A.; Koeman, J. H.

2004-01-01

369

INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, the highest priority issue of water resources management is supply of increasing water demand with limited water resources. Water resources are a basis of sustainable development, so sustainable approach should be based on usage and management of water resources. In the twenty first century, the world is faced with a major water crisis. And the problems are originated from deficiencies and errors in the management of water resources. Thus, sustainable use of water resources is crucial for humanity. The sustainable development is defined as supply objectives and needs of today without jeopardizing objectives and demands of future generations. The long-term objectives instead of short-term ones should be considered in the assessment of water resources. Water resources are handled as a whole in basin management. This approachment constitutes the notion of integrated water resources management.

EM?N TA?

2013-03-01

370

Transient in utero disruption of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator causes phenotypic changes in Alveolar Type II cells in adult rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanicosensory mechanisms regulate cell differentiation during lung organogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR was integral to stretch-induced growth and development and that transient expression of antisense-CFTR (ASCFTR had negative effects on lung structure and function. In this study, we examined adult alveolar type II (ATII cell phenotype after transient knock down of CFTR by adenovirus-directed in utero expression of ASCFTR in the fetal lung. Results In comparison to (reporter gene-treated Controls, ASCFTR-treated adult rat lungs showed elevated phosphatidylcholine (PC levels in the large but not in the small aggregates of alveolar surfactant. The lung mRNA levels for SP-A and SP-B were lower in the ASCFTR rats. The basal PC secretion in ATII cells was similar in the two groups. However, compared to Control ATII cells, the cells in ASCFTR group showed higher PC secretion with ATP or phorbol myristate acetate. The cell PC pool was also larger in the ASCFTR group. Thus, the increased surfactant secretion in ATII cells could cause higher PC levels in large aggregates of surfactant. In freshly isolated ATII cells, the expression of surfactant proteins was unchanged, suggesting that the lungs of ASCFTR rats contained fewer ATII cells. Gene array analysis of RNA of freshly isolated ATII cells from these lungs showed altered expression of several genes including elevated expression of two calcium-related genes, Ca2+-ATPase and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase1 (CaMkk1, which was confirmed by real-time PCR. Western blot analysis showed increased expression of calmodulin kinase I, which is activated following phosphorylation by CaMkk1. Although increased expression of calcium regulating genes would argue in favor of Ca2+-dependent mechanisms increasing surfactant secretion, we cannot exclude contribution of alternate mechanisms because of other phenotypic changes in ATII cells of the ASCFTR group. Conclusion Developmental changes due to transient disruption of CFTR in fetal lung reflect in altered ATII cell phenotype in the adult life.

Larson Janet E

2009-03-01

371

Economics of exhaustible resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

Rabhan, S.A.

1986-01-01

372

Energy resources of India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Non-renewable energy resources including coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear fuel, and renewable energy resources including hydroelectric, forest wood and biogas of India are surveyed in brief. (M.G.B.)

1977-01-01

373

Solar Resource Assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

2008-02-01

374

ValuationResources.Com  

Science.gov (United States)

Edited by Jerry O. Peters, CPA, ASA, ABV, CBA, ValuationResources.com is a clearinghouse for business valuation resources. The information on this site is indexed into eight sections, including publications, industry resources, economic data, public companies, and transaction data. The links are all tersely annotated and organized by subject within each of the sections. ValuationResources.com will be a welcome bookmark for CPAs, business appraisers, and those interested in learning more about business valuation.

375

Human Resource Management System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper titled HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM is basically concerned with managing the Administrator of HUMAN RESOURCE Department in a company. A Human Resource Management System, refers to the systems and processes at the intersection between human resource management and information technology. It merges HRM as a discipline and in particular its basic HR activities and processes with the information technology field, whereas the programming of data processing systems e...

Navaz, A. S. Syed; Fiaz, A. S. Syed; Prabhadevi, C.; Sangeetha, V.; Gopalakrishnan, S.

2013-01-01

376

Program Resource Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

The program resource handbook brings together individuals, groups and organizations who are constantly looking for resource materials for programs and those who are looking for opportunities to present their programs and services to the public. Among the resources listed in the handbook, there is information on speakers, materials, meeting rooms…

Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

377

Natural Resources Bibliography.  

Science.gov (United States)

This bibliography presents a modern definition of the conceptual framework from which to view natural resources, and affords access to information which examines resources from the social scientists point of view. It presents five broad divisions of activity or variables which include (1) Natural and Human Resources, (2) Epistomological and…

Hoadley, Irene Braden

378

Hard electronics; Hard electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

379

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); Prostate enlargement resources; BPH resources ... following organizations provide information on benign prostatic hyperplasia ( prostate enlargement ): National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse - ...

380

Energy Resources and Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Several activities are included to teach and research the differences between renewable and non-renewable resources and various energy resources. Students work with a quantitative, but simple model of energy resources to show how rapidly finite, non-renewable energy sources can be depleted, compared to the ongoing availability of renewable resources. Then they complete a homework assignment (or a longer, in-depth research project) to learn how various technologies capture energy resources for human uses, and their pros and cons. Fact sheets help them get started on their investigations of assigned energy sources.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

 
 
 
 
381

Australia's energy resources 1980  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of resources for policy purposes involves a continuing process of reassessing the known and estimated resources in the the light of changes in technical and economic factors. A system of resource assessment and classification is required which will facilitate a quantitative comparison between different types of energy resources. The classification scheme adopted defines the categories in terms of certainty of occurrence and economic feasibility of extraction. Characteristics and limitations of this scheme are discussed. A resume of Australia's non-renewable energy resources is given

1980-01-01

382

Energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a presentation on energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis. Topics covered include: light-induced and thermal electron-transfer reactions; molecular engineering in photoconversion systems; the role of porphyrins in natural and artificial photosynthesis; photosynthesis and photocatalysis with semiconductor powders; and electrically conductive polymer layers on semiconductor electrodes.

Gratzel, M.

1983-01-01

383

Continuing Education for E-Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library schools may be teaching some of the theoretical framework necessary to perform the duties of electronic resource librarianship. However, a gap remains "between practical needs, as expressed in position descriptions, and the theoretical way in which library school courses address those needs." To fill this gap, professional associations…

Grogg, Jill E.

2008-01-01

384

Bootstrapping Deep Lexical Resources: Resources for Courses  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a range of deep lexical acquisition methods which make use of morphological, syntactic and ontological language resources to model word similarity and bootstrap from a seed lexicon. The different methods are deployed in learning lexical items for a precision grammar, and shown to each have strengths and weaknesses over different word classes. A particular focus of this paper is the relative accessibility of different language resource types, and predicted ``bang for the buck'' associated with each in deep lexical acquisition applications.

Baldwin, Timothy

2007-01-01

385

DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST TO MEASURE E-RESOURCES KNOWLEDGE (ERKT OF HIGHER SECONDARY TEACHERS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available -An electronic resource (E- Resource is any information source that the library provides access to in an electronic format. E-Resource consist of e-books,e-journals,e-thesis, e-library, edatabases, e-portfolio, etc.. In this research paper an attempt has been made to construct and standardize the E- Resources Knowledge Test to measure E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers, as there is no suitable questionnaire available to measure the E- Resources knowledge of higher secondary teachers.

P. Selvam

2014-05-01

386

Self managing experiment resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Within this paper we present an autonomic Computing resources management system, used by LHCb for assessing the status of their Grid resources. Virtual Organizations Grids include heterogeneous resources. For example, LHC experiments very often use resources not provided by WLCG, and Cloud Computing resources will soon provide a non-negligible fraction of their computing power. The lack of standards and procedures across experiments and sites generated the appearance of multiple information systems, monitoring tools, ticket portals, etc... which nowadays coexist and represent a very precious source of information for running HEP experiments Computing systems as well as sites. These two facts lead to many particular solutions for a general problem: managing the experiment resources. In this paper we present how LHCb, via the DIRAC interware, addressed such issues. With a renewed Central Information Schema hosting all resources metadata and a Status System (Resource Status System) delivering real time information, the system controls the resources topology, independently of the resource types. The Resource Status System applies data mining techniques against all possible information sources available and assesses the status changes, that are then propagated to the topology description. Obviously, giving full control to such an automated system is not risk-free. Therefore, in order to minimise the probability of misbehavior, a battery of tests has been developed in order to certify the correctness of its assessments. We will demonstrate the performance and efficiency of such a system in terms of cost reduction and reliability.

Stagni, F.; Ubeda, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Romanovskiy, V.; Roiser, S.; Charpentier, P.; Graciani, R.

2014-06-01

387

Library Quality Resources: Building a New Kind of Collection  

Science.gov (United States)

A challenge for school libraries is the identification and management of electronic and paper resources that teachers and students need. Courtenay Middle School, on Vancouver Island, has begun to assemble collections of mediated online links, in addition to the traditional paper and video resources, and to ask fundamental questions related to…

Savard, Stewart

2007-01-01

388

Reliability criteria selection for integrated resource planning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was conducted on the selection of a generating system reliability criterion that ensures a reasonable continuity of supply while minimizing the total costs to utility customers. The study was conducted using the Institute for Electronic and Electrical Engineers (IEEE) reliability test system as the study system. The study inputs and results for conditions and load forecast data, new supply resources data, demand-side management resource data, resource planning criterion, criterion value selection, supply side development, integrated resource development, and best criterion values, are tabulated and discussed. Preliminary conclusions are drawn as follows. In the case of integrated resource planning, the selection of the best value for a given type of reliability criterion can be done using methods similar to those used for supply side planning. The reliability criteria values previously used for supply side planning may not be economically justified when integrated resource planning is used. Utilities may have to revise and adopt new, and perhaps lower supply reliability criteria for integrated resource planning. More complex reliability criteria, such as energy related indices, which take into account the magnitude, frequency and duration of the expected interruptions are better adapted than the simpler capacity-based reliability criteria such as loss of load expectation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs

1993-03-01

389

Gravidez Gemelar com Morte Fetal de Um dos Gêmeos: Avaliação Neurológica dos Gemelares Sobreviventes / Neurological Evaluation of the Surviving Twin When One Dies In Utero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: verificar as intercorrências pré e perinatais e a evolução neurológica de crianças de gestações gemelares em que um dos fetos apresentou óbito intra-uterino. Métodos: foram avaliados 14 casos de gestações gemelares ocorridas no período de 1988 a 1994 com óbito de um dos fetos, acompanhadas [...] no Setor de Patologia Obstétrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da USP. Dados do acompanhamento pré e perinatal, bem como de autópsia dos fetos mortos, foram obtidos. As crianças foram convocadas no ano de 1996 para exame neurológico, sendo avaliados dados evolutivos e sinais patológicos nas áreas motoras, sensitivas, sensoriais e funções corticais superiores, incluindo linguagem, praxias e agnosias. Resultados: do total de 14 casos, 10 retornaram para a avaliação neurológica tardia. Destas, apenas uma criança apresentou alteração no exame neurológico, cursando com paresia espástica de MIE de grau leve, tendo apresentado Apgar 0 no primeiro minuto e 5 no quinto minuto. A avaliação da placentação e idade gestacional mostrou 5 casos (35,7%) com placentação monocoriônica e um caso com monoamniótica, 8 casos de pré-termo e 6 casos a termo. O óbito de um dos fetos ocorreu no segundo trimestre em 6 casos (42,8%) e os demais no terceiro trimestre. Conclusões: o problema neurológico constatado em um único feto pode ser atribuído às intercorrências perinatais que este recém-nascido apresentou. Não tivemos como resultado outros RN com seqüelas provavelmente pela opção da conduta conservadora, tendo-se resolvido as gestações após a 32ª semana com diminuição das complicações do parto pré-termo extremo. Abstract in english Purpose: to analyze the effects of prenatal and perinatal complications and the neurological development of surviving twins when the other had died in utero. Methods: fourteen cases of twin pregnancies where one of the twins had died during the pregnancy were analyzed. These patients gave birth betw [...] een 1988 and 1994 and were subsequently followed-up by the Department of Obstetrics, Pathology Division, at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. Data from prenatal and perinatal records as well as findings from the deceased twins' autopsies were analyzed. In 1996, requests were made for the children to have a neurological examination as part of the study. The examination included developmental assessment and pathological signs in the motor, sensory and sensitivy areas and superior cortical functions such as praxis and agnosia. Results: ten of the fourteen contacted subjects complied with the request for neurological examination. Of the ten examined children only one had abnormal neurological findings, presenting a light degree of spastic paresis of the left leg. The pregnancy evaluation showed five cases of monochorionic placenta and one case of monoamnionic pregnancy; six of the fourteen cases reached full-term. In six cases (42.8%) one of the fetus died during the second trimester and in the other they died during the third trimester. Only one newborn, who had Apgar 0 at the first minute, developed neurological sequelae. Conclusion: the neurological problem of one fetus may be a consequence of the perinatal complications that this fetus developed. The other newborns did not develop sequelae, possibly because of the conservatory management, trying to make the pregnancy reach 32 weeks or more, thus decreasing the complications of preterm delivery.

Carolina Araújo Rodrigues, Funayama; Diva de Amorim, Novaes; Fabrício da Silva, Costa; Ricardo de Carvalho, Cavalli; Geraldo, Duarte; Sérgio Pereira da, Cunha.

390

The Nuclear Receptor Resource Project.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have expanded the original Glucocorticoid Receptor Resource (GRR) database to include several individual resources as part of a larger project called the Nuclear Receptor Resource (NRR). In addition to the GRR, the NRR currently features the Thyroid Hormone Receptor Resource, the Androgen Receptor Resource, the Mineralocorticoid Receptor Resource, the Vitamin D Receptor Resource, and the Steroid Receptor Associated Proteins Resource. The goal of the NRR project is to provide a comprehensiv...

Martinez, E.; Moore, D. D.; Keller, E.; Pearce, D.; Robinson, V.; Macdonald, P. N.; Simons, S. S.; Sanchez, E.; Danielsen, M.

1997-01-01

391

Research Resources: The Courtenay Middle School Approach--How a Canadian Middle School Is Building Resource Links for Student Empowerment  

Science.gov (United States)

The author's middle school has created a mediated set of electronic learning resources designed to more effectively meet students' research needs. These research strategies help students with a variety of reading skills and allow students, and their teachers, to focus on higher-level thinking activities because the resource collections provide…

Savard, Stewart

2007-01-01

392

Ecosocialist resources, 42  

... Mike Treen (national director of the Unite union, New Zealand) Links international journal of socialist renewal System change or climate change? In walking out of the Warsaw conference, the General Secretary of the International Trade Union Confederation, Sharran Burrow, stated: “The corporate dominance which is on show here is unacceptable. It is the same companies that advocate environmental and social responsibility that ...on June 17, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 37 (posted on September 23, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 43 (posted on December 17, 2013) Ecosocialist resources, 14 (posted on November 16, 2012) Ecosocialist resources, 39 (posted on October 18, 2013) Category: Ecosocialist Notebook, Ecosocialist resources | Tagged: Anne-Marie Blackburn, John Bellamy Foster, John Ross, Mike Treen Previous: Yuen and Angus debate ‘environmental catastrophism’ Next: Breaking news! Lower income = lower consumption More Ecosocialist Notebook … Pete Seeger, 1919-2014 Doug Taylor, 1956-2014 Ecosocialist resources, 46 ...

393

Wind Energy Resource Information  

Science.gov (United States)

This portal of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory offers two major links: Meteorological Field Measurements at Potential and Actual Wind Turbine Sites and Wind Energy Resource Atlas of the United States. In addition, a section called Links to Wind Resource Maps leads to Iowa Energy Centers Iowa Wind Resource Assessment Maps, Wind Maps on NREL's Dynamic Maps and GIS Data website, and Wind Powering America including U.S. State Maps of Wind Resources and Installed U.S. Wind Capacity. Other links include the Colorado Utility Wind Resource Assessment Program (U*WRAP), The State of Hawaii's Wind Energy Fact Sheet and Wind Resource Database of NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC).

394

Marine Resources Committee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The annual report on marine resource developments during 1977 is divided into seven sections: U.S. offshore seabed resources, deepwater ports, coastal zone management, fisheries, deep seabed hard minerals, preservation of the marine environment, and transportation of marine resources. Significant legislation, court action, and administrative activities in each of these categories is summarized. International conferences and negotiations addressed fishing rights, deep seabed mining, water pollution, and oil spills.

Meyers, W.M.; Bockrath, J.T.; Ehrhart, C.E.; Ghee, P.H.; Greenwald, R.J.; Phillips, J.E. Jr.; Smith, C.C. Jr.

1978-01-01

395

Energy resources of Pakistan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of indigenous energy resources has high priority in Pakistan`s government policies. Potential resources and proven reserves of oil, gas, coal and hydro-power are tabulated. The use of nuclear power and renewable energy sources is also considered. Strategies to increase domestic energy supplies are outlined. Pakistan has a large unexplored domestic energy potential, becoming increasingly dependent on energy imports because of lack of technical and financial resources to implement the domestic development programme. 4 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

Raza, H.A.; Ahmed, R.; Sherer, H. [Hydrocarbon Development Institute (Pakistan)

1995-12-31

396

Physics Gateways and Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Physics Gateways and Resources collection is comprised of physics-related web portals, web sites, and individual digital resources in many areas of the discipline, including electromagnetism, classical mechanics, optics, oscillations and waves, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and other areas. Here may be found materials for physics educators and learners (early childhood through graduate school), resources intended for the general public, and materials aimed at physics research communities.

2008-03-14

397

Resources | Special Issues  

... Caffey) 31 July 2013 7 Equitable and Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources (Guest Editor: Takayuki Hiraki) 31 March 2013 9 Groundwater Quantity and Quality (Guest Editors: John A. Luczaj, Dallas Blaney) 31 July 2014 0 How Much Environment Do Humans Need?+20 - Reviewing Progress in Material Intensity Analysis for Transition towards Sustainable Resource Management (Guest Editors: Stefan Bringezu, Friedrich Hinterberger, Christa Liedtke) 31 May 2013 12 Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Wind Resource (Guest Editor: Simon J. Watson) 30 November ...

398

Electronic Recruitment at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

2004-01-01

399

Sharing network resources  

CERN Document Server

Resource Allocation lies at the heart of network control. In the early days of the Internet the scarcest resource was bandwidth, but as the network has evolved to become an essential utility in the lives of billions, the nature of the resource allocation problem has changed. This book attempts to describe the facets of resource allocation that are most relevant to modern networks. It is targeted at graduate students and researchers who have an introductory background in networking and who desire to internalize core concepts before designing new protocols and applications.We start from the fund

Parekh, Abhay

2014-01-01

400

Underground resources of Antarctica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although no ore or mineral deposits large enough for economical recovery have yet been found in Antarctica, it is thought that the continent contains enormous reserves of such resources. When the existence of underground resources is being discussed, inferences have to be made from relatively few data, using techniques drawn from the study of mineral deposits. After a brief account of Antarctica as a whole, the author discusses the following resources; ironmaking resources (iron ores and coal), petroleum, non-ferrous metals (by individual region), non-metals, and ice. 10 references.

Nishiyama, T.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

National Biomedical Computation Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The mission of the National Biomedical Computation Resource at the San Diego Supercomputer Center is to conduct, catalyze, and enable biomedical research by harnessing advanced computational technology.

402

1990 Resource Program.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document is a summary providing an overview of the analysis, thought process, and conclusions of the Resource Program. This summary is accompanied by a Technical Report, under separate cover, that provides a more in-depth discussion of the information presented here. Another companion document published under separate cover, the Resource Program Public Comment Summary and BPA's Response, provides a detailed summary of public comments on the Draft 1990 Resource Program and BPA's response to those comments. For a thorough understanding of how BPA arrived at the following conclusions, all three documents should be consulted. The 1990 Resource Program describes the actions Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) will take to develop new resources to meet the power requirements of its customers. The main focus is to determine what BPA should do in Fiscal Years (FY's) 1992 and 1993. This document presents Energy Resource budgets for these years. However, much care has been taken to define near-term actions aimed at meeting BPA's long-term resource needs. consequently, proposed program actions are presented for FY's 1994 through 1997. In addition, the 1990 Resource Program addresses some resource-related policy issues.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1990-07-01

403

Resources for the classroom  

...Affiliation Scheme Support for teachers Resources for the classroom Practical Physics Teaching Advanced Physics Supporting the Level 3 Extended Project Qualification (EPQ) in physics Teaching astronomy and space Teaching Medical Physics Teaching radioactivity Physics in Concert Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech SimPhysics The MODEL Project Other ... Teaching Astronomy and SpaceThis resource supports the teaching of astronomy and space to 11-16 year olds Teaching Medical PhysicsThese resources are designed for teaching GCSE and standard grade science using examples from medical physics. Teaching RadioactivityThese resources  support the teaching of radioactivity, with advice on ...

404

2005 resource options report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

2005-01-01

405

Building the electronic industry's roadmaps  

Science.gov (United States)

JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

Boulton, William R.

1995-02-01

406

Electronic Prescribing  

Science.gov (United States)

eRx CMS Product No. 11382 Revised March 2012 Electronic Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and my ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ...

407

Electronic Waste: Considerations for Promoting Environmentally Sound Reuse and Recycling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low recycling rates for used televisions, computers, and other electronics result in the loss of valuable resources, and electronic waste exports risk harming human health and the environment in countries that lack safe recycling and disposal capacity. Th...

2010-01-01

408

Sex ratio of the offspring of Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally in a three-generation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reports of a decreased male/female sex ratio in children born to males exposed to TCDD in Seveso, Italy, at a young age have sparked examinations of this endpoint in other populations exposed to TCDD or related compounds. Overall, the male/female sex ratio results reported in these studies, with slightly different age-exposed male populations, have shown mixed results. Experimental studies of the effects of in utero exposure to TCDD in laboratory animals have reported no effect on the f1 sex ratio and mixed results for the sex ratio of the f2 generation. In order to better understand the potential effects of TCDD on second generation sex ratio, we retrieved archived data from a comprehensive three-generation feeding study of TCDD in rats that was conducted and published in the 1970s, but which did not publish data on sex ratio of the offspring [Murray, F.J., Smith, F.A., Nitschke, K.D., Humiston, C.G., Kociba, R.J., Schwetz, B.A., 1979. Three-generation reproduction study of rats given 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the diet. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 50, 241-252]. A re-examination of the original Murray et al. data found no statistically significant treatment-related changes in postnatal day 1 sex ratio in any generation of treated animals, consistent with one other relatively large study reporting on this endpoint. We discuss mechanistic data underlying a potential effect of TCDD on this endpoint. We conclude that the inconsistency in findings on sex ratio of the offspring of male rats exposed to TCDD in utero is likely due to random variation associated with a relatively small sample size, although differences between studies in strain of rat, dose regimen, and day of ascertainment of sex ratio cannot be ruled out

2006-10-01

409

Virtual resource development in the glycosciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of Internet-based virtual resources is a relatively new area of scientific and technical activity that is currently undergoing rapid expansion. Major factors fuelling recent growth include the emergence of multimedia capabilities through the rapid evolution of the World Wide Web, the reduction in cost of high quality personal computers and graphics workstations and the provision of mass-marketed provider services. Prior to 1995 the presence of Internet resources in the glycosciences was virtually non-existent. Existing scientific knowledge was primarily made available on the Net through the provision of databases from gopher and ftp sites. A particular example in the glycosciences is the Carbbank database of biological carbohydrate sequences. We will describe here our efforts in 1994-95 in establishing The Glycoscience Network (TGN, http:@ bellatrix.pcl.ox.ac.uk/TGN/). These activities included the establishment of a newsgroup, mailing lists, Web resources and the running of the First Electronic Glycoscience Conference (EGC-1, http:@bellatrix.pcl.ox.ac.uk/egc/). EGC-1 included many novel initiatives in the glycosciences including electronic posters and papers, a Virtual Conference Centre, a Web-based hyperglossary, Virtual Trade and Employment Centres, refereed electronic publishing, and the creation of a Virtual Reality Gallery. We would like to look towards the near future and discuss several initiatives in virtual resource creation that we believe will have significant scientific impact on the glycosciences including the development of bioinformatics-based servers, sophisticated interactive databases, and videoconferencing. Furthermore, we cherish the belief that these resources will foster international scientific collaboration and progress of an extent never previously possible. Finally, we indulge in speculation and make some suggestions on the form and long-term impact of Glycoscience Virtual Resources. We predict that their development may completely reconstruct the scientific environment that we work in as scientists and we reflect on the probable benefits and pitfalls to be encountered. PMID:8910014

Hardy, B J; Wilson, I B

1996-10-01

410

Realizing what's essential: a case study on integrating electronic journal management into a print-centric technicalservices department  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To support migration from print to electronic resources, the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University reorganized its Technical Services Department to focus on managing electronic resources.

Dollar, Daniel M.; Gallagher, John; Glover, Janis; Marone, Regina Kenny; Crooker, Cynthia

2007-01-01

411

Electron cooling  

Science.gov (United States)

The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities—storage rings and traps being in operation or under development—is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler—recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

2004-10-01

412

Splash! Water Resource Education.  

Science.gov (United States)

This set of activities is designed to bring water resource education into the middle school classroom using an interdisciplinary approach. The packet contains timely, localized information about the water resources of west central Florida. Each activity is aligned to middle-school Sunshine State Standards. These hands-on, minds-on activities can…

Southwest Florida Water Management District, Brooksville.

413

Resources for GCSE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that new resources are needed to help teachers prepare students for the new General Certificate in Secondary Education (GCSE) examination. Compares previous examinations with new examinations to illustrate the problem. Presents textbooks, workbooks, computer programs, and other curriculum materials to demonstrate the gap between resources

Anderton, Alain

1987-01-01

414

Uranium resources increase  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1989, Canada succeeded in maintaining its uranium resources base by continuing active exploration. Estimated resources were increased by 7% to about 580 Gg U. Sales contracts were signed for 10.3 Gg. Exploration was concentrated in northern Saskatchewan, but with some activity near Great Bear Lake

1990-10-01

415

Capping resource use  

mostly the global “North” has been causing resource extraction.This asymmetry is often called the “ecological debt” ...the annual As earlier reports of the International extraction of construction materials grew As earlier reports ...of the International extraction of construction materials grew Resource Panel (IRP) have concluded, by

416

Resource bounds analysis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a generic analysis that infers both upper and lower bounds on the usage that a program makes of a set of user-definable resources. The inferred bounds will in general be functions of input data sizes. A resource in our approach is a quite general, user-defined notion which associates a basic cost function with elementary operations.

Navas, J.; Mera, E.; Lo?pez Garci?a, Pedro; Hermenegildo Salinas, Manuel Vicente

2006-01-01

417

Electronic Publishing: The Movement From Print To Digital Publication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides an overview of electronic publishing, describes how information increasingly is being exchanged within the scientific community, and discusses the scholarly qualifications of electronic venues. The following content is included: definition of electronic publishing; uses and types of electronic publishing; uses of electronic journals in nursing and health care; advantages and disadvantages of electronic journals; advantages and disadvantages of print journals; and the authors' projections for the future. Hotlinks to a variety of Internet resources on electronic resources are integrated throughout the article.

Ludwick, R., Glazer, G

2000-01-01

418

Quantifying global exergy resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

2006-09-01