WorldWideScience
 
 
1

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE HUMANITIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electronic information resources (EIR) including electronic journals, books, and databases, as well as other different collections of information on the internet either paid or accessed for free withoutany doubt became one of the most important information resources in contemporary research and studies. The point is whether representatives of all fields of sciences use them with equal intensity and effectiveness. There is an opinion, that EIR are more applicable for physical, biomedical and technological sciences and representatives of these sciences are better prepared and use them much more extensively. It is thought that those, who study liberal arts, are technophobial, moreover, representatives of liberal arts themselves maintain that manuscript material is frequently moreimportant than electronic information, that books are primary and not articles.The aim of the article is to overview the peculiarity of representatives of liberal arts and to present an evaluated qualitative and acknowledged register of electronic information resources, which could be useful for representatives of liberal arts, ensure supplying of specific information needs and disseminate information about electronic information resources.To implement this goal the following tasks are solved in the article: problems of typology of electronic information resources are discussed and their original classification scheme presented based on theoretical and practical material; assessment criteria of electronic information resources are analyzed; an annotated list of electronic information resources for representatives of liberal arts is presented.The article may be relevant to the whole community of representatives of liberal arts: researchers, lecturers, students, as well as library specialists and others, interested in electronic information.

Petrauskiene, Zibute

2006-01-01

2

The Electronic Banking Resource Center  

Science.gov (United States)

The Electronic Banking Resource Center, provided by an MBA graduate student at Ohio State University, is a one stop resource for information about banking on the Internet. It contains pointers to explanations of various open payment standards; a FAQ on electronic money/Internet payment systems that discusses such issues as challenges of Internet payment systems, electronic cash, credit cards, and checks and the Web, and advice for merchants on the Internet, among others; a page of pointers to examples of Internet financial transactions; and a large page of pointers to banks on the Internet. The Resource Center also contains pointers to other banking related sites. http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~damm/Lehre/E-Money/InternetPayment.html

3

Managing electronic resources a LITA guide  

CERN Multimedia

Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

Weir, Ryan O

2012-01-01

4

Student attitudes towards electronic information resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Students are increasingly expected to use electronic resources while at university. Studies were undertaken to determine the level of use of this type of resource, how students feel about various issues surrounding electronic resources and whether attitudes change dependent upon subject studied. 317 students across three universities completed questionnaires to determine level of use of various electronic information resources; ways in which they felt electronic resources had hindered or improved their academic career; if they perceived themselves capable of using the resources; would the standard of their work suffer without the use of these resources; and the various methods employed to acquire the skills necessary to use the sources. 155 students were questioned as part of a larger study IMPEL2, investigating the Impact on People of Electronic Libraries, supplemented by 162 students, questioned as part of an MA Dissertation, using the same methodology.

Kathryn Ray; Joan Day

1998-01-01

5

[Utero-vaginal malformations  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This review deals with the various anatomo-clinical features and the embryogenesis of utero-vaginal malformations. Three anatomo-clinical groups are distinguished from the vaginal malformations: vaginal aplasia, vaginal septa and hydrometrocolpos. Similarly, there are 3 types of uterine malformations, each corresponding to a chronologically different embryopathological anomaly: mullerian aplasia, most often responsible for utero-vaginal aplasia, mullerian fusion defects leading to bicornuate uterus, and resorption defects of the mullerian septum resulting in uterine septum. Only the utero-vaginal malformations with a vaginal component, mainly neonatal hydrometrocolpos, can really be detected during infancy and childhood, provided that the examination of the external genitalia is systematically and carefully performed. Due to their usual clinical latency during childhood, most malformations are only discovered by the end of puberty or after menarche, the main clinical signs being primary amenorrhea, cryptomenorrhea, unilateral dysmenorrhea or isolated dyspareunia. After the clinical gynecological examination, ultrasound diagnosis is very useful to explore the internal genitalia and to search for a frequently associated anomaly of the urinary tract.

Galifer RB

1992-01-01

6

[Utero-vaginal malformations].  

Science.gov (United States)

This review deals with the various anatomo-clinical features and the embryogenesis of utero-vaginal malformations. Three anatomo-clinical groups are distinguished from the vaginal malformations: vaginal aplasia, vaginal septa and hydrometrocolpos. Similarly, there are 3 types of uterine malformations, each corresponding to a chronologically different embryopathological anomaly: mullerian aplasia, most often responsible for utero-vaginal aplasia, mullerian fusion defects leading to bicornuate uterus, and resorption defects of the mullerian septum resulting in uterine septum. Only the utero-vaginal malformations with a vaginal component, mainly neonatal hydrometrocolpos, can really be detected during infancy and childhood, provided that the examination of the external genitalia is systematically and carefully performed. Due to their usual clinical latency during childhood, most malformations are only discovered by the end of puberty or after menarche, the main clinical signs being primary amenorrhea, cryptomenorrhea, unilateral dysmenorrhea or isolated dyspareunia. After the clinical gynecological examination, ultrasound diagnosis is very useful to explore the internal genitalia and to search for a frequently associated anomaly of the urinary tract. PMID:1331954

Galifer, R B

1992-01-01

7

Radium uptake in utero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A summary of information on a stillborn girl and her mother who had been a radium watch dial painter is provided. Although many dial painters bore children, this is the only example we have of simultaneous radioactivity determinations in mother and child prior to normal delivery. This case provides an opportunity to assess the degree of transfer of radium to the fetus in utero and may be unique in the study of the placental transfer of radium in humans. The mother (Case 00-009) worked at the US Radium Corporation, Orange, New Jersey, for 5 to 7 years beginning in 1918. She accumulated a substantial body burden of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra by mouth tipping of brushes, as was then the custom in the American dial painting industry. Years later, her husband recalled that tissues inside her mouth glowed brightly in the dark and that the front of her clothing often glowed too; he described her as a rapid worker. The child (Case 01-579) was stillborn after a gestation period listed as six months on the certificate of stillbirth. The cause of death is listed as placenta previa. The mother died on the day of birth, February 24, 1928. She was 26 years old. Mother and daughter were buried in the same casket and exhumed together August 9, 1968. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

Schlenker, R.A.; Keane, A.T.

1986-01-01

8

Metadata for long-term preservation of electronic resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metadata provide information about electronic resources and are indispensable for their localization. In the last few years due to the proliferation of digital archives increased attention has been given to metadata for long-term preservation. These metadata provide information important for accessing electronic resources in the future. The paper presents the role and function of metadata for long-term preservation in electronic archives according to the OAIS model.The author gives an overview of important international metadata frameworks and proposes a minimal metadata set for the longterm preservaton of electronic resources.

Alenka Kav?i?-?oli?

2004-01-01

9

Use of electronic information resources in goverment libraries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents the use of electronic information resources in government libraries in Slovenia. It starts with the definition of government libraries and electronic publications. On a selected sample of government libraries, the state of the usage of electronic information resources in government libraries was studied. On the basis of interviews, carried out in five government libraries, it was established that government libraries mostly do not focus on, or even think about, the use of electronic information resources. What they have and use seems self-evident to them.

Simona Omahen; Maja Žumer

2003-01-01

10

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8) out of the twelve (12) faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS). Responses were received from 225 (90%) academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN; M. Tunji; ISAH Abdulmumin; M.Y ADISA

2011-01-01

11

Freshmen's use of library electronic resources and self-efficacy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To encourage students use of the library, and in particular of its electronic resources, we need to understand what factors encourage students to seek out information in the library setting. Research has shown that self-efficacy influences academic achievement. This paper looks at the role self-efficacy plays in their search for information and use of the library's electronic resources, by surveying a class of freshmen at Baruch College. Their library and computer use were analyzed and correlated with their self-efficacy scores. Through statistical analysis, we found that use of the library correlated to the students' use of the library's electronic resources. We also found out that students who express an interest in learning about the library's electronic resources will be more likely to have higher self-efficacy.

Micaela Waldman

2003-01-01

12

Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Reference Resources Available on the Internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Article about evaluation of electronic reference resources available on the internet, it aims at creating a check list for evaluation criteria, the suggested list contains four main categories; technical features, content, media features, and user interface

Reda Mohamed al-Najar

2007-01-01

13

Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide  

CERN Document Server

This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

Lee, Stuart D

2004-01-01

14

In utero transplantation: Disparate ramifications.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In utero stem cell transplantation, which promises treatment for a host of genetic disorders early in gestation before disease effect stems from Ray Owen's seminal observation that self-tolerance, is acquired during gestation. To date, in utero transplantation (IUT) has proved useful in characterizing the hematopoietic stem cell. Recent observations support its use as an in vivo method to further understanding of self-tolerance. Preclinical development continues for its application as a treatment for childhood hematolymphoid diseases. In addition, IUT may offer therapeutic options in the treatment of diabetes among other diseases. Thus IUT serves as a technique or system important in both a basic and applied format. This review summarizes these findings.

Pixley JS; Zanjani ED

2013-04-01

15

In utero transplantation: Disparate ramifications.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero stem cell transplantation, which promises treatment for a host of genetic disorders early in gestation before disease effect stems from Ray Owen's seminal observation that self-tolerance, is acquired during gestation. To date, in utero transplantation (IUT) has proved useful in characterizing the hematopoietic stem cell. Recent observations support its use as an in vivo method to further understanding of self-tolerance. Preclinical development continues for its application as a treatment for childhood hematolymphoid diseases. In addition, IUT may offer therapeutic options in the treatment of diabetes among other diseases. Thus IUT serves as a technique or system important in both a basic and applied format. This review summarizes these findings. PMID:23671718

Pixley, John S; Zanjani, Esmail D

2013-04-26

16

Biology Resources in the Electronic Age  

CERN Multimedia

How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians be certain that the information a Web site provides is accurate and age appropriate? In this unique book, experienced science educator Judith A. Bazler reviews hundreds of the most reliable biology-related Web sites. Each review discusses the most appropriate grade level of the site, analyzes its accuracy and usefulness, and provides helpful hints for getting the most out of the resource.||The Web is the first place many students look for information. Yet the Web is notoriously unreliable. How can students, teachers, parents, and librarians b

Bazler, Judith

2003-01-01

17

Electronics Learning-Resources on the Web  

Science.gov (United States)

The links on this page are to background information which students taking electronics courses (particularly PHY2003, PHY3128) may find helpful. The descriptors used in the tables are explained at the bottom of the page. Topics include Circuit Analysis and Complex Variables, Techniques and Good Practice, Oscilloscopes, Passive Components, Diodes, Transistors, Op-Amps, Filters, Digital Signal, Processing, Applications and Circuits, Monostables and Astables, and Microcontrollers and PICsSpice: Learning and using Spice

Williams, Charles D.

2013-06-12

18

Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

Jean Bernon

2008-01-01

19

Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

Jenny Craven

2003-01-01

20

Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib), Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

Sanna Torma; Pertti Vakkari

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

Shao, Fang

22

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

Thomas Groenewald

2004-01-01

23

Child development following in utero exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Children born to women with epilepsy (WWE), exposed in utero to levetiracetam (LEV, n = 51), were assessed for early cognitive development and compared to children exposed to sodium valproate in utero (VPA, n = 44) and a group of children representative of the general population (n = 97). Methods: Children were recruited prospectively from 2 cohorts in the United Kingdom and assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale (1996), aged WWE. Results: On overall developmental ability, children exposed to LEV obtained higher developmental scores when compared to children exposed to VPA (p WWE prior to and of childbearing age.

Shallcross, R.; Bromley, R.L.; Irwin, B.; Bonnett, L.J.; Morrow, J.

2011-01-01

24

In utero release of constriction amniotic bands via blunt dissection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic techniques for in utero release of amniotic bands have relied on transecting instruments. We present an additional technique, blunt dissection, to release a constriction band in utero. The lower extremity that had detectable abnormalities during prenatal ultrasound had improved outcome after blunt in utero release of the amniotic band compared to the contralateral (control) leg. These findings support two conjectures: first, the degree of band adherence to the fetus is an important factor influencing the surgical approach to in utero lysis of the bands; second, that in utero release of constriction bands can result in improvement in outcome.

Assaf R; Llanes A; Chmait R

2012-02-01

25

Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

2009-01-01

26

Using Google Calendar as an Email Alert System for Electronic Resource Renewals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes an innovative and simple way for libraries to generate email reminders for the renewal and payment of electronic resources using Google Calendar. The advantages of using Google Calendar include cost (it’s free) and ease of use. Setting up an email alert system using Google Calendar enables librarians to track and manage their electronic resources more effectively.

Steven Shapiro

2010-01-01

27

eFG: an electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fusarium graminearum is a plant pathogen, which causes crop diseases and further leads to huge economic damage worldwide in past decades. Recently, the accumulation of different types of molecular data provides insights into the pathogenic mechanism of F. graminearum, and might help develop efficient strategies to combat this destructive fungus. Unfortunately, most available molecular data related to F. graminearum are distributed in various media, where each single source only provides limited information on the complex biological systems of the fungus. In this work, we present a comprehensive database, namely eFG (Electronic resource for Fusarium graminearum), to the community for further understanding this destructive pathogen. In particular, a large amount of functional genomics data generated by our group is deposited in eFG, including protein subcellular localizations, protein-protein interactions and orthologous genes in other model organisms. This valuable knowledge can not only help to disclose the molecular underpinnings of pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum but also help the community to develop efficient strategies to combat this pathogen. To our best knowledge, eFG is the most comprehensive functional genomics database for F. graminearum until now. The eFG database is freely accessible at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ with a user-friendly and interactive interface, and all data can be downloaded freely. DATABASE URL: http://csb.shu.edu.cn/efg/ PMID:23798489

Liu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xiaodong; Tang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Luonan; Zhao, Xing-Ming

2013-06-22

28

First trimester in utero exposure to methylphenidate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Methylphenidate is a centrally acting sympathomimetic used for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents and for narcolepsy in adults. Despite the growing use among adult women, no reliable data on the prevalence of use during pregnancy have been published, and safety during pregnancy has not been established. We systematically reviewed available data on birth outcome after human in utero exposure to methylphenidate. Systematic searches in PubMed/Embase were performed from origin to August 2012, and data from Michigan Medicaid recipients, The Collaborative Perinatal Project and the Swedish Birth Registry were evaluated. Excluding three case reports, a total of 180 children exposed to methylphenidate in utero during first trimester were identified, among whom, four children with major malformations were observed. Methylphenidate exposure during pregnancy does not appear to be associated with a substantially (i.e. more than twofold) increased risk of congenital malformations.

Dideriksen D; Pottegård A; Hallas J; Aagaard L; Damkier P

2013-02-01

29

In Utero Hepatocellular Transplantation in Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

This work represents a step forward in the experimental design of an in utero hepatocellular transplantation model in rats. We focused on the enrichment optimization of isolated fetal hepatocytes suspension, arranging the surgery methodology of in utero transplantation, monitoring the biodistribution of the transplanted hepatocytes, and assessing the success of the transplants. Rat fetuses have been transplanted at the 17th embryonic day (ED17) with fetal hepatocytes isolated from rats at the end of pregnancy (ED21). We assessed possible differences between lymphocyte population, CD4 positive, CD8 positive, double-positive T-cells, and anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukins 4 and 10 (IL4 and IL10) as well. Cellular viability reached the rates of 90–95%. Transplanted groups had a limited success. Transplanted hepatocytes were not able to pass through the hematoplacental barrier. The hepatocytes injected were primarily located in the liver. There was an upward trend in the whole amount of T CD4 and T CD8 cells. There was an increased IL4 in the transplanted groups observed in the pregnant rats. The possibility to induce tolerance in fetuses with a hepatocyte transplant in utero could be a key point to avoid the immunosuppression treatments which must be undergone by transplanted patients.

de Munck, Estefania; Maganto, Paloma; Escudero, Cristina; Miguel, Begona G.; Arahuetes, Rosa Maria

2013-01-01

30

A mouse model of in utero transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success. Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy is critical to advance this field. We and others have used the mouse model of IUT to study factors affecting successful engraftment of in utero transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in both wild-type mice and those with genetic diseases. The fetal environment also offers considerable advantages for the success of in utero gene therapy. For example, the delivery of adenoviral, adeno-associated viral, retroviral, and lentiviral vectors into the fetus has resulted in the transduction of multiple organs distant from the site of injection with long-term gene expression. in utero gene therapy may therefore be considered as a possible treatment strategy for single gene disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis. Another potential advantage of IUT is the ability to induce immune tolerance to a specific antigen. As seen in mice with hemophilia, the introduction of Factor IX early in development results in tolerance to this protein. In addition to its use in investigating potential human therapies, the mouse model of IUT can be a powerful tool to study basic questions in developmental and stem cell biology. For example, one can deliver various small molecules to induce or inhibit specific gene expression at defined gestational stages and manipulate developmental pathways. The impact of these alterations can be assessed at various timepoints after the initial transplantation. Furthermore, one can transplant pluripotent or lineage specific progenitor cells into the fetal environment to study stem cell differentiation in a non-irradiated and unperturbed host environment. The mouse model of IUT has already provided numerous insights within the fields of immunology, and developmental and stem cell biology. In this video-based protocol, we describe a step-by-step approach to performing IUT in mouse fetuses and outline the critical steps and potential pitfalls of this technique.

Nijagal A; Le T; Wegorzewska M; Mackenzie TC

2011-01-01

31

A Mouse Model of in Utero Transplantation  

Science.gov (United States)

The transplantation of stem cells and viruses in utero has tremendous potential for treating congenital disorders in the human fetus. For example, in utero transplantation (IUT) of hematopoietic stem cells has been used to successfully treat patients with severe combined immunodeficiency.1,2 In several other conditions, however, IUT has been attempted without success.3 Given these mixed results, the availability of an efficient non-human model to study the biological sequelae of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy is critical to advance this field. We and others have used the mouse model of IUT to study factors affecting successful engraftment of in utero transplanted hematopoietic stem cells in both wild-type mice4-7 and those with genetic diseases.8,9 The fetal environment also offers considerable advantages for the success of in utero gene therapy. For example, the delivery of adenoviral10, adeno-associated viral10, retroviral11, and lentiviral vectors12,13 into the fetus has resulted in the transduction of multiple organs distant from the site of injection with long-term gene expression. in utero gene therapy may therefore be considered as a possible treatment strategy for single gene disorders such as muscular dystrophy or cystic fibrosis. Another potential advantage of IUT is the ability to induce immune tolerance to a specific antigen. As seen in mice with hemophilia, the introduction of Factor IX early in development results in tolerance to this protein.14 In addition to its use in investigating potential human therapies, the mouse model of IUT can be a powerful tool to study basic questions in developmental and stem cell biology. For example, one can deliver various small molecules to induce or inhibit specific gene expression at defined gestational stages and manipulate developmental pathways. The impact of these alterations can be assessed at various timepoints after the initial transplantation. Furthermore, one can transplant pluripotent or lineage specific progenitor cells into the fetal environment to study stem cell differentiation in a non-irradiated and unperturbed host environment. The mouse model of IUT has already provided numerous insights within the fields of immunology, and developmental and stem cell biology. In this video-based protocol, we describe a step-by-step approach to performing IUT in mouse fetuses and outline the critical steps and potential pitfalls of this technique.

Nijagal, Amar; Le, Tom; Wegorzewska, Marta; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

2011-01-01

32

Use and Search Pattern of Electronic Resources in Five Autonomous Engineering Colleges (Bengaluru)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluates the use of electronic resources among the faculty in five autonomous Engineering Colleges in Bengaluru. It evaluates the purpose,benefits, preference of web browsers, search engines, file formats, problem faced,and search patterns as the key parameters. It highlights some problems,constraints and forward suggestions for better use of electronic resources.Methodology/Approach: The structured questionnaire is used for data collection besides personal interview and observation to add clarity.Findings: The study assesses the faculty awareness and use of electronic resources in their academic and research needs. Besides, familiarity about search patterns for effective retrieval.Research Limitations: The study is limited to the faculty of the Autonomous Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU) in Bengaluru Region of Karnataka State, India.Keywords: e-resources; search pattern; e-resource use; Autonomous Engineering Colleges.Paper Type: Survey cum Research

G. Kiran Kumar; Mallinath Kumbar

2012-01-01

33

User Perception of Electronic Resources in the University of Ilorin, Nigeria (UNILORIN)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the user perception of the electronic resources by the academic staff of the University of Ilorin. The sample consists of 250 academic staff selected from eight (8) out of the twelve (12) faculties that made up of the university. Data were collected through an electronic resources user perceptional survey (ERUPS). Responses were received from 225 (90%) academic staff of the eight faculties. Analysis revealed frequency of use of electronic resources was low. Reasons alluded to were lack of time because of the time required to focus on teaching; lack of awareness to electronic resources provided by the library; power outage, ineffective communication channels, slow network and inadequate searching skills. The study recommended adequate Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) training for all categories of academic staff and provision of adequate power supply.

BASHORUN; M. Tunji; ISAH Abdulmumin; M.Y ADISA

2011-01-01

34

?????????????????????? A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????/??????????????????????????????????????????????????The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science) in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis Model as the main analytical tool to examine cases in which readers/ students show real demands to electronic resources. The study concludes with promotion and marketing strategies with regards to service offerings for the university libraries.

Huang-Yu Liu; Jung-Huei Shu

2008-01-01

35

Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document mana...

Thomas Groenewald

36

Using Electronic Repositories as a Student Resource for MSE Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

In the majority of engineering disciplines, MSE provides resources and applications with many other areas of engineering, e.g., design, structures, mechanics, and manufacturing. For the students to transfer and implement their MSE knowledge, they must have easy access to all their information. The eportfolio is a repository of the students entire academic MSE content and provides a wealth of knowledge applicable to all engineering disciplines. This repository combines not only lecture and textbook material, but also every assignment (in assessed format), all quizzes (with answers) laboratory activities (in audiovisual format), student oral presentations (podcast), and lectures in asynchronous format. This allows all of the data and information accumulated by students throughout their varying MSE course collected in one place, and is able to act as a quick resource and information kit for future use as the eportfolio is quickly accessed. Student and graduate responses have been positive especially for those in the workforce who require immediate and correct information.

Blicblau, Aaron

2009-09-22

37

In utero transplantation of haemopoietic stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potentially valuable therapeutic approach that strives to take advantage of biological opportunities for cellular transplantation that exist in the early gestational fetus. However, with the exception of severe combined immunodeficiency, clinical application has been limited by minimal or no engraftment, suggesting the presence of significant barriers to engraftment within the fetal environnment. Research directed toward elucidating these barriers is progressing, and there is hope that the barriers to engraftment can be overcome in the near future. In the meantime, there are a limited number of specific disorders that are biologically favourable and may be amenable to treatment by this approach using conventional techniques. In the future, strategies that improve the competitive capacity of donor cells or the use of pre-natal transplantation to induce donor-specific tolerance followed by post-natal non-myeloablative enhancement of donor chimerism may allow broad clinical application of this approach. PMID:11924915

Flake, A W

2001-12-01

38

In utero transplantation of haemopoietic stem cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a potentially valuable therapeutic approach that strives to take advantage of biological opportunities for cellular transplantation that exist in the early gestational fetus. However, with the exception of severe combined immunodeficiency, clinical application has been limited by minimal or no engraftment, suggesting the presence of significant barriers to engraftment within the fetal environnment. Research directed toward elucidating these barriers is progressing, and there is hope that the barriers to engraftment can be overcome in the near future. In the meantime, there are a limited number of specific disorders that are biologically favourable and may be amenable to treatment by this approach using conventional techniques. In the future, strategies that improve the competitive capacity of donor cells or the use of pre-natal transplantation to induce donor-specific tolerance followed by post-natal non-myeloablative enhancement of donor chimerism may allow broad clinical application of this approach.

Flake AW

2001-12-01

39

IN UTERO HAEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION (IUHSCT)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHSCT) is a non-myeloablative approach for the prenatal treatment of genetic disorders. However, in target disorders, where there is not a selective advantage for donor cells, a useful donor-cell  chimerism  has not been achieved  There are three  possible  barriers  to engraftment following IUHSCT :  limited space in the fetus due to host-cell competition; the large number of donor cells needed, and the immunological asset of recipient .Animal models have shown different levels of resistance to IUHSCT engraftment.  In primate, goat, rat and mouse  the levels of engraftment that has been achieved were low and not  therapeutic.Among 46 cases of  IUHSCT reported in humans, successful engraftment  was obtained only in cases of  X-SCID. Useful levels of chimerism has not been achieved in non-immunodeficiency diseases, and  a detectable engrafment , was  reported only in one case  of  ß-thalassemia transplanted at 12 weeks of gestation  by fetal liver cells  In one a-thalassemia case, where a-globin-dependent hemoglobin production and anemia are present during fetal period, microchimerism  and tolerance were suggested . To overcome the IUHSCT engraftment barriers , it is necessary to develop strategies to improve the competitive capacity of donor cells and  to define the gestational age of the possible immunological “window of opportunity” in the human fetus. In utero haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (IUHSCT) is a non-myeloablative promising approach for the prenatal treatment of a variety of genetic disorders and  could be an alternative  option to therapeutical abortion in some congenital diseases like haematological hereditary  syndromes.

Maria Concetta Renda; Aurelio Maggio

2009-01-01

40

Can syndromic macrocephaly be diagnosed in utero?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcomes of fetuses with apparently isolated macrocephaly and those with associated findings, and to compare prenatal findings with postnatal diagnoses in children with syndromic macrocephaly. METHODS: We reviewed the files of all patients referred for suspected fetal macrocephaly, during a 10-year period from 2000, to a large prenatal diagnosis unit with expertise in fetal neurology counseling. Macrocephaly was defined as head circumference (HC) > 2 SDs of the norm. Patients with confirmed HC > 2 SD were identified and contacted, and their development was evaluated. RESULTS: Adequate data for analysis were available for 98 patients, in 82 of whom the fetal macrocephaly was considered isolated (Group A), and in 16 of whom associated fetal anomalies were identified (Group B). Macrocephaly was diagnosed earlier in Group B patients (28.4 vs. 32.3 weeks, P = 0.069), and the HC in Group B patients was larger (Z-score 2.95 vs. 2.3, P < 0.001). From Group A there were 81 liveborn; one of whom was diagnosed as having infantile autism. From Group B, there were nine liveborn. The associated central nervous system findings, as demonstrated by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging, included mild ventriculomegaly, malformations of cortical development, callosal abnormalities, overdeveloped sulcation, large cavum septi pellucidi, large subarachnoid spaces, mega cisterna magna, periventricular pseudocyst, open operculum and vermian dysgenesis. Syndromic diagnosis was made in utero in five fetuses and after birth in three. In eight patients, associated malformations were confirmed after birth but a specific diagnosis was not reached. CONCLUSIONS: When fetal macrocephaly is associated with other brain or systemic anomalies, syndromic macrocephaly can be diagnosed in utero. Fetuses with syndromic macrocephaly have a significantly larger HC, usually > 2.5 SD above the mean. Isolated macrocephaly, particularly when the HC is < 2.5 SD above the norm, may be clinically benign.

Malinger G; Lev D; Ben-Sira L; Hoffmann C; Herrera M; Viñals F; Vinkler H; Ginath S; Biran-Gol Y; Kidron D; Lerman-Sagie T

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Disseminating Context-Specific Access to Online Knowledge Resources within Electronic Health Record Systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinicians' patient care information needs are frequent and largely unmet. Online knowledge resources are available that can help clinicians meet these information needs. Yet, significant barriers limit the use of these resources within the clinical workflow. Infobuttons are clinical decision support tools that use the clinical context (e.g., institution, user, patient) within electronic health record (EHR) systems to anticipate clinicians' questions and provide automated links to relevant information in knowledge resources. This paper describes OpenInfobutton (www.openinfobutton.org): a standards-based, open source Web service that was designed to disseminate infobutton capabilities in multiple EHR systems and healthcare organizations. OpenInfobutton has been successfully integrated with 38 knowledge resources at 5 large healthcare organizations in the United States. We describe the OpenInfobutton architecture, knowledge resource integration, and experiences at five large healthcare organizations.

Del Fiol G; Curtis C; Cimino JJ; Iskander A; Kalluri AS; Jing X; Hulse NC; Long J; Overby CL; Schardt C; Douglas DM

2013-01-01

42

Brain damage in utero after Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: The report presents research study results of neuropsychiatric consequences of the children exposed in utero, who were born just after the Chernobyl accident (between April 26, 1986 and February 26, 1987). The children were under investigation for three stages: in 1990-1992; 1994-1996; 2002-2004. We use the data on health state, IQ level tests and individual dose reconstruction data. First correlation between prenatal acute exposure after atomic bombing and intellectual level decrease was demonstrated by Japanese scientists. It is known that while the Chernobyl whole body irradiation doses are much lower than the Japanese doses, thyroid doses after the Chernobyl accident are significantly higher. During the first stage the five-year-old prenatally exposed children were under examination. The results showed much more somatic diseases and neurofunctional mental disorders. It was also established in this cohort that starting with the 0.3 Sv threshold dose thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level grown along with fetal thyroid dose increase. Thereupon the radiation-induced malfunction of the thyroid-pituitary system was suggested as an important biological mechanism in the genesis of mental disorders in prenatally irradiated children. The epidemiological WHO project 'Brain Damage in Utero' (IPHECA) was implemented in the second stage. The examination of prenatally exposed children from the contaminated territories (555 kBq/m2 and more) resulted in an increased frequency of moderate mental retardation, emotional and behavioral disorders. Increasing of borderline nervous and psychological disorders of parents from the main group was higher than from the control. However it was rather hard to treat these results because individual dosimetric data were not available. Only in the third stage reconstruction of individual doses of children born to mothers evacuated from the Chernobyl exclusion zone was carried out at taking internal and external exposure. It was established that mean fetal dose (M±SD) was 65.4±33.9 mSv for the exposed group and 1.2±0.3 mSv - for the control, which was formed with Kiev residents. Prenatal brain doses were 19.2±11.3 mSv and 0.8±0.2 mSv for the exposed and control groups, respectively. Thyroid doses in utero were 760.4±631.8.1 mSv and 44.5±43.3 mSv for the exposed and control groups, correspondingly. The children having whole body prenatal dose more than 100 mSv made up 13,2% and 33,8% - having thyroid exposure dose in utero more than 1 Sv. It is worth mentioning that the frequency of somatic, neuropsychiatric and thyroid diseases was increasing in all the stages of the study. The third stage clearly demonstrates that the prenatally exposed children have significantly more nervous diseases and mental disorders. Children and their mothers were also examined with special psychological tests (WISC, the Achenbach and Rutter A(2), WAIS, SDS, PTSD, GHQ-28 and others). We revealed significant differences in intelligence, emotional and behavioral disorders of exposed children comparing to the control. The exposed children showed decreasing full-scale IQ along with decreasing verbal IQ. Although the frequency of performance/verbal intelligence discrepancies increased. No mental retardation was revealed. The exposed and evacuated mothers showed no differences of verbal abilities, but they had experienced much more real stress events. So they demonstrated more depression, PTSD, somatoform disorders, anxiety/insomnia, and social dysfunction. However, direct interdependence of the registered effects on the prenatally received doses is not revealed. The exception is IQ discrepancies of the prenatally irradiated children exceed 25 points. Thus, it is obviously true that somatic and mental health, intellectual development of the exposed in utero children have resulted not only from irradiation factor, but from a complex of psychosocial factors of catastrophe: theirs mothers' poor health and intellectual development level, experience in stress events, usual risk factors, and fetal irradiatio

2006-01-01

43

Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments  

CERN Document Server

We describe an electronic guidebook, Sotto Voce, that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each other's guidebook activity. We have conducted three studies of visitors using electronic guidebooks in a historic house: one study with open air audio played through speakers and two studies with eavesdropped audio. An analysis of visitor interaction in these studies suggests that eavesdropped audio provides more social and interactive learning resources than open air audio played through speakers.

Woodruff, A; Grinter, R E; Hurst, A; Szymanski, M H; Thornton, J D; Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

2002-01-01

44

A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded). Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental stud...

Romanov Kalle; Aarnio Matti

45

In utero intervention for urologic diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The burgeoning use of prenatal ultrasonography has prompted discussion of the feasibility and capabilities of fetal intervention for urologic disorders. On the basis of the capabilities of fetal intervention, three prenatally diagnosed anomalies are of primary interest to urologists: congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) and myelomeningocele. Various interventions (surgical or pharmacological) are being developed for fetuses with these diagnoses. For fetuses with CAH or LUTO, successful outcomes have certainly been demonstrated, although no results from prospective randomized trials have been published. In utero treatment of CAH is accomplished through oral administration of glucocorticoids to the expectant mother. However, the long-term effects of this strategy have been insufficiently studied and remain undetermined. In the fetus with a LUTO, prenatal intervention has primarily been accomplished by placement of a vesicoamniotic shunt. Although this technique results in improved perinatal survival according to several systematic reviews of the literature, the data originate from small, heterogeneous populations of patients. By contrast, a randomized controlled trial of fetal myelomeningocele closure resulted in greatly reduced rates of both ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and hydrocephalus. The future of fetal intervention in urology is contingent upon improved methods of studying the clinical outcomes of such treatments.

Clayton DB; Brock JW 3rd

2012-04-01

46

Child development following in utero exposure: levetiracetam vs sodium valproate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Children born to women with epilepsy (WWE), exposed in utero to levetiracetam (LEV, n = 51), were assessed for early cognitive development and compared to children exposed to sodium valproate in utero (VPA, n = 44) and a group of children representative of the general population (n = 97). METHODS: Children were recruited prospectively from 2 cohorts in the United Kingdom and assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale (1996), aged <24 months. Information regarding maternal demographics were collected and controlled for. This is an observational study with researchers not involved in the clinical management of the WWE. RESULTS: On overall developmental ability, children exposed to LEV obtained higher developmental scores when compared to children exposed to VPA (p < 0.001). When compared, children exposed to LEV did not differ from control children (p = 0.62) on overall development. Eight percent of children exposed to LEV in utero fell within the below average range (DQ score of <84), compared with 40% of children exposed to VPA. After controlling for maternal epilepsy and demographic factors using linear regression analysis, exposure to LEV in utero was not associated with outcome (p = 0.67). Conversely, when compared with VPA exposure, LEV exposure was associated with higher scores for the overall developmental quotient (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Children exposed to LEV in utero are not at an increased risk of delayed early cognitive development under the age of 24 months. LEV may therefore be a preferable drug choice, where appropriate, for WWE prior to and of childbearing age.

Shallcross R; Bromley RL; Irwin B; Bonnett LJ; Morrow J; Baker GA

2011-01-01

47

Intergenerational effects of in utero exposure to Ramadan in Tunisia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: We have reported that changes in the lifestyle of pregnant women during Ramadan affect more than one generation. In a series of newborn babies in Saudi Arabia, those whose mothers had been in utero during Ramadan differed from those whose mothers had not been in utero during Ramadan. These were unexpected findings and require replication. METHODS: We examined body size at birth in 1,321 babies (682 boys and 639 girls) born in Gafsa, a small city in Tunisia. RESULTS: Babies whose mothers had been in utero during Ramadan were smaller and thinner, and had smaller placentas, than those whose mothers had not been in utero during Ramadan. After adjustment for sex, the babies were 93 g lighter (95% confidence interval, 32-153, P=0.003) than those whose mother had not been in utero during Ramadan, their mean ponderal index was 0.52 kg/m(3) lower (0.24-0.79, P<0.001) and their placental weight was 21 g lower (5-37, P=0.01). The findings did not differ by trimester of maternal exposure to Ramadan. They were similar in boys and girls and in primiparous and multiparous mothers CONCLUSION: This study provides further evidence that changes in lifestyle during Ramadan have intergenerational effects.

Alwasel SH; Harrath A; Aljarallah JS; Abotalib Z; Osmond C; Al Omar SY; Khaled I; Barker DJ

2013-05-01

48

Bibliotecas digitales: recursos bibliográficos electrónicos en educación básica Digital Libraries: Electronic Bibliographic Resources on Basic Education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudiar recursos bibliográficos en formato electrónico para la educación básica implica reflexionar sobre mecanismos de búsqueda que atiendan las necesidades de los pequeños usuarios. A través de los trabajos realizados en el proyecto de investigación educativa «Bibliotecas digitales», se puso en evidencia que los acervos explorados, manejan un lenguaje para un nivel de educación superior. Ante esta problemática, se planteó la siguiente pregunta de investigación: ¿Cuáles son los criterios de clasificación de los recursos bibliográficos electrónicos para la educación básica? Se propuso una investigación no experimental, con una muestra de estudio no probabilística de casos tipo, integrada por 250 recursos que ofrecen los diez acervos bibliográficos seleccionados en base a un estudio exploratorio previamente realizado. Para el análisis, se valoraron los siguientes recursos: accesibilidad, eje curricular al que está dirigido, formato y aspectos pedagógicos, funcionales, tecnológicos y estéticos. Los resultados muestran una media de 3.76, la cual indica que los acervos bibliográficos ofrecen recursos de calidad, aunque es necesario trabajar en los aspectos pedagógicos y funcionales. Clasificar recursos electrónicos para educación básica requiere considerar necesidades pedagógicas, entorno gráfico, tecnológico y sobre todo, la forma dinámica y cambiante de cómo se concibe la información. Esto corrobora la necesidad de establecer un conjunto de indicadores que permita a los docentes seleccionar recursos electrónicos en relación a los ejes curriculares de la educación básica.Studying electronic bibliographic resources for basic education involves thinking about search mechanisms that meet the needs of young users. Through the investigation carried out during the educational research project «Digital libraries», it became evident that the collections explored use a language better suited to higher education. Faced with this problem, the following question arose: What are the criteria for classifying electronic bibliographic resources for basic education? The proposed investigation was non-experimental, with a non-probabilistic sample of case studies; the sample comprised 250 resources from 10 bibliographic collections. The analysis assessed resources according to: accessibility, the curricular axis to which it is addressed, and format; pedagogical, functional, technological and aesthetic aspects. The results show a mean of 3.76, which indicates that the bibliographic collections provide quality resources, although it is necessary to improve educational and functional aspects. Classifying electronic resources for basic education requires the consideration of pedagogical needs, graphical and technological qualities and, especially, the dynamic way in which information is conceived nowadays. This confirms the need to establish a set of indicators that enable teachers to select electronic resources based on basic education curricular axes.

Marcela Georgina López Zermeño

2012-01-01

49

In utero phenotyping of mouse embryonic vasculature with MRI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vasculature is the earliest developing organ in mammals and its proper formation is critical for embryonic survival. MRI approaches have been used previously to analyze complex three-dimensional vascular patterns and defects in fixed mouse embryos. Extending vascular imaging to an in utero setting with potential for longitudinal studies would enable dynamic analysis of the vasculature in normal and genetically engineered mouse embryos, in vivo. In this study, we employed an in utero MRI approach that corrects for motion, using a combination of interleaved gated acquisition and serial coregistration of rapidly acquired three-dimensional images. We tested the potential of this method by acquiring and analyzing images from wildtype and Gli2 mutant embryos, demonstrating a number of Gli2 phenotypes in the brain and cerebral vasculature. These results show that in utero MRI can be used for in vivo phenotype analysis of a variety of mutant mouse embryos.

Berrios-Otero CA; Nieman BJ; Parasoglou P; Turnbull DH

2012-01-01

50

Los recursos educativos electrónicos: perspectivas y herramientas de evaluación/ Electronic educational resources: perspectives and evaluation tools  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los recursos electrónicos con fines educativos están cada vez más presentes en los procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje actuales, y por tanto, en las colecciones digitales de las bibliotecas. Ante su proliferación y heterogeneidad cada vez mayor se ha planteado como una necesidad para la comunidad universitaria definirlos y establecer un conjunto de criterios claros y relevantes de evaluación que permitan determinar la calidad de los mismos. En este trabajo se analizan (more) las principales definiciones sobre recursos educativos electrónicos de cara a su acotación, se revisan las diferentes perspectivas para la evaluación de su calidad a través de la literatura científica, y se revisan las principales herramientas utilizadas para valorarlos. Finalmente, se presenta EVALUAREED, un instrumento diseñado para analizar y medir la calidad de los mismos, enfocado para ser utilizado por la comunidad universitaria, incluidas las bibliotecas. Abstract in english Electronic resources for education are increasingly present in the teaching-learning processes and in the digital library collections. Because of the proliferation and variety of educational resources, the educational community needs to define and establish a set of clear and relevant assessment to determine their quality. This paper reviews the main definitions of electronic educational resources as well as different perspectives to the assessment of their quality throug (more) h the scientific literature, and the main tools used to value them. Finally, it describes EVALUAREED, an instrument designed to analyze and measure the quality of these resources used by universitary community included the libraries.

Pinto, Maria; Gomez-Camarero, Carmen; Fernández-Ramos, Andrés

2012-09-01

51

Fetal intracranial haemorrhage: clinical significance of in utero ultrasonographic diagnosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To review in utero detection of fetal intracranial haemorrhage. DESIGN: Retrospective survey of pregnant women presenting to the ultrasonographic unit in whom the diagnosis of fetal intracranial haemorrhage was reached. SETTING: The Chaim Sheba Medical Center in Ramat Gan, and Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem; two large district general hospitals, each with 6000 maternity patients per year. SUBJECTS: Five fetuses with gestational ages ranging from 26 to 36 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal complications, fetal monitoring, prenatal Doppler ultrasound studies, postnatal imaging studies, neonatal morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Transabdominal sonography showed hyperechoic lesions in the brain parenchyma, and the lateral ventricle in three of five fetuses. In the remaining two fetuses, transvaginal sonography enhanced the visualisation of ventriculomegaly with intraventricular haemorrhage in one and periventricular leukomalacia was identified in the second. Three fetuses were appropriate for gestational age, and two were severely growth retarded. In one woman severe pre-eclamptic toxaemia may explain intracranial haemorrhage. Abnormal nonstress test and abnormal flow velocity waveforms in the umbilical and cerebral arteries were present in the two growth retarded fetuses, and in one who was appropriate for gestational age. The two growth retarded fetuses died shortly after birth. Of the three surviving infants, two had normal long term development, and one developed hydrocephalus with subsequent severe neurodevelopmental retardation, dying at the age of seven months. CONCLUSIONS: This small series shows that intracranial haemorrhage has a broad spectrum of manifestations with diverse prognosis. Following an antenatal diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage, the obstetrician must give special consideration to electronic fetal heart monitoring and Doppler velocity waveforms. The prenatal diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage has medico-legal implications suggesting that neurological outcome may not necessarily be due solely to intrapartum events and management.

Achiron R; Pinchas OH; Reichman B; Heyman Z; Schimmel M; Eidelman A; Mashiach S

1993-11-01

52

In utero surgery - current state of the art: part I.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fetal surgery, also referred to as in utero, prenatal or intrauterine surgery, consists of treatment of congenital malformations during fetal period. The idea of treating malformations diagnosed in the course of intrauterine life dates back to 1963, when Lilly performed first blood transfusion in the fetus. Ever since then, it has been introduced as treatment option in series of lethal malformations. Efforts are being made to treat nonlethal malformations by means of fetal surgery. MATERIAL/METHODS: A comprehensive search of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed between 1925 and February 2009 was performed. Search terms for MEDLINE and PubMed were: fetal surgery, foetal surgery, in utero surgery, prenatal surgery, and in utero treatment. In addition, information was obtained at Web sites of International Medicine and Surgery Society and the University of California Fetal Treatment Centre. RESULTS: Our attention focused on the overall view on fetal surgery history, its development and perspectives. Moreover, owing to the authors' interest in plastic surgery, some remarks on the role of intrauterine medicine and surgery in this branch of medicine were made. CONCLUSIONS: In utero surgery may be regarded as an efficient tool of preventive medicine. It offers some advantages that no other branch of medicine may offer. However, its implementation is more troublesome than it used to be regarded as before. Therefore only selected cases may benefit from its advantages. Nevertheless, current tendencies are to include, after thorough evaluation of benefit - risk ratio, some new indications for fetal surgery.

Wójcicki P; Drozdowski P

2010-11-01

53

In utero exposure to organochlorines and age at menarche.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To examine the effect of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on age at menarche in offspring, we conducted a cohort study over two generations. METHODS: Female participants (and their offspring) in a Michigan angler cohort in which organochlorine levels had been determined previously were studied. Of their 213 female offspring aged 20-50 years, 151 participated in the study (71%). We retrospectively determined age at first menstrual bleeding. Based on repeated maternal serum measurements between 1973 and 1991, we extrapolated PCB and DDE serum levels at the time of pregnancy. To estimate the association between in utero PCB and DDE exposure and age at menarche, we used linear regression analyses controlling for birth date period, maternal age at delivery, birth weight, breastfeeding, education status and maternal height. RESULTS: An increase in the in utero DDE exposure of 15 micro g/l reduced age at menarche by 1 year (P = 0.04). There was no association with maternal PCB exposure. When controlling for estimated body size at menarche, the DDE association was no longer significant, based on a subsample of 102 women. CONCLUSION: The DDE effect on age at menarche encourages further research about in utero exposures. Prospective studies including the offspring's DDE level before menarche are of particular interest.

Vasiliu O; Muttineni J; Karmaus W

2004-07-01

54

The results of health screening of the children exposure in utero and who continuous residing at the contamination territories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

240 children 10 years old exposure in utero have been examined. It's show that among exposed in utero children are more high level morbidity. We found considerable disturbances weight and growth after exposure in utero. Our date has shown that the exposed in utero children have more bad anthropometric indexes than children control group. (authors)

2000-01-01

55

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

Friege H

2012-09-01

56

A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. ? The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. ? We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. ? Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. ? Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection methods were suggested for equipment types that currently have no specific collection systems in Japan, particularly for video games, notebook computers, and mid-size ICT and audio/video equipment.

2011-01-01

57

??????????COUNTER???????? Statistical Problems of Electronic Resources and the Development and Application of COUNTER Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ??????????????????????????????????????????E-Metrics?COUNTER??????????????COUNTER??????????????????????????????COUNTER???????????????????????????????????????????????This study will be initiated from the controversies derived from generating electronic resource statistics, by way of literature review to recognize the solutions proposed by libraries, and further on to look into the development and the intention of E-Metrics and COUNTER projects, and lastly to proceed a comprehensive analysis of the reports from publishers under the standard format regulated by COUNTER. Through this study we expect to clarify and define the capabilities and limitations of COUNTER, and with which we hope to provide librarians a reliable standard to follow while generating statistics, and for publishers a referable criterion while selecting log files.

Hui-Hsin Yeh

2006-01-01

58

Neurobehavioral assessment of infants born at term and in utero exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Some studies report neurobehavioral symptoms in neonates exposed to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in utero. However, maternal psychiatric illness during the last trimester of pregnancy, as a confounding factor, has not always been assessed. AIMS: In this prospective study we compared neurobehavioral complications among neonates who were born to euthymic women who either took or did not take an SRI during the last trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Exposed and unexposed infants were assessed for: 1) temperament as measured by the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS); 2) activity via Actiwatch electronic monitoring; 3) sleep state using trained observer ratings; and 4) perinatal complications through medical record review. T-tests, Fisher's exact tests, and analyses of covariance were used to assess the relationship between clinical and neurobehavioral factors and exposure status. SUBJECTS: 67 infants (61 controls and 6 exposed to SRIs). OUTCOME MEASURES: Neonatal Assessment Behavioral Scale, APGAR scores, infant sleep state (% sleep, % wakeful), startles and tremulousness, gestational age, birth weight, and head circumference. RESULTS: Infants exposed to SRIs in the third trimester had poorer motor development, lower 5-minute APGAR scores, and shorter mean gestational age as compared to unexposed infants. CONCLUSION: Results of this study show differences in autonomic and gross motor activity between neonates who were or were not exposed to SRIs in utero after controlling for active maternal psychiatric illness. Future longitudinal work should compare longer term outcomes of exposed and unexposed infants of depressed mothers.

Smith MV; Sung A; Shah B; Mayes L; Klein DS; Yonkers KA

2013-02-01

59

Achieving Resource Conservation in Electronic Waste Management: A Review of Options Available to Developing Countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Large quantities of waste electronic devices (e-waste) at their end-of-life, generated internally or imported illegally from developed countries, are currently being managed in the developing countries, through low-end means such as crude backyard recycling and disposal at unlined landfills or open dumps. The extension of the lifespan of electronic devices through reuse options such as repair, reconditioning and remanufacturing should be a priority in the management of electronic waste in developing countries considering the near absence of state-of-the-art recycling facilities in these countries. Life extension through product and component reuse is especially critical to electronic products because in recent years, electronics have increased in technological complexity, with new product innovations and ever shortening product life expectancy. For many products, environmentalists assume that reuse is environmentally beneficial because it replaces the manufacturing and purchase of new goods. However, on the contrary, manufacturers may oppose this type of reuse for the same reason. There is an urgent need to control the trans-boundary movement of electronic scrap especially to countries without established recycling facilities. Importations of secondhand electronics make such devices available to those who cannot afford new products. However, an international method of testing and certification is needed to ensure that exported secondhand devices are functional. Establishment of formal recycling facilities for e-waste in the developing countries will ensure resource reutilization with both economical and ecological gains. This study reviews options available in working towards eco-efficient management of e-waste in developing countries in the light of the present low-end management practices.

Innocent Chidi Nnorom; Oladele Osibanjo; Stanley Onyedikachi Nnorom

2007-01-01

60

Reducing Clinical Trial Monitoring Resource Allocation and Costs Through Remote Access to Electronic Medical Records  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. Methods: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. Results: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. Conclusion: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

Uren, Shannon C.; Kirkman, Mitchell B.; Dalton, Brad S.; Zalcberg, John R.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Reducing clinical trial monitoring resource allocation and costs through remote access to electronic medical records.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: With electronic medical records (eMRs), the option now exists for clinical trial monitors to perform source data verification (SDV) remotely. We report on a feasibility study of remote access to eMRs for SDV and the potential advantages of such a process in terms of resource allocation and cost. METHODS: The Clinical Trials Unit at the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, in collaboration with Novartis Pharmaceuticals Australia, conducted a 6-month feasibility study of remote SDV. A Novartis monitor was granted dedicated software and restricted remote access to the eMR portal of the cancer center, thereby providing an avenue through which perform SDV. RESULTS: Six monitoring visits were conducted during the study period, four of which were performed remotely. The ability to conduct two thirds of the monitoring visits remotely in this complex phase III study resulted in an overall cost saving to Novartis. Similarly, remote monitoring eased the strain on internal resources, particularly monitoring space and hospital computer terminal access, at the cancer center. CONCLUSION: Remote access to patient eMRs for SDV is feasible and is potentially an avenue through which resources can be more efficiently used. Although this feasibility study involved limited numbers, there is no limit to scaling these processes to any number of patients enrolled onto large clinical trials.

Uren SC; Kirkman MB; Dalton BS; Zalcberg JR

2013-01-01

62

Use of Electronic Information Resources and Research Output by Academic Staff in Private Universities in Ogun State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study examined the use of electronic information resources and research output by academic staff in private universities in Ogun state, Nigeria. Three private universities were selected out of the nine private universities in Ogun state. These universities are Crescent University, Abeokuta, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, and Redeemers’ University, Mowe, all in Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling method was used to investigate respondents. The instrument used for data collection was structured questionnaire. 225 copies of the questionnaire were administered at Babcock University and 144 were retrieved. 88 at Crescent University and 80 were retrieved, while 215 at the Redeemers’ University and 130 were retrieved. The research looked at the extent with which electronic information resources were used in the private universities in Ogun State, using the three universities as sample. A total of 528 copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the respondents at the three universities and a valid number of 354 (66%) questionnaires were retrieved and analyzed. The questionnaire was designed using nominal and likert scales. The study revealed that most of the academic staff from the three private universities knew and used electronic information resources for their research work as shown on Tables 5, 6, 7 and 8. Findings from Tables 8 and 9 indicate that most of respondents from the three private universities have published their articles and presented papers with the use of electronic information resources. The study also revealed on Table 6 that effective use of electronic information resources contribute to the academics’ research output hence 329 (92.9%) of the total respondents supported that view. It is imperative to state here that lack of personal computer and erratic power supply among others are major constraints that inhibit use of electronic information resources in the three private universities which invariably affects their research output. The researchers recommended that private universities in Nigeria expedite action in the area of improving access to electronic information resources through provision of subsidized computers and improved electricity supply in their various universities. Moreso, academic staff are advised to acquire computer skills, learn and relearn to navigate and utilize the vast available electronic information resources on the internet to achieve better research output.Key words: Electronic information resources; Research output; Academics; Information access; Information skill; ICT; Electronic journal; Private university; Ogun state

Saturday U. Omeluzor; Ezinwayi Madukoma; Itunu Bamidele; Susan U. Ogbuiyi

2012-01-01

63

Neurobehavioral functioning in children exposed to narcotics in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The neuropsychological and behavioral status of children exposed to narcotics in utero was investigated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Bender-Gestalt, the Quick Neurological Screening Test, and the Burks Behavior Rating Scales. The narcotic-exposed children scored significantly lower than control children on Performance and Full-Scale IQs and most of the performance subtests. They scored significantly in the more pathological direction on Hand Skill, Figure Recognition and Reproduction, and Behavioral Irregularities. The narcotic-exposed children were significantly lower on the neurological indicators of the Bender-Gestalt. They scored significantly in the more pathological direction on almost all of the behavioral variables. The children exposed to methadone in utero scored in the more pathological direction than those exposed to heroin so as to raise questions directed toward the societal and ethical implications of methadone treatment.

Davis DD; Templer DI

1988-01-01

64

In utero surgery - current state of the art - part II  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background Fetal surgery, also referred to as in utero, prenatal or intrauterine surgery, consists of treatment of congenital malformations during the fetal period. The idea of treating malformations diagnosed in the course of intrauterine life dates back to 1963, when Lilly performed the first blood transfusion in a fetus. Since then it has been introduced as a treatment option in a series of lethal malformations. Efforts are being made to treat nonlethal malformations by means of fetal surgery. Material/Methods A comprehensive search of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed between 1925 and February 2009 was performed. Search terms for MEDLINE and PubMed were: fetal surgery, foetal surgery, in utero surgery, prenatal surgery, and in utero treatment. In addition, information was obtained at Web sites of the International Medicine and Surgery Society and the University of California Fetal Treatment Centre. Results Authors’ attention focused on the survey of indications to intrauterine operations. We outline potential directions of its development, quoting the groundwork of the most experienced researchers and clinicians. Moreover, owing to the authors’ interest in plastic surgery, some remarks on the role of intrauterine medicine and surgery in this branch of medicine are made. Conclusions In utero surgery may be regarded as an efficient tool of preventive medicine. It offers some advantages that no other branch of medicine may offer. However, its implementation is more troublesome than in the past, therefore only selected cases may benefit from its advantages. Nevertheless, current tendencies are to include, after thorough evaluation of benefit-risk ratio, some new indications for fetal surgery.

Wojcicki, Piotr; Drozdowski, Piotr; Wojcicka, Karolina

2011-01-01

65

In utero electroporation to study mouse brain development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In utero electroporation is a rapid and powerful technique to study the development of many brain regions. This approach presents several advantages over other methods to study specific steps of brain development in vivo, from proliferation to synaptic integration. Here, we describe in detail the individual steps necessary to carry out the technique. We also highlight the variations that can be implemented to target different cerebral structures and to study specific steps of development.

Pacary E; Guillemot F

2014-01-01

66

Bilateral fetal chylothorax: results of unilateral in utero therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The optimal method for antenatal treatment of pleural effusions from congenital chylothorax unknown. A fetus with bilateral congenital chylothorax and hydrops had a pleural catheter placed in utero on only one side of the fetal chest for 14 days prior to delivery. The fetal hydrops partially resolved. After birth there was significantly less drainage from the pleural space that had been antenatally drained. This case demonstrates potential neonatal advantages of pleuro-amniotic shunt placement.

Watson WJ; Munson DP; Christensen MW

1996-02-01

67

Bilateral fetal chylothorax: results of unilateral in utero therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimal method for antenatal treatment of pleural effusions from congenital chylothorax unknown. A fetus with bilateral congenital chylothorax and hydrops had a pleural catheter placed in utero on only one side of the fetal chest for 14 days prior to delivery. The fetal hydrops partially resolved. After birth there was significantly less drainage from the pleural space that had been antenatally drained. This case demonstrates potential neonatal advantages of pleuro-amniotic shunt placement. PMID:8672183

Watson, W J; Munson, D P; Christensen, M W

1996-02-01

68

In utero electroporation to study mouse brain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero electroporation is a rapid and powerful technique to study the development of many brain regions. This approach presents several advantages over other methods to study specific steps of brain development in vivo, from proliferation to synaptic integration. Here, we describe in detail the individual steps necessary to carry out the technique. We also highlight the variations that can be implemented to target different cerebral structures and to study specific steps of development. PMID:24048941

Pacary, Emilie; Guillemot, François

2014-01-01

69

[Utero-cutaneous fistula: a case report and literature review].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Utero-cutaneous fistula is a rare clinical entity with less than 15 cases reported worldwide in the last 20 years and this is the first case reported in our country. In this article we review the worldwide literature addressing this condition and present the first case reported in México and the first case reported worldwide in which the fistula is demonstrated using a combination of fistulogram and CT.

Ruiz Arteaga JD; Valdez Murillo AN; Hernández Trejo MC

2012-02-01

70

Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive. PMID:22993131

Friege, Henning

2012-09-01

71

Radioadaptive response following in utero low-dose irradiation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acute radiation exposure is known to cause biological damage that leads to severe health effects. However, the effects and subsequent health implications of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation exposures in utero. Pregnant laboratory mice (BALB/c) were exposed to low-dose Chernobyl radiation [10-13 mSv per day for 10 days] during organogenesis. The progeny were born and weaned in an uncontaminated laboratory, then were exposed to an acute radiation dose (2.4 Sv). Analysis of our end points (litter dynamics, DNA damage, bone marrow stem cell function, white blood cell counts and gene expression) suggests that a low-dose (100-130 mSv) in utero exposure to ionizing radiation is not deleterious to the offspring. Rather DNA damage, white blood cell levels, and gene expression results suggest a radioadaptive response was elicited for the in utero exposure with respect to the effects of the subsequent acute radiation exposure.

Howell EK; Gaschak SP; Griffith KD; Rodgers BE

2013-01-01

72

????????Marketing of Electronic Information Resources: A Case of The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library, Egerton University?Nerisa Kamar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives a brief overview of electronic information resources and services offered by The J.D. Rockefeller Research Library at Egerton University and the marketing of these resources. The paper examines the various reasons for marketing electronic information resources, with emphasis on the various, and illustrates marketing strategies used by J.D Rockefeller Research library towards effective utilization of the available resources in supporting research, teaching and learning. These strategies include use of posters, notices, brochures, telephone calls, Current Awareness Services (CAS), workshops and seminars, and decentralization of services, among others. It concludes with a discussion of cost effective use of these strategies in research and teaching.???89-93

? Nerisa Kamar?

2008-01-01

73

Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2001-06-01

74

The Impact of Electronic Banking on Human Resources Performance in the Nigerian Banking Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The survey examined the impact of electronic banking on Human Resource (HR) performance in the Nigerian banking industry, using First Bank Plc as a case study. The objective was to determine how the introduction of e-Banking has impacted on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by the bank's personnel and on bank-customers relationship and customer satisfaction. Structured questionnaire was used with the aid of personal interview to collect data from thirty five respondents randomly sampled from five purposively selected branches of First Bank Plc. Chi-square test was applied for data analysis. Result showed among other things that introduction of electronic banking has impacted positively on the bank's HR performance, in terms of improved efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery by bank personnel. Bank-customer relationship and customers’ satisfaction was also found to have been greatly enhanced. Hence, Government should lower the tariff on information technology-aided tools and equipment imported and possibly subsidized the cost.

Ojokuku, R. M.; Sajuyigbe, A. S.

2012-01-01

75

In utero mouse embryonic imaging with OCT for ophthalmologic research  

Science.gov (United States)

Live imaging of an eye during embryonic development in mammalian model is important for understanding dynamic aspects of normal and abnormal eye morphogenesis. In this study, we used Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) for live structural imaging of mouse embryonic eye through the uterine wall. The eye structure was reconstructed in mouse embryos at 13.5 to 17.5 days post coitus (dpc). Despite the limited imaging depth of OCT in turbid tissues, we were able to visualize the whole eye globe at these stages. These results suggest that live in utero OCT imaging is a useful tool to study embryonic eye development in the mouse model.

Syed, Saba H.; Larina, Irina V.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.

2011-02-01

76

Challenges of Providing Bibliographic Access to Remote Electronic Resources in National Bibliographies: Problems and Solutions--An Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

The proliferation of online resources has resulted in creating and accentuating challenges for national bibliographic agencies throughout the world. Through strategic planning and innovative approaches, providers of national bibliographies are seeking to realize bibliographic control of remote electronic material. For success, they will need to…

Byrum, John D., Jr.

77

Utero-muscular twisting and sperm storage in viperids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available suggested that females store sperm after mating and prior to ovulation/fertilization by “utero-muscular twisting” (UMT).Basically, the posterior region of the uterus becomes convoluted and contracted. Previous workers have indicated that thismechanism also occurs in temperate taxa, including Agkistrodon piscivorus, and others have suggested that UMT is an ancestralreproductive strategy of viperids. The work of these authors ignores earlier histological studies that found infundibular spermstorage tubules (SSTs) in old world viperids Cerastes cerastes and Viperus aspis. The SSTs in these two viperids were similar tothose of harmless snakes, including some more basal (Leptotyphlophidae and Typhlopidae) and others more derived(Colubridae) than the Viperidae. In addition, our studies on seasonal variation in sperm storage in Agkistrodon piscivorus showsperm in infundibular SSTs in all reproductively active females and even those with fetuses in utero, with no indication ofUMT. Our histological examination of the crotalines Sisturus miliarius and Crotalus durissus indicates that SSTs occur in theseforms as well. The evidence for UMT as a sperm storage strategy needs anatomical and physiological confirmation.

Dustin S. Siegel; David M. Sever

2006-01-01

78

Development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors in utero  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The role of acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous systems is well established in adults. Cholinergic modulation of vascular functions and body fluid balance has been extensively studied. In the embryo-fetus, cholinergic receptors are widespread in the peripheral and central systems, including smooth muscle and the epithelial lining of the cardiovascular, digestive, and urinary systems, as well as in the brain. Fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors develop (more) in a pattern (e.g., amount and distribution) related to gestational periods. Cholinergic mechanisms have been found to be relatively intact and functional in the control of vascular homeostasis during fetal life in utero at least during the last third of gestation. This review focuses on the development of fetal nicotine and muscarinic receptors, and provides information indicating that central cholinergic systems are well developed in the control of fetal blood pressure and body fluid balance before birth. Therefore, the development of cholinergic systems in utero plays an important role in fetal vascular regulation, gastrointestinal motility, and urinary control.

Mao, C.; Lv, J.; Li, H.; Chen, Y.; Wu, J.; Xu, Z.

2007-05-01

79

Systematically assessing the situational relevance of electronic knowledge resources: a mixed methods study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Electronic Knowledge Resources (EKRs) are increasingly used by physicians, but their situational relevance has not been systematically examined. OBJECTIVE: Systematically scrutinize the situational relevance of EKR-derived information items in and outside clinical settings. BACKGROUND: Physicians use EKRs to accomplish four cognitive objectives (C1-4), and three organizational objectives (O1-3): (C1) Answer questions/solve problems/support decision-making in a clinical context; (C2) fulfill educational-research objectives; (C3) search for personal interest or curiosity; (C4) overcome limits of human memory; (O1) share information with patients, families, or caregivers; (O2) exchange information with other health professionals; (O3) plan-manage-monitor tasks with other health professionals. METHODS: Longitudinal mixed methods multiple case study: Cases were 17 residents' critical searches for information, using a commercial EKR, during a 2-month block of family practice. Usage data were automatically recorded. Each "opened" item of information was linked to an impact assessment questionnaire, and 1,981 evaluations of items were documented. Interviews with residents were guided by log files, which tracked use and impact of EKR-derived information items. Thematic analysis identified 156 critical searches linked to 877 information items. For each case, qualitative data were assigned to one of the seven proposed objectives. RESULTS: Residents achieved their search objectives in 85.9% of cases (situational relevance). Additional sources of information were sought in 52.6% of cases. Results support the seven proposed objectives, levels of comparative relevance (less, equally, more), and levels of stimulation of learning and knowledge (individual, organizational). CONCLUSION: Our method of systematic assessment may contribute to user-based evaluation of EKRs.

Pluye P; Grad RM; Mysore N; Knaapen L; Johnson-Lafleur J; Dawes M

2007-09-01

80

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. Methods Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. Results The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam). The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8) and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0) seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. Conclusions This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa Nguyen B; Sokun Chay; Wei Chen; Lauritsen Jens M; Rieder Hans L

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Human resource requirements for quality-assured electronic data capture of the tuberculosis case register.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The tuberculosis case register is the data source for the reports submitted by basic management units to the national tuberculosis program. Our objective was to measure the data entry time required to complete and double-enter one record, and to estimate the time for the correction of errors in the captured information from tuberculosis case registers in Cambodia and Viet Nam. This should assist in quantifying the additional requirements in human resources for national programs moving towards electronic recording and reporting. METHODS: Data from a representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from Cambodia and Viet Nam were double-entered and discordances resolved by rechecking the original case register. Computer-generated data entry time recorded the time elapsed between opening of a new record and saving it to disk. RESULTS: The dataset comprised 22,732 double-entered records of 11,366 patients (37.1% from Cambodia and 62.9% from Viet Nam). The mean data entry times per record were 97.5 (95% CI: 96.2-98.8) and 66.2 (95% CI: 59.5-73.0) seconds with medians of 90 and 31 s respectively in Cambodia and in Viet Nam. The percentage of records with an error was 6.0% and 39.0% respectively in Cambodia and Viet Nam. Data entry time was inversely associated with error frequency. We estimate that approximately 118-person-hours were required to produce 1,000 validated records. CONCLUSIONS: This study quantifies differences between two countries for data entry time for the tuberculosis case register and frequencies of data entry errors and suggests that higher data entry speed is partially offset by requiring revisiting more records for corrections.

Hoa NB; Sokun C; Wei C; Lauritsen JM; Rieder HL

2012-01-01

82

Integration and interoperability accessing electronic information resources in science and technology the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web in the publishing and communication processes in science and technology and also in the information systems and libraries. The work points out the two major objectives of the BDL Project: facilitates electronic publishing of different full text materials such as theses, journal articles, conference papers,grey literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a unified gateway, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query across different information resources individually. The work explains technological options and standards that will assure interoperability in this context...

Marcondes, C H; Marcondes, Carlos H.; Sayao, Luis Fernando

2002-01-01

83

??????????????????????????????? | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ISO 2789? ICOLC Guidelines??ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrlcs?E-Measures Project???Project COUNTER??Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 ?ICOLC Guidelines?ANSI/NISO Z39.7?CNS13151?ARL E-Metrics?E-Measures Project?and Project COUNTER etc.???89-102

??????????? ?

2007-01-01

84

Spinal neural tube defects on in utero MRI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spinal neural tube defects are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which remain relatively common, with a prevalence of 1-2 per 1000 live births despite advances in maternal antenatal care. They range from mild disorders with limited neurodevelopmental sequelae to extensive abnormalities with significant morbidity and mortality. The advent of in utero magnetic resonance imaging has enabled accurate anatomical characterization of an increasing number of abnormalities with increasing confidence. Recognition of the salient radiological features of these disorders and their relationship to the embryogenesis of the spinal cord and its coverings is now possible. This review describes the radiological appearances of these disorders with examples from Fetal Imaging Unit, University of Sheffield to illustrate the key anatomical and radiological features to aid the radiologist in their recognition.

Williams F; Griffiths PD

2013-09-01

85

Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta) was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD). Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1) issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2) issues with resources in a developing setting; (3) issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4) issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

Soto Giselle; Araujo-Castillo Roger V; Neyra Joan; Fernandez Miguel; Leturia Carlos; Mundaca Carmen C; Blazes David L

2008-01-01

86

Potential risk of asthma associated with in utero exposure to xenobiotics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of asthma, a complex disease and significant public health problem, has been increasing over the last 30 years for unknown reasons. Changes in environmental exposures or lifestyle may be involved. In some cases asthma may originate in utero or in early life. Associations have been found between in utero exposures to several xenobiotics and increased risk of asthma. There is convincing evidence that maternal smoking and/or in utero and perinatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke are associated with increased risk of asthma. Similar effects have been demonstrated in animal models of allergic asthma. Evidence also suggests that in utero and/or early-life exposures to various ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of asthma although supporting animal data are very limited. A few studies have suggested that in utero exposure to acetaminophen is associated with increased risk of asthma; however, animal data are lacking. Various vitamin deficiencies and supplements during pregnancy have been studied. In general, it appears that vitamins A, C, and E have protective effects and vitamins D and B may, in some instances, increase the risk, but the data are not conclusive. Some studies related to in utero exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls and bisphenol A and asthma risk are also reported. The underlying mechanisms for an association between xenobiotic exposures and asthma remain a matter of speculation. Genetic predisposition and epigenetic changes have been explored. The developing immune, respiratory, and nervous systems are potential targets. Oxidative stress and modulation of inflammation are thought to be involved.

Selgrade MK; Blain RB; Fedak KM; Cawley MA

2013-03-01

87

Long term physiologic modification using rAAV in utero gene-therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer of genes in utero via the amniotic fluid was shown previously with recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAV) to be highly efficient. Expression for over one year was demonstrated using reporter genes. In addition, it was shown previously that transgenes delivered by this method release protein into the general circulation. Given these results experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that in utero rAAV gene therapy could result in long term physiologic modification. Methods A rAAV recombinant expressing ciliary neurotrophic factor (cntf) and green fluorescent (gfp) in a polycistronic messenger was used to treat rat fetuses in utero. CNTF causes weight loss and decreased water consumption as a measurable physiologic effect. GFP was used as a marker of gene expression. Results In utero gene transfer with rAAV carrying human cntf and gfp resulted in long-term gene expression in rat. CNTF-specific physiologic effects of a decrease in weight and water intake were obtained. Expression of the GFP was documented in the treated animals at one year of age. Conclusion Given this data, in utero gene therapy with rAAV into multipotential stem cells resulted in long term systemic physiologic modification of the treated animals by the transgene product. In utero rAAV gene therapy potentially could be used for gene replacement therapy in metabolic disorders.

Garrett Deiadra J; Cohen J Craig; Larson Janet E

2004-01-01

88

In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplants for inherited diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The treatment of choice for many inherited diseases is bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Limitations to using marrow transplants for inherited diseases include (a) the toxicity associated with high doses of chemotherapy necessary to obtain engraftment; (b) the complications associated with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); (c) the fact that only 20-25% of children will have a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor; and (d) the concern that, at least for some inherited diseases, significant organ damage, especially to the nervous system, has occurred by the time the child is diagnosed and evaluated for possible BMT. In utero transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offers the possibility of overcoming many of these limitations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One of the biggest hurdles to a successful transplant is the ability of the recipient to reject the donor marrow. Except in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), overcoming this hurdle requires high doses of chemotherapy. Early in gestation, the fetus is significantly immunoincompetent. Before 14-15 weeks of gestation, the human fetus appears to be similar to a child with SCID in its inability to reject allogeneic cells. Potential sources for HSCs are HLA-matched sibling marrow, fetal liver, parental bone marrow, and cord blood. RESULTS: With fetal liver, only cells from fetuses < 10-12 weeks are acceptable because of the high risk of GVHD. With parental marrow, the cells must be T cell depleted in order to minimize the risk for GVHD. Problems in using fetal liver include the inability to obtain sufficient numbers of cells and inadequate supplies of donor tissue. The source and supply of parental bone marrow is almost unlimited, but, because of the need for T-cell depletion, bone marrow from a parent may have a lower engraftment rate in the child. CONCLUSIONS: Studies in fetal murine and Rhesus models using fetal liver or T cell-depleted bone marrow from adult animals suggest that engraftment can be successfully obtained, providing the transplant is performed sufficiently early in gestation. To date, at least a dozen in utero human transplants have been attempted worldwide in fetuses diagnosed with a variety of inherited diseases. Because of the small number of transplanted fetuses and the variety of diseases and differing transplant conditions, it is difficult to draw any firm conclusions regarding ultimate efficacy of the procedure and its risk. However, it does appear that the age of gestation of the recipient, the dose of cells infused, and possibly the route of administration of the HSCs will be critical factors in determining success rates for this approach. The successful application of in utero transplantation would allow treatment of a variety of inherited diseases early in gestation while eliminating many of the risks associated with conventional BMT.

Cowan MJ; Golbus M

1994-02-01

89

Long-term consequences of low-level irradiation of rats in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant rats were irradiated on gestational day 15 with whole-body doses of 25, 50, 75, or 100 rads of either 250 KVP X-rays or Cs-137 ?-rads. Postnatal growth and preweaning behavior rate delayed in a dose-dependent manner. Pituitary cells show enlarged nuclei and cell diameters in both acidophils and basophils. Electron microscopy of pituitary cells shows vesiculated cytoplasm and dilated endoplasmic reticulum characteristic of hypersecretory activity. Changes in the ovaries were detectable at 4 months after high radiation doses. Large cystic follicles and a reduction in the number of smaller follicles were observed. More atresia was seen after large doses than after small doses. Multiple sets of corporalutea were observed indicating ovarian cyclicity. The authors conclude that in utero irradiation of rats produces significant, dose-dependent changes in growth and development. Doses as low as 25 rads result in demonstrable effects in all animals studied. The low doses required and the consistent nature of the lesions observed implies that the long-term effects of fetal irradiation are not only due to the loss of a few cells during fetal development, but also to an overall perturbation of the hormonal regulatory systems responsible for growth and development.

1985-01-01

90

Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library  

Science.gov (United States)

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

Kapoor, Kanta

2010-01-01

91

Haemopoiesis in the beagle foetus after in utero irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Foetal beagles were irradiated in utero (0.9 Gy of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-irradiation, 0.4 Gy/min, gestation day 33). Foetal haematocytopoiesis was studied during days 42-55. Peripheral blood nucleated cell counts were 33% lower than normal on day 44, until day 49, when values became higher than normal. Splenic cellularities of irradiated pups on days 44 were more than 3 times those of the nonirradiated, but thereafter similar to normal. Differences in haemopoietic progenitor cell activity between irradiated and normal foetuses were observed. Compared with other tissues, foetal liver experienced greater radiation injury. On day 44, the irradiated liver BFU-E, CFU-E, and GM-CFC per 10/sup 5/ cells were almost fivefold lower than normal. Spleens of irradiated foetal beagles contained a marked increase in all haemopoietic progenitor cells and recognizable proliferative granulocytic cells and nucleated erythroid cells. Haemopoietic activity of the irradiated bone marrow during days 42-44 was similar to that of the irradiated spleen and compensated for the damaged liver. The irradiated bone marrow had decreased BFU-E activity compared with the values for the nonirradiated bone marrow during days 48-55. Until day 50, the irradiated marrow contained fewer recognizable proliferative granulocytic cells but more nucleated erythroid cells.

Weinberg, S.R.; Macvittie, T.J.; Bakarich, A.C. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (USA)); McGarry, M.P. (Roswell Park Memorial Inst., Buffalo, NY (USA))

1983-10-01

92

In utero reproductive study in rats exposed to nonylphenol  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Alkylphenol ethoxylates are widely used non-ionic surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylate constitutes 82% of the production of all alkylphenol ethoxylates and the breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate, nonylphenol (NP) has been shown to be estrogenic in both in vitro and in vivo screening assays. To determine the potential reproductive toxicity of NP, a one-generation in utero study was conducted, Rats were dosed from gestation day 11 through 18 with NP at 3, 15, or 75 mg/kg/day or diethylstilbestrol (DES) at 30 mug/kg/day. DES was used as a positive control. Both substances were given orally by gavage. Male offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day (PND) 11, 21, or 110 and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Pup birth weight and body weight and percent motile sperm at age of 110 day were significantly reduced by DES. The absolute weight of the right epididymis was significantly reduced in the DES group. The absolute weight of the right epididymis were also significantly decreased in the animals exposed to 75 or 15 mg/kg/day NP, effects which disappeared when organ weight was related to body weight. This study showed a dose-dependent effect of nonylphenol on male reproductive development at doses of 75 and 15 mg/kg bw/day based on absolute epididymal weight.

Hossaini, Alireza; Dalgaard, Majken

2001-01-01

93

Level of in utero cocaine exposure and neonatal ultrasound findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether there is an association between the level of in utero cocaine exposure and findings on neonatal cranial ultrasound, controlling for potentially confounding variables. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective longitudinal study, three cocaine exposure groups were defined by maternal report and infant meconium assay: unexposed, heavier cocaine exposure (>75th percentile self-reported days of use or of meconium benzoylecogonine concentration) or lighter cocaine exposure (all others). Neonatal ultrasounds from 241 well, term infants were read by a single radiologist who was masked to the exposure group. RESULTS: Infants with lighter cocaine exposure did not differ from the unexposed infants on any ultrasound findings. After controlling for infant gender, gestational age, and birth weight z scores and for maternal parity, blood pressure in labor, ethnicity, and use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana during pregnancy, the more heavily cocaine-exposed infants were more likely than the unexposed infants to show subependymal hemorrhage in the caudothalamic groove (covariate adjusted odds ratio: 3.88; 95% confidence interval: 1.45, 10.35). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that ultrasound findings suggestive of vascular injury to the neonatal central nervous system are related to the level of prenatal cocaine exposure. Inconsistency in previous research in identifying an association between prenatal cocaine exposure and neonatal cranial ultrasound findings may reflect failure to consider dose effects.

Frank DA; McCarten KM; Robson CD; Mirochnick M; Cabral H; Park H; Zuckerman B

1999-11-01

94

In utero oxcarbazepine and a withdrawal syndrome, anomalies, and hyponatremia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oxcarbazepine is an antiepileptic agent that has been used during pregnancy, although its safety during pregnancy has not been sufficiently established. This article presents an infant born with renal and cardiac malformations who developed a withdrawal syndrome and hyponatremia following in utero exposure to oxcarbazepine. The infant was born at 35 weeks' gestation by urgent cesarean section to a mother in status epilepticus who had been treated with oxcarbazepine throughout her pregnancy. Evaluation for congenital anomalies identified mild aortic stenosis, a bicuspid aortic valve, patent foramen ovale, patent ductus arteriosus, and severe left hydronephrosis due to left ureteropelvic junction stenosis. On the third day of life the infant developed clinical signs of a withdrawal syndrome, which peaked on day 7 and resolved by day 12. Transient hyponatremia resolved by day 8 of life. Follow-up showed normal development at 15 months. The association of a withdrawal syndrome with oxcarbazepine exposure has not been previously reported. The hyponatremia is consistent with adult reports. The possible association of oxcarbazepine with renal and cardiac malformations requires further confirmation.

Rolnitsky A; Merlob P; Klinger G

2013-06-01

95

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator: Standardizing Citations of Electronically Published Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citati...

DiCarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

96

The results of health screening of the children exposure in utero and who continuous residing at the contamination territories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

240 children 10 years old exposure in utero have been examined. It's show that among exposed in utero children are more high level morbidity in comparison with control group. The first places occupy diseases of the respiratory tract, for they follow endocrine diseases, diseases of the nerves system, of the cardiovascular system and blood, and the diseases of the alimentary tract. We found considerable disturbances weight and growth after exposure in utero. Our date has shown that the exposed in utero children have more bad anthropometric indexes than children control group. (authors)

2000-01-01

97

Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR) libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

Shailendra Kumar; Gareema Sanaman

2013-01-01

98

Cardiovascular disease risk among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero, 1978-2003.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the well-documented association of in utero radiation exposure with childhood cancer and developmental impairments, the possibility of effects on adult onset diseases is an important issue. The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of atomic bomb radiation dose on the incidence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and stroke) among survivors exposed in utero and to compare their risk estimates with those of survivors exposed in childhood (<10 years old) at the time of the bombing. A total of 506 participants exposed in utero and 1,053 participants exposed in childhood were followed during 1978-2003 with biennial clinical examinations. There were no significant radiation dose effects for any diseases in the entire in utero-exposed cohort or in trimester-of-exposure subgroups, though there was a suggestion of an increased risk when fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease cases were combined. Positive radiation dose effects were found for hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the childhood-exposure cohort, but there were no statistically significant differences in the relative risks when we compared the two cohorts. Since the in utero cohort was under age 60 at the latest examination, continued follow-up is needed to document cardiovascular disease risk more fully. PMID:18763869

Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Eiji; Yamada, Michiko; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Hida, Ayumi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Sakata, Ritsu; Ross, Norman P; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E

2008-09-01

99

Characterization of ovine utero-placental interface tensile failure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data on the strength of the utero-placental interface (UPI) would help improve understanding of the mechanisms of placental abruption (premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) during motor-vehicle crashes involving pregnant occupants. An ovine model was selected for study because like the human, its placenta has a villous attachment structure. Uteri with intact placentas were obtained from three sheep as by-products of another research study. The samples were harvested between 102 and 119 days of the 145-day gestational period. Rectangular specimens with areas measuring 15 mm × 5 mm were cut through the thickness of the placenta and uterus. Each subject provided eight samples, of which four were tested at a nominal strain rate of 0.10 strains/sec and the remainder was tested at a nominal strain rate of 1.0 strains/sec. Sutures were used to secure the uterine side of the specimens to the test fixture, while mechanical clamps were used to attach the placenta side. A FARO arm scanner recorded the initial geometry of the tissue, and a random dot pattern applied to the placenta and uterus tissue allowed visualization of displacement. For the structure of the UPI, mean tensile failure strain and standard deviations are 0.37 (0.11) and 0.37 (0.18) for the 0.10 and 1.0 strain rates, respectively (p-value = 0.970) while the associated failure stresses are 6.5 (1.37) and 15.0 (5.08) kPa, (p-value = 0.064). The results from sheep UPI testing provide the first estimate of the human UPI structural failure tolerance.

Klinich KD; Miller CS; Hu J; Samorezov JE; Pearlman MD; Schneider LW; Rupp JD

2012-10-01

100

Application of electronic tachymeter for surveying works at mineral resources fields / ?????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ?????????????? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ???????? ??????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors justify the expediency of surveying works at open pit mines of construction materials fields applying electronic tachymeters, give the schemes for carrying out measuring aimed at determining the coordinates of points of surveyor' pickup and the estimation of the accuracy of their results. / ???? ??????????? ???????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ????? ?? ???????? ????????????? ???????????? ?????????? ? ??????? ??????????? ???????????, ????????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ??? ??????????? ????????? ????? ?????????? ??????????? ? ????-?? ???????? ?? ???????????.

Latenko V.D. / Latenko Vasily Dmitriyevich; Anopin V.N. / Anopin Vladimir Nikolayevich; Sabitova T.A. / Sabitova Tatyana Anatolyevna; Latenko D.V. / Latenko Dmitry Vasilyevich

 
 
 
 
101

Medical Image Resource Center–making electronic teaching files from PACS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A picture archive and communications system (PACS) is a rich source of images and data suitable for creating electronic teaching files (ETF). However, the potential for PACS to support nonclinical applications has not been fully realized: at present there is no mechanism for PACS to identify and sto...

Tchoyoson Lim, C. C.; Yang, Guo Liang; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Hui, Francis

102

Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynaklar?n Seçimi ve De?erlendirilmesi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. ?kinci dünya sava??ndan sonra görülen yay?n patlamas?, bas?l? kaynaklar?n denetim ve eri?iminde sorunlar ya?anmas?na neden olmu?tur. Bu da yay?nc?l?k sektöründe yeni aray??lara yol açm??t?r. 1980’li y?llardan sonra bas?l? yay?n fiyatlar?ndaki h?zl? art?? da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yay?nc?l?k sektörü geli?meye ba?lam??t?r. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yay?nlarla ba?layan elektronik yay?n günümüzde tüm yay?n türlerini kapsamaktad?r. Yay?nc?l?ktaki bu geli?im bilgi merkezlerinin derme geli?tirme ve hizmet politikalar?n? da önemli ölçüde de?i?tirmi?tir. Bu çal??mada elektronik yay?nlar?n seçim, de?erlendirme ve sa?lama konular?nda genel bir giri?ten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone oldu?u veritabanlar? ve bu veri tabanlar?n?n kullan?m?n?n de?erlendirilmesi yap?lmaktad?r.

Do?an At?lgan; Yusuf Yalç?n

2009-01-01

103

In utero exposure to antidepressants and the use of drugs for pulmonary diseases in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The use of antidepressants during pregnancy is common. Some studies suggest an association between in utero exposure to antidepressants and the occurrence of pulmonary diseases like asthma later in life. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as well tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are thought to be involved in the development of the respiratory rhythm generator (RRG) and the maturation of the formation of surfactant. In this study the use of drugs for pulmonary diseases in children who were exposed to antidepressants in utero were compared with non-exposed children. METHODS: The pharmacy prescription database IADB.nl was used for a cohort study in which the use of drugs for pulmonary disease in children after in utero exposure to antidepressants (TCAs, SSRIs) was compared with children with no antidepressant exposure in utero. Drugs for pulmonary diseases were applied as a proxy for disturbed development of the respiratory tract. RESULTS: A small though significant increase in the incidence risk ratio (IRR) of the use of drugs for pulmonary disease was found after any-time in utero exposure to SSRIs, adjusted for maternal use of antibiotics, of 1.17 (95 % CI 1.16-1.18). An increase was also seen when we looked specifically for the use of SSRIs in at least the first trimester (IRR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.17-1.20). An increased IRR in the use of drugs for pulmonary disease was also seen when children were exposed to TCAs, but this was not statistically significant. However, in both groups our sample size was rather small. The effect size is modest and may also be confounded by maternal smoking. CONCLUSIONS: In utero exposure to SSRIs leads to a statistically significant increase in the use of drugs for pulmonary diseases, especially when exposure occurred during the first trimester of pregnancy. The increase in the use of drugs for pulmonary disease may also be related to other factors. Therefore, further study is recommended.

ter Horst PG; Bos HJ; de Jong-van de Berg LT; Wilffert B

2013-03-01

104

Effect of ionizing radiation on neurons of cerebral cortex of irradiated in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of gamma-radiation (137Cs, 1 Gy dose, 5.5 Gy/s dose rate) on cerebral cortex neurons of little rats exposed to in utero external gamma-radiation was studied to evaluate the possibility to predict the effect of ionizing radiation on the progeny within various periods following irradiation. Development of destructive processes of diffusion nature resulting in destruction of certain portion of cells, in cytoarchitecture changes, in reduction of glyoneuronal index was detected. The central nervous system of little rats was characterized by higher radiation sensitivity in contrast to adult rats. The structural changes of neurons of in utero irradiated little rats might result in functional disorders

1997-01-01

105

Utero-peritoneal fistula, a rare complication of laparoscopic myomectomy scar dehiscence: A Case Report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective is to report a case of utero-peritoneal fistula caused by laparoscopic myomectomy dehiscence, diagnosed by colour Doppler ultrasound scan and confirmed by x-ray HSG and MRI. The aim of our report lies on the importance of imaging in the diagnosis of fistulous processes involving the uterus. Case report: A 36 year old woman (G6,P0)presented with intense dysmenorrheal and intermenstrual spotting since laparoscopic myomectomy 2 years before. A laparoscopic myomectomy dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by pelvic ultrasound, hysterosalpingogram (HSG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Ibinaiye PO; Onwuhafua P; Usman B

2013-06-01

106

Transplacental traffic after in utero mesenchymal stem cell transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transplacental traffic of fetal progenitor and differentiated cells is a well-known phenomenon in pregnancies. We hypothesize that intrauterine stem cell transplantation leads to microchimerism in the dams and that this is gestational age-dependent. EGFP+ fetal liver-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) (10(5) per fetus) were injected intraperitoneally into congeneic and allogeneic recipient fetuses at E12 versus E13.5 of murine pregnancy (56 dams). Engraftment in maternal organs was evaluated using TaqMan quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence microscopy during pregnancy (1, 3, and 7 days after in utero transplantation [IUT]) and after delivery (1 and 4 weeks after delivery). One day after IUT donor cells were mainly found in the placenta (E12: 9/10 dams vs. E13.5: 4/8 dams) and laparotomy site (E12: 5/10 dams vs. E13.5: 4/8 dams). Three days after IUT these probabilities decreased significantly in the placenta to 3/8 and 1/3, respectively, whereas it was increased within the surgical wound to 8/8 and 2/4. One week after IUT donor cells could be detected in other single maternal organs, such as bone marrow or spleen. The surgical wound was chimeric in all dams. One week after delivery the surgical wound was still a major site of engraftment in both groups. E12 IUT resulted in detectable donor cell microchimerism in the maternal bone marrow (3/4), liver (2/4), lungs (1/4), spleen (1/4), and thymus (1/4), whereas engraftment probabilities were lower following E13.5 IUT (BM: 1/4, liver: 2/4, lungs: 1/4, spleen: 1/4, thymus: 0/4). At 4 weeks after delivery persistent microchimerism was found only after E12 IUT in various maternal organs (BM: 1/4, spleen: 1/4, lungs: 1/4) and within newly created surgical wounds (3/4), but completely not in the E13.5 group. Allogeneic IUT did also not result in any detectable long-term fetal microchimerism. An earlier IUT might lead to a higher transplacental traffic of donor MSC and persistent microchimerism within maternal tissues. Even 4 weeks after delivery, these cells are present in surgical wounds.

Troeger C; Perahud I; Moser S; Holzgreve W

2010-09-01

107

Rabdomioma cardiaco biventricular. Reporte de un caso diagnosticado in utero por ecografía. Biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma. Report of a case diagnosed in utero by echography.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un rabdomioma cardiaco congénito múltiple biventricular, diagnosticado a un feto in utero, mediante ultrasonido prenatal en una mujer de veinte años con un embarazo de 22 semanas. El seguimiento por ecografía fetal permitió la valoración del caso, procediéndose a la interrupción de la gestación y confirmación del diagnóstico. El estudio de la madre en la Consulta de Genética concluyó que era portadora de esclerosis tuberosa.The case of a congenital multiple biventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma diagnosed in a phetus in utero by prenatal ultrasound in a 20-year-old woman on the 22nd week of pregnancy is reported. The follow-up by fetal echography allowed to evaluate the case. Abortion was induced and the diagnosis was confirmed. The study of the mother at the Genetics Department concluded that she was carrier of tuberous sclerosis.

Adis L. Peña Cedeño; Nancy Vasallo Pastor; Abel Faure Berty Pérez

2001-01-01

108

Digital and analog fiber optic communications for CATV and FTTx applications [electronic resource] / Avigdor Brillant.  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This book is intended to provide a step-by-step guide to all design aspects and tradeoffs from theory to application for fiber-optics transceiver electronics. Presenting a compendium of information in a structured way, this book enables the engineer to develop a methodical design approach, a deep understanding of specifications parameters and the reasons behind them, as well as their effects and consequences on system performance, which are essential for proper component design. Further, a fundamental understanding of RF, digital circuit design, and linear and nonlinear phenomena is important in order to achieve the desired performance levels. Becoming familiar with solid-state devices and passives used to build optical receivers and transmitters is also important so one can effectively overcome design limitations.

109

Tubacin prevents neuronal migration defects and epileptic activity caused by rat Srpx2 silencing in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic disorders with or without structural developmental alteration of the speech cortex. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the precise developmental role of SRPX2, to have a better knowledge on the consequences of its mutations, and to start addressing therapeutic issues through the design of an appropriate animal model. Using an in utero Srpx2 silencing approach, we show that SRPX2 influences neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not the mutant human SRPX2 proteins, rescued the neuronal migration phenotype caused by Srpx2 silencing in utero, and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. Following in utero Srpx2 silencing, spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded post-natally. The neuronal migration defects and the post-natal epileptic consequences were prevented early in embryos by maternal administration of tubulin deacetylase inhibitor tubacin. Hence epileptiform manifestations of developmental origin could be prevented in utero, using a transient and drug-based therapeutic protocol.

Salmi M; Bruneau N; Cillario J; Lozovaya N; Massacrier A; Buhler E; Cloarec R; Tsintsadze T; Watrin F; Tsintsadze V; Zimmer C; Villard C; Lafitte D; Cardoso C; Bao L; Lesca G; Rudolf G; Muscatelli F; Pauly V; Khalilov I; Durbec P; Ben-Ari Y; Burnashev N; Represa A; Szepetowski P

2013-08-01

110

In utero exposure to dioxin causes neocortical dysgenesis through the actions of p27Kip1  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dioxins have been reported to exert various adverse effects, including cell-cycle dysregulation in vitro and impairment of spatial learning and memory after in utero exposure in rodents. Furthermore, children born to mothers who are exposed to dioxin analogs polychlorinated dibenzofurans or polychlo...

Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Yonemoto, Junzo; Sone, Hideko; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Takahashi, Takao

111

NONYLPHENOL AND ATRAZINE INDUCE INVERSE EFFECTS ON MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO  

Science.gov (United States)

Nonylphenol and Atrazine Induce Inverse Effects on Mammary Gland Development in Female Rats Exposed In Utero. HJ Moon1, SY Han1, CC Davis2, and SE Fenton2 1 Department of Toxicology, NITR, Korea FDA, 5Nokbun-Dong, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, Korea and 2 Reproductive Toxicology Divi...

112

Enzymatic studies in foetal brain and liver of mouse following in utero exposure to ultrasound.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lactate, malate and succinate dehydrogenases (LDH, MDH and SDH) were estimated in the foetal brain and liver following in utero exposure of mice to a continuous wave of unfocussed ultrasound. Enzymes in both tissues showed a significant increase (P greater than 0.001), indicating high energy demand due to depletion of oxygen. The increase was recorded even on the twentieth day of pregnancy.

Suneetha N; Kumar RP

1991-05-01

113

In utero and early life arsenic exposure in relation to long-term health and disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that prenatal and early childhood exposure to arsenic from drinking water can have serious long-term health implications. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to understand the potential long-term health and disease risks associated with in utero and early life exposure to arsenic, as well as to examine parallels between findings from epidemiological studies with those from experimental animal models. METHODS: We examined the current literature and identified relevant studies through PubMed by using combinations of the search terms "arsenic", "in utero", "transplacental", "prenatal" and "fetal". DISCUSSION: Ecological studies have indicated associations between in utero and/or early life exposure to arsenic at high levels and increases in mortality from cancer, cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease. Additional data from epidemiologic studies suggest intermediate effects in early life that are related to risk of these and other outcomes in adulthood. Experimental animal studies largely support studies in humans, with strong evidence of transplacental carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis and respiratory disease, as well as insight into potential underlying mechanisms of arsenic's health effects. CONCLUSIONS: As millions worldwide are exposed to arsenic and evidence continues to support a role for in utero arsenic exposure in the development of a range of later life diseases, there is a need for more prospective studies examining arsenic's relation to early indicators of disease and at lower exposure levels.

Farzan SF; Karagas MR; Chen Y

2013-07-01

114

In Utero Phthalate Effects in the Female Rat: A Model for MRKH Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly define etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthlate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero. a phenome...

115

Effects of in utero exposure to nonsteroidal estrogens on mouse testis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Male mice exposed in utero to alpha-zearalanol (zeranol) or diethylstilbestrol (DES) were analyzed postnatally to evaluate the possible changes on their testicular morphology as part of an examination of the effects of transplacental exposure to non-steroidal estrogens on sensitive tissues. Pregnant...

Pérez-Martínez, C; Ferreras-Estrada, M C; García-Iglesias, M J; Bravo-Moral, A M; Espinosa-Alvarez, J; Escudero-Diez, A

116

Tubacin prevents neuronal migration defects and epileptic activity caused by rat Srpx2 silencing in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered development of the human cerebral cortex can cause severe malformations with often intractable focal epileptic seizures and may participate in common pathologies, notably epilepsy. This raises important conceptual and therapeutic issues. Two missense mutations in the sushi repeat-containing protein SRPX2 had been previously identified in epileptic disorders with or without structural developmental alteration of the speech cortex. In the present study, we aimed to decipher the precise developmental role of SRPX2, to have a better knowledge on the consequences of its mutations, and to start addressing therapeutic issues through the design of an appropriate animal model. Using an in utero Srpx2 silencing approach, we show that SRPX2 influences neuronal migration in the developing rat cerebral cortex. Wild-type, but not the mutant human SRPX2 proteins, rescued the neuronal migration phenotype caused by Srpx2 silencing in utero, and increased alpha-tubulin acetylation. Following in utero Srpx2 silencing, spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded post-natally. The neuronal migration defects and the post-natal epileptic consequences were prevented early in embryos by maternal administration of tubulin deacetylase inhibitor tubacin. Hence epileptiform manifestations of developmental origin could be prevented in utero, using a transient and drug-based therapeutic protocol. PMID:23831613

Salmi, Manal; Bruneau, Nadine; Cillario, Jennifer; Lozovaya, Natalia; Massacrier, Annick; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Cloarec, Robin; Tsintsadze, Timur; Watrin, Françoise; Tsintsadze, Vera; Zimmer, Céline; Villard, Claude; Lafitte, Daniel; Cardoso, Carlos; Bao, Lan; Lesca, Gaetan; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Muscatelli, Françoise; Pauly, Vanessa; Khalilov, Ilgam; Durbec, Pascale; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Burnashev, Nail; Represa, Alfonso; Szepetowski, Pierre

2013-07-05

117

In utero protein restriction causes growth delay and alters sperm parameters in adult male rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have supported the concept of "fetal programming" which suggests that during the intrauterine development the fetus may be programmed to develop diseases in adulthood. The possible effects of in utero protein restriction on sexual development of rat male offspring were evaluated in the present study. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two experimental groups: one group treated with standard chow (SC, n = 8, 17% protein) and the other group treated with hypoproteic chow (HC, n = 10, 6% protein) throughout gestation. After gestation the two experimental groups received standard chow. To evaluate the possible late reproductive effects of in utero protein restriction, the male offspring of both groups were assessed at different phases of sexual development: prepubertal (30 days old); peripubertal (60 days old); adult (90 days old). Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were utilized. Differences were considered significant when p Results We found that in utero protein restriction reduced the body weight of male pups on the first postnatal day and during the different sexual development phases (prepubertal, peripubertal and adult). During adulthood, Sertoli cell number, sperm motility and sperm counts in the testis and epididymal cauda were also reduced in HC. Furthermore, the numbers of sperm presenting morphological abnormalities and cytoplasmic drop retention were higher in HC. Conclusions In conclusion, in utero protein restriction, under these experimental conditions, causes growth delay and alters male reproductive-system programming in rats, suggesting impairment of sperm quality in adulthood.

Toledo Fabíola C; Perobelli Juliana E; Pedrosa Flávia PC; Anselmo-Franci Janete A; Kempinas Wilma DG

2011-01-01

118

Diagnosis in utero of congenital hydrocephalus by sonography and computerized tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four patients with suspected fetal hydrocephalus in utero were examined by means of sonography and computerized tomography (CT). The diagnosis was confirmed in 3 cases, while the fourth was found to be normal. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the maternal ovaries was estimated by phantom measurements.

Oelund, A.; Troell, S.; Bistoletti, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Somell, C. (Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

1984-01-01

119

Diagnosis in utero of congenital hydrocephalus by sonography and computerized tomography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four patients with suspected fetal hydrocephalus in utero were examined by means of sonography and computerized tomography (CT). The diagnosis was confirmed in 3 cases, while the fourth was found to be normal. The mean radiation dose absorbed by the maternal ovaries was estimated by phantom measurements.

Oelund, A.; Troell, S.; Bistoletti, P.; Kraepelien, T.; Somell, C. (Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

1983-01-01

120

Cytogenetics of the in-utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The presence of chimaerism in peripheral lymphocyte chromosome 21 years after A-bomb radiation was examined using 16 males who had been exposed in-utero to radiation from A-bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (10 cases in Hiroshima and 6 cases in Nagasaki). At the same time, doses of in-utero radiation were estimated. It was found that no cells possess XX chromosome by observing 1,600 chromosome metaphases in 16 cases (100 per a person). Estimated dose of in-utero radiation was 44 - 151 rad, or 75.6 rad on the average for 10 cases in Hiroshima and 61 - 197 rad, or 104 rad on the average for 6 cases in Nagasaki. Estimated radiation dose of their mothers used as a basis for estimating in-utero radiation dose was 120 - 149 rad or 207.9 rad on the average for cases in Hiroshima and 148 - 477 rad or 251 rad on the average for cases in Nagasaki. A ratio of total dose given to mother to that given to fetus was 2.75 in cases of Hiroshima and 2.41 in those of Nagasaki. (Iwagami, H.)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System  

Science.gov (United States)

|In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS, CORAL…

Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

2013-01-01

122

CMS Molecular Biology Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

The CMS Molecular Biology Resource at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln "is a compendium of electronic and Internet-accessible tools and resources for molecular biology, biotechnology, molecular evolution, biochemistry, and biomolecular modeling." Included are pointers to protein biochemistry databases, DNA/RNA structural databases, molecular evolution phylogeny resources, bioinformatics resources, and biomolecular modeling image resources, among others.

Smith, Christopher M.

2005-10-31

123

Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two {pi} type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO{sub 2} surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied electrical energy is used only for the Joule heating in the total resistance of the circuit, and the transportation of heat energy takes place independently from the external electrical source. It is clarified that since we make the innovative PA-TE/CP-DEC systems in thermally open surroundings, the entropy theory established in the closed system is not applicable for the proposed systems. (author)

Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T. [Gunma Univ., Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Kiryu, Gunma (Japan)

2001-07-01

124

Protocol and results of the estimates of equivalent dose in utero at 500 scans radiology; Protocolo y resultados de las estimaciones de dosis equivalente en utero en 500 exploraciones de radiodiagnostico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to Royal Decree 1976/1999, laying down the criteria of quality in diagnostic radiology, it is mandatory in utero dose estimation in the case of pregnant patients subjected to X-ray diagnostic examinations.

Gago Gomez, P.; Hurtado Sanchez, A.; Gomez Cores, S.; Sierra Diaz, F.; Gonzalez Ruiz, C.; Gomez Calvar, R.; Herranz Crespo, R.

2011-07-01

125

Marcadores ecográficos de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero: Revisión de la literatura/ Ultrasound markers for chorioamnionitis and in utero fetal infection: a literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: el diagnóstico de corioamnionitis se basa en criterios clínicos que no alcanzan una sensibilidad mayor al 60%, y que tienen poca utilidad para predecir el compromiso fetal. El ultrasonido surge como una alternativa útil en el diagnóstico. Al mejorar el diagnóstico con la búsqueda de marcadores ecográficos de infección fetal podemos impactar en la morbimortalidad perinatal al poder intervenir de forma temprana a las gestantes en riesgo de compromiso (more) fetal, especialmente corioamnionitis con curso subclínico. El objetivo de esta revisión es conocer la evidencia que soporta la asociación entre los hallazgos ecográficos del ultrasonido y la presencia de corioamnionitis e infección fetal in utero. Materiales y métodos: se realizó una revisión de la literatura existente en las bases de datos medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs, SciELO desde enero de 1985 hasta octubre de 2012. Se incluyeron los artículos de revisión e investigaciones originales. Resultados: en las gestantes con parto pretérmino y ruptura prematura de membranas ovulares el acortamiento cervical, la presencia de “sludge”, el oligohidramnios y la involución del timo son los marcadores que han mostrado mayor asociación con infección amniótica. Conclusiones: el ultrasonido es una herramienta por considerar en el diagnóstico de infección materna y fetal in utero. Abstract in english Introduction: A diagnosis of chorioamnionitis is based on clinical criteria which only manage 60% sensitivity and have little usefulness in predicting fetal compromise. Ultrasound emerges as a useful diagnostic alternative. An impact might be made on perinatal morbimortality by improving diagnosis through the search for echographic markers of fetal infection, thereby enabling early intervention in pregnant women at risk of fetal compromise, especially regarding subclinica (more) l chorioamnionitis. This review was aimed at providing evidence supporting an association between ultrasound’s echographic findings and the presence of chorioamnionitis in in utero (congenital) fetal infection. Materials and methods: A review of the existing literature was made in medline, ovid, ebsco, ProQuest, lilacs and scielo databases from January 1985 to October 2012. Original research and review articles were included. Results: Cervical length shortening, the presence of sludge, oligohydramnios and thymus involution are the markers which have been shown to have the greatest association with intra-amniotic infection. Conclusions: Ultrasound is a tool to be considered when diagnosing in utero maternal and fetal infection.

Molina-Giraldo, Saulo; Bermúdes-Roa, Jesús; Acuña-Osorio, Edgar; Franco-Hernández, Alejandro; Rojas-Arias, José Luis

2012-12-01

126

[T and B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of the in-utero malnourished new born infant  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The per centum distribution of T and B lymphocytes was determined in 30 full term newborns showing adequate development for their gestational age and in 42 full term newborns showing in utero malnutrition. A significant decrease (p less than 0.001) of both lymphocytic subpopulations was found in the in utero malnutrition group. The possibility of a decreased efficiency of the immune response in this group of patients is discussed.

Martínez-Cairo S; López Roman M; Alanís Chavarría F; Cruz Bolaños J; Muñoz O

1977-03-01

127

The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure: Application of a new therapeutic paradigm.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is a term given to a technique that can transform a potentially fatal neonatal emergency to a controlled intervention with an improved outcome. It has revolutionised the care of prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations in which severe upper airway obstruction is anticipated. An extended period of utero-placental circulation can be utilised to avoid profound cardiopulmonary compromise. Its therapeutic applications have been broadened to include fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia after tracheal plugging, high-risk intrathoracic masses, severe cardiac malformations and conjoined twins. It requires the co-ordination of a highly skilled and experienced multidisciplinary team. The recent enthusiasm for the EXIT procedure needs to be balanced against maternal morbidity. Specific indications and guidelines are likely to be refined as a consequence of ongoing advances in fetal intervention and antenatal imaging.

Taghavi K; Beasley S

2013-05-01

128

The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure: Application of a new therapeutic paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is a term given to a technique that can transform a potentially fatal neonatal emergency to a controlled intervention with an improved outcome. It has revolutionised the care of prenatally diagnosed congenital malformations in which severe upper airway obstruction is anticipated. An extended period of utero-placental circulation can be utilised to avoid profound cardiopulmonary compromise. Its therapeutic applications have been broadened to include fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia after tracheal plugging, high-risk intrathoracic masses, severe cardiac malformations and conjoined twins. It requires the co-ordination of a highly skilled and experienced multidisciplinary team. The recent enthusiasm for the EXIT procedure needs to be balanced against maternal morbidity. Specific indications and guidelines are likely to be refined as a consequence of ongoing advances in fetal intervention and antenatal imaging. PMID:23662685

Taghavi, Kiarash; Beasley, Spencer

2013-05-13

129

Play behavior in toddlers with in utero cocaine exposure: a prospective, masked, controlled study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Play behavior was compared between toddlers with in utero cocaine exposure and controls of similar low socioeconomic status enrolled at birth in a prospective, masked study. At 18 and 24 months, 83 cocaine-exposed and 93 control toddlers were videotaped playing on their own for 15 minutes. An observer who was off-site and unaware of project purpose or drug exposure status of toddlers recorded the most cognitively complex play activity per 15-second interval. In a total of 315 play sessions, the groups did not differ in middle and highest level of play achieved at either 18 or 24 months (p > or = .27). After controlling for confounders, the proportions of play behavior in each of six play categories were similar in the two groups at both 18 and 24 months (p > or = .42). We conclude that in utero cocaine exposure was not associated with differences in play behavior in this cohort of cocaine-exposed and control toddlers.

Hurt H; Brodsky NL; Betancourt L; Braitman LE; Belsky J; Giannetta J

1996-12-01

130

Pleural fluid/serum immunoglobulin ratio is a diagnostic marker for congenital chylothorax in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To distinguish congenital chylothorax from other causes of hydrothorax in utero. METHODS: Serum and pleural fluid samples from 8 fetuses with congenital chylothorax and 5 control fetuses with other causes of hydrothorax were tested for total protein, albumin, IgG, IgA, and IgM. RESULTS: Fetuses with congenital chylothorax had higher levels of IgG in pleural fluid, but not the other four proteins, than control fetuses (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in serum proteins among fetuses. When we examined pleural fluid to serum ratios, the IgG ratio in fetuses with congenital chylothorax was significantly higher than that of control fetuses (P<0.05). The IgG ratio in chylothorax was greater than 0.6 regardless of lymphocyte count. CONCLUSION: Pleural fluid/serum IgG ratio may be a diagnostic marker for congenital chylothorax in utero.

Tsukimori K; Nakanami N; Fukushima K; Yoshimura T; Hikino S; Nakano H

2006-01-01

131

Liability and maternal immunization: in utero injury claims in the VICP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Generally, under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986 (Vaccine Act), vaccine administrators and manufacturers are shielded from medical malpractice or products liability actions stemming from vaccine-related injuries and deaths. That said, as generous as these protections may be, they have boundaries, some of which are clear and others of which are unsettled. This is particularly so for in utero injuries stemming from immunization of pregnant women. The issue of whether in utero injuries are afforded such protections, vis á vis compensation by the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) under the Vaccine Act, has not definitively been resolved by the courts. Short of a decision by the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit or a statutory amendment by Congress specifically addressing this issue, the uncertainty remains.

Jacobs AL

2012-09-01

132

In utero surgery--current state of the art--part II.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fetal surgery, also referred to as in utero, prenatal or intrauterine surgery, consists of treatment of congenital malformations during the fetal period. The idea of treating malformations diagnosed in the course of intrauterine life dates back to 1963, when Lilly performed the first blood transfusion in a fetus. Since then it has been introduced as a treatment option in a series of lethal malformations. Efforts are being made to treat nonlethal malformations by means of fetal surgery. MATERIAL/METHODS: A comprehensive search of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed between 1925 and February 2009 was performed. Search terms for MEDLINE and PubMed were: fetal surgery, foetal surgery, in utero surgery, prenatal surgery, and in utero treatment. In addition, information was obtained at Web sites of the International Medicine and Surgery Society and the University of California Fetal Treatment Centre. RESULTS: Authors' attention focused on the survey of indications to intrauterine operations. We outline potential directions of its development, quoting the groundwork of the most experienced researchers and clinicians. Moreover, owing to the authors' interest in plastic surgery, some remarks on the role of intrauterine medicine and surgery in this branch of medicine are made. CONCLUSIONS: In utero surgery may be regarded as an efficient tool of preventive medicine. It offers some advantages that no other branch of medicine may offer. However, its implementation is more troublesome than in the past, therefore only selected cases may benefit from its advantages. Nevertheless, current tendencies are to include, after thorough evaluation of benefit-risk ratio, some new indications for fetal surgery.

Wójcicki P; Drozdowski PH

2011-12-01

133

Exposure to Maternal Diabetes in Utero and DNA Methylation Patterns in the Offspring.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perturbations in early life environments, including intrauterine exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM), are hypothesized to lead to metabolic imprinting resulting in increased risk of cardiometabolic outcomes later in life. We aimed to 1) identify candidate genes and biological pathways associated with differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in relation to exposure to GDM in utero and, 2) using mediation analysis, more definitively investigate the potential for mediation of the effect of exposure to maternal diabetes in utero on cardiometabolic traits in childhood risk through our identified DMRs. Genome-wide methylation analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell's DNA was conducted in 21 healthy children, ages 8-12 years. P-values from multiple linear regression analyses for >27,000 CpG sites were ranked to identify DMRs between the exposure groups. Among the top 10 ranked DMRs, we identified several genes, including NPR1, PANK1, SCAND1, and GJA4, which are known to be associated with cardiometabolic traits. Gene enrichment analysis of the top 84 genes, each with p<=0.005, identified the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) as the most enriched biological pathway (p = 0.07). The UPS pathway reflects biological processes known to be associated with endothelial function, inflammation, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and ?-cell apoptosis, whose derangements are central to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Increased methylation of PYGO1 and CLN8 had the greatest relative mediation effect (RME = 87%, p=0.005 and RME=50%, p=0.01) on the impact of exposure to maternal diabetes in utero on VCAM-1 levels in the offspring. Multiple candidate genes and the UPS were identified for future study as possible links between exposure to maternal gestational diabetes in utero and adverse cardiometabolic traits in the offspring. In particular, increased methylation of PYGO1 and CLN8 may be biological links between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and significantly increased VCAM-1 levels in the offspring. PMID:23741625

West, Nancy A; Kechris, Katerina; Dabelea, Dana

2013-03-01

134

Exposure to Maternal Diabetes in Utero and DNA Methylation Patterns in the Offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perturbations in early life environments, including intrauterine exposure to maternal gestational diabetes (GDM), are hypothesized to lead to metabolic imprinting resulting in increased risk of cardiometabolic outcomes later in life. We aimed to 1) identify candidate genes and biological pathways associated with differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in relation to exposure to GDM in utero and, 2) using mediation analysis, more definitively investigate the potential for mediation of the effect of exposure to maternal diabetes in utero on cardiometabolic traits in childhood risk through our identified DMRs. Genome-wide methylation analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cell's DNA was conducted in 21 healthy children, ages 8-12 years. P-values from multiple linear regression analyses for >27,000 CpG sites were ranked to identify DMRs between the exposure groups. Among the top 10 ranked DMRs, we identified several genes, including NPR1, PANK1, SCAND1, and GJA4, which are known to be associated with cardiometabolic traits. Gene enrichment analysis of the top 84 genes, each with p<=0.005, identified the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) as the most enriched biological pathway (p = 0.07). The UPS pathway reflects biological processes known to be associated with endothelial function, inflammation, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and ?-cell apoptosis, whose derangements are central to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. Increased methylation of PYGO1 and CLN8 had the greatest relative mediation effect (RME = 87%, p=0.005 and RME=50%, p=0.01) on the impact of exposure to maternal diabetes in utero on VCAM-1 levels in the offspring. Multiple candidate genes and the UPS were identified for future study as possible links between exposure to maternal gestational diabetes in utero and adverse cardiometabolic traits in the offspring. In particular, increased methylation of PYGO1 and CLN8 may be biological links between intrauterine exposure to maternal diabetes and significantly increased VCAM-1 levels in the offspring.

West NA; Kechris K; Dabelea D

2013-03-01

135

Factors affecting umbilical cord blood stem cell suitability for transplantation in an in utero collection program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The greatest limiting factor in the use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) for transplantations is the number of stem cells available in any given collected unit. This study examines maternal, neonatal, and obstetric factors that influence the suitability for banking and transplantation of UCB units collected in utero. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined 7839 UCB units collected in utero at two hospitals from August 1, 2008, to August 31, 2011. The variables were collected from cord blood records, patient charts, delivery records, and data processed by StemCyte, Inc. (Covina, CA), our parent bank. The mean total nucleated cell (TNC) count between units selected for transplant and those banked but not selected for transplant were also compared. RESULTS: Of the 11 variables evaluated, six had a significant influence on the acceptable banking TNC count of at least 90?×?10(7) . Of these, cord blood volume was the best predictor. The other variables that were predictors of the acceptable TNC count of significance were gestational age, infant race, parity, birthweight, and infant sex. The minimal bankable TNC count for banking is considerably lower than the mean TNC count of units actually selected for transplantation. CONCLUSION: Maternal, neonatal, and obstetric factors can all influence the acceptability of a cord blood unit collected in utero for banking. Furthermore, units with high TNC counts are more likely to be selected for banking. Identifying these variables in potential donors can likely increase the number of adequate collections.

Keersmaekers CL; Mason BA; Keersmaekers J; Ponzini M; Mlynarek RA

2013-07-01

136

In utero drug and alcohol exposure in infants born to mothers prescribed maintenance methadone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To describe the prevalence of in utero alcohol and illicit drug exposure in infants born to mothers prescribed methadone in pregnancy, and to compare the accuracy of maternal interview with infant toxicology. METHODS: Urine and meconium samples were collected from 56 infants born to mothers prescribed methadone during pregnancy and a confidential interview conducted soon after delivery. Samples were screened for drugs of misuse and meconium samples analysed for the presence of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) to detect prenatal alcohol exposure. RESULTS: 91% of infants had been exposed to illicit drugs in utero, including opiates (73%), benzodiazepines (70%) and cannabinoids (59%). 47% of infants had elevated FAEEs. Meconium was more sensitive at detecting in utero drug exposure than urine toxicology (p<0.01 for opiates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids) or maternal interview (p=0.03 for opiates, p<0.01 for cannabinoids). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of infants born to mothers prescribed methadone during pregnancy are exposed to polysubstance misuse, and almost one-half additionally exposed to excess alcohol.

McGlone L; Mactier H; Hassan H; Cooper G

2013-07-01

137

In utero phthalate effects in the female rat: A model for MRKH syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome is characterized by uterine and vaginal canal aplasia in normal karyotype human females and is a syndrome with poorly defined etiology. Reproductive toxicity of phthalate esters (PEs) occurs in rat offspring exposed in utero, a phenomenon that is better studied in male offspring than females. The current study reports female reproductive tract malformations in the Sprague Dawley rat similar to those characteristic of MRKH syndrome, following in utero exposure to a mixture of 5 PEs. We determined that females are ?2-fold less sensitive to the effects of the 5-PE mixture than males for reproductive tract malformations. We were not fully successful in defining the critical exposure period for females; however, incidence of malformations was 88% following dosing from GD 8-19 versus 22% and 0% for GD8-13 and GD14-19, respectively. Overall, this study provides valuable information regarding female vulnerability to in utero phthalate exposure and further characterizes a potential model for the human MRKH syndrome.

Hannas BR; Howdeshell KL; Furr J; Earl Gray L Jr

2013-03-01

138

In utero repair of gastroschisis in the sheep (Ovis aries) model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Gastroschisis is associated with inflammatory changes in the exposed bowel which leads to intestinal dysmotility after postnatal repair. The insult is a combined effect of amniotic fluid exposure and mechanical constriction. We hypothesized that in utero anatomic repair is possible in a sheep model, and that it may halt the inflammatory damage caused by both mechanisms. METHODS: Gastroschisis was surgically created in mid-gestation (day 75) in 8 sheep fetuses. On gestational day 100, 2 fetuses underwent open fetal gastroschisis repair, where the eviscerated bowel was returned to the peritoneal cavity, and the abdominal wall was primarily closed. All fetuses were harvested at 135 days of gestation. RESULTS: Six fetuses survived the initial operation, and both fetuses that underwent gastroschisis repair survived to term. At 100 and 135 days of gestation, the eviscerated bowel showed progressive signs of inflammation and peel development. The gross and microscopic inflammatory changes in the gastroschisis bowel at 100 days of gestation were completely resolved at term following in utero repair. CONCLUSION: In utero anatomic repair of gastroschisis is possible in mid-gestation in the fetal lamb model, and it appears to ameliorate the inflammatory process.

Stephenson JT; Pichakron KO; Vu L; Jancelewicz T; Jamshidi R; Grayson JK; Nobuhara KK

2010-01-01

139

[Causes of in utero fetal deaths: 225 cases at Befelatanana Hospital, Madagascar].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The high rate of in utero fetal death in our hospital led us to study its risk factors and causes. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study from 1 January to 30 June, 2011, of all fetal deaths in utero in the Gynecology-Obstetrics University Hospital of Befelatanana. Risk factors were studied after comparison with a random sample of live births during the same period. The causes were classified according to the Perinatal Death Classification of the Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand. RESULTS: The rate of in utero fetal deaths was 5.22%. The risk factors statistically verified were: mother older than 34 years, parity of five or more, preterm, fewer than four prenatal consultations, previous fetal loss or hypertension disorders, and mother working in agriculture or commerce. The causes identified were hypertensive disorders (20.66%), prepartum hemorrhage (18.18%), fetal growth restriction (14.87%), premature rupture of the membrane (14.05%), hypoxia (12.39%), perinatal infection (11.57%), maternal conditions (3.30%), congenital abnormalities (3.30%), and specific perinatal conditions (1.65%). CONCLUSION: Screening for risk factors and close monitoring during pregnancy and labor are important to reduce fetal deaths.

Andriamandimbison Z; Randriambololona DM; Rasoanandrianina BS; Hery RA

2013-01-01

140

Cognitive abilities and behaviour of children exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of review The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern over the treatment of epilepsy in women of childbearing age, with an increased risk of major congenital malformations and possible cognitive difficulties associated with certain antiepileptic drugs. The aim here is to review the literature regarding the possible cognitive and behavioural impact of exposure to antiepileptic drugs in utero. Recent findings Recent evidence from large prospective cohorts indicates that there is a longer term risk to the cognitive and behavioural development of the child exposed in utero to sodium valproate. Information on other antiepileptic agents is conflicting or nonexistent and more research in this area is urgently required. Summary Despite the methodological shortfalls of some of the research in this area, there is an accumulation of evidence highlighting an increased risk for cognitive and behavioural difficulties in children exposed to sodium valproate in utero. Although less certain, there may also be risks associated with phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure. Information regarding these risks should be communicated to the potential mother who has epilepsy.

Bromley, Rebecca L.; Baker, Gus A.; Meador, Kimford J.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Although most people would scarcely be able to make it through the day without using some type of electronic device-computers, televisions, and MP3 players, to name a few-the inner workings of such devices remain a mystery to many. This insightful volume examines various components, such as electron tubes and semiconductors, that have been essential to electronics over the years, as well as the history of the field in general and its applications in everyday life.

Hollar, Sherman

2012-01-01

142

Electronics  

CERN Multimedia

Electronics Theory and Practice introduces the key areas of analog electronics through practicals, worked examples and concise explanations. The author is a senior lecturer at De Montfort University and his approach is a proven way of teaching the essentials of electronics to groups with a variety of academic backgrounds. This is an ideal text for first year modules and HNC/D units - comprehensive, concise and affordable.

Mesias, Gerardo

2012-01-01

143

Electronics  

CERN Multimedia

Careers in Focus: Electronics profiles 20 careers in this innovative field for young professionals. Job profiles of this title include: avionics engineers; computer-aided design drafters and technicians; cost estimators; electricians; electronics service technicians; hardware engineers; industrial engineers; microelectronics technicians; quality assurance testers; technical writers and editors; and, more.

Ferguson

2009-01-01

144

Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers  

CERN Multimedia

Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

Rajendiran, P

2006-01-01

145

In utero infection with PRRS virus modulates cellular functions of blood monocytes and alveolar lung macrophages in piglets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The putative immunosuppressive effect of PRRS virus (PRRSV) on innate immune responses was studied in piglets infected in utero with PRRSV. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacities in 2-, 4- and 6-week-old in utero infected piglets were investigated and compared with age-matched control piglets. Phagocytic capacity of blood monocytes against Salmonella bacteria was investigated by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst in blood monocytes and in alveolar lung macrophages was investigated by luminol- and lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, respectively. Decreased phagocytosis against Salmonella was found in blood monocytes from 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets compared to controls. In contrast, 2-week-old infected piglets showed phagocytic responses comparable to age matched control piglets. While oxidative burst capacity was increased in blood (PBMC) from in utero PRRSV infected piglets, the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar lung macrophages was decreased, especially in 2- and 4-week-old piglets, compared to age-matched control piglets. The present results indicate that in utero infection with PRRSV inhibits phagocytosis against Salmonella in blood monocytes as well as the oxidative burst capacity of alveolar macrophages. These observations indicate that PRRSV in utero infection induces at state of immunosuppression in piglets paving the way for enhanced secondary infections.

Riber, Ulla; Nielsen, Jens

2004-01-01

146

Pulmonary hemodynamic responses to in utero ventilation in very immature fetal sheep  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The onset of ventilation at birth decreases pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) resulting in a large increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF). As the large cross sectional area of the pulmonary vascular bed develops late in gestation, we have investigated whether the ventilation-induced increase in PBF is reduced in immature lungs. Methods Surgery was performed in fetal sheep at 105 d GA (n = 7; term ~147 d) to insert an endotracheal tube, which was connected to a neonatal ventilation circuit, and a transonic flow probe was placed around the left pulmonary artery. At 110 d GA, fetuses (n = 7) were ventilated in utero (IUV) for 12 hrs while continuous measurements of PBF were made, fetuses were allowed to develop in utero for a further 7 days following ventilation. Results PBF changes were highly variable between animals, increasing from 12.2 ± 6.6 mL/min to a maximum of 78.1 ± 23.1 mL/min in four fetuses after 10 minutes of ventilation. In the remaining three fetuses, little change in PBF was measured in response to IUV. The increases in PBF measured in responding fetuses were not sustained throughout the ventilation period and by 2 hrs of IUV had returned to pre-IUV control values. Discussion and conclusion Ventilation of very immature fetal sheep in utero increased PBF in 57% of fetuses but this increase was not sustained for more than 2 hrs, despite continuing ventilation. Immature lungs can increase PBF during ventilation, however, the present studies show these changes are transient and highly variable.

Allison Beth J; Crossley Kelly J; Flecknoe Sharon J; Morley Colin J; Polglase Graeme R; Hooper Stuart B

2010-01-01

147

In Utero Electroporation: Assay System for Migration of Cerebral Cortical Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

During the development of the cerebral cortex, the majority of cortical neurons are generated in the ventricular zone (VZ) facing the lateral ventricle and then migrate toward the pial surface to form the highly organized 6-layered cerebral cortex. Detailed profiles of these processes and their molecular mechanisms had been largely unknown because of the absence of an efficient assay system. The in vivo electroporation system was initially devised for use within chick embryos (Funahashi et al., 1999; Itasaki et al., 1999; Momose et al., 1999; Muramatsu et al., 1997), and we and other groups have used that system as a basis for developing an in utero electroporation system, which allows plasmid DNA to be introduced into cortical progenitor cells in developing mouse embryos in the uterus (Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove, 2001; Saito and Nakatsuji, 2001; Tabata and Nakajima, 2001; Takahashi et al., 2002). In utero electroporation of other sites in the brain, including the hippocampus (Navarro-Quiroga et al., 2007), cerebral basal ganglia (Borrell et al., 2005; Nakahira et al., 2006), cortical hem (Takiguchi-Hayashi et al., 2004), and dorsal thalamus (Bonnin et al., 2007), has recently been reported. Introducing green fluorescent protein (GFP) enables the entire processes of migration and layer formation to be visualized (Ajioka and Nakajima, 2005; Sasaki et al., 2008; Tabata and Nakajima, 2002, 2003), and the role of any gene involved in these processes can be easily assessed by overexpressing the proteins or their mutants (Ohshima et al., 2007), or by knocking down the genes by the RNA interference technique (Bai et al., 2003). Furthermore, the Tet-On/Off system and/or other plasmid- vector-based technologies will expand the potential of the analyses. In this section we review the principles and methods of gene transfer into the cortical wall of mouse embryos by means of the in utero electroporation system.

Tabata, Hidenori; Nakajima, Kazunori

148

[Sacrococcygeal teratomas: is there a place for in utero treatment of complicated forms? About three cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of sacrococcygeal teratomas diagnosed before birth can be managed by planned delivery and postnatal surgery. However, large tumors early in gestation may result in placentomegaly, hydrops and fetal death and a preeclampsia-like syndrome in the mother. This is due to high output cardiac failure in the fetus caused by arteriovenous shunting through the tumor. In these cases, in utero treatment may offer improved chances of survival, and emerging technologies should lower fetal and maternal morbidity. Nevertheless, these therapeutics need to be correctly evaluated. PMID:15217567

Graesslin, O; Martin-Morille, C; Dedecker, F; Gabriel, R; Quereux, C

2004-06-01

149

[Sacrococcygeal teratomas: is there a place for in utero treatment of complicated forms? About three cases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The majority of sacrococcygeal teratomas diagnosed before birth can be managed by planned delivery and postnatal surgery. However, large tumors early in gestation may result in placentomegaly, hydrops and fetal death and a preeclampsia-like syndrome in the mother. This is due to high output cardiac failure in the fetus caused by arteriovenous shunting through the tumor. In these cases, in utero treatment may offer improved chances of survival, and emerging technologies should lower fetal and maternal morbidity. Nevertheless, these therapeutics need to be correctly evaluated.

Graesslin O; Martin-Morille C; Dedecker F; Gabriel R; Quereux C

2004-06-01

150

In utero exposure to antidepressant drugs and risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a nationwide Danish cohort study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate whether in utero exposure to antidepressants is associated with increased risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Design Cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants All Danish singletons born alive from 1996 to 2009 were included. Using national medical registries, we defined in utero exposure to antidepressants as redemption of an antidepressant prescription by the mother 30?days prior to or during pregnancy. We defined maternal former users of antidepressants as women, who had redeemed a prescription up to 30?days prior to pregnancy, and never users as women who had never redeemed a prescription. Main outcome measures ADHD was defined as redemption of a prescription for ADHD medication or an ADHD hospital diagnosis. Children were followed through 2010, and we used proportional-hazards regression to compute adjusted HRs comparing children exposed in utero and children born to former antidepressant users with children born to never users. To adjust for confounding from family-related factors, we conducted a within-mother between-pregnancy analysis comparing exposed children with unexposed siblings using conditional logistic regression. Results We identified a cohort of 877?778 children, of whom 1.7% were exposed in utero. The overall median follow-up time was 8?years; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were the most commonly used class of antidepressant during pregnancy (78% of users). The adjusted HR comparing children exposed to any antidepressant in utero with children born to never users was 1.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.4), and 1.6 (95% CI 1.5 to 1.8) comparing children born to former users to children born to never users of antidepressants. In the within-mother between-pregnancy analysis (n=867), the adjusted OR was 0.7 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.4). Conclusions This study provides no evidence to support a causal association between in utero exposure to antidepressants and risk of ADHD.

Laugesen, Kristina; Olsen, Morten Smaerup; Telen Andersen, Ane Birgitte; Fr?slev, Trine; Toft S?rensen, Henrik

2013-01-01

151

SAGES: A Suite of Freely-Available Software Tools for Electronic Disease Surveillance in Resource-Limited Settings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged be...

Lewis, Sheri L.; Feighner, Brian H.; Loschen, Wayne A.; Wojcik, Richard A.; Skora, Joseph F.; Coberly, Jacqueline S.

152

Microstructural development of human brain assessed in utero by diffusion tensor imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) has been shown to be a great tool to assess white matter development in normal infants. Comparison of cerebral diffusion properties between preterm infants and fetuses of corresponding ages should assist in determining the impact of premature ex utero life on brain maturation. To assess in utero maturation-dependent microstructural changes of fetal cerebral white matter using diffusion tensor MR imaging. An echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b=700 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in six non-colinear directions was performed between 31 and 37{sup +3} weeks of gestation in 24 fetuses without cerebral abnormality on T1- and T2-weighted images. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the white matter. Mean ADC values were 1.8 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the centrum semiovale, 1.2 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the splenium of the corpus callosum and 1.1 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms in the pyramidal tract. The paired Wilcoxon rank test showed significant differences in ADC between these three white matter regions. Mean FA values were 1.1%, 3.8% and 4.7%, respectively, in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum and pyramidal tract.

Bui, T.; Daire, J.L.; Chalard, F.; Sebag, G. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Zaccaria, I.; Alberti, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Clinical Epidemiology; Elmaleh, M.; Garel, C. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Dept. of Paediatric Imaging; Univ. of Paris-7 (France). Faculty of Medicine; Luton, D. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France); Blanc, N. [Hopital Robert Debre, Paris (France). Neurology Service

2006-11-15

153

Natural selection in utero: evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Controversy remains over whether declines in male births reported after population stressors result from either or both reduced conception of males or increased selection in utero against male fetuses. We use monthly birth cohorts to determine if Japanese male births following the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 fell below levels expected from female births and from history (i.e., autocorrelation) among cohorts exposed to the Earthquake at or after conception. METHODS: We apply interrupted time-series methods to 69 months (i.e., April, 2006 through December, 2011) of birth data from the most and least affected prefectures as well as from the remainder of Japan. We estimate expected male births from female births and from autocorrelation. RESULTS: Findings varied by distance from the greatest damage but suggest sensitive periods both early and late in gestation when population stressors may induce selection against males in utero. Support for reduced conception of males appeared only in the prefectures most damaged by the Earthquake. CONCLUSIONS: Results align with the claim that natural selection has conserved mechanisms that reduce the odds of a male live birth during stressful times by reducing the conception of males and by increasing the rate of spontaneous abortion among male fetuses.

Catalano R; Yorifuji T; Kawachi I

2013-07-01

154

Utero-placental transfer of alternate energy substrates and glucose homeostasis in the newborn pig  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the first experiment, three sows in late gestation were infused with [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate to evaluate utero-placental transfer of ketones. ?-Hydroxy-butyrate (BOHB) concentrations were low in both the mother and fetus throughout the experiments (0.0189, 0.0197, 0.0054, and 0.0063 mmole/liter blood for UV, UA, FV, and FA, respectively). Radioactive BOHB was detected in fetal blood within two minutes post-injection. Lipid extracts of liver and adipose tissue exhibited the greatest relative incorporation of [14C]?-hydroxybutyrate followed by lung and heart tissues (3540, 3674, 1214, and 528 dpm/g wet weight, respectively). In a second study, five gravid gilts during late gestation were used to determine utero-placental transfer of maternal free fatty acids (FFA). Using similar techniques as Exp. 1, injections were given containing [14C] linoleic acid and [3H] palmitic acid or [14C] octanoic acid. In a third experiment, gravid gilts were fed supplemental energy as starch (C), soybean oil (SO) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) during late gestation to determine the influence on colostrum composition and neonatal pig glucose homeostasis. Energy content of colostrum was increased (P = 0.05 by feeding SO and MCT. After a 36 h fast, mean piglet glucose concentrations were higher (P

1985-01-01

155

In vivo genetic manipulation of cortical progenitors in gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brain structures such as the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) and the inner fiber layer (IFL) in the developing cerebral cortex are especially prominent in higher mammals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of the OSVZ are still largely unknown, mainly because genetic manipulations that can be applied to the OSVZ in higher mammals had been poorly available. Here we developed and validated a rapid and efficient genetic manipulation technique for germinal zones including the OSVZ using in utero electroporation in developing gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. We also determined the optimal conditions for using in utero electroporation to express transgenes in germinal zones. Using our electroporation procedure, the morphology of GFP-positive cells in the OSVZ was clearly visible even without immunostaining, and multiple genes were efficiently co-expressed in the same cells. Furthermore, we uncovered that fibers, which seemed to correspond to those in the IFL of monkeys, also existed in ferrets, and were derived from newly generated cortical neurons. Our technique promises to be a powerful tool for investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying the formation and abnormalities of the cerebral cortex in higher mammals.

Kawasaki H; Toda T; Tanno K

2013-01-01

156

[In utero macrocephaly as clinical manifestation of glutaric aciduria type I. Report of a novel mutation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Macrocephaly is a pivotal clinical sign, associated with multiple neurological diseases, particularly neurometabolical ones, such as the glutaric aciduria type I (GA I). This aciduria resulting from the genetical deficiency of the enzyme glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). Is a relatively common cause of acute metabolic brain damage in early childhood. We report on one case of GA I, with early manifestations since fetal period and a novel mutation. CASE REPORT: Our patient was referred due macrocephaly in utero and occipitofrontal head circumference above the 98 percentile for chronologic age during first few months of life, hypotonia and development delay. The metabolic investigations of organic acids in urine and acylcarnitine profile in blood, the brain magnetic resonance and the molecular analyses of the glutaryl-CoA deshidrogenase gene, confirm the diagnosis. The molecular analysis allowed to identify one previously described mutation A293T and a novel mutation IVS5-2 A>G. CONCLUSION: It is important the recognition of in utero macrocephaly as a sign to early diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type I to initiate specific therapy to prevent the encephalopathic crises and minimize brain damage in patients who are already neurologically impaired.

Mahfoud A; Domínguez CL; Rizzo C; Ribes A

2004-11-01

157

Ebstein's anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia: prognosis after diagnosis in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricuspid valve malformation is a rare congenital heart disease. Prenatal diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly (EA) and tricuspid valve dysplasia (TVD) is associated with high mortality. There are conflicting reports concerning accurate prognostication after diagnosis in utero. The aim of our study was to assess prognostic factors based on our experience. We reviewed 37 fetuses between 1984 and June 2010 comprising 26 cases of EA and 11 cases of TVD. There were 10 terminations, 5 intrauterine deaths, 8 neonatal deaths, and 14 survivors. We found that the major prognostic factor for outcome was the flow pattern through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram. Retrograde flow was strongly correlated with fetal or neonatal death (p = 8 × 10(-5)), and anterograde flow predicted good outcome (p = 8 × 10(-5)). In contrast, cardiothoracic indexes, right to left-ventricular ratio, and Celermajer index were not useful prognostic markers. The Simpson Andrews Sharland score, which was more complex, was well correlated with our series. Flow through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram is a simple and excellent prognostic factor when major tricuspid valve disease is diagnosed in utero. Fetuses should be monitored throughout pregnancy, particularly those with retrograde ductus arteriosus, because several hemodynamic factors may worsen the prognosis. PMID:22639000

Barre, E; Durand, I; Hazelzet, T; David, N

2012-05-26

158

Ebstein's anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia: prognosis after diagnosis in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tricuspid valve malformation is a rare congenital heart disease. Prenatal diagnosis of Ebstein's anomaly (EA) and tricuspid valve dysplasia (TVD) is associated with high mortality. There are conflicting reports concerning accurate prognostication after diagnosis in utero. The aim of our study was to assess prognostic factors based on our experience. We reviewed 37 fetuses between 1984 and June 2010 comprising 26 cases of EA and 11 cases of TVD. There were 10 terminations, 5 intrauterine deaths, 8 neonatal deaths, and 14 survivors. We found that the major prognostic factor for outcome was the flow pattern through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram. Retrograde flow was strongly correlated with fetal or neonatal death (p = 8 × 10(-5)), and anterograde flow predicted good outcome (p = 8 × 10(-5)). In contrast, cardiothoracic indexes, right to left-ventricular ratio, and Celermajer index were not useful prognostic markers. The Simpson Andrews Sharland score, which was more complex, was well correlated with our series. Flow through the pulmonary valve on the first echocardiogram is a simple and excellent prognostic factor when major tricuspid valve disease is diagnosed in utero. Fetuses should be monitored throughout pregnancy, particularly those with retrograde ductus arteriosus, because several hemodynamic factors may worsen the prognosis.

Barre E; Durand I; Hazelzet T; David N

2012-12-01

159

Reproductive sequelae in female rats after in utero and neonatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine reproductive sequelae in female rats after in utero and lactational dietary exposure to genistein. DESIGN: Experimental animal study. SETTING: University laboratory. ANIMAL(S): Sprague Dawley rats. INTERVENTION(S): Pregnant rats were fed control rat chow or rat chow incorporated with genistein (approximately 50 microg/d) beginning on day 17 of gestation and continuing until the end of lactation (postpartum day 21). Genistein-exposed female pups were divided into two groups on day 21. One group continued to receive a genistein-added diet (G70); the other group was changed to a control diet (Ex-G). At necropsy (days 21 and 70), blood and reproductive tissues were collected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Serum levels of gonadotropins and gonadal steroids and histopathologic examination of the ovaries. RESULT(S): The weight of the ovaries and uterus and serum levels of E2 and progesterone in genistein-exposed rats on day 21 (G21) were significantly reduced compared with control rats. On day 70, serum levels of E2, progesterone, LH, and FSH were similar in all groups. Atretic follicles and secondary interstitial glands were more common in G70 and Ex-G rats compared with control rats. Cystic rete ovarii was observed in some G70 and Ex-G rats. CONCLUSION(S): Our data indicate that in utero and lactational exposure to dietary genistein adversely affects reproductive processes in the adult female rat.

Awoniyi CA; Roberts D; Veeramachaneni DN; Hurst BS; Tucker KE; Schlaff WD

1998-09-01

160

In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated whether decrements in neonatal neurodevelopment, as determined by the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (BNBAS), were associated with in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT's primary breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (heretofore collectively referred to as DDT/DDE). Our subjects were a birth cohort of 303 infants whose mothers were low-income Latinas living in the Salinas Valley, an agricultural community in California. We assessed neonates < or =2 months old using the seven BNBAS clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) and examined performance in relationship to DDT/DDE measures in maternal serum samples collected during pregnancy. We did not find any detrimental associations between in utero DDT/DDE levels and neonatal performance on the BNBAS. In this same cohort, we previously demonstrated that exposures to DDT/DDE were related to decrements in neurodevelopment at 6-24 months of age. The failure to observe effects on the BNBAS in these same children may be due to limited sensitivity of a single BNBAS assessment or a delay in the manifestations of neurodevelopmental effects of DDT/DDE until after the neonatal period.

Fenster L; Eskenazi B; Anderson M; Bradman A; Hubbard A; Barr DB

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

In utero exposure to DDT and performance on the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether decrements in neonatal neurodevelopment, as determined by the Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale (BNBAS), were associated with in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT): p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), o,p'-dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (o,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT's primary breakdown product p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) (heretofore collectively referred to as DDT/DDE). Our subjects were a birth cohort of 303 infants whose mothers were low-income Latinas living in the Salinas Valley, an agricultural community in California. We assessed neonates < or =2 months old using the seven BNBAS clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) and examined performance in relationship to DDT/DDE measures in maternal serum samples collected during pregnancy. We did not find any detrimental associations between in utero DDT/DDE levels and neonatal performance on the BNBAS. In this same cohort, we previously demonstrated that exposures to DDT/DDE were related to decrements in neurodevelopment at 6-24 months of age. The failure to observe effects on the BNBAS in these same children may be due to limited sensitivity of a single BNBAS assessment or a delay in the manifestations of neurodevelopmental effects of DDT/DDE until after the neonatal period. PMID:17287022

Fenster, Laura; Eskenazi, Brenda; Anderson, Meredith; Bradman, Asa; Hubbard, Alan; Barr, Dana B

2007-01-10

162

Neonatal tracheal changes following in utero fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To report postnatal tracheal changes after in utero fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion in severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Tertiary care center, CDH National Reference Center. PATIENTS: Seven consecutive newborn infants with severe CDH who underwent fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion. INTERVENTIONS: Flexible laryngotracheoscopy and histological aspect observed at necropsy in 2 nonsurvivors. RESULTS: All infants displayed elongation and relaxation of the posterior tracheal wall, intermittently obstructing the lumen during tidal breathing. Whereas the cartilage displayed adequate rigidity, the pars membranacea appeared both flaccid and loose. Tracheal widening (tracheomegaly) was seen in all cases. Histology (n = 2) pointed to structural modifications throughout the pars membranacea, that is, loss of epithelial folding and of longitudinal elastic network and focal muscular disruption. The cartilage displayed no visible or histologic changes. The above tracheal changes were not symptomatic, except for a barking cough during increased respiratory efforts. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal widening and intermittent collapse of the posterior wall of the trachea during tidal breathing was found in 7 consecutive newborns who underwent fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion, causing mild clinical symptoms. Endoscopic tracheal assessment might provide useful information in children with CDH, in particular, when they underwent in utero fetoscopic balloon tracheal occlusion.

Fayoux P; Hosana G; Devisme L; Deprest J; Jani J; Vaast P; Storme L

2010-04-01

163

The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

1997-01-01

164

Periódicos eletrônicos: considerações relativas à aceitação deste recurso pelos usuários/ Electronic journals: issues on the user's acceptance of this resource  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta algumas reflexões sobre a aceitação de periódicos eletrônicos disponibilizados na World Wide Web. Assuntos que freqüentemente são ignorados durante a elaboração dos mesmos são discutidos. Citam-se como exemplo alguns periódicos científicos eletrônicos brasileiros na área da ciência da informação. Analisam-se também algumas barreiras tecnológicas que impedem o uso mais amplo e irrestrito deste recurso. Abstract in english This article presents some insights on the user's acceptance of electronic journals made available in the World Wide Web. Issues that are frequently ignored during the project of electronic journals are discussed. As an example, some electronic Brazilian journals in the field of information science are cited. Some technological barriers which encumber a wider and unrestricted use of the electronic journals are also analyzed.

Dias, Guilherme Ataíde

2002-09-01

165

Electronics  

CERN Document Server

Owen Bishop's First Course starts with the basics of electricity and component types, introducing students to practical work almost straight away. No prior knowledge of electronics is required. The approach is student-centred with self-test features to check understanding, including numerous activities suitable for practicals, homework and other assignments. Multiple choice questions are incorporated throughout the text in order to aid student learning. Key facts, formulae and definitions are highlighted to aid revision, and theory is backed up by numerous examp

Bishop, Owen

2010-01-01

166

Organizing Internet Resources  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many approaches have been taken by different groups to organize electronic resources on Internet. Some of them purport to index the electronic resources automatically. Search engines are typical in this category. Another category is the traditional library cataloging approach. For example, modified MARC formats are used to catalog the Internet resources. Besides these two, there are also some other ways to organize Internet resources, such as classification number schemes, subject heading systems, and other manual subject guides to provide a central access point for value-added topical guides. This paper introduces different approaches to organize Internet resources and focuses mainly on librarians' efforts.[Article content in Chinese

Hsueh-Hua Chen

1996-01-01

167

EXPOSURE PARAMETERS FOR DELAYED PUBERTY AND MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT IN LONG-EVANS RATS EXPOSED IN UTERO TO ATRAZINE  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure Parameters For Delayed Puberty And Mammary Gland Development In Long-Evans Rats Exposed In Utero To Atrazine Jennifer L. Rayner1 and Suzanne E. Fenton2 1 UNC-Chapel Hill, DESE, Chapel Hill, NC, and 2 RTD, USEPA, NHEERL/ORD, RTP,NC Prenatal exposure ...

168

The impact of flavour exposure in utero and during milk feeding on food acceptance at weaning and beyond.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An individual's experience of flavours contributes to their unique pattern of food preferences. Exposure to a specific flavour can increase familiarity and result in greater acceptance of this flavour over time. This paper describes the earliest occurrences of flavour exposure; first in utero, via a...

Cooke, L; Fildes, A

169

In utero erythrocyte transfusion for fetal xerocytosis associated with severe anemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereditary xerocytosis is a rare hemolytic anemia occurring secondary to a defect in cell membrane potassium flux. We report a case of severe fetal anemia and non-immune hydrops secondary to hereditary xerocytosis that was managed successfully with in utero erythrocyte and albumin transfusion. PMID:11483935

Ogburn, P L; Ramin, K D; Danilenko-Dixon, D; Fairbanks, V F; Ramsey, P S

2001-07-01

170

In utero erythrocyte transfusion for fetal xerocytosis associated with severe anemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hereditary xerocytosis is a rare hemolytic anemia occurring secondary to a defect in cell membrane potassium flux. We report a case of severe fetal anemia and non-immune hydrops secondary to hereditary xerocytosis that was managed successfully with in utero erythrocyte and albumin transfusion.

Ogburn PL Jr; Ramin KD; Danilenko-Dixon D; Fairbanks VF; Ramsey PS

2001-07-01

171

E X I T (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) en linfangioma cervical fetal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se presenta un caso clínico de una embarazada primigesta de 17 años, con un feto con gran masa cervical a las 20 semanas, se diagnostica como linfangioma cervical. La evaluación prenatal concluye que existe gran riesgo de asfixia perinatal por obstrucción de la vía aérea superior, se resuelve el parto mediante procedimiento EXIT (ex-utero intrapartum therapy) a las 37 semanas. Se logra realizar intubación con larin-goscopia directa, con un tiempo de by-pass uteropl (more) acentario de 7 minutos. Se obtiene un recién nacido de 3300 g, al segundo día se opera del tumor con buenos resultados. Se revisa el protocolo del procedimiento EXIT en sus aspectos anestésicos, obstétricos, quirúrgicos y neonatológicos. Se concluye que el EXIT debe ser planteado en todo caso en que se sospeche obstrucción de la vía aérea superior y puede ser realizado en hospitales que cuenten con equipamiento habitual y un equipo médico multidisciplinario. Abstract in english We report a case of primigravida patient, 17 years old, with a fetus showing a large cervical mass at 20 weeks of gestation and was diagnosed as a cervical lymphangioma. The prenatal evaluation concludes that there exists a great risk of perinatal asphyxia due to obstruction of the upper airway and therefore it is decided to perform a cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation, using an EXIT procedure (ex-utero intra-partum therapy). We perform intubation with a semi- rigi (more) d tube having a by-pass time utero-placental of 7 minutes, obtaining a newborn of 3300 g at birth. The newborn is operated two days after birth removing the cervical tumor with good results. We review the protocol of the EXIT procedure concerning aspects related to anesthesia, obstetrics, surgery and neonatal care. We conclude that EXIT should be considered in all cases in which obstruction of the upper airway is suspected, and can be performed in hospitals that have basic surgical facilities and a multidisciplinary team.

Bustos V, Juan Carlos; González C, Vivian; Olguin C, Francisco; Bustamante T, René; Hernández L, Américo; Razeto W, Leopoldo; Paredes W, Alejandro

2013-01-01

172

Differential DNA methylation in umbilical cord blood of infants exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing epidemiologic evidence that arsenic exposure in utero, even at low levels found throughout much of the world, is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and may contribute to long-term health effects. Animal models, in vitro studies, and human cancer data suggest that arsenic may induce epigenetic alterations, specifically by altering patterns of DNA methylation. OBJECTIVES: In this study we aimed to identify differences in DNA methylation in cord blood samples of infants with in utero, low-level arsenic exposure. METHODS: DNA methylation of cord-blood derived DNA from 134 infants involved in a prospective birth cohort in New Hampshire was profiled using the Illumina Infinium Methylation450K array. In utero arsenic exposure was estimated using maternal urine samples collected at 24-28 weeks gestation. We used a novel cell mixture deconvolution methodology for examining the association between inferred white blood cell mixtures in infant cord blood and in utero arsenic exposure; we also examined the association between methylation at individual CpG loci and arsenic exposure levels. RESULTS: We found an association between urinary inorganic arsenic concentration and the estimated proportion of CD8+ T lymphocytes (1.18; 95% CI: 0.12, 2.23). Among the top 100 CpG loci with the lowest p-values based on their association with urinary arsenic levels, there was a statistically significant enrichment of these loci in CpG islands (p = 0.009). Of those in CpG islands (n = 44), most (75%) exhibited higher methylation levels in the highest exposed group compared with the lowest exposed group. Also, several CpG loci exhibited a linear dose-dependent relationship between methylation and arsenic exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in utero exposure to low levels of arsenic may affect the epigenome. Long-term follow-up is planned to determine whether the observed changes are associated with health outcomes.

Koestler DC; Avissar-Whiting M; Houseman EA; Karagas MR; Marsit CJ

2013-08-01

173

Developmental outcome of children with enlargement of the cisterna magna identified in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

An enlarged cisterna magna can be identified during routine ultrasound screening in the second half of pregnancy. It is important to be able to give an accurate prognosis. We evaluated the developmental outcome of these children. A total of 29 fetuses with a large cisterna magna identified in utero were compared to 35 children with a normal fetal ultrasound. The children were evaluated by the Gesell Developmental Schedules and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The study group showed a significantly worse performance in the Gesell test. However, the overall performance for both groups was within normal limits. Four children in the study group had a borderline developmental quotient. Both groups performed similarly in the Peabody test. Walking age was significantly delayed in the study group. Children with an enlarged cisterna magna may be at risk for mild developmental delay. In cases of nonisolated enlargement of the cisterna magna, the outcome may be guarded. PMID:19240044

Dror, Raheli; Malinger, Gustavo; Ben-Sira, Liat; Lev, Dorit; Pick, Chaim G; Lerman-Sagie, Tally

2009-02-23

174

Developmental outcome of children with enlargement of the cisterna magna identified in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An enlarged cisterna magna can be identified during routine ultrasound screening in the second half of pregnancy. It is important to be able to give an accurate prognosis. We evaluated the developmental outcome of these children. A total of 29 fetuses with a large cisterna magna identified in utero were compared to 35 children with a normal fetal ultrasound. The children were evaluated by the Gesell Developmental Schedules and the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale. The study group showed a significantly worse performance in the Gesell test. However, the overall performance for both groups was within normal limits. Four children in the study group had a borderline developmental quotient. Both groups performed similarly in the Peabody test. Walking age was significantly delayed in the study group. Children with an enlarged cisterna magna may be at risk for mild developmental delay. In cases of nonisolated enlargement of the cisterna magna, the outcome may be guarded.

Dror R; Malinger G; Ben-Sira L; Lev D; Pick CG; Lerman-Sagie T

2009-12-01

175

An ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure in a patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure, after uterine incision, uterine relaxation is maintained to prevent placental separation and the fetus is supported via the placenta until the airway is successfully established. The traditional method to maintain uterine relaxation is with the use of high-dose potent inhaled anesthetics during general anesthesia. A patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia required an EXIT procedure. The history of malignant hyperthermia precluded the use of potent inhaled anesthetics and an alternate plan using propofol and remifentanil infusions for anesthesia and nitroglycerin 16 ?g/kg/min for uterine relaxation allowed for good surgical conditions. The presence of malignant hyperthermia required an alternate plan and close collaboration in order to ensure good patient outcome.

Hofer IS; Mahoney B; Rebarber A; Beilin Y

2013-04-01

176

In utero imaging of mouse embryonic development with optical coherence tomography  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying progression of congenital diseases in animal models can greatly benefit from live embryonic imaging Mouse have long served as a model of mammalian embryonic developmental processes, however, due to intra-uterine nature of mammalian development live imaging is challenging. In this report we present results on live mouse embryonic imaging in utero with Optical Coherence Tomography. Embryos from 12.5 through 17.5 days post-coitus (dpc) were studied through the uterine wall. In longitudinal studies, same embryos were imaged at developmental stages 13.5, 15.5 and 17.5 dpc. This study suggests that OCT can serve as a powerful tool for live mouse embryo imaging. Potentially this technique can contribute to our understanding developmental abnormalities associated with mutations, toxic drugs.

Syed, Saba H.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

2011-02-01

177

An ex utero intrapartum treatment procedure in a patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure, after uterine incision, uterine relaxation is maintained to prevent placental separation and the fetus is supported via the placenta until the airway is successfully established. The traditional method to maintain uterine relaxation is with the use of high-dose potent inhaled anesthetics during general anesthesia. A patient with a family history of malignant hyperthermia required an EXIT procedure. The history of malignant hyperthermia precluded the use of potent inhaled anesthetics and an alternate plan using propofol and remifentanil infusions for anesthesia and nitroglycerin 16 ?g/kg/min for uterine relaxation allowed for good surgical conditions. The presence of malignant hyperthermia required an alternate plan and close collaboration in order to ensure good patient outcome. PMID:23481416

Hofer, I S; Mahoney, B; Rebarber, A; Beilin, Y

2013-03-06

178

Ontogeny of polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin resistance in utero and early childhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent hyperandrogenic infertility and cardiometabolic disorder that increases a woman's lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is heritable and intensely familial. Progress toward a cure has been delayed by absence of an etiology. Evidence is mounting, however, for in utero T excess, together with gestational hyperglycemia, contributing to either early differentiation of PCOS or phenotypic amplification of its genotypes. Abnormal endocrine, ovarian, and hyperinsulinemic traits are detectable as early as 2 months of age in daughters of women with PCOS, with adiposity enhancement of hyperinsulinemia during childhood potentially contributing to hyperandrogenism and LH excess by adolescence. These findings encourage increasing clinical focus on early childhood markers for adiposity and hyperinsulinemia accompanying ovarian and adrenal endocrine abnormalities that precede a diagnosable PCOS phenotype. They raise the possibility for lifestyle or therapeutic intervention before and during pregnancy or during childhood and adolescence alleviating the manifestations of a familial genetic predisposition to PCOS.

Abbott DH; Bacha F

2013-07-01

179

Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk) is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk). This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

Lorna M. Campbell; Allison Littlejohn; Charles Duncan

2001-01-01

180

Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author).

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

In utero magnetic resonance of non-isolated ventriculomegaly: does ventricular size or morphology reflect pathology?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aim: To confirm whether ventricular size or morphology reflects the underlying pathology in foetuses referred with a diagnosis of possible ventriculomegaly (Vm) and central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Methods: Retrospective analysis of 40 in utero magnetic resonance (MR) examinations was undertaken. Ventricular size was measured on axial sections by two observers, and morphology was agreed by consensus. Results were analysed according to gestational age at referral, degree of Vm (mild >10-15 mm, moderate/severe >15 mm) and morphology. Results: Nine cases had no Vm (mean gestational age 23.6 weeks, range 19-33), 17 had mild Vm (mean age 23.9 weeks, range 20-31), and 14 had moderate/severe Vm (mean age 25.9 weeks, range 20-35). All groups had a mix of morphology and pathology. Eighteen suspected cases of spina bifida were referred and 17 confirmed (mean age 22.6 weeks, range 19-30) using MR. The morphology was mixed, five cases (27.8%) had an angular appearance (this morphology was only seen in cases with spina bifida). Fourteen cases (77.8%) had Vm (eight mild, six severe). Of the thirteen cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) suspected on ultrasound, seven were confirmed using MR (mean age 26.5 weeks, range 20-35). Of those seven cases with ACC confirmed on MR, and three additional cases only detected by in utero MR, five had colpocephaly, seven had Vm (four mild, three severe). Conclusion: Severity of Vm did not reflect the type, or presence, of underlying pathology. Morphology appears an indicator of pathology. Angular ventricles should initiate a search for spinal defects. Colpocephaly may indicate ACC.

2006-01-01

182

Neonatal cochlear function: measurement after exposure to acoustic noise during in utero MR imaging.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To establish whether fetal exposure to the operating noise of 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is associated with cochlear injury and subsequent hearing loss in neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed with local research ethics committee approval and written informed parental consent. Neonatal hearing test results, including otoacoustic emission (OAE) data, were sought for all neonates delivered in Sheffield who had previously undergone in utero MR imaging between August 1999 and September 2007. The prevalence of hearing impairment in these neonates was determined, with corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated by using the binomial exact method, and mean OAE measurements were compared with anonymized local audiometric reference data by using the t test. RESULTS: One hundred three neonates who had undergone in utero MR imaging were identified; 96 of them had completed hearing screening assessment. Thirty-four of these babies were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and one of them had bilateral hearing impairment. The prevalence of hearing impairment was 1% (one of 96; 95% confidence interval: 0.03%, 5.67%), which is in accordance with the prevalence expected, given the high proportion of babies in this study who had been in the NICU (ie, NICU graduates). In addition, for the well babies, there was no significant difference in mean OAE cochlear response compared with that for a reference data set of more than 16,000 OAE results. When NICU graduates were included in the comparison, a significant difference (P = .002) was found in one of four frequency bands used to analyze the cochlear response; however, this difference was small compared with the normal variation in OAE measurements. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study provide some evidence that exposure of the fetus to 1.5-T MR imaging during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of substantial neonatal hearing impairment.

Reeves MJ; Brandreth M; Whitby EH; Hart AR; Paley MN; Griffiths PD; Stevens JC

2010-12-01

183

Transmitting biological effects of stress in utero: Implications for mother and offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The developing foetus makes adaptations to an adverse in utero environment which may lead to permanent changes in structure and physiology, thus 'programming' the foetus to risk of ill health in later life. Epidemiological studies have shown associations between low birth weight, a surrogate marker of an adverse intrauterine environment, and a range of diseases in adult life including cardiometabolic and psychiatric disease. These associations do not apply exclusively to low birth weight babies but also to newborns within the normal birth weight range. Early life stress, including stressors in the prenatal and early postnatal period, is a key factor that can have long-term effects on offspring health. Animal studies show this is mediated through changes in the maternal and foetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes resulting in foetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Data in humans are more limited but support that the biological effects of stress in utero may be transmitted through changes in glucocorticoid action or metabolism. Common contemporary physical and social stressors of maternal obesity and socio-economic deprivation impact on the maternal response to pregnancy and the prevailing hormonal milieu that the developing foetus will be exposed to. Prenatal stress may also be compounded by early postnatal stresses such as childhood maltreatment with resultant adverse effects for the offspring. Understanding of the mechanisms whereby these stressors are transmitted from mother to foetus will not only improve our knowledge of normal foetal development but will also help identify novel pathways for early intervention either in the periconceptional, pregnancy or the early postpartum period.

Reynolds RM; Labad J; Buss C; Ghaemmaghami P; Räikkönen K

2013-09-01

184

The effect of electronic medical record-based clinical decision support on HIV care in resource-constrained settings: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that one million people infected with HIV initiate anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in resource-constrained countries annually. This occurs against a background of overburdened health workers with limited skills to handle rapidly changing treatment standards and guidelines hence compromising quality of care. Electronic medical record (EMR)-based clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are considered a solution to improve quality of care. Little evidence, however, exists on the effectiveness of EMR-based CDSS on quality of HIV care and treatment in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to identify original studies on EMR-based CDSS describing process and outcome measures as well as reported barriers to their implementation in resource-constrained settings. We characterized the studies by guideline adherence, data and process, and barriers to CDSS implementation. METHODS: Two reviewers independently assessed original articles from a search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Global Health Library databases until January 2012. The included articles were those that evaluated or described the implementation of EMR-based CDSS that were used in HIV care in low-income countries. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies met the inclusion criteria, 10 of which were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and 2 in the Caribbean. None of the papers described a strong (randomized controlled) evaluation design. Guideline adherence: One study showed that ordering rates for CD4 tests were significantly higher when reminders were used. Data and process: Studies reported reduction in data errors, reduction in missed appointments, reduction in missed CD4 results and reduction in patient waiting time. Two studies showed a significant increase in time spent by clinicians on direct patient care. Barriers to CDSS implementation: Technical infrastructure problems such as unreliable electric power and erratic Internet connectivity, clinicians' limited computer skills and failure by providers to comply with the reminders are key impediments to the implementation and effective use of CDSS. CONCLUSION: The limited number of evaluation studies, the basic and heterogeneous study designs, and varied outcome measures make it difficult to meaningfully conclude on the effectiveness of CDSS on quality of HIV care and treatment in resource-limited settings. High quality evaluation studies are needed. Factors specific to implementation of EMR-based CDSS in resource-limited setting should be addressed before such countries can demonstrate its full benefits. More work needs to be done to overcome the barriers to EMR and CDSS implementation in developing countries such as technical infrastructure and care providers' computer illiteracy. However, simultaneously evaluating and describing CDSS implementation strategies that work can further guide wise investments in their wider rollout.

Oluoch T; Santas X; Kwaro D; Were M; Biondich P; Bailey C; Abu-Hanna A; de Keizer N

2012-10-01

185

El concepto de metadato: algo más que descripción de recursos electrónicos/ The metadata concept: something more than description of electronic resources  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Resulta evidente la necesidad de establecer mecanismos que permitan una descripción más exhaustiva de los recursos electrónicos. En este trabajo se propone como solución el uso de metadatos. Por ese motivo se estudia el concepto de metadato con el fin de determinar tanto su campo de acción como los diferentes presupuestos subyacentes en este. Abstract in english It is evident the necessity to establish mechanisms that allow a more exhaustive description of the electronic resources. In this work we propose as solution the use of metadata. For that reason the concept of metadata is studied for the purpose of determining their action field and the underlying different meanings in this.

Senso, José A.; Rosa Piñero, Antonio de la

2003-08-01

186

There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012). Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2), 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS).Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is also important to increase both in-person and electronic reference transactions.

Annie M. Hughes

2013-01-01

187

In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water impairs early life lung mechanics in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a significant environmental issue affecting millions of people around the world. Exposure to arsenic during foetal development has been shown to impair somatic growth and increase the risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine if in utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water is capable of altering lung growth and postnatal lung mechanics. METHODS: Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing 0, 10 (current World Health Organisation (WHO) maximum contaminant level) or 100 ?g/L arsenic from gestational day 8 to birth. Birth outcomes and somatic growth were monitored. Plethysmography and the forced oscillation technique were used to collect measurements of lung volume, lung mechanics, pressure-volume curves and the volume dependence of lung mechanics in male and female offspring at two, four, six and eight weeks of age. RESULTS: In utero exposure to low dose arsenic via drinking water resulted in low birth weight and impaired parenchymal lung mechanics during infancy. Male offspring were more susceptible to the effects of arsenic on growth and lung mechanics than females. All alterations to lung mechanics following in utero arsenic exposure were recovered by adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to arsenic at the current WHO maximum contaminant level in utero impaired somatic growth and the development of the lungs resulting in alterations to lung mechanics during infancy. Deficits in growth and lung development in early life may contribute to the increased susceptibility of developing chronic respiratory disease in arsenic exposed human populations.

Ramsey KA; Larcombe AN; Sly PD; Zosky GR

2013-01-01

188

Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development

2001-01-01

189

Bone marrow from Balb/c mice radiocontaminated with 241Am in utero shows a deficient in vitro haemopoiesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation damage from 241Am to bone marrow cells was manifest in long-term bone marrow cultures (LTC) from offspring of mice radiocontaminated at 14th day of gestation (119, 479, 803, 1754 kBq 241Am kg). Offspring were reared by their own contaminated mother for 3 weeks postnatal. LTC from these offspring were less able to support in vitro CFC proliferation than control LTC. This radiation damage persisted 71 weeks after radiocontamination in utero. Damage was observed at lower doses if 241Am contamination occurred at foetal rather than adult ages. Radiation damage was observed only using LTC. After culturing LTC in 25% FCS and recharging the stromal adherent layer with bone marrow cell suspensions originating either from control offspring or from offspring contaminated with 241Am in utero evidence was found that the proliferation capacity of haemopoietic cells was diminished. However, the nature of effects on the stromal elements is currently somewhat equivocal. Following in utero contamination stromal adherent cells appeared to support better production of in vitro CFC. (author)

1990-01-01

190

INFOMINE INFOMINE : Scholarly Internet Resource Collections INFOMINE——????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INFOMINE is a virtual library of Internet resources relevant to faculty, students, and research staff at the university level. It contains useful Internet resources such as databases, electronic journals, electronic books, bulletin boards, mailing lists, online library card catalogs, articles...

Wang, Nan????

191

Consumer Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta has compiled this useful collection of links and online brochures about a variety of consumer-oriented information. The resources are mainly from government sources including other federal reserve banks, the Federal Trade Commission, the Consumer Information Center, and Certified Financial Planner Board of Standards. The brochures, which are organized by subject, cover a wide range of topics including debt issues, auto leasing, small business credit, and electronic money and direct deposits. All of the information is written for consumers in easy-to-understand language.

192

In utero exposure to chloroquine alters sexual development in the male fetal rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chloroquine (CQ), a drug that has been used extensively for the prevention and treatment of malaria, is currently considered safe for use during pregnancy. However, CQ has been shown to disrupt steroid homeostasis in adult rats and similar compounds, such as quinacrine, inhibit steroid production in the Leydig cell in vitro. To explore the effect of in utero CQ exposure on fetal male sexual development, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given a daily dose of either water or chloroquine diphosphate from GD 16-18 by oral gavage. Chloroquine was administered as 200 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16, followed by two maintenance doses of 100 mg/kg CQ base on GD 16 and 18. Three days of CQ treatment resulted in reduced maternal and fetal weight on GD 19 and increased necrosis and steatosis in the maternal liver. Fetal livers also displayed mild lipid accumulation. Maternal serum progesterone was increased after CQ administration. Fetal testes testosterone, however, was significantly decreased. Examination of the fetal testes revealed significant alterations in vascularization and seminiferous tubule development after short-term CQ treatment. Anogenital distance was not altered. Microarray and RT-PCR showed down-regulation of several genes associated with cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis in the fetal testes. This study indicates that CQ inhibits testosterone synthesis and normal testis development in the rat fetus at human relevant doses.

2009-06-15

193

Influence of diurnal phase on startle response in adult rats exposed to dexamethasone in utero  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Depression and pathological anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent neurological diseases in the world and can be precipitated and exacerbated by stress. Prenatal stress alters both behavioral and endocrine responses to stressful stimuli in later life. We have previously observed increased basal acoustic startle response (ASR) in Wistar rats exposed to stress or dexamethasone (DEX) in utero when tested during the light phase of the circadian rhythm, and decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) in similar animals tested during the dark phase of the cycle. We speculated that this observation of increased basal startle might be influenced by diurnal phase. In the present study, adult female Sprague Dawley rats, stressed prenatally with DEX (200 ?g/kg, gestational days 14-21) and postnatally by blood sampling under restraint, were tested for the ASR during both circadian phases (light and dark). Basal startle was increased in animals tested both during the light and the dark phases of the cycle. We hereby replicated our earlier findings in a new strain and laboratory, thus strengthening the validity of our model regarding prenatal stress effects on ASR in female offspring. Our results indicate that observation of increased basal ASR is not solely dependent on diurnal phase. We found no difference in hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineral corticoid receptor expression between groups.

Kjaer, S L; Hougaard, K S

2011-01-01

194

In-utero exposure to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea and risk of strabismus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a prospective, population-based cohort study, the authors investigated the effect of in-utero exposure to maternal smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea on the risk of strabismus. They reviewed medical records for children in the Danish National Birth Cohort identified through national registers as possibly having strabismus. Relative risk estimates were adjusted for year of birth, social class, maternal smoking, maternal age at birth, and maternal coffee and tea consumption. The authors identified 1,321 cases of strabismus in a cohort of 96,842 Danish children born between 1996 and 2003. Maternal smoking was associated with a significantly elevated risk of strabismus in the child, increasing with number of cigarettes smoked per day ( or =10 cigarettes/day: RR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.57, 2.30). Nicotine replacement therapy was not associated with strabismus risk (RR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.92, 1.61). Light maternal alcohol consumption was inversely associated with strabismus risk, whereas maternal coffeeand tea drinking were not associated with strabismus risk. In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of strabismus in the offspring. Conversely, light alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk.

Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A

2010-01-01

195

Aneuploidy in somatic cells of in utero exposed A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cytogenetic data on cultured lymphocytes of the in utero exposed A-bomb survivors in the RERF Adult Health Study cohort have been analyzed using the G-banding technique to determine the frequency of aneuploid cells. The data consist of blood samples collected between 1985 and 1987 from 264 Hiroshima individuals for whom DS86 maternal uterine dose estimates are available: 124 proximally exposed (74 males and 50 females) with an estimated dose of 0.005 Sv or more, and 140 distally exposed (76 males and 64 females) with a dose estimate of 0 Sv, assuming the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 10. A main feature of aneuploidy was that aneuploid frequency in autosomes depended generally on chromosome length; aneuploidies were significantly more frequent in shorter chromosomes than in longer chromosomes. The frequency of aneuploidies also depended on type, with chromosome loss approximately five times more frequent than chromosome gain. However, chromosome 21, as well as the sex chromosomes, were notable in that aneuploidy was much more frequent for these chromosomes than would be predicted from a simple relationship with length. X chromosome aneuploidies were significantly more frequent in females than in males. There was no dependence of aneuploid frequencies on dose when measured 40 years after the exposure.

Ohtaki K; Sposto R; Kodama Y; Nakano M; Awa AA

1994-02-01

196

Plasma renin is increased in young rats exposed to lead in utero and during nursing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rats were exposed continuously to Pb in utero and after birth by giving their mothers, during pregnancy and lactation, drinking water containing 0, 5, 25, 100, or 500 ppm Pb (as Pb acetate); they were sacrificed at 1 month of age, at which time their mean blood Pb concentrations were, respectively, approximately 3, 9, 19, 30, and 70 ..mu..g/dl. All Pb-exposed groups sacrificed by decapitation had elevated mean plasma renin activities (PRA), relative to controls. Pentobarbital-anesthesia and laparotomy markedly increased PRA in the 0, 100, and 500 ppm groups, but the increase was significantly less in the 100 ppm group. Renal renin concentration was normal in the 5 and 25 ppm groups, but was significantly increased in the 100 and 500 ppm groups. The ratio of plasma angiotensin II to PRA was normal in the 100 ppm group but significantly reduced in the 500 ppm group. We conclude that exposure of rats to those generally present in human populations stimulates basal renin secretion in 1-month-old rats, but partially inhibits the response to renin-releasing stimuli. The highest dose reduces plasma angiotensin II at any given PRA. These results, taken with previous publications, emphasize that the effects of lead on plasma renin even within a single species are greatly affected by the timing of the exposure.

Victery, W.; Vander, A.J.; Schoeps, P.; Germain, C.

1983-01-01

197

Constructing Masculinity: De Utero Patris (from the Womb of the Father)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper investigates possible (re-)constructions of masculinity in relation to feminist re-conceptualization of the Father–Son relationship in the classic formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity. I will draw upon the work of Diana Neal who proposed a feminist reading of the relationality of father and son, building on the Council of Toledo’s reference to de utero Patris. This leads to a deconstruction of the binary definition of masculinity with divinity and femaleness with materiality. Neal argues with Irigaray that symbolic changes follow on from psychological changes. This proposal for the (re-) construction of masculinity will be compared with four recent image-based constructions of masculinity: Daniel Craig in Casino Royale and the film of The History Boys; the French national rugby team’s calendar Dieux du Stade, and David Beckham’s portrayal in the recent advertising campaign for Armani. Do these constructions of masculinity confirm Neal and Irigaray’s understanding of change?

Paul M. Collins

2010-01-01

198

Rapid and efficient genetic manipulation of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Higher mammals such as primates and carnivores have highly developed unique brain structures such as the ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex, and the gyrus and outer subventricular zone of the cerebral cortex. However, our molecular understanding of the formation, function and diseases of these structures is still limited, mainly because genetic manipulations that can be applied to higher mammals are still poorly available. Results Here we developed and validated a rapid and efficient technique that enables genetic manipulations in the brain of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation. Transgene-expressing ferret babies were obtained within a few weeks after electroporation. GFP expression was detectable in the embryo and was observed at least 2?months after birth. Our technique was useful for expressing transgenes in both superficial and deep cortical neurons, and for examining the dendritic morphologies and axonal trajectories of GFP-expressing neurons in ferrets. Furthermore, multiple genes were efficiently co-expressed in the same neurons. Conclusion Our method promises to be a powerful tool for investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development, function and pathophysiology of brain structures which are unique to higher mammals.

Kawasaki Hiroshi; Iwai Lena; Tanno Kaori

2012-01-01

199

Rapid and efficient genetic manipulation of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Higher mammals such as primates and carnivores have highly developed unique brain structures such as the ocular dominance columns in the visual cortex, and the gyrus and outer subventricular zone of the cerebral cortex. However, our molecular understanding of the formation, function and diseases of these structures is still limited, mainly because genetic manipulations that can be applied to higher mammals are still poorly available. RESULTS: Here we developed and validated a rapid and efficient technique that enables genetic manipulations in the brain of gyrencephalic carnivores using in utero electroporation. Transgene-expressing ferret babies were obtained within a few weeks after electroporation. GFP expression was detectable in the embryo and was observed at least 2 months after birth. Our technique was useful for expressing transgenes in both superficial and deep cortical neurons, and for examining the dendritic morphologies and axonal trajectories of GFP-expressing neurons in ferrets. Furthermore, multiple genes were efficiently co-expressed in the same neurons. CONCLUSION: Our method promises to be a powerful tool for investigating the fundamental mechanisms underlying the development, function and pathophysiology of brain structures which are unique to higher mammals.

Kawasaki H; Iwai L; Tanno K

2012-01-01

200

Neurodevelopment of adopted children exposed in utero to cocaine: the Toronto Adoption Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Published studies of children's neurodevelopment after in utero exposure to cocaine have not separated intrauterine from postnatal environmental effects as cocaine-using mothers cluster in low socioeconomic classes and have other risk factors. METHODS: To overcome this limitation, a study was done to assess physical and neurodevelopmental characteristics of 52 children: 26 were adopted by parents who sought counselling in the Motherisk Program at the University of Toronto for prenatal cocaine exposure, and 26 were controls matched for maternal intelligence quotient (IQ), socioeconomic status and gestational age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Head circumference, McCarthy General Cognitive Index (GCI) score, language performance and temperament tests. RESULTS: The children in the study group had smaller head circumferences (34th versus 54th percentiles p = 0.009), lower McCarthy GCI scores (102.8 versus 114.2, p = 0.02), poorer receptive and expressive language performance on the Reynell test, and higher activity levels, less persistence and increased distractibility on temperament tests. On multivariate analysis, cocaine exposure was significantly (p = 0.001) associated with lower IQ and poorer language development independent of intrauterine growth retardation and other potential confounders. INTERPRETATION: By controlling for postnatal environmental factors, this adoption study documents intrauterine developmental risks associated with cocaine exposure. Follow-up into school years is warranted to evaluate the extent of these effects.

Nulman I; Rovet J; Greenbaum R; Loebstein M; Wolpin J; Pace-Asciak P; Koren G

2001-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Cellular therapies supplement: the peritoneum as an ectopic site of hematopoiesis following in utero transplantation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In utero transplantation (IUT) has the potential to treat birth defects early before full development of the immune system. Relatively small grafts, which are not matched for major histocompatibility antigens, can be delivered even before onset of disease symptoms. IUT of hematopoietic stem cells is usually performed via intraperitoneal injection, yet the fate of donor cells in the peritoneal cavity is not fully understood. We review our recent work and present new data demonstrating that the peritoneum can be a site of ectopic hematopoiesis with implications for IUT and immune tolerance induction. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Haplogeneic and allogeneic fetal transplants were performed in mice and engraftment tracked by flow cytometry. Immune tolerance was studied by mixed lymphocyte reactions and skin transplantation. Adult syngeneic murine transplants and xenogeneic human into immunodeficient mouse transplants were performed to follow hematopoietic retention in the peritoneum and engraftment of the marrow. RESULTS: Although most transplanted cells rapidly clear the peritoneum, hematopoietic cells and cells with the phenotype of hematopoietic precursors can remain in the peritoneal cavity for months after transplant. The presence of donor cells in the peritoneum can contribute to donor-specific tolerance, but sufficient peripheral blood chimerism is required to ensure acceptance of donor skin grafts. CONCLUSION: Ectopic hematopoiesis and the survival of stem cells in the peritoneum offer the possibility of better using the peritoneal cavity to delivery stem cells and foster the development of immune tolerance to alloantigens or other foreign antigens.

Muench MO; Chen JC; Beyer AI; Fomin ME

2011-11-01

202

Cellular Therapies Supplement: The peritoneum as an ectopic site of hematopoiesis following in utero transplantation  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND In utero transplantation (IUT) has the potential to treat birth defects early before full development of the immune system. Relatively small grafts, that are not matched for major histocompatibility antigens, can be delivered even before onset of disease symptoms. IUT of hematopoietic stem cells is usually performed via intraperitoneal injection, yet the fate of donor cells in the peritoneal cavity is not fully understood. We review our recent work and present new data demonstrating that the peritoneum can be a site of ectopic hematopoiesis with implications for IUT and immune tolerance induction. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Haplogeneic and allogeneic fetal transplants were performed in mice and engraftment tracked by flow cytometry. Immune tolerance was studied by mixed lymphocyte reactions and skin transplantation. Adult syngeneic murine transplants and xenogeneic human into immunodeficient-mouse transplants were performed to follow hematopoietic retention in the peritoneum and engraftment of the bone marrow. RESULTS Although most transplanted cells rapidly clear the peritoneum, hematopoietic cells and cells with the phenotype of hematopoietic precursors can remain in the peritoneal cavity for months after transplant. The presence of donor cells in the peritoneum can contribute to donor-specific tolerance but sufficient peripheral blood chimerism is required to ensure acceptance of donor skin grafts. CONCLUSION Ectopic hematopoiesis and the survival of stem cells in the peritoneum offers the possibility of better using the peritoneal cavity to delivery stem cells and foster the development of immune tolerance to alloantigens or other foreign antigens.

Muench, Marcus O.; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Beyer, Ashley I.; Fomin, Marina E.

2011-01-01

203

Fetal isolated prominent left brachiocepalic vein: in utero natural history and neonatal outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objectives of this series were to describe the prenatal sonographic findings of a fetal isolated prominent left brachiocephalic vein with its in utero natural history and neonatal outcome and to discuss the differential diagnosis, especially with a total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation. We reviewed all cases referred to 2 tertiary medical centers with the presenting finding of a prominent, upper thorax transverse vein entering the superior vena cava. The primary suspicion of a subjective dilated left brachiocephalic vein, as a part of a supracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation, was investigated by a systematic anatomic evaluation. After exclusion of other cardiac and structural anomalies, we followed the pregnancies and their outcomes. Eight cases were recruited during a 7 year period. The mean maternal age was 31 years, and the mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 17 weeks. In 7 cases, the dilatation was not evident during 6 weeks of follow up. In 1 case, the dilatation was evident until delivery at 39 weeks and was not apparent on postnatal echocardiography or spiral computed tomography. All neonates developed without any heart or other complications. We conclude that after exclusion other malformations, a prominent left brachiocephalic vein is a benign transient phenomenon that does not persist post-partum in the neonate.

Gilboa Y; Katorza E; Kivilevitch Z; Achiron R; Bronshtein M

2013-01-01

204

Fetal isolated prominent left brachiocepalic vein: in utero natural history and neonatal outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this series were to describe the prenatal sonographic findings of a fetal isolated prominent left brachiocephalic vein with its in utero natural history and neonatal outcome and to discuss the differential diagnosis, especially with a total or partial anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation. We reviewed all cases referred to 2 tertiary medical centers with the presenting finding of a prominent, upper thorax transverse vein entering the superior vena cava. The primary suspicion of a subjective dilated left brachiocephalic vein, as a part of a supracardiac anomalous pulmonary venous return malformation, was investigated by a systematic anatomic evaluation. After exclusion of other cardiac and structural anomalies, we followed the pregnancies and their outcomes. Eight cases were recruited during a 7 year period. The mean maternal age was 31 years, and the mean gestational age at the time of diagnosis was 17 weeks. In 7 cases, the dilatation was not evident during 6 weeks of follow up. In 1 case, the dilatation was evident until delivery at 39 weeks and was not apparent on postnatal echocardiography or spiral computed tomography. All neonates developed without any heart or other complications. We conclude that after exclusion other malformations, a prominent left brachiocephalic vein is a benign transient phenomenon that does not persist post-partum in the neonate. PMID:23269724

Gilboa, Yinon; Katorza, Eldad; Kivilevitch, Zvi; Achiron, Reuven; Bronshtein, Moshe

2013-01-01

205

Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detrimental effects of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure on neurodevelopment have been shown in animals. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between in utero and early postnatal OP exposure and neonatal neurobehavior in humans, as measured by seven clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). We assessed 381 infants 3 days old (n = 184). Among the >3 day old infants, increasing average prenatal urinary metabolite levels were associated with both an increase in number of abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted beta = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.82; dimethyls: adjusted beta = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.69; diethyls: adjusted beta = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.64), and the proportion of infants with more than three abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.5, 16.1; dimethyls: adjusted OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 9.8; diethyls: adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 9.9). No detrimental associations were found between postnatal urinary metabolite levels and any of the BNBAS clusters for infants 3 days old at assessment. Whether neonatal reflex functioning is predictive of neuropsychological functioning as the child matures will continue to be evaluated in this birth cohort. PMID:15713341

Young, Jessica G; Eskenazi, Brenda; Gladstone, Eleanor A; Bradman, Asa; Pedersen, Lesley; Johnson, Caroline; Barr, Dana B; Furlong, Clement E; Holland, Nina T

2005-03-01

206

Neoplastic and life-span effects of chronic exposure to tritium. II. Rats exposed in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A study was conducted to determine the effects on neoplasia incidence and life-span of exposure in utero to a major environmental radionuclide. Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) from conception through birth in doses of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 ?Ci HTO/ml body water. HTO administration was terminated at birth. Calculated cumulative doses during gestation were approximately 0, 6.6, 66, 330, and 660 rads of total body irradiation. Under these exposure conditions, the two highest doses resulted in sterile offspring. Animals surviving through 30 days postnatally were defined as the study population and observed until their deaths. Intrauterine exposures to doses up to 66 rads had no significant effects on either sex with respect to lifespan, overall neoplasia incidence, incidence rate, or onset of mammary fibroadenomas. Females exposed to 330 or 660 rads were sterile and had lower incidence rates of mammary fibroadenomas than did controls; at 660 rads females had a lower incidence of overall neoplasia and reduced mean lifespans. Sterile male offspring had reduced mean longevity after irradiation at 660 rads. Regardless of dose group, females had significantly higher incidences of neoplasia and longer life-spans than males

1975-01-01

207

Developmental consequences of in utero sodium arsenate exposure in mice with folate transport deficiencies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Previous studies have demonstrated that mice lacking a functional folate binding protein 2 gene (Folbp2-/-) were significantly more sensitive to in utero arsenic exposure than were the wild-type mice similarly exposed. When these mice were fed a folate-deficient diet, the embryotoxic effect of arsenate was further exacerbated. Contrary to expectations, studies on 24-h urinary speciation of sodium arsenate did not demonstrate any significant difference in arsenic biotransformation between Folbp2-/- and Folbp2+/+ mice. To better understand the influence of folate pathway genes on arsenic embryotoxicity, the present investigation utilized transgenic mice with disrupted folate binding protein 1 (Folbp1) and reduced folate carrier (RFC) genes. Because complete inactivation of Folbp1 and RFC genes results in embryonic lethality, we used heterozygous animals. Overall, no RFC genotype-related differences in embryonic susceptibility to arsenic exposure were observed. Embryonic lethality and neural tube defect (NTD) frequency in Folbp1 mice was dose-dependent and differed from the RFC mice; however, no genotype-related differences were observed. The RFC heterozygotes tended to have higher plasma levels of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) than did the wild-type controls, although this effect was not robust. It is concluded that genetic modifications at the Folbp1 and RFC loci confers no particular sensitivity to arsenic toxicity compared to wild-type controls, thus disproving the working hypothesis that decreased methylating capacity of the genetically modified mice would put them at increased risk for arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity

2005-02-15

208

In utero exposure to methylmercury and Se deficiency converge on the neurobehavioral outcome in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pregnant female ICR mice, maintained on torula-based diets containing various amounts of Se (0.02, 0.05, or 0.4 mg/kg diet), were given methyl-mercury (MeHg; 0, 5, or 9 mg Hg/kg in total) on the 12-14th days of gestation. The neurobehavioral function of the offspring born to these dams was evaluated with respect to reflex and motor development, thermal preference, and open-field activity. Se deficiency per se as well as exposure to MeHg exerted additive or synergistic effects on the neurobehavioral functions examined. The group of mice most affected was the group given the lowest amount of Se and the highest dose of MeHg. Thus, the neurobehavioral outcome of in utero MeHg exposure and Se deficiency converged. Although the dietary level of Se did not affect the Hg concentration in the fetal brain, the Se concentration and the activity of glutathione peroxidase, a selenoenzyme, were severely depressed by MeHg in the neural tissue. The possibility that functional Se deficiency by MeHg exposure partly accounts for the neurobehavioral toxicity of MeHg is discussed. PMID:10023805

Watanabe, C; Yin, K; Kasanuma, Y; Satoh, H

209

Induction of homologous recombination following in utero exposure to DNA-damaging agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Much of our understanding of homologous recombination, as well as the development of the working models for these processes, has been derived from extensive work in model organisms, such as yeast and fruit flies, and mammalian systems by studying the repair of induced double strand breaks or repair following exposure to genotoxic agents in vitro. We therefore set out to expand this in vitro work to ask whether DNA-damaging agents with varying modes of action could induce somatic change in an in vivo mouse model of homologous recombination. We exposed pregnant dams to DNA-damaging agents, conferring a variety of lesions at a specific time in embryo development. To monitor homologous recombination frequency, we used the well-established retinal pigment epithelium pink-eyed unstable assay. Homologous recombination resulting in the deletion of a duplicated 70kb fragment in the coding region of the Oca2 gene renders this gene functional and can be visualized as a pigmented eyespot in the retinal pigment epithelium. We observed an increased frequency of pigmented eyespots in resultant litters following exposure to cisplatin, methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, 3-aminobenzamide, bleomycin, and etoposide with a contrasting decrease in the frequency of detectable reversion events following camptothecin and hydroxyurea exposure. The somatic genomic rearrangements that result from such a wide variety of differently acting damaging agents implies long-term potential effects from even short-term in utero exposures.

Karia B; Martinez JA; Bishop AJ

2013-09-01

210

Socratic Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Tony R. Kuphaldt, this web site from the Open Book Project provides educational resources for learning and teaching electronics. It is promotes student discussion and individual research. The web site contains essays that describe this style of teaching, a collection of worksheets for teachers to use to stimulate student discussion and research about electronics, and a link to animations that help describe dynamic processes in electric and electronic circuits.

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-08-07

211

Selective and regulated gene expression in murine Purkinje cells by in utero electroporation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cerebellar Purkinje cells, which convey the only output from the cerebellar cortex, play an essential role in cerebellar functions, such as motor coordination and motor learning. To understand how Purkinje cells develop and function in the mature cerebellum, an efficient method for molecularly perturbing them is needed. Here we demonstrate that Purkinje cell progenitors at embryonic day (E)11.5 could be efficiently and preferentially transfected by spatially directed in utero electroporation (IUE) with an optimized arrangement of electrodes. Electrophysiological analyses indicated that the electroporated Purkinje cells maintained normal membrane properties, synaptic responses and synaptic plasticity at postnatal days 25-28. By combining the L7 promoter and inducible Cre/loxP system with IUE, transgenes were expressed even more specifically in Purkinje cells and in a temporally controlled manner. We also show that three different fluorescent proteins could be simultaneously expressed, and that Bassoon, a large synaptic protein, could be expressed in the electroporated Purkinje cells. Moreover, phenotypes of staggerer mutant mice, which have a deletion in the gene encoding retinoid-related orphan receptor ? (ROR?1), were recapitulated by electroporating a dominant-negative form of ROR?1 into Purkinje cells at E11.5. Together, these results indicate that this new IUE protocol, which allows the selective, effective and temporally regulated expression of multiple foreign genes transfected into Purkinje cell progenitors in vivo, without changing the cells' physiological characteristics, is a powerful tool for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying early Purkinje cell developmental events, such as dendritogenesis and migration, and synaptic plasticity in mature Purkinje cells.

Nishiyama J; Hayashi Y; Nomura T; Miura E; Kakegawa W; Yuzaki M

2012-10-01

212

Placental mitochondrial DNA content and particulate air pollution during in utero life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Studies emphasize the importance of particulate matter (PM) in the formation of reactive oxygen species and inflammation. We hypothesized that these processes can influence mitochondrial function of the placenta and fetus. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of PM?? exposure during pregnancy on the mitochondrial DNA content (mtDNA content) of the placenta and umbilical cord blood. METHODS: DNA was extracted from placental tissue (n = 174) and umbilical cord leukocytes (n = 176). Relative mtDNA copy numbers (i.e., mtDNA content) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multiple regression models were used to link mtDNA content and in utero exposure to PM?? over various time windows during pregnancy. RESULTS: In multivariate-adjusted analysis, a 10-µg/m³ increase in PM?? exposure during the last month of pregnancy was associated with a 16.1% decrease [95% confidence interval (CI): -25.2, -6.0%, p = 0.003] in placental mtDNA content. The corresponding effect size for average PM?? exposure during the third trimester was 17.4% (95% CI: -31.8, -0.1%, p = 0.05). Furthermore, we found that each doubling in residential distance to major roads was associated with an increase in placental mtDNA content of 4.0% (95% CI: 0.4, 7.8%, p = 0.03). No association was found between cord blood mtDNA content and PM?? exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PM?? exposure was associated with placental mitochondrial alterations, which may both reflect and intensify oxidative stress production. The potential health consequences of decreased placental mtDNA content in early life must be further elucidated.

Janssen BG; Munters E; Pieters N; Smeets K; Cox B; Cuypers A; Fierens F; Penders J; Vangronsveld J; Gyselaers W; Nawrot TS

2012-09-01

213

In utero copper treatment for Menkes disease associated with a severe ATP7A mutation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Early postnatal treatment with copper injections often improves clinical outcomes in affected infants. While Menkes disease newborns appear normal neurologically, analyses of fetal tissues including placenta indicate abnormal copper distribution and suggest a prenatal onset of the metal transport defect. In an affected fetus whose parents found termination unacceptable and who understood the associated risks, we began in utero copper histidine treatment at 31.5 weeks gestational age. Copper histidine (900 ?g per dose) was administered directly to the fetus by intramuscular injection (fetal quadriceps or gluteus) under ultrasound guidance. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling enabled serial measurement of fetal copper and ceruloplasmin levels that were used to guide therapy over a four-week period. Fetal copper levels rose from 17 ?g/dL prior to treatment to 45 ?g/dL, and ceruloplasmin levels from 39 mg/L to 122 mg/L. After pulmonary maturity was confirmed biochemically, the baby was delivered at 35.5 weeks and daily copper histidine therapy (250 ?g sc b.i.d.) was begun. Despite this very early intervention with copper, the infant showed hypotonia, developmental delay, and electroencephalographic abnormalities and died of respiratory failure at 5.5 months of age. The patient's ATP7A mutation (Q724H), which severely disrupted mRNA splicing, resulted in complete absence of ATP7A protein on Western blots. These investigations suggest that prenatally initiated copper replacement is inadequate to correct Menkes disease caused by severe loss-of-function mutations, and that postnatal ATP7A gene addition represents a rational approach in such circumstances. PMID:22695177

Haddad, Marie Reine; Macri, Charles J; Holmes, Courtney S; Goldstein, David S; Jacobson, Beryl E; Centeno, Jose A; Popek, Edwina J; Gahl, Willam A; Kaler, Stephen G

2012-05-18

214

In utero copper treatment for Menkes disease associated with a severe ATP7A mutation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Menkes disease is a lethal X-linked recessive neurodegenerative disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in ATP7A, which encodes a copper-transporting ATPase. Early postnatal treatment with copper injections often improves clinical outcomes in affected infants. While Menkes disease newborns appear normal neurologically, analyses of fetal tissues including placenta indicate abnormal copper distribution and suggest a prenatal onset of the metal transport defect. In an affected fetus whose parents found termination unacceptable and who understood the associated risks, we began in utero copper histidine treatment at 31.5 weeks gestational age. Copper histidine (900 ?g per dose) was administered directly to the fetus by intramuscular injection (fetal quadriceps or gluteus) under ultrasound guidance. Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling enabled serial measurement of fetal copper and ceruloplasmin levels that were used to guide therapy over a four-week period. Fetal copper levels rose from 17 ?g/dL prior to treatment to 45 ?g/dL, and ceruloplasmin levels from 39 mg/L to 122 mg/L. After pulmonary maturity was confirmed biochemically, the baby was delivered at 35.5 weeks and daily copper histidine therapy (250 ?g sc b.i.d.) was begun. Despite this very early intervention with copper, the infant showed hypotonia, developmental delay, and electroencephalographic abnormalities and died of respiratory failure at 5.5 months of age. The patient's ATP7A mutation (Q724H), which severely disrupted mRNA splicing, resulted in complete absence of ATP7A protein on Western blots. These investigations suggest that prenatally initiated copper replacement is inadequate to correct Menkes disease caused by severe loss-of-function mutations, and that postnatal ATP7A gene addition represents a rational approach in such circumstances.

Haddad MR; Macri CJ; Holmes CS; Goldstein DS; Jacobson BE; Centeno JA; Popek EJ; Gahl WA; Kaler SG

2012-09-01

215

Perinatal management of congenital oropharyngeal tumors: The ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To present our experience in the perinatal management of fetuses with large oropharyngeal tumors by ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT). METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with congenital oropharyngeal tumor who underwent an EXIT procedure between May 2006 and June 2012. RESULTS: Four patients were included in the series, three females and one male. The diagnoses were epignathus (n=2) and congenital epulis (n=2). Three EXITs were done at term and one at late preterm due to premature rupture of membranes. Median maternal time under anesthesia was 185min (range: 166-281) and median maternal operative time was 99min (range: 85-153). Median maternal blood loss was 550ml (range: 350-2000); one mother required a blood transfusion. Mean maternal hospital stay was 4days. Median hysterotomy-to-cord clamp time was 24min (range: 18-66). Mean fetal birth weight was 2.7kg (range: 2.4-3). The airway was successfully accessed and secured under placental circulation in all cases. In the two patients with congenital epulis the tumors were resected at the base of their pedicles and the airway accessed via direct laryngoscopy before the umbilical cord was clamped. One patient with epignathus underwent a retrograde tracheal intubation under placental circulation and had the tumor resected thereafter. The second patient with epignathus had a tracheostomy done under placental circulation and then had tumor debulking immediately after the EXIT. The maternal morbidity was minimal and there were no mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the EXIT procedure is the ideal delivery strategy for fetuses with prenatally diagnosed oropharyngeal tumors and potential airway obstruction at birth. Patients with prenatally diagnosed oropharyngeal tumors should be promptly referred to a fetal treatment center with a dedicated multidisciplinary team and EXIT capabilities.

Laje P; Howell LJ; Johnson MP; Hedrick HL; Flake AW; Adzick NS

2013-10-01

216

Effect of in utero wi-fi exposure on the pre- and postnatal development of rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The increase in exposure to the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) wireless communication signal has raised public health concerns especially for young people. Animal studies looking at the effects of early life and prenatal exposure to this source of electromagnetic fields, in the radiofrequency (RF) range, on development and behavior have been considered as high priority research needs by the World Health Organization. METHODS: For the first time, our study assessed the effects of in utero exposure to a 2450 MHz Wi-Fi signal (2 hr/day, 6 days/week for 18 days) on pregnant rats and their pups. Three levels in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate were used: 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg. The prenatal study on fetuses delivered by caesarean (P20) concerned five females/group. The dams and their offspring were observed for 28 days after delivery (15 females/group). RESULTS: For all test conditions, no abnormalities were noted in the pregnant rats and no significant signs of toxicity were observed in the pre- and postnatal development of the pups, even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, no teratogenic effect of repeated exposures to the Wi-Fi wireless communication signal was demonstrated even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. The results from this screening study aimed at investigating Wi-Fi effects, strengthen the previous conclusions that teratology and development studies have not detected any noxious effects of exposures to mobile telephony-related RF fields at exposure levels below standard limits.

Poulletier de Gannes F; Haro E; Hurtier A; Taxile M; Athane A; Ait-Aissa S; Masuda H; Percherncier Y; Ruffié G; Billaudel B; Dufour P; Veyret B; Lagroye I

2012-04-01

217

Neutron irradiation of late mouse embryos (15-19 days) in utero  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant female C57B1/6 mice were irradiated with a single whole-body dose of 0.5 Gy neutrons. The F1 hybrid embryos were exposed to the neutrons in utero on Day 17+/-2 of gestation. 178/439 (40.6%) of the irradiated fetuses and 26/217 (12%) of the control mice died within 2 weeks after birth. In both irradiated and control mice, most deaths (95 and 77%, respectively) occurred within 3 days of birth: most animals in both groups died on Day 2. There was no significant difference in the number of living young born per litter (7.2) between the neutron-irradiated mothers and their unirradiated controls. The irradiated mice weighed significantly less than their controls. Several organs were weighed at regular intervals in both irradiated and control mice. Spleens and thymus glands showed no significant differences between the two groups. The livers and kidneys of the irradiated mice weighed slightly less than their controls. The brain weight of 21-day-old neutron-irradiated mice was 30-35% less than control brains. Histological analysis of the central nervous system showed pycnotic nuclei, inhibition of mitosis in neuroblasts, and cell death in the irradiated brains. The weight reduction of the brain was not due to water loss. The hypothesis is that the early mortality after birth is related to the killing of the radiation-sensitive neuroblasts. When newborn mice (1-7 days old) were irradiated in vivo with the same neutron dose of 0.5 Gy, neither the reduction in brain weight nor the early mortality was observed

1984-01-01

218

Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid), chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphoro-thioate], and parathion (4-nitrophenol) in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy. We also measured levels of cholinesterase in whole blood and butyryl cholinesterase in plasma in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We failed to demonstrate an adverse relationship between fetal growth and any measure of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure. In fact, we found increases in body length and head circumference associated with some exposure measures. However, we did find decreases in gestational duration associated with two measures of in utero pesticide exposure: urinary dimethyl phosphate metabolites [beta(adjusted) = -0.41 weeks per log10 unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.75 -- -0.02; p = 0.02], which reflect exposure to dimethyl organophosphate compounds such as malathion, and umbilical cord cholinesterase (beta(adjusted) = 0.34 weeks per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.13-0.55; p = 0.001). Shortened gestational duration was most clearly related to increasing exposure levels in the latter part of pregnancy. These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus. However, despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population (6.4%) was lower than in a U.S. reference population.

Eskenazi B; Harley K; Bradman A; Weltzien E; Jewell NP; Barr DB; Furlong CE; Holland NT

2004-07-01

219

Association of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and fetal growth and length of gestation in an agricultural population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although pesticide use is widespread, little is known about potential adverse health effects of in utero exposure. We investigated the effects of organophosphate pesticide exposure during pregnancy on fetal growth and gestational duration in a cohort of low-income, Latina women living in an agricultural community in the Salinas Valley, California. We measured nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates) and metabolites specific to malathion (malathion dicarboxylic acid), chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphoro-thioate], and parathion (4-nitrophenol) in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy. We also measured levels of cholinesterase in whole blood and butyryl cholinesterase in plasma in maternal and umbilical cord blood. We failed to demonstrate an adverse relationship between fetal growth and any measure of in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure. In fact, we found increases in body length and head circumference associated with some exposure measures. However, we did find decreases in gestational duration associated with two measures of in utero pesticide exposure: urinary dimethyl phosphate metabolites [beta(adjusted) = -0.41 weeks per log10 unit increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.75 -- -0.02; p = 0.02], which reflect exposure to dimethyl organophosphate compounds such as malathion, and umbilical cord cholinesterase (beta(adjusted) = 0.34 weeks per unit increase; 95% CI, 0.13-0.55; p = 0.001). Shortened gestational duration was most clearly related to increasing exposure levels in the latter part of pregnancy. These associations with gestational age may be biologically plausible given that organophosphate pesticides depress cholinesterase and acetylcholine stimulates contraction of the uterus. However, despite these observed associations, the rate of preterm delivery in this population (6.4%) was lower than in a U.S. reference population. PMID:15238287

Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Weltzien, Erin; Jewell, Nicholas P; Barr, Dana B; Furlong, Clement E; Holland, Nina T

2004-07-01

220

Sex-specific epigenetic disruption and behavioral changes following low-dose in utero bisphenol A exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic endocrine disruptor widely used in the production of plastics. Increasing evidence indicates that in utero BPA exposure affects sexual differentiation and behavior; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are unknown. We hypothesized that BPA may disrupt epigenetic programming of gene expression in the brain. Here, we provide evidence that maternal exposure during pregnancy to environmentally relevant doses of BPA (2, 20, and 200 µg/kg/d) in mice induces sex-specific, dose-dependent (linear and curvilinear), and brain region-specific changes in expression of genes encoding estrogen receptors (ERs; ER? and ER?) and estrogen-related receptor-? in juvenile offspring. Concomitantly, BPA altered mRNA levels of epigenetic regulators DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 1 and DNMT3A in the juvenile cortex and hypothalamus, paralleling changes in estrogen-related receptors. Importantly, changes in ER? and DNMT expression in the cortex (males) and hypothalamus (females) were associated with DNA methylation changes in the ER? gene. BPA exposure induced persistent, largely sex-specific effects on social and anxiety-like behavior, leading to disruption of sexually dimorphic behaviors. Although postnatal maternal care was altered in mothers treated with BPA during pregnancy, the effects of in utero BPA were not found to be mediated by maternal care. However, our data suggest that increased maternal care may partially attenuate the effects of in utero BPA on DNA methylation. Overall, we demonstrate that low-dose prenatal BPA exposure induces lasting epigenetic disruption in the brain that possibly underlie enduring effects of BPA on brain function and behavior, especially regarding sexually dimorphic phenotypes.

Kundakovic, Marija; Gudsnuk, Kathryn; Franks, Becca; Madrid, Jesus; Miller, Rachel L.; Perera, Frederica P.; Champagne, Frances A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Early diagnosis of in utero and intrapartum HIV infection in infants prior to 6 weeks of age.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-related infant mortality. The early peak of pediatric HIV-related deaths in South Africa occurs at 3 months of age, coinciding with the earliest age at which treatment is initiated following PCR testing at 6 weeks of age. Earlier diagnosis is necessary to reduce infant mortality. The performances of the Amplicor DNA PCR, COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM), and Aptima assays for detecting early HIV infection (acquired in utero and intrapartum) up to 6 weeks of age were compared. Dried blood spots (DBS) were collected at birth and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks from HIV-exposed infants enrolled in an observational cohort study in Johannesburg, South Africa. HIV status was determined at 6 weeks by DNA PCR on whole blood. Serial DBS samples from all HIV-infected infants and two HIV-uninfected, age-matched controls were tested with the 3 assays. Of 710 infants of known HIV status, 38 (5.4%) had in utero (n = 29) or intrapartum (n = 9) infections. By 14 weeks, when treatment should have been initiated, 13 (45%) in utero-infected and 2 (22%) intrapartum-infected infants had died or were lost to follow-up. The CAP/CTM and Aptima assays identified 76.3% of all infants with early HIV infections at birth and by 4 weeks were 96% sensitive. DNA PCR demonstrated lower sensitivities at birth and 4 weeks of 68.4% and 87.5%, respectively. All assays had the lowest sensitivity at 2 weeks of age. CAP/CTM was the only assay with 100% specificity at all ages. Testing at birth versus 6 weeks of age identifies a higher total number of HIV-infected infants, irrespective of the assay.

Lilian RR; Kalk E; Bhowan K; Berrie L; Carmona S; Technau K; Sherman GG

2012-07-01

222

The study of structural mutations in somatic cells of children living on radioactive contaminated areas of Kaluga district and exposed in utero as a result of Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The children in the number of 149 exposed in utero as a result of Chernobyl accident were examined in the course of long-term cytogenetic monitoring of Kaluga district of Russia carried out during 14 years. It was found that the frequency of dicentrics and centric rings - marker aberrations of radiation exposure - was higher than control level in 4-5 times. By means of FISH-method it was shown occurrence of stable chromosomal adjustments in 87% of exposed in utero children. (authors)

2005-01-01

223

Association between in utero organophosphate pesticide exposure and abnormal reflexes in neonates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The detrimental effects of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure on neurodevelopment have been shown in animals. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between in utero and early postnatal OP exposure and neonatal neurobehavior in humans, as measured by seven clusters (habituation, orientation, motor performance, range of state, regulation of state, autonomic stability, and reflex) on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS). We assessed 381 infants < or = 2 months old and born to women participating in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a longitudinal, birth cohort study of low-income, Latina women living in the agricultural community of the Salinas Valley, California. Exposure to OP pesticides was determined by urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites, including dimethyl and diethylphosphate metabolites, measured twice during pregnancy (M = 14 and 26 weeks gestation) and once post-delivery (M = 7 days postpartum). The relationship between exposure and BNBAS performance was examined for the entire sample and stratified by the median age at assessment, 3 days. We observed a significant association between exposure and the reflex cluster for the entire sample and for infants >3 days old (n = 184). Among the >3 day old infants, increasing average prenatal urinary metabolite levels were associated with both an increase in number of abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted beta = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.82; dimethyls: adjusted beta = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.69; diethyls: adjusted beta = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.09, 0.64), and the proportion of infants with more than three abnormal reflexes (total DAP: adjusted OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 1.5, 16.1; dimethyls: adjusted OR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 9.8; diethyls: adjusted OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 9.9). No detrimental associations were found between postnatal urinary metabolite levels and any of the BNBAS clusters for infants < or = 3 or >3 days old at assessment. Whether neonatal reflex functioning is predictive of neuropsychological functioning as the child matures will continue to be evaluated in this birth cohort.

Young JG; Eskenazi B; Gladstone EA; Bradman A; Pedersen L; Johnson C; Barr DB; Furlong CE; Holland NT

2005-03-01

224

Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the cevix without in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix (CCAC) is usually seen in women with a history of in utero exposure to diethyl acetyl bestrol (DES). We report two cases of clear cell adenocarcinoma of cervix with no history of exposure to DES in embryonic period. "n"nCase presentation: The first case was a 14-year-old women with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. There was atypical cells in Pap Smear and a bleeding tumor with 1.5 cm in diameter was found in vagina. She was admitted with a diagnosis of CCAC of the uterine cervix stage Ib2 according to FIGO classification."n"n The second case was a 23-year-old patient with complaint of painless vaginal bleeding. The results of cervical cytology was normal. Evaluation of the punch biopsy sample revealed CCAC. Her clinical exam showed stage IIb according to FIGO classification.  Both patients had no history of exposure to DES during embryonic period. The first patient treated with radical abdominal hysterectomy and systematic pelvic lymphadenectomy and for the another one external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy was performed. There was no any recurrence or metastasis after an 18-24 months follow-up"n"nConclusions: Primary clear cell carcinoma of cervix could be unrelated to HPV infection or exposure to DES during embryonic period and in approach to these patients this subject should be considered.

Mousavi A; Akhavan S

2010-01-01

225

Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and the risk of stillbirth and death in the first year of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors examined the association between exposure to tobacco smoke in utero and the risk of stillbirth and infant death in a cohort of 25,102 singleton children of pregnant women scheduled to deliver at Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, from September 1989 to August 1996. Exposure to tobacco smoke in utero was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.9), and infant mortality was almost doubled in children born to women who had smoked during pregnancy compared with children of nonsmokers (odds ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.6). Among children of women who stopped smoking during the first trimester, stillbirth and infant mortality was comparable with that in children of women who had been nonsmokers from the beginning of pregnancy. Conclusions were not changed after adjustment in a logistic regression model for the sex of the child; parity; or maternal age, height, weight, marital status, years of education, occupational status, and alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy. Approximately 25% of all stillbirths and 20% of all infant deaths in a population with 30% pregnant smokers could be avoided if all pregnant smokers stopped smoking by the sixteenth week of gestation.

Wisborg K; Kesmodel U; Henriksen TB; Olsen SF; Secher NJ

2001-08-01

226

Latent Iron Deficiency In Utero Is Associated with Abnormal Auditory Neural Myelination in ?35 Weeks Gestational Age Infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cord serum ferritin level is associated with auditory brainstem evoked response interpeak latencies, an index of auditory neural myelination, in infants at ?35 weeks gestational age (GA). STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study compared auditory neural myelination in infants with latent iron deficiency (cord serum ferritin, 11-75 ng/mL) and infants with normal iron status (cord serum ferritin, >75 ng/mL) at birth. Our inclusion criteria were infants born at ?35 weeks GA who had cord blood collected soon after birth and had 1 or more of the following risk factors for poor in utero iron status: maternal diabetes mellitus, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and intrauterine growth restriction. Cord serum ferritin level was measured using the chemiluminescence immunoassay method. Auditory brainstem evoked response was measured using 80-dB normal hearing level click stimuli at a rate of 69.9/second within 48 hours after birth to evaluate interpeak latencies, a measure of nerve conduction velocity or myelination. RESULTS: Of the 45 infants studied, 12 had latent iron deficiency. On repeated-measures ANCOVA using interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V as multiple outcomes, infants with latent iron deficiency had significantly prolonged interpeak latencies (P = .01) compared with infants with normal iron status after controlling for confounders. CONCLUSION: In utero latent iron deficiency is associated with abnormal auditory neural myelination at birth in infants born at ?35 weeks GA.

Amin SB; Orlando M; Wang H

2013-08-01

227

High-Throughput, High-Frequency 3-D Ultrasound for in Utero Analysis of Embryonic Mouse Brain Development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

With the emergence of the mouse as the predominant model system for studying mammalian brain development, in utero imaging methods are urgently required to analyze the dynamics of brain growth and patterning in mouse embryos. To address this need, we combined synthetic focusing with a high-frequency (38-MHz) annular-array ultrasound imaging system for extended depth-of-field, coded excitation for improved penetration and respiratory-gated transmit/receive. This combination allowed non-invasive in utero acquisition of motion-free 3-D data from individual embryos in approximately 2 min, and data from four or more embryos in a pregnant mouse in less than 30 min. Data were acquired from 148 embryos spanning 5 d of early to mid-gestational stages of brain development. The results indicated that brain anatomy and cerebral vasculature can be imaged with this system and that quantitative analyses of segmented cerebral ventricles can be used to characterize volumetric changes associated with mouse brain development.

Aristizábal O; Mamou J; Ketterling JA; Turnbull DH

2013-09-01

228

Ten-year observations on health status of Children irradiated in utero as a result of the Chernobyl accident  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The health status dynamics of 1104 children exposed to radiation in utero was estimated after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. The thyroid doses ranged from 0.00 to 3340.00 mg y, and total body doses from 1.00 to 376.00 mZv. The decrease in child adaptation capacity was observed with general somatic pathology and higher incidence of thyroid haemoglobin levels were rare in children irradiated in utero. The leucopenias with blood cells ultrastructure surficial architectonics alterations were more frequent. The metabolism of hemopoietic elements during early, post-accident years was peculiar with energy production activation through all paths of energy reception. During further years, all the intracellular enzymes activity decreased. energy depots exhaustion accompanied with ultrastructural changes, neutrophyles functional capacity and specific functions depression were revealed. The PC analysis of data obtained enabled to determine the presence of interconnection between some body systems disorders, radiation effects phenomenon and health status as a whole, and to reveal the further deterioration risk level. 5 figs., 3 tabs

1996-01-01

229

[Fetal therapy in utero by blockage of the umbilical blood flow of acardiac monster in twin pregnancy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied a life-saving method for the unaffected twin in two recent patients who had acardiac monster in twin pregnancy. We succeeded in blocking the umbilical blood flow of the acardiac monster in utero as radical treatment for this abnormality in one of the patients. In case 1, tocolysis and amniocentesis with puncture to the cyst of the acardiac monster were performed to prevent premature labor. However, the patient underwent premature labor at 27 weeks of gestation, and the newborn died. In case 2, fetal treatment was given: A steel coil was placed in the umbilical cord close to the abdominal wall of the acardiac monster under ultrasonographic guidance at 23 weeks of gestation to block blood flow. As a result, no enlargement of the acardiac monster was observed, and the cardiac function of the unaffected fetus improved. At 38 weeks of gestation, the patient delivered a normal baby weighing 2,237g and an acardiac monster weighing 110g. There were no complications in either the mother or newborn. There has been no report describing blockage of the umbilical blood flow of an acardiac monster in utero. Our method is considered efficient and less risky to the mother and the unaffected twin.

Hamada H; Okane M; Koresawa M; Kubo T; Iwasaki H

1989-11-01

230

Genotoxic signature in cord blood cells of newborns exposed in utero to a Zidovudine-based antiretroviral combination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The genotoxicity of zidovudine has been established in experimental models. The objective of the study was to identify genotoxicity markers in cord blood cells from newborns exposed in utero to antiretroviral (ARV) combinations containing zidovudine. METHODS: Cells were investigated by karyotyping and gene expression analysis of the CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HPC) compartment. RESULTS: Karyotyping of the cord blood cells from 15 ARV-exposed newborns and 12 controls revealed a higher proportion of aneuploid cells in the exposed group (median, 18.8% [interquartile range, 10.0%-26.7%] vs 6.6% [interquartile range, 3.1%-11.7%]; P < .001). All chromosomes were involved, with a random distribution of these alterations. Gene expression profiling of CD34(+) HPCs from 7 ARV-exposed and 6 control newborns revealed that >300 genes were significantly upregulated or downregulated by at least 1.5-fold in the exposed group (P < .05 for all comparisons). Significant alterations of genes involved in cell cycle control, mitotic checkpoints, and DNA repair were identified. Although this study does not allow discrimination between the roles of each of the 3 drugs, both cytogenetic and transcriptional findings are similar to those in cellular experiments that used zidovudine alone. CONCLUSIONS: The cord blood cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, from newborns exposed in utero to a zidovudine-based ARV combination present cytogenetic and transcriptional abnormalities compatible with DNA damage.

André-Schmutz I; Dal-Cortivo L; Six E; Kaltenbach S; Cocchiarella F; Le Chenadec J; Cagnard N; Cordier AG; Benachi A; Mandelbrot L; Azria E; Bouallag N; Luce S; Ternaux B; Reimann C; Revy P; Radford-Weiss I; Leschi C; Recchia A; Mavilio F; Cavazzana M; Blanche S

2013-07-01

231

Relationship of five anthropometric measurements at age 18 to radiation dose among atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Five body measurements-standing height, body weight, sitting height, chest circumference and intercristal diameter-of 18-year-old atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed in relation to DS86 uterine dose. Age in utero was divided into four periods: 0-7, 8-15, 16-25 and [>=]26 weeks. This categorization is based upon the study of radiation-induced brain damage. The linear regression analyses for these five variables showed significant decreases with increasing dose. The regression coefficients were -2.65 cm/Gy for standing height, -2.46 kg/Gy for body weight, -0.92 cm/Gy for sitting height, -1.37 cm/Gy for chest circumference and -0.32 cm/Gy for intercristal diameter. The multivariate test statistic for the overall dose effect on five body measurements was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. Principal-component analysis was applied to the five variables. For the first-component scores, the dose effect was significant, but the interaction between dose and gestational period was not significant. For the second-component scores, the dose effect was significant specifically at 0.7 weeks. The radiation dose effect on the second principal component found at 0-7 weeks of gestation suggests that malformation occur in this period. 17 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Nakashima, Eiji (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku (Japan))

1994-04-01

232

Postnatal development and reproductive performance of F1 progeny exposed in utero to an ayurvedic contraceptive: Pippaliyadi yoga.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pippaliyadi yoga or pippaliyadi vati is an ayurvedic contraceptive used in India since ancient times. It is a combination of powdered fruit berries of Embelia ribes Burm.f. (Myrsinaceae), Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and borax in equal proportion. Though the contraceptive potential is known since ancient times, no systematic developmental toxicity studies have been carried out. The present study was carried out to evaluate the postnatal developmental toxicity and the reproductive performance of the progeny exposed in utero to pippaliyadi. Pippaliyadi yoga was obtained from National Institute for Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), India and the developmental toxicity was studied by administering three doses, viz. 140, 300 and 700 mg/(kg day) to gravid females from day 6 to day 16 of gestation. Pippaliyadi did not have any adverse developmental effects with low doses, however, with the five times higher dose, a decrease in body weight of the pups was observed. The reproductive performance of the progeny born to mothers treated with pippaliyadi was not significantly affected. The present study suggests that in utero exposure to pippaliyadi does not have any adverse effect on the postnatal development and reproductive performance of the F(1) progeny. PMID:17088035

Balasinor, Nafisa; Bhan, Ashima; Paradkar, Niraja S; Shaikh, Arifa; Nandedkar, Tarala D; Bhutani, K K; Roy-Chaudhury, Mandakini

2006-08-15

233

Effects of in utero or suckling exposure to cerium (citrate) on the postnatal developmental of the mouse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gravid female mice received either a single subcutaneous dose of cerium citrate (80 mg Ce/kg) or an equivalent (in citrate) dose of sodium citrate on day 7 or 12 of gestation or on day 2 postpartum. To separate effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure, a cross-fostering design was employed. The weight and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on day 8 or 13 postpartum. Open-field behavioral parameters, accelerating rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning were assessed on day 60-65 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrival latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Maternal offspring retrieval latency was measured on day 3 postpartum. Analyses revealed that neonatal weight was reduced both in offspring exposed to Ce in utero and in the offspring of mothers receiving Ce during lactation/suckling. Ce also appeared to affect maternal/offspring interaction: pups exposed prenatally to Ce were retrieved in less time than control pups. Except for an increased frequency of rearings in the open field of adult offspring exposed to Ce in utero, Ce exposure had no apparent effect on behavioral parameters, either in neonatal or adult offspring.

D' Agostino, R.B. (State of Univ. of New York, Buffalo); Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Massaro, E.J.

1982-09-01

234

Fetal Phthalate Screen: Assessment of Several Phthalate Esters (PE) on Fetal Rodent Testosterone (T) Production and Gene Expressionfollowing In Utero Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

PE are a large family of compounds used in a wide array of products from medical tubing to pharmaceuticals to cables. Studies have shown that in utero treatment with PE such as diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) during the critical period of fetal reproductive development produced ma...

235

Repetitive exposure of mice to strong static magnetic fields in utero does not impair fertility in adulthood but may affect placental weight of offspring.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: Repetitive in utero exposure to strong static magnetic fields does not impair fertility but may have a parental-dependent effect on fetal programming with regard to placental development and fetal growth.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zaun G; Zahedi Y; Maderwald S; Orzada S; Pütter C; Scherag A; Winterhager E; Ladd ME; Grümmer R

2013-10-01

236

Neurological deficit among the survivors exposed in utero to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: A reassessment and new directions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An extensive epidemiological and experimental literature records the deleterious effects on the embryonic and fetal central nervous system of exposure to ionizing radiation; much of the human evidence stems from studies of the in utero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (orig./MG).

1986-01-01

237

In utero exposure to dietheylhexyl phthalate differentially affects fetal testosterone and insl3 levels in the testes of male Sprague Dawley and Wistar rats: A dose response study  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that 750 mg/kg/day of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) administered in utero during the period of sex differentiation resulted in a higher prevalence of gubernacular lesions in male Wistar offspring than in the male Sprague Dawley (SD) rat offspring, whereas D...

238

The Fetal Cleft Palate: IV. Midfacial Growth and Bony Palatal Development following In Utero and Neonatal Repair of the Congenital Caprine Model  

Science.gov (United States)

A Spanish goat model was developed to ascertain the mechanism of action of lupine-induced “crooked calf disease”. This goat model is now being used to study new treatments and improved intervention in the treatment of cleft palate in children. We previously demonstrated that in utero palatoplasty...

239

NORMAL MAMMARY GLAND MORPHOLOGY IN PUBERTAL FEMALE MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO AND LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO GENISTEIN AT LEVELS COMPARABLE TO HUMAN DIETARY EXPOSURE. (R827402)  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbest...

240

Water resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Describes aspects of water resource systems and the human agencies that affect them. Defines the basics of successful resource management, addresses problems that confront water resource managers, and identifies a range of solutions for more efficient and equitable resource control and use. Covers quality of water supply, flood control, hydroelectric power, national and regional water authorities, and international aspects, with details of problems, technologies, and strategies. Includes examples of both good and bad resource management. Illustrated.

McDonald, A.; Kay, D.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Utero-placental expression of angiotensin-(1-7) and ACE2 in the pregnant guinea-pig.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In humans, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental development are critical to determine the fate of pregnancy. Since guinea-pigs (GP) and humans share common pregnancy features including extensive trophoblast invasion, transformation of the uterine spiral arteries and a haemomonochorial placenta, the GP animal model was deemed suitable to extend our knowledge on the spatio-temporal immunoreactive expression of the vasodilator arpeptide of the renin-angiotensin system, angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and its main generating enzyme, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). METHODS: Utero-placental units were collected in days 15, 20, 40 and 60 of a 64-67 day long pregnancy in 25 Pirbright GP. Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 expression in utero-placental units were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 were detected in the endothelium and syncytiotrophoblast of the labyrinthine placenta, interlobium, subplacenta, giant cells, syncytial sprouts, syncytial streamers, and myometrium throughout pregnancy. In late pregnancy, perivascular or intramural trophoblasts in spiral and mesometrial arteries expressed both factors. Immunoreactive Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 were present in decidua and in the vascular smooth muscle of spiral, myometrial and mesometrial arteries, which also express kallikrein (Kal), the bradykinin receptor 2 (B2R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its type 2 receptor (KDR), but no endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In addition, the signal of Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 was especially remarkable in giant cells, which also show Kal, B2R. eNOS, VEGF and KDR. CONCLUSIONS: The spatio-temporal expression of Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 in GP, similar to that of humans, supports a relevant evolutionary conserved function of Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 in decidualization, trophoblast invasion, vascular remodeling and placental flow regulation, as well as the validity of the GP model to understand the local adaptations of pregnancy. It also integrates Ang-(1-7) to the utero-placental vasodilatory network. However, its antiangiogenic effect may counterbalance the proangiogenic activity of some of the other vasodilator components.

Valdés G; Corthorn J; Bharadwaj MS; Joyner J; Schneider D; Brosnihan KB

2013-01-01

242

Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding the impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.How to cite this article: Abuelzein, E.M., Al-Khaliyfa, M.J. & Gameel, A.A., 2011, ‘Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia’, Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 78(1), Art. #318, 4 pages. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/ojvr.v78i1.318

Eltayb M. Abuelzein; Mofeed A. Al-Khaliyfa; Ahmed A. Gameel

2011-01-01

243

Elevated cytokine and chemokine levels in the placenta are associated with in-utero HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is an association between cytokine and chemokine levels in plasma isolated from the placenta and HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). DESIGN: We designed a case-control study of HIV-infected, pregnant women enrolled in the Malaria and HIV in Pregnancy cohort. Participants were recruited in Blantyre, Malawi, from 2000 to 2004. Patients were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-positive at birth (in-utero MTCT) or HIV-1 DNA-negative at birth and HIV-1 DNA-positive at 6 weeks postpartum (intrapartum MTCT); controls were women whose children were HIV-1 DNA-negative both at birth and 6 weeks postpartum. METHODS: After delivery, blood was isolated from an incision on the basal plate of the placenta. We used a Bio-Plex human cytokine assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, California USA) to simultaneously quantify 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in placental plasma. HIV-1 RNA copies were quantified with the Roche Amplicor kit. RESULTS: Levels of interleukin (IL) 4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-9, eotaxin, IL-1Ra and interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10) were significantly elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of in-utero HIV-1 MTCT. In contrast, only granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was elevated in placental plasma isolated from cases of intrapartum MTCT. After adjusting for maternal age, gestational age and peripheral CD4(+) T-cell count, every log(10) increase in placental IP-10 was associated with a three-fold increase in the prevalence of in-utero HIV-1 MTCT. CONCLUSION: Elevated cytokine and chemokine levels in placental plasma were associated with in-utero and not intrapartum MTCT. IP-10, which is both a T-cell chemokine and potentiator of HIV-replication, was robustly and independently associated with prevalent, in-utero MTCT.

Kumar SB; Rice CE; Milner DA Jr; Ramirez NC; Ackerman WE 4th; Mwapasa V; Turner AN; Kwiek JJ

2012-03-01

244

Electronic Materials  

Science.gov (United States)

This is full course in Electronic Materials offered by Prof. Dr. Helmut Föll of the University of Kiel in Germany. The course cover in detail the following topics: conductors, dialectrics, magnetics, semiconductor devices, and semiconductor manufacturing process. This resource should be use used by people involved in electrical engineering and semiconductor manufacturing courses.

Foll, Helmut

2008-11-25

245

Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008): 602-12.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected mechanisms of the ease of access and breadth of resources available positively impacting their ability to keep abreast of new developments and inspiring new ideas. The study found mixed results between perceived improved access and number of publications. Although representation in national publications was not significantly impacted, there was a positive correlation with the number of international publications. There were interesting differences among disciplines and academic status, with a decreased impact among scholars in the humanities, and greater impact among lower-status or novice academics.Conclusion – There are positive perceptions of the accessibility of online information and of its impact on the quality of work, and a correlation between these perceptions and the number of international publications, thus validating the investment in providing access to digital information resources to Finnish academics.

Scott Marsalis

2008-01-01

246

Integração e interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos em C&T: a proposta da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira/ Integration and interoperability in accessing electronic information resources in science and technology: the proposal of Brazilian Digital Library  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Descreve as opções tecnológicas e metodológicas para atingir a interoperabilidade no acesso a recursos informacionais eletrônicos, disponíveis na Internet, no âmbito do projeto da Biblioteca Digital Brasileira em Ciência e Tecnologia, desenvolvido pelo Instituto Brasileiro de Informação em Ciência e Tecnologia (IBICT). Destaca o impacto da Internet sobre as formas de publicação e comunicação em C&T e sobre os sistemas de informação e bibliotecas. São exp (more) licitados os objetivos do projeto da BDB de fomentar mecanismos de publicação pela comunidade brasileira de C&T, de textos completos diretamente na Internet, sob a forma teses, artigos de periódicos, trabalhos em congressos, literatura "cinzenta", ampliando sua visibilidade e acessibilidade nacional e internacional, e também de possibilitar a interoperabilidade entre estes recursos informacionais brasileiros em C&T, heterogêneos e distribuídos, através de acesso unificado via um portal, sem a necessidade de o usuário navegar e consultar cada recurso individualmente. Abstract in english This paper describes technological and methodological options to achieve interoperability in accessing electronic information resources, available in Internet, in the scope of Brazilian Digital Library in Science and Technology Project - BDL, developed by Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Information - IBICT. It stresses the impact of the Web on publishing and communication in science and technology and also on information systems and libraries. The work st (more) resses the two main objectives of BDL project: promoting electronic publishing of different full text materials - theses, journal articles, papers in events, "grey" literature - by Brazilian scientific community, so amplifying their nationally and internationally visibility; and achieving, through a gateway, interoperability among those heterogeneous electronic information resources available in the Web, thus avoiding a user to navigate and query those resources one by one separately.

Marcondes, Carlos Henrique; Sayão, Luís Fernando

2001-12-01

247

Comunidades científicas e infra-estrutura tecnológica no Brasil para uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação na pesquisa/ Scientific communities and technological infrastructure in Brazil for use of electronic resources of communication and information in research  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Estudo do uso de recursos eletrônicos de comunicação e informação por pesquisadores brasileiros, na geração de novos conhecimentos. A análise abrange a freqüência de participação na rede, fatores intervenientes, finalidades de uso e o grau de relevância dessa tecnologia. No acesso e uso da informação científica e técnica, são comparados os recursos eletrônicos/digitais e os impressos/ tradicionais. A partir dos resultados, são identificadas percepçõe (more) s e perspectivas, entre as quais a aproximação entre comunicação científica e divulgação científica, a confluência dos processos de comunicação e informação e o crescente interesse pela temática da pesquisa, inclusive no Brasil. Pela importância dos recursos eletrônicos para pesquisa, há necessidade de sua expansão e atualização constantes, com investimento das instituições e sua inserção nas políticas públicas nacionais. Abstract in english Usage study of communication and information electronic resources by Brazilian researchers in the generation of new knowledge. The analysis encompasses the frequency of participation in the network as well as the intervenient factors, usage aims and the relevance of this technology. Electronic resources and traditional printed ones are compared in scientific and technical information usage and access. Results identified perceptions and perspectives, among which the coming (more) together of scientific communication and scientific divulgation, the confluence of communication and information processes and the growing interest for research in the area, including Brazil. Considering the importance of electronic resources for research, there is a need for its constant expansion and updating, which implies investments by Brazilian institutions and its insertion in the national public policies.

Pinheiro, Lena Vania Ribeiro

2003-12-01

248

The impact of flavour exposure in utero and during milk feeding on food acceptance at weaning and beyond.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An individual's experience of flavours contributes to their unique pattern of food preferences. Exposure to a specific flavour can increase familiarity and result in greater acceptance of this flavour over time. This paper describes the earliest occurrences of flavour exposure; first in utero, via amniotic fluid, and later through breast or formula milk. Evidence suggests these early experiences impact on later food preferences, but the extent to which specific flavour compounds from the mother's diet are transmitted during these pre- and early post-natal periods may vary within and between individuals. In contrast with findings with toddlers and older children, infants accept new flavours rapidly, with relatively few exposures required. Early exposure to flavour variety may improve long term dietary outcomes, highlighting the need to promote a varied diet during pregnancy and lactation.

Cooke L; Fildes A

2011-12-01

249

Detection of increased frequency of thyroid hypoplasia in subjects irradiated in utero as the results of Chernobyl catastrophe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the 24 years passed after the Chernobyl catastrophe a significant experience in estimation of medical consequences of thyroid irradiation among Belarus patients had been accumulated. The aim of our screening of ultrasonic examination was the detection of the thyroid hypoplasia prevalence in the regions affected with radionuclide fallout. Since 2004 to 2007 thyroid ultrasound with volume estimation was performed in 3311 Belarus subjects, living on the areas of Brest region with the different contamination rate density. Examined subjects were divided in 3 groups: 1) irradiated at the age of 1 to 3 years old at the moment of Chernobyl catastrophe, 2) irradiated in utero, and 3) born after the catastrophe. It was revealed that thyroid hypoplasia was detected in 3% of group 1 (out of 1876 persons), in 5, 8% of group 2 (out of 503 persons, P

2004-01-00

250

Effects of in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and related contaminants on cognitive functioning in young children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Because prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related contaminants has been associated with reduced birth weight, neonatal behavioral anomalies, and poorer recognition memory in infants born to women who have consumed Lake Michigan sports fish, 236 children, previously evaluated for PCB-related deficits in infancy, were assessed at 4 years of age. Prenatal exposure (indicated by umbilical cord serum PCB level) predicted poorer short-term memory function on both verbal and quantitative tests in a dose-dependent fashion. These effects cannot be attributed to a broad range of potential confounding variables, the impact of which was evaluated statistically. Although much larger quantities of PCBs are transferred postnatally via lactation than prenatally across the placenta, exposure from nursing was unrelated to cognitive performance. The data demonstrate the continuation of a toxic impact received in utero and observed initially during infancy on a dimension of cognitive functioning fundamental to learning.

Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

1990-01-01

251

Early prenatal management of a fetal ventricular tachycardia treated in utero by amiodarone with long term follow-up.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fetal cardiac arrhythmias are one of the causes of intra-uterine congestive heart failure and non-immune hydrops fetalis leading to fetal death. As ventricular tachycardia (VT) is rarely diagnosed in utero, it leads to emergency deliveries. We report a prenatal diagnosis of fetal tachycardia at 20 weeks of gestation associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis. The tachycardia seemed to be supraventricular and was initially treated by digoxin and sotalol. The hydrops increased and sotalol was stopped in order to give the mother a high dose of amiodarone by mouth over a long period. Although the tachycardia, which the ECG recorded at birth revealed to be of ventricular origin, persisted but at a lower rate, the new treatment proved successful. The child is three years old now and health, though with persistent VT. In conclusion, fetal tachycardia with similar ventricular and atrial rates can be a VT and the drug of choice in this case seems to be amiodarone.

Schleich JM; Bernard Du Haut Cilly F; Laurent MC; Almange C

2000-06-01

252

Amniotic fluid for screening of lysosomal storage diseases presenting in utero (mainly as non-immune hydrops fetalis).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seventy amniotic fluids (AF) were sampled because of abnormal ultrasound findings (mainly non-immune hydrops fetalis (54 cases) or of the presence of vacuolated lymphocytes in fetal blood (3 cases)). They were analysed by a procedure involving AF supernatant analysis (glycosaminoglycans, oligosaccharides, free sialic acid and acid hydrolase activities) and biochemical study of cultured AF cells. Ten cases of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD) were diagnosed. The reported procedure allows an orientating screening within 3 days by analysis of 15 ml of third trimester AF supernatant (except for Gaucher and Niemann-Pick diseases). In some cases, the results allow an LSD diagnosis and a medical abortion without waiting for the formal diagnosis (in cultured AF cells that needs 3 more weeks), considering the poor prognosis of these LSD presenting in utero. Furthermore, the formal assessment of the diagnosis in the cultured fetal cells allows accurate genetic counselling for the couple.

Piraud M; Froissart R; Mandon G; Bernard A; Maire I

1996-04-01

253

Diagnosis of in utero Parvovirus B19 infection and maternal immune response - the relevance of linear epitopes and advanced serologic testing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Importance of the field: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in utero causing fetal anemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a potentially life-threatening event for the fetus. Postexpositional non-invasive diagnosis is based on maternal IgG/IgM response and detection of viral genome in maternal blood. Serologic testing directs prenatal follow-up. Fetal infection is confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization in fetal blood and/or amniotic fluid cells. The performance of serologic tests is significant in order to direct pre- and perinatal care at rational use of resources. Timing of diagnostic procedures and knowledge of the time course of infection in pregnant, asymptomatic women are critical. IgM negative testing in the presence of prolonged viremia may complicate individual risk analysis in pregnancy. Recently, advanced IgG avidity assays and epitope-type specific assays (IgG ETS EIA) have been re-evaluated. Areas covered in this review: Epidemiology, clinical relevance and management of B19V infection in pregnancy. A review of the current literature (November 1984 - May 2009) and evaluation of current information on performance and predictive value of molecular and VP1/VP2 antigen-based IgG tests directed at the diagnosis of materno-fetal B19V infection and detection of past immunity. New aspects of B19V-associated fetal disease other than anemia/NIHF are also covered. What the reader will gain: An overview of immunology and clinical relevance of B19V infection in pregnancy, of the potential value of advanced serologic testing and fields of future research. Take home message: In the absence of a commercially available vaccine, serologic tests remain important tools in individual risk analysis of pregnant women exposed to B19V. Sequential application of IgG avidity and IgG ETS EIAs may improve risk stratification and timing of invasive testing in B19V-exposed pregnancies, in particular with IgM-negativity and/or persistent DNAemia. Prospective evaluation of these test systems correlated to fetal outcome in order to reduce fetal morbidity and mortality as well as the overall burden of disease of B19V with regard to fetal malformation may be subject to future research.

Dembinski J

2010-03-01

254

Diagnosis of in utero Parvovirus B19 infection and maternal immune response - the relevance of linear epitopes and advanced serologic testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Importance of the field: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection in utero causing fetal anemia and non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a potentially life-threatening event for the fetus. Postexpositional non-invasive diagnosis is based on maternal IgG/IgM response and detection of viral genome in maternal blood. Serologic testing directs prenatal follow-up. Fetal infection is confirmed by polymerase chain reaction or in situ hybridization in fetal blood and/or amniotic fluid cells. The performance of serologic tests is significant in order to direct pre- and perinatal care at rational use of resources. Timing of diagnostic procedures and knowledge of the time course of infection in pregnant, asymptomatic women are critical. IgM negative testing in the presence of prolonged viremia may complicate individual risk analysis in pregnancy. Recently, advanced IgG avidity assays and epitope-type specific assays (IgG ETS EIA) have been re-evaluated. Areas covered in this review: Epidemiology, clinical relevance and management of B19V infection in pregnancy. A review of the current literature (November 1984 - May 2009) and evaluation of current information on performance and predictive value of molecular and VP1/VP2 antigen-based IgG tests directed at the diagnosis of materno-fetal B19V infection and detection of past immunity. New aspects of B19V-associated fetal disease other than anemia/NIHF are also covered. What the reader will gain: An overview of immunology and clinical relevance of B19V infection in pregnancy, of the potential value of advanced serologic testing and fields of future research. Take home message: In the absence of a commercially available vaccine, serologic tests remain important tools in individual risk analysis of pregnant women exposed to B19V. Sequential application of IgG avidity and IgG ETS EIAs may improve risk stratification and timing of invasive testing in B19V-exposed pregnancies, in particular with IgM-negativity and/or persistent DNAemia. Prospective evaluation of these test systems correlated to fetal outcome in order to reduce fetal morbidity and mortality as well as the overall burden of disease of B19V with regard to fetal malformation may be subject to future research. PMID:23484447

Dembinski, Jörg

2010-03-01

255

In utero exposure to arsenic alters lung development and genes related to immune and mucociliary function in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a global environmental health problem. In utero exposure to arsenic via drinking water increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and mortality from bronchiectasis in early adulthood. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate how arsenic exposure in early life alters lung development and pathways involved in innate immunity. METHODS: Pregnant BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/HeARC mice were exposed to 0 (control) or 100 ?g/L arsenic via drinking water from gestation day 8 until the birth of their offspring. We measured somatic growth, lung volume, and lung mechanics of mice at 2 weeks of age. We used fixed lungs for structural analysis and collected lung tissue for gene expression analysis by microarray. RESULTS: The response to arsenic was genetically determined, and C57BL/6 mice were the most susceptible. Arsenic-exposed C57BL/6 mice were smaller in size, had smaller lungs, and had impaired lung mechanics compared with controls. Exposure to arsenic in utero up-regulated the expression of genes in the lung involved in mucus production (Clca3, Muc5b, Scgb3a1), innate immunity (Reg3?, Tff2, Dynlrb2, Lplunc1), and lung morphogenesis (Sox2). Arsenic exposure also induced mucous cell metaplasia and increased expression of CLCA3 protein in the large airways. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in somatic growth, lung development, and the expression of genes involved in mucociliary clearance and innate immunity in the lung are potential mechanisms through which early life arsenic exposure impacts respiratory health.

Ramsey KA; Bosco A; McKenna KL; Carter KW; Elliot JG; Berry LJ; Sly PD; Larcombe AN; Zosky GR

2013-02-01

256

Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with 60Co  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth

1989-01-01

257

Natural in utero infection of neonatal calves with bovine viral diarrhoea virus on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The dairy industry is a large and important business in Saudi Arabia. Although farms are administered to high international standards, some reproduction problems, of uncertain aetiology, are encountered. The most frequently seen are conception failures, abortions, stillbirths and the birth of weak or malformed calves. These conditions are suggestive of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection. Unfortunately, very little published information is available regarding th (more) e impact of this disease on cattle populations in Saudi Arabia. As a consequence, the present study was carried out and is the first of its kind in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf region. The aim of the study was to elucidate the role of in utero BVDV infection leading to the birth of weak or malformed calves on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia. The study was divided into two parts. Firstly, apparently healthy neonatal calves were sampled for the detection of pre-colostral serum antibodies to BVDV. The presence of these antibodies indicates exposure of the foetus to BVDV during the last two trimesters of gestation. Secondly, tissue samples from malformed neonatal calves were examined for the presence of BVDV antigens. Detection of such antigens confirms exposure of the foetus to the virus during the first trimester of gestation. The results of the investigation indicated that 36.1% of the neonatal calves were exposed to BVDV infection in utero. This is higher than what has been reported in the literature and suggests that dairy farmers in the Arabian Peninsula need to be made aware of the dangers of BVDV infections in their herds. The epidemiological significance of the results is discussed.

Abuelzein, Eltayb M.; Al-Khaliyfa, Mofeed A.; Gameel, Ahmed A.

2011-01-01

258

The retro placental hematoma and fetal death in utero: About 49 cases and review of the literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Retro Placental Hematoma (RPH) or placental abruption untimely normally inserted paroxysmal is an accident that threatens maternal and fetal prognosis. It is a major emergency obstetric pathology and remains the second leading cause of maternal mortality after postpartum haemorrhage. It is actually very difficult to have an accurate evaluation the frequency of the HRP because it requires a complete table including Pathologists; or simple macroscopic or microscopic findings; or purely clinical diagnosis for some. Its occurrence requires appropriate resuscitation and adapted care to improve the prognosis. We report our study of 49 cases the HRP hospitalized in Obstetrics and Gynecology of Instruction Military Hospital Mohamed V in Rabat, diagnosed on a suggestive clinical picture and the presence of hematoma after examining the issue. This is a descriptive and comparative retrospective study over a period of one year. This study compared two groups: with HRP feotale death in utero and HRP without fetal death in utero. This study aims to evaluate neonatal mortality and maternal morbidity related to RPH and therapeutic modalities. This pathology formerly known pathology multiparous tends to reach more and more heifer. The important blood loss and delay the expulsion worse prognosis causing severe maternal morbidity hence the need to expand the indications for cesarean of retro placental hematoma regardless of the fetal state. Our study aims to contribute to reduce mortality and morbidity Fetomaternal by improving our work is stepping up efforts for a rapid decision-making, and we must educate what especially pregnant women of the risk factors to see from the beginning of symptoms. The pregnancy monitoring, early diagnosis of RPH, an obstetrical treatment adequate, and a resuscitation well driving can improve the prognosis of this disease.

Saida Mezane; M. Achnani; M. Ziyadi; A. Babahabib; R. Hafidi; D. Moussaoui; M. Dehayni

2013-01-01

259

Depression - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good resources of information on depression : American Psychological Association - www.apa.org/topics/depress/ ...

260

DCIS Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Skip to Content Cancer Control and Population Sciences Home Applied Research Home Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Research Resources Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS) Research Resources About DCIS & DCIS Research Workshop: Integrating Tumor Biology & Population

 
 
 
 
261

Water Resources ???  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water Resource, the English-language translation of Vodnye Resursy, details progress in the assessment of water resources, integrated water-resource use, water quality, and environmental protection. The coverage spans many areas of research, including prediction of variations in contin...

262

Bilgi Teknolojilerinin Belge Yönetimine Etkisi ve Elektronik Belge Yönetimi / The Effect of Information Technologies on Resources Management and Electronic Record Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information technologies have undergone rapid development in the last decade and these developments especially affected the information and records management profession. Developments in information technologies have caused changes in the way of creating, storing, sending and sharing records in organisational structures, and traditional record management has been replaced by a modern understanding of record management. In this respect, the management of electronic records let important problems arise. This study focuses on the effects of information technologies on records management, and thus on electronic record management.

Cengiz Ayd?n

2005-01-01

263

Effects of in utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on sexual differentiation in rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have previously reported that in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, 200 ng/kg) to malignant Holtzman rats induced demasculinization of sexually-dimorphic behavior and inhibited the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in male offspring. However, these effects of TCDD were not observed in higher dose (800 ng/kg) of TCDD-exposed male offspring. The shortening of anogenitgal distance and the decrease of the ventral prostate weight in male offspring by in utero and lactational TCDD exposure were reported and these effects of TCDD were observed in a dose-dependent manner. This study was undertaken to examine the influence of the TCDD exposure at the varying dosage levels on sexually dimorphic behavior and the development of SDN-POA.

Ikeda, M.; Suzuki, C.; Yamashita, J.; Tomita, T. [Univ. of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan); Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

2004-09-15

264

Association between body weight at weaning and remodeling in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adult mice with undernourishment in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapid growth in infancy considerably increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood especially among neonates born small. To investigate the mechanism involved, we developed an animal model of undernourishment in utero by maternal caloric restriction, in which the Z scores of body weight at weaning (19.5 days) positively correlated with parameters of obesity, metabolic disorders, and remodeling of subcutaneous adipose tissue, such as numbers of macrophages in adipose tissue, the ratio of inflammatory M1 to anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages, estimated by gene expression of specific antigens, and the relative ratio of small adipocytes less than 30 ?m in diameter, on a high-fat diet at 17 weeks of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a possible connection between infantile body weight and adipose tissue remodeling in obesity after undernourishment in utero.

Kohmura YK; Kanayama N; Muramatsu K; Tamura N; Yaguchi C; Uchida T; Suzuki K; Sugihara K; Aoe S; Sasaki T; Suganami T; Ogawa Y; Itoh H

2013-07-01

265

Water Resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

1997-01-01

266

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats disrupts brain sexual differentiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) 2. Changes in sexual dimorphisms of saccharin preference and the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) were examined in adult offspring. In controls, litter means of brain aromatase activity were higher in males than in females. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased the sex ratio of aromatase activity (male/female) on PND 2. Offspring were weaned on PND28 and the saccharin test was started on PND84. In controls, saccharin (0.25%) intake (g/kg body weight) was significantly higher in female offspring than in males. In utero exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly increased saccharin intake in male offspring compared with control males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither dose of TCDD influenced saccharin intake of female offspring. In controls, SDN-POA volume was significantly greater in males than in females at 14 weeks of age. Exposure to 200 ng/kg TCDD significantly decreased SDN-POA volume in males, whereas 800 ng/kg TCDD had no effect. Neither doses of TCDD influenced the SDN-POA volume in female offspring. These results suggest that in utero and lactational TCDD exposure dose-dependently induces demasculinization in male offspring by inhibiting brain aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area during central nervous system development

2005-05-15

267

Detection of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pediatric hair as a tool for determining in utero exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism, or undescended/maldescended testis, is the most common birth defect of male genitalia. Its prevalence has been increasing over the past few decades. This may be due to an increase in the prevalence of anti-androgenic chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls, organochloride pesticides, plasticizers and fungicides. A newer group of chemicals, brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are being implicated as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. These chemicals are used worldwide in polymers that are incorporated into a variety of consumer products (e.g., textile, computers and televisions, insulating foam, electrical equipment and kitchen appliances). In order to quantify BFRs we introduce the use of hair levels of polybrominated diphenyl esters (PBDEs) as biomarkers of systemic exposure. This approach will allow for the estimation of in utero BFR exposure, in the process of evaluating the potential link between the incidence of cryptorchidism in newborn males and level of exposure of the pregnant mother to environmentally relevant BFRs. For that end we have developed a GC/MS assay in which children's hair is analyzed for the presence of polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). METHODS: In this pilot, 10-40mg of hair from 24 children (12 newborn and 12 from children 1 to 15 years) was extracted overnight at 40°C with 4N HCl and hexane (4:1). The samples were eluted from 2g NaSO(4):2g Florisil SPE columns with 8mL hexane. Dried samples are reconstituted with anhydrous isooctane and injected onto a GC/MS and analyzed for BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183 and BDE-209. RESULTS: PBDEs were detected in all of the newborn and child hair. The ?PBDE ranged from 0.038 to 1.01pg/mg newborn hair and from 0.208 to 2.695ng/mg child hair. The most abundant PBDE in newborn hair was BDE-153 while in child hair the variable PBDEs were BDE-47 and BDE-99. The highest molecular weight congener BDE-209 was detected in 10/24 pediatric hair samples. The LOQ is 0.0625pg/mg (BDE-209 0.625pg/mg) and the efficiency of extraction was between 70 and 90%. CONCLUSION: This GC/MS method is sufficiently sensitive to detect the presence of all 8 PBDE congeners tested in as little as 10mg of pediatric hair. The results show that PBDEs are present in newborn hair, making this matrix useful in examining in utero exposure to PBDEs and linking it to cryptorchidism.

Aleksa K; Carnevale A; Goodyer C; Koren G

2012-05-01

268

Effects of in utero through lactational exposure to dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p'-DDE in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Anti-androgenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and the mechanisms between phthalate esters and p,p'-DDE are considered to be different. We performed an in utero through lactational exposure assay using dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p'-DDE to investigate the sexual differentiation of these chemicals. Pregnant CD (SD) IGS rats were given dicyclohexyl phthalate or p,p'-DDE orally from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20, and the endocrine-mediated effects in dams and their offspring were examined. The reproductive performance of offspring was also examined. The doses of dicyclohexyl phthalate were 0, 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day, and those of p,p'-DDE were 5, 15, and 50mg/kg/day. Using the dicyclohexyl phthalate, a dam in the 500 mg/kg group showed dystocia and died. The viability index of offspring on PND 4 decreased in the 500 mg/kg group. Prolonged preputial separation, reduced ano-genital distance, increased areolas/nipple retention, hypospadia, decreased ventral prostate and levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle weights and decreased testicular germ cells were observed in male offspring in the 500 mg/kg group. In the assay using p,p'-DDE, decreased viability index of offspring on PND 21, prolonged preputial separation in male offspring and early vaginal opening in female offspring were observed in the 50mg/kg group. The copulation and fertility indices decreased in the reproductive performance of offspring in the 50mg/kg group. The endocrine-mediated effects were detected in offspring of dams given 100mg/kg dicyclohexyl phthalate, and in offspring of dams given 20mg/kg p,p'-DDE. Our results suggest that the in utero through lactational exposure assay is a useful method to detect endocrine-mediated effects and that further comparative study between this assay and two-generation reproductive test are necessary when this assay becomes one of the definitive tests.

Yamasaki K; Okuda H; Takeuchi T; Minobe Y

2009-08-01

269

Effects of in utero through lactational exposure to dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p'-DDE in Sprague-Dawley rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-androgenic chemicals alter sexual differentiation by a variety of mechanisms, and the mechanisms between phthalate esters and p,p'-DDE are considered to be different. We performed an in utero through lactational exposure assay using dicyclohexyl phthalate and p,p'-DDE to investigate the sexual differentiation of these chemicals. Pregnant CD (SD) IGS rats were given dicyclohexyl phthalate or p,p'-DDE orally from gestational day (GD) 6 to postnatal day (PND) 20, and the endocrine-mediated effects in dams and their offspring were examined. The reproductive performance of offspring was also examined. The doses of dicyclohexyl phthalate were 0, 20, 100, and 500 mg/kg/day, and those of p,p'-DDE were 5, 15, and 50mg/kg/day. Using the dicyclohexyl phthalate, a dam in the 500 mg/kg group showed dystocia and died. The viability index of offspring on PND 4 decreased in the 500 mg/kg group. Prolonged preputial separation, reduced ano-genital distance, increased areolas/nipple retention, hypospadia, decreased ventral prostate and levator ani/bulbocavernosus muscle weights and decreased testicular germ cells were observed in male offspring in the 500 mg/kg group. In the assay using p,p'-DDE, decreased viability index of offspring on PND 21, prolonged preputial separation in male offspring and early vaginal opening in female offspring were observed in the 50mg/kg group. The copulation and fertility indices decreased in the reproductive performance of offspring in the 50mg/kg group. The endocrine-mediated effects were detected in offspring of dams given 100mg/kg dicyclohexyl phthalate, and in offspring of dams given 20mg/kg p,p'-DDE. Our results suggest that the in utero through lactational exposure assay is a useful method to detect endocrine-mediated effects and that further comparative study between this assay and two-generation reproductive test are necessary when this assay becomes one of the definitive tests. PMID:19410640

Yamasaki, Kanji; Okuda, Hirokazu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Minobe, Yasushi

2009-05-03

270

Changes in glucose and carnitine levels and their transporters in utero-tubal junction in relation to sperm storage in the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prolonged sperm storage over winter is a common feature of reproduction in some bats. In order to understand how sperm storage in the female genital tract of the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi (Greater yellow bat), is controlled, we compared concentrations of glucose and the fatty-acid carrier carnitine in the blood, and carnitine concentrations and levels of expression of the glucose transporters (GLUTs) and the carnitine transporter OCTN2 in the utero-tubal junction of females during non-storage (early winter) and sperm-storage periods (late winter-early spring). During the sperm-storage period (December-January) blood glucose concentrations declined, as did the expression of GLUT3 and GLUT5 in the utero-tubal junction. At the same time there were increases in the concentration of carnitine, and expression of OCTN2 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the utero-tubal junction. These results suggest that prolonged sperm storage is enhanced by decreased glucose availability but increased free fatty acid availability at the site of sperm storage. Increases in expression of GLUT4 and GLUT8 in late winter suggest a role for these GLUTs in increasing sperm motility prior to fertilization. J. Exp. Zool. 319A: 517-526, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24039231

Roy, Vikas Kumar; Krishna, Amitabh

2013-08-22

271

Correction of congenital diaphragmatic hernia in utero. III. Development of a successful surgical technique using abdominoplasty to avoid compromise of umbilical blood flow.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Infants born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) die because their lungs are hypoplastic. In the fetal lamb, the lung made hypoplastic by compression with an intrathoracic balloon can, if decompressed in utero, grow and develop enough to permit survival at term. To study the efficacy and feasibility of in utero repair of CDH, we created diaphragmatic hernias in fetal lambs at approximately 100 days gestation and corrected them surgically at approximately 120 days. Repair of the diaphragm with closure of the abdomen resulted in postoperative fetal death in six lambs. Acute studies demonstrated that increased intraabdominal pressure compromises blood flow in the umbilical vein and produces severe fetal distress. When a silastic patch was used to enlarge the abdomen after reduction of the viscera and repair of the diaphragm, six of nine lambs were viable after term delivery. In sacrificed lambs, the lungs were well expanded, mature histologically, and greatly increased in size. Correction of CDH in utero appears physiologically sound and technically feasible.

Harrison MR; Ross NA; de Lorimier AA

1981-12-01

272

Changes in glucose and carnitine levels and their transporters in utero-tubal junction in relation to sperm storage in the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prolonged sperm storage over winter is a common feature of reproduction in some bats. In order to understand how sperm storage in the female genital tract of the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi (Greater yellow bat), is controlled, we compared concentrations of glucose and the fatty-acid carrier carnitine in the blood, and carnitine concentrations and levels of expression of the glucose transporters (GLUTs) and the carnitine transporter OCTN2 in the utero-tubal junction of females during non-storage (early winter) and sperm-storage periods (late winter-early spring). During the sperm-storage period (December-January) blood glucose concentrations declined, as did the expression of GLUT3 and GLUT5 in the utero-tubal junction. At the same time there were increases in the concentration of carnitine, and expression of OCTN2 and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the utero-tubal junction. These results suggest that prolonged sperm storage is enhanced by decreased glucose availability but increased free fatty acid availability at the site of sperm storage. Increases in expression of GLUT4 and GLUT8 in late winter suggest a role for these GLUTs in increasing sperm motility prior to fertilization. J. Exp. Zool. 9999A: 1-10, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Roy VK; Krishna A

2013-08-01

273

Model for Presenting Resources in Scholar's Portal  

Science.gov (United States)

Presenting electronic resources to users through a federated search engine introduces unique opportunities and challenges to libraries. This article reports on the decision-making tools and processes used for selecting collections of electronic resources by a project team at the University of Arizona (UA) Libraries for the Association of Research…

Feeney, Mary; Newby, Jill

2005-01-01

274

Bioenergy: Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ohio State University provides this list of resources as part of their Renewable Energy Program. Resources include links to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, AgSTAR, Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, and Cow Power Film. A short description is provided for each of sites highlighting their educational materials.

2013-06-21

275

Inventor's Resource  

Science.gov (United States)

Inventor Andy Gibbs developed the Inventor's Resource site to provide information to new inventors, intellectual property managers and intellectual property creators. The site features a newsletter, a yellow page of investors, copyright and trademark links, downloadable forms for inventors, and a listing of inventions for sale. The site also features annotated links to technological transfer resources, funding, patent laws, and international intellectual property organizations.

Gibbs, Andy.

1998-01-01

276

The psychological well-being of Norwegian adolescents exposed in utero to radiation from the Chernobyl accident  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background On 26 April 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant suffered an accident. Several areas of central Norway were heavily affected by far field radioactive fallout. The present study focuses on the psychological well-being of adolescents who were exposed to this radiation as fetuses. Methods The adolescents (n = 53) and their mothers reported their perceptions of the adolescents' current psychological health as measured by the Youth Self Report and Child Behaviour Checklist. Results In spite of previous reports of subtle cognitive deficits in these exposed adolescents, there were few self-reported problems and fewer problems reported by the mothers. This contrasts with findings of studies of children from the former Soviet Union exposed in utero, in which objective measures are inconsistent, and self-reports, especially by mothers, express concern for adolescents' cognitive functioning and psychological well-being. Conclusion In the current paper, we explore possible explanations for this discrepancy and suggest that protective factors in Norway, in addition to perceived physical and psychological distance from the disaster, made the mothers less vulnerable to Chernobyl-related anxiety, thus preventing a negative effect on the psychological health of both mother and child.

Heiervang Kristin; Mednick Sarnoff; Sundet Kjetil; Rund Bjørn

2011-01-01

277

Treatment of Hemophilia A in Utero and Postnatally using Sheep as a Model for Cell and Gene Delivery.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hemophilia A represents the most common inheritable deficiency of the coagulation proteins. Current state-of- the-art treatment consists of frequent prophylactic infusions of plasma-derived or recombinant FVIII protein to maintain hemostasis, and has greatly increased life expectancy and quality of life for many hemophilia A patients. This treatment approach is, however, far from ideal, due to the need for lifelong intravenous infusions, the high treatment cost, and the fact that it is unavailable to a large percentage of the world's hemophiliacs. There is thus a need for novel treatments that can promise long-term or permanent correction. In contrast to existing protein based therapeutics, gene therapy offers to provide a permanent cure following few, or even a single, treatment. In the present paper, we review ongoing work towards this end, focusing on studies we have performed in a large animal model. Some of the key topics covered in this review include the unique opportunities sheep offer as a model system, the re-establishment and clinical and molecular characterization of a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A, the advantages and feasibility of treating a disease like hemophilia A in utero, and the use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) as cellular delivery vehicles for the FVIII gene. The review finishes with a brief discussion of our recent success correcting ovine hemophilia A with a postnatal transplant with gene-modified MSC, and the limitations of this approach that remain to be overcome.

Porada CD; Almeida-Porada G

2012-05-01

278

DEXA analysis on the bones of rats exposed in utero and neonatally to static and 50 Hz electric fields.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Effects of the electromagnetic fields on living bodies, bones in particular, are among the relevant issues of contemporary life. In this study, we report the influences of 50 Hz and 0 Hz (static) electric fields (EF), on intact rat bones, as evaluated by dual energy X-ray absorbtion (DEXA) measurements on bone content and density when these animals (n = 27) are continuously exposed in utero and neonatally to EFs (10 kV/m) 14 days before and 14 days after their birth, for 28 days in total. Differences between 50 Hz EF and static EF groups are found to be significant (95% confidence level) for total bone mineral content (BMC), TBMC (P = .002). Differences between 50 Hz and control groups are found to be significant for total bone mineral density (BMD), TBMD (P = .002), lumbar BMC, LBMC (P = .023), and TBMC (P = .001). Differences between static EF and control groups are found to be significant for femoral BMD, FBMD (P = .009), TBMD (P = .002), LBMC (P = .001), and TBMC (P = .001). Note that TBMC parameters are jointly significant for all differences between the three groups of test animals. These results have shown that both static and 50 Hz EFs influence the early development of rat bones. However, the influence of static EFs is more pronounced than that of the 50 Hz field.

Okudan B; Keskin AU; Aydin MA; Cesur G; Cömlekçi S; Süslü H

2006-10-01

279

Gestational diabetes impairs Nrf2-mediated adaptive antioxidant defenses and redox signaling in fetal endothelial cells in utero.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in later life, yet the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We examined the effects of GDM on the proteome, redox status and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediated antioxidant gene expression in human fetal endothelial cells. Proteomic analysis revealed that proteins involved in redox homeostasis were significantly altered in GDM and associated with increased mitochondrial superoxide generation, protein oxidation, DNA damage and diminished glutathione synthesis. In GDM cells, the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) failed to induce nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and mRNA and/or protein expression of Nrf2 and its target genes NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), Bach1, cystine/glutamate transporter xCT and glutamate cysteine ligase. Although methylation of CpG islands in Nrf2 or NQO1 promoters was unaltered by GDM, decreased DJ-1 and increased p?GSK3? levels may account for impaired Nrf2 signaling. HNE-induced increases in GSH and NQO1 levels were abrogated by Nrf2 siRNA in normal cells, and overexpression of Nrf2 in GDM cells partially restored NQO1 induction. Dysregulation of Nrf2 in fetal endothelium may contribute to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in offspring.

Cheng X; Chapple SJ; Patel B; Puszyk W; Sudgen D; Yin X; Mayr M; Siow RC; Mann GE

2013-08-01

280

Misoprostol-induced radioprotection of Syrian hamster embryo cells in utero from cell death and oncogenic transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Misoprostol, a PGE analog, is an effective radioprotector of murine intestine and hematopoietic and hair cell renewal systems. The radioprotective nature of misoprostol was extended to examine its ability to influence clonogenic cell survival and induction of oncogenic transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells exposed to X rays in utero and assayed in vitro. Hamsters in their 12th day of pregnancy were injected subcutaneously with misoprostal, and 2 h later the pregnant hamsters were exposed to graded doses of X rays. Immediately after irradiation, hamsters were euthanized and embryonic tissue was explanted into culture dishes containing complete growth medium. After a 2-week incubation period, clongenic cell survival and morphologically transformed foci were determined. Survival of misoprostol-treated SHE cells was increased and yielded a dose reduction factor of 1.5 compared to SHE cells treated with X rays alone. In contrast, radiation-induced oncogenic transformation of misoprostol-treated cells was reduced by a factor of 20 compared to cells treated with X rays alone. These studies suggest that misoprostol not only protects normal tissues in vivo from acute radiation injury, but also protects cells, to a large extent, from injury leading to transforming events. 26 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Miller, R.C.; LaNasa, P.; Hanson, W.R. [Loyola Univ., Maywood, IL (United States)

1994-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

Auditory evoked arousal responses of 3-month-old infants exposed to methamphetamine in utero: a nap study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To investigate whether or not infants exposed to methamphetamine prenatally have impaired arousal responses from sleep. METHODS: The polygraphic nap studies involved 42 infants aged 3 months exposed to methamphetamine in utero and a comparison group of 57 infants. A proportion of mothers in both groups smoked cigarettes and/or marijuana and drank alcohol during pregnancy. White noise from 50 to 100 decibels (dB) was administered at 10 dB intervals twice within non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep states and arousal thresholds measured. RESULTS: Combining groups, 306 tests were completed (128 and 178 within REM and NREM sleep, respectively) and infants were more likely to wake at lower thresholds in REM than NREM sleep (hazard ratio 5.58; 95% CI, 3.78-8.23 p < 0.0001). No significant differences in arousal threshold were found between methamphetamine and comparison groups, before or after controlling for other substance use (NREM sleep; 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.59 and REM sleep; 1.03, 95% CI, 0.56-1.89). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that arousal responses of methamphetamine-exposed infants remain intact, providing no support for the hypothesis that prenatal exposure could increase their vulnerability to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) through arousal deficits.

Galland BC; Mitchell EA; Thompson JM; Wouldes T

2013-04-01

282

In Utero Domoic Acid Toxicity: A Fetal Basis to Adult Disease in the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available California sea lions have been a repeated subject of investigation for early life toxicity, which has been documented to occur with increasing frequency from late February through mid-May in association with organochlorine (PCB and DDT) poisoning and infectious disease in the 1970's and domoic acid poisoning in the last decade. The mass early life mortality events result from the concentrated breeding grounds and synchronization of reproduction over a 28 day post partum estrus cycle and 11 month in utero phase. This physiological synchronization is triggered by a decreasing photoperiod of 11.48 h/day that occurs approximately 90 days after conception at the major California breeding grounds. The photoperiod trigger activates implantation of embryos to proceed with development for the next 242 days until birth. Embryonic diapause is a selectable trait thought to optimize timing for food utilization and male migratory patterns; yet from the toxicological perspective presented here also serves to synchronize developmental toxicity of pulsed environmental events such as domoic acid poisoning. Research studies in laboratory animals have defined age-dependent neurotoxic effects during development and windows of susceptibility to domoic acid exposure. This review will evaluate experimental domoic acid neurotoxicity in developing rodents and, aided by comparative allometric projections, will analyze potential prenatal toxicity and exposure susceptibility in the California sea lion. This analysis should provide a useful tool to forecast fetal toxicity and understand the impact of fetal toxicity on adult disease of the California sea lion.

John S. Ramsdell; Tanja S. Zabka

2008-01-01

283

Measurement of the fetal umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length in early gestation: in utero sonographic study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to establish in utero reference ranges for the fetal umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length in early gestation. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on 140 normal low-risk singleton pregnancies between 12 and 18 weeks' gestation. The umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length was measured in a midsagittal section with high-resolution transvaginal or transabdominal sonography. The mean and 95% prediction limits were defined for each gestational week and analyzed by regression equations and correlation coefficients. RESULTS: Adequate measurements were obtained in 134 patients. The umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length as a function of gestational age was expressed by the following regression equation: umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle length = -3.079452 + 1.09 × week (R(2) = 0.7117). The correlation R(2) = 0.7117 was found to be highly statistically significant (P < .001). The normal mean and 95% prediction limits were defined for each gestational week. During the study period, 2 cases were referred to our unit because of nonvisualization of the urinary bladder. The umbilical cord insertion-to-genital tubercle lengths in these cases were below the 95th percentile, confirming the diagnosis of bladder exstrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The normative data established in this study may be helpful for early pre-natal diagnosis congenital bladder exstrophy.

Gilboa Y; Katorza E; Kedem A; Spira M; Achiron R

2011-02-01

284

Early prenatal management of a fetal ventricular tachycardia treated in utero by amiodarone with long term follow-up.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal cardiac arrhythmias are one of the causes of intra-uterine congestive heart failure and non-immune hydrops fetalis leading to fetal death. As ventricular tachycardia (VT) is rarely diagnosed in utero, it leads to emergency deliveries. We report a prenatal diagnosis of fetal tachycardia at 20 weeks of gestation associated with non-immune hydrops fetalis. The tachycardia seemed to be supraventricular and was initially treated by digoxin and sotalol. The hydrops increased and sotalol was stopped in order to give the mother a high dose of amiodarone by mouth over a long period. Although the tachycardia, which the ECG recorded at birth revealed to be of ventricular origin, persisted but at a lower rate, the new treatment proved successful. The child is three years old now and health, though with persistent VT. In conclusion, fetal tachycardia with similar ventricular and atrial rates can be a VT and the drug of choice in this case seems to be amiodarone. PMID:10861707

Schleich, J M; Bernard Du Haut Cilly, F; Laurent, M C; Almange, C

2000-06-01

285

Resource economics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The allocation of scarce resources is becoming crucial to human existence and it is essential to have an understanding of the role of economic factors in this problem. This is the central theme of Resource Economics. The author outlines the key concepts and tools of economics and illustrates their application by reference to problems of renewable resource management, non-renewable resource allocation, pollution and environmental impact analysis. A second theme running throughout the test is the need for economics to integrate with other scientific disciplines if resource allocation problems are to be understood fully and if a framework for their solution is to be found. The emphasis is on graphical means of illustration and everyday examples - rather than on mathematical notation and complex theory - making this a straightforward and immensely readable book.

Norton, G.A.

1984-01-01

286

Veterinary Medicine Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Iowa State University's libraries have been compiling electronic subject guides for a number of years, and this is one such guide that users in the field of veterinary medicine will want to bookmark. Organized thematically, the resources are contained within one single list, and they are divided into categories such as websites, electronic journals, online abstracts, and basic pet care and health resources. Some of the gateway sites are quite helpful, particularly the link to the animal diseases database offered by the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. Both potential veterinarian technicians and laypersons will appreciate the pet care links, which include links to the Healthy Pet site created by the American Animal Hospital Association and an overview to animal care created by the American Veterinary Medical Association.

2007-03-03

287

New Zealand coal resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. Geological Survey, in conjunction with partners from some 50 countries, is developing an integrated electronic database of coal-quality information the World Coal Quality Inventory (WoCQI). Information is provided for samples representing prominent coal beds in all of the major coal-producing countries, as well as coals from many of the smaller producers. This Fact Sheet summarizes coal-quality and coal-resource information for New Zealand. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Moore, T.A.; Finkelman, R.B.

2004-09-15

288

Metadados para a descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica: utilização do padrão Dublin Core/ Metadata for description of electronic information resources: the use of Dublin Core  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo aborda a necessidade de adoção de padrões de descrição de recursos de informação eletrônica, particularmente, no âmbito da Embrapa Informática Agropecuária. O Rural Mídia foi desenvolvido utilizando o modelo Dublin Core (DC) para descrição de seu acervo, acrescido de pequenas adaptações introduzidas diante da necessidade de adequar-se a especificidades meramente institucionais. Este modelo de metadados baseado no Dublin Core, adaptado para o Ba (more) nco de Imagem, possui características que endossam a sua adoção, como a simplicidade na descrição dos recursos, entendimento semântico universal (dos elementos), escopo internacional e extensibilidade (o que permite sua adaptação às necessidades adicionais de descrição). Abstract in english The objective of this article is the need of adoption of eletronic information resources patterns, particularly, in the Embrapa Agricultural Informatics area. The Rural Midia was developed using Dublin Core model for description of its collection, increased of small adaptations introduced due to the need of institutional adjusts. This metadados model based on Dublin Core, adapted for the Image Bank, has characteristics that endorse its adoption, as the simplicity in the r (more) esources description, universal semantic understanding (of the elements), international uses and extensibility (what allows its adaptation to the additional description needs).

Souza, Marcia Izabel Fugisawa; Vendrusculo, Laurimar Gonçalves; Melo, Geane Cristina

2000-04-01

289

Mangrove Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Florida Plants Online provides this resource on mangroves, featuring brief annotations and links to dozens of mangrove-related pages. Although the pages described at Florida Plants Online vary in depth and quality, many are worthwhile.

2000-01-01

290

Diabetes - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes : American Diabetes Association - www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International - www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion - ...

291

Hemophilia - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart Lung and Blood Institute - www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

292

Arthritis - resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons - http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation - www.arthritis.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

293

Rethinking resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With few exceptions, energy and mineral resources have historically been underestimated, chiefly because technology and human ingenuity have been ignored, undervalued, or thought to be irrelevant to finite resources. The changed perceptions of U.S. natural gas resources over the past decade-and-a-half provide an excellent example of the impact of rigorously applied technology. Notably, this impact came during a decade-long period of inordinately low prices, when utility of technology was the only alternative. Natural gas activity was, perhaps for the first time in the extensive U.S. history of exploration and development, a pure technological-ingenuity play. As a result, natural gas supplies, curtailed in the 1970`s, have exceeded demand for a decade. Estimates of remaining gas resources made in the resource-scarce decade of the the 1970`s are now exceeded by at least an order of magnitude. The lesson in natural gas is but a recent reminder of the role of technology and human ingenuity in addressing problems of natural resources and environments. The real limit we have yet to reach is, as Pecora stated in Limitations of the Earth a quarter-century ago, man`s intellectual capacity.

Fisher, W.L. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1994-12-31

294

Operable stages IB and 2 cervical carcinomas: a retrospective study comparing between preoperative utero vaginal brachytherapy and postoperative radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Purpose. -To identify prognostic factors and treatment toxicity in a series of operable stages IB and II cervical carcinomas. Patients and methods. - Between May 1972 and January 1994, 414 patients (pts) with cervical carcinoma staged according to the 1995 FIGO staging system underwent radical hysterectomy with (n=380) or without (n=34) bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Lateral ovarian transposition to preserve ovarian function was performed on 12 pts. The methods of radiation therapy (RT) were not randomized and depended on the usual practices of the surgical teams. Group I:168 pts received postoperative RT (64 pts received vaginal brachytherapy alone (mean total dose (MD): 50 Gy], 93 pts had external beam pelvis RT (EBPRT) [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] followed by vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 20 Gy], and 11 pts had EBPRT alone [MD: 50 Gy over 6 weeks]. Group II: 246 pts received preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy [MD: 65 Gy], and 32 of theses 246 pts also received postoperative EBPRT [MD: 45 Gy over 5 weeks] delivered to the parametric and the pelvic lymph nodes with a midline pelvic shield. The mean follow-up was 106 months. Results. - The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was 80%. From 75 recurrences, 35 were isolated locoregional. Multivariate analysis showed that independent factors decreasing the probability of DFS were: both exo and endo-cervical tumour site (p=0.047), lymph-vascular space invasion (p=0.041), age ? 51 yr (p=0.013), 1995 FIGO staging system (stage IB1 vs stage IIA, p=0.004, stage IB1 vs stage IB2, p=0.0009, and stage IB1 vs stage IIB with 1/3 proximal parametrical infiltration, p=0.00002), and histological pelvic involved lymph nodes (p=0.00009). Methods of adjuvant RT did not influence the probability of DFS (group I vs group II, p=0.10). The postoperative complication rate was 10.2% in group I and 8.9% in group II (p=0.7) but the postoperative urethral complication rate necessitating surgical intervention with re-implantation was lower in group I than in group II (0.6% vs 2.3%, respectively, p=0.03). The 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications according to the LENT-SOMA scoring system was 10.4%. EPRT significantly increased the 10-year rate for grade 3 and 4 late radiation complications (yes vs no: 22% vs 7%, respectively, p=0.0002). Conclusion. - In our series, the methods of adjuvant RT (primary surgery vs preoperative utero-vaginal brachytherapy) do not seem to influence the prognosis of the stage IB, IIA, and IIB - (with 1/3 proximal parametrical involvement only) cervical carcinomas. The postoperative EPRT applied according to histopathological risk factors after surgical treatment increases the risk of late radiation complications. (author)

1994-01-00

295

In Utero and Lactational Exposure to Nicotine Alters the Intra-Ovarian IGF System in Adult Female Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In humans there is evidence that in utero exposure to cigarette smoke results in decreased fertility in female offspring. We have demonstrated in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine alone results in impaired fertility and increased follicular atresia in the adult female offspring. In mammals, the insulin-like growth factor-I and -II (IGF-I and -II) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are considered stimulators and inhibitors of follicular growth and maturation. Therefore we hypothesized that dysregulation of the intra-ovarian IGF system could be implicated in the impaired fertility observed in nicotine-exposed offspring. Nulliparous female Wistar rats were exposed to nicotine (1 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks prior to mating until weaning. Ovaries were collected on the morning of estrus from sexually mature saline- and nicotine-exposed offspring. Protein expression of IGF ligands and receptors (IGFR-I and IGFR-II) were quantified by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expression of IGF-I, IGF-II; IGFR-I, IGFR-II; and IGFBP1–6 mRNA in the ovary was deter- mined by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Results showed that nicotine exposure significantly reduced IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFR-I protein expression (p < 0.01) relative to saline controls. Furthermore, nicotine-exposed offspring had significantly reduced IGFR-II mRNA expression (p < 0.01) in the ovary. Data from this study suggest that the decreased fertility and increased follicular atresia in nicotine-exposed animals may be due, in part, to disruption of IGF regulation in the ovary.

Carolyn E. Cesta; Jim J. Petrik; Heather Ambraska; Alison C. Holloway

2009-01-01

296

Diurnal cortisol changes in newborn infants suggesting entrainment of peripheral circadian clock in utero and at birth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the rodent and human fetus, a diurnal cortisol rhythm is observed that is entrained in antiphase to the maternal rhythm. However, after birth, the adrenal circadian rhythm becomes unsynchronized with the clock time, and an adult-type, 24-h rhythm is observed only after a few months. Little is known about when and how the fetal adrenal circadian rhythm is synchronized with the day-night cycle. METHODS: To investigate the function of adrenal circadian clock in the newborn infant, eight serial saliva samples were collected every 3 h over 24 h (starting at 0900 h) in 27 newborn infants. RESULTS: Cortisol levels were higher during the period 1500 to earlier than 2100 h than during 0900 to earlier than 1500 h and 0300 to earlier than 0900 h (both P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol levels collected during 0 to <6, 6 to <12, and 12 to <18 hours after the clock time at birth (birth time) were higher than those collected during 18 to <24 hours after the birth time (P < 0.005, 0.05, and 0.05, respectively). The acrophase of salivary cortisol was linearly correlated with the birth time within the first 5 d of life (P < 0.005) but not thereafter. CONCLUSION: In the newborn infant, diurnal increase in cortisol was observed in the late afternoon and in correspondence with the birth time. The adrenal circadian rhythm acquired in utero may be reentrained by endocrinological events at birth. Such complex regulation of the adrenal circadian clock may inhibit a swift synchronization of the circadian clock to the day-night rhythm.

Iwata O; Okamura H; Saitsu H; Saikusa M; Kanda H; Eshima N; Iwata S; Maeno Y; Matsuishi T

2013-01-01

297

Association between In Utero arsenic exposure, placental gene expression, and infant birth weight: a US birth cohort study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies and animal models suggest that in utero arsenic exposure affects fetal health, with a negative association between maternal arsenic ingestion and infant birth weight often observed. However, the molecular mechanisms for this association remain elusive. In the present study, we aimed to increase our understanding of the impact of low-dose arsenic exposure on fetal health by identifying possible arsenic-associated fetal tissue biomarkers in a cohort of pregnant women exposed to arsenic at low levels. METHODS: Arsenic concentrations were determined from the urine samples of a cohort of 133 pregnant women from New Hampshire. Placental tissue samples collected from enrollees were homogenized and profiled for gene expression across a panel of candidate genes, including known arsenic regulated targets and genes involved in arsenic transport, metabolism, or disease susceptibility. Multivariable adjusted linear regression models were used to examine the relationship of candidate gene expression with arsenic exposure or with birth weight of the baby. RESULTS: Placental expression of the arsenic transporter AQP9 was positively associated with maternal urinary arsenic levels during pregnancy (coefficient estimate: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.05 - 0.45). Placental expression of AQP9 related to expression of the phospholipase ENPP2 which was positively associated with infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.09 - 0.47). A structural equation model indicated that these genes may mediate arsenic's effect on infant birth weight (coefficient estimate: -0.009; 95% confidence interval: -0.032 - -0.001; 10,000 replications for bootstrapping). CONCLUSIONS: We identified the expression of AQP9 as a potential fetal biomarker for arsenic exposure. Further, we identified a positive association between the placental expression of phospholipase ENPP2 and infant birth weight. These findings suggest a path by which arsenic may affect birth outcomes.

Fei DL; Koestler DC; Li Z; Giambelli C; Sanchez-Mejias A; Gosse JA; Marsit CJ; Karagas MR; Robbins DJ

2013-01-01

298

Cardiac injury protection from mouse bone marrow stromal cells with in utero transplantation followed by secondary postnatal boost.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Limited donor-cell engraftment to the injured tissue restricts therapeutic efficacy of stem cell transplantation. Herein, we proposed an alternative strategy by using in utero transplantation (IUT) to create mixed-chimerism environment in recipients and to facilitate donor-cell engraftment followed by postnatal secondary boost with the same cells. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used as the xenogenic donor cells and given into rat fetus as an early exposure of IUT treatment. The engraftment potential was analyzed for the presence of BMSCs by flow cytometry or PCR in recipient tissues. The function of a second boost of mouse BMSCs, in terms of cardioprotection, was tested by given 1×10? cells to rat IUT hearts with ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury that was induced by a 45 min of left coronary ligation and released for 72 h. Mouse BMSCs demonstrated an immunosuppressive effect when mixed with mouse or rat lymphocytes. IUT treatment only caused few BMSCs engrafted to fetal (embryonic day 20) and adult (4 weeks after birth) rat organs including heart, but engraftment was increased in hearts of the IUT rats after second boost. This was coincided with attenuation of cardiac injury caused by IR. Interestingly, an up-regulation of CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) was seen when BMSCs were exposed to hypoxia. This indicates that enhanced engraftment of mouse BMSCs to post-ischemic rat hearts possibly is dependent on CXCR4. Moreover, results of flow cytometry demonstrated that the presence of CD34? cells in rat IUT hearts with IR injury was increased. These observations suggest that enhanced engraftment of donor BMSCs to rat IR hearts by CXCR4 may recruit endogenous CD34? cells of recipients which in turn protects heart against IR. This also supports the notion of fetal preconditioning with BMSC enhances the efficiency of progenitor cell-mediated organ protection after a postnatal second boost in xeno-transplantation.

Chung YS; Huang CY; Ma MC; Chu CC; Chiang HS; Lin LJ; Chou SH

2011-08-01

299

Maternal administration of busulfan before in utero transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells enhances engraftments in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

In utero transplantation (IUT) of human hematopoietic stem cells has been conducted in sheep, which are used as large animal models of human hematopoietic reconstitution and models for clinical IUT; however, the levels of engraftment have generally been low. Busulfan (BU), a myeloablative agent, is often administered to patients before hematopoietic stem cells transplantation to improve the engraftment. In this study, hematopoietic activity was evaluated in adult sheep after administering BU at different doses. Next, pregnant ewes were administered BU, and dams as well as their fetuses were evaluated, as BU readily crosses the sheep placenta. Then, the BU dose with the desired outcomes was selected and administered to pregnant ewes at 2 or 6 days before performing IUT using human cord blood CD34(+) cells. The engraftment was evaluated in recipients that underwent IUT in the presence or absence of BU. As a result, hematopoietic activity was safely and transiently suppressed in adult sheep treated with 5 to 7.5 mg/kg BU. BU crossed the sheep placenta, and fetal sheep were indeed conditioned by administering 3 mg/kg BU to pregnant ewes. Engraftment of human CD34(+) cells in fetal recipients was enhanced when IUT was carried out 6 days post-BU. Up to 3.3% engraftment levels (in terms of bone marrow colony-forming units) were achieved with the IUT of 0.72 to 2.4 million CD34(+) cells when BU was used. BU can be administered to pregnant ewes to effectively condition the fetal recipient for IUT with enhanced engraftment of donor cells. PMID:22306296

Abe, Tomoyuki; Masuda, Shigeo; Tanaka, Yujiro; Nitta, Suguru; Kitano, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Satoshi; Hanazono, Yutaka; Nagao, Yoshikazu

2012-02-02

300

Maternal administration of busulfan before in utero transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells enhances engraftments in sheep.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In utero transplantation (IUT) of human hematopoietic stem cells has been conducted in sheep, which are used as large animal models of human hematopoietic reconstitution and models for clinical IUT; however, the levels of engraftment have generally been low. Busulfan (BU), a myeloablative agent, is often administered to patients before hematopoietic stem cells transplantation to improve the engraftment. In this study, hematopoietic activity was evaluated in adult sheep after administering BU at different doses. Next, pregnant ewes were administered BU, and dams as well as their fetuses were evaluated, as BU readily crosses the sheep placenta. Then, the BU dose with the desired outcomes was selected and administered to pregnant ewes at 2 or 6 days before performing IUT using human cord blood CD34(+) cells. The engraftment was evaluated in recipients that underwent IUT in the presence or absence of BU. As a result, hematopoietic activity was safely and transiently suppressed in adult sheep treated with 5 to 7.5 mg/kg BU. BU crossed the sheep placenta, and fetal sheep were indeed conditioned by administering 3 mg/kg BU to pregnant ewes. Engraftment of human CD34(+) cells in fetal recipients was enhanced when IUT was carried out 6 days post-BU. Up to 3.3% engraftment levels (in terms of bone marrow colony-forming units) were achieved with the IUT of 0.72 to 2.4 million CD34(+) cells when BU was used. BU can be administered to pregnant ewes to effectively condition the fetal recipient for IUT with enhanced engraftment of donor cells.

Abe T; Masuda S; Tanaka Y; Nitta S; Kitano Y; Hayashi S; Hanazono Y; Nagao Y

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Prolonging in utero-like oxygenation after birth diminishes oxidative stress in the lung and brain of mice pups.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fetal-to-neonatal transition is associated with oxidative stress. In preterm infants, immaturity of the antioxidant system favours supplemental oxygen-derived morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess if prolonging in utero-like oxygenation during the fetal-to-neonatal transition limits oxidative stress in the lung and brain, improving postnatal adaptation of mice pups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) in pregnant mice was reduced from 21% (room air) to 14% (hypoxia) 8-12 h prior to delivery and reset to 21% 6-8 h after birth. The control group was kept at 21% during the procedure. Reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione and its precursors [?-glutamyl cysteine (?-GC) and L-cysteine (CySH)] content and expression of several redox-sensitive genes were evaluated in newborn lung and brain tissue 1 (P1) and 7 (P7) days after birth. RESULTS: As compared with control animals, the GSH/GSSG ratio was increased in the hypoxic group at P1 and P7 in the lung, and at P7 in the brain. In the hypoxic group a significant increase in the mRNA levels of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (noq1), Sulfiredoxin 1 (srnx1) and Glutathione Peroxidase 1 (gpx) was found in lung tissue at P1, as well as a significant increase in gpx in brain tissue at P7. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying the increase in tissue oxygenation to occur after birth reduces short-and-long-term oxidative stress in the lung. Similar yet more subtle effects were found in the brain. Apparently, the fetal-to-neonatal transition under hypoxic conditions appears to have protective qualities.

Escobar J; Cubells E; Enomoto M; Quintás G; Kuligowski J; Fernández CM; Torres-Cuevas I; Sastre J; Belik J; Vento M

2013-01-01

302

Gene expression profiling following in utero exposure to phthalate esters reveals new gene targets in the etiology of testicular dysgenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Male reproductive tract abnormalities associated with testicular dysgenesis in humans also occur in male rats exposed gestationally to some phthalate esters. We examined global gene expression in the fetal testis of the rat following in utero exposure to a panel of phthalate esters. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by gavage daily from Gestational Days 12 through 19 with corn oil vehicle (1 ml/kg) or diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dioctyl tere-phthalate (DOTP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dipentyl phthalate (DPP), or benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) at 500 mg/kg per day. Testes were isolated on Gestational Day 19, and global changes in gene expression were determined. Of the approximately 30 000 genes queried, expression of 391 genes was significantly altered following exposure to the developmentally toxic phthalates (DBP, BBP, DPP, and DEHP) relative to the control. The developmentally toxic phthalates were indistinguishable in their effects on global gene expression. No significant changes in gene expression were detected in the nondevelopmentally toxic phthalate group (DMP, DEP, and DOTP). Gene pathways disrupted include those previously identified as targets for DBP, including cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis, as well as newly identified pathways involved in intracellular lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, insulin signaling, transcriptional regulation, and oxidative stress. Additional gene targets include alpha inhibin, which is essential for normal Sertoli cell development, and genes involved with communication between Sertoli cells and gonocytes. The common targeting of these genes by a select group of phthalates indicates a role for their associated molecular pathways in testicular development and offers new insight into the molecular mechanisms of testicular dysgenesis.

Liu K; Lehmann KP; Sar M; Young SS; Gaido KW

2005-07-01

303

Gene expression profiling following in utero exposure to phthalate esters reveals new gene targets in the etiology of testicular dysgenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male reproductive tract abnormalities associated with testicular dysgenesis in humans also occur in male rats exposed gestationally to some phthalate esters. We examined global gene expression in the fetal testis of the rat following in utero exposure to a panel of phthalate esters. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated by gavage daily from Gestational Days 12 through 19 with corn oil vehicle (1 ml/kg) or diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), dioctyl tere-phthalate (DOTP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), dipentyl phthalate (DPP), or benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) at 500 mg/kg per day. Testes were isolated on Gestational Day 19, and global changes in gene expression were determined. Of the approximately 30 000 genes queried, expression of 391 genes was significantly altered following exposure to the developmentally toxic phthalates (DBP, BBP, DPP, and DEHP) relative to the control. The developmentally toxic phthalates were indistinguishable in their effects on global gene expression. No significant changes in gene expression were detected in the nondevelopmentally toxic phthalate group (DMP, DEP, and DOTP). Gene pathways disrupted include those previously identified as targets for DBP, including cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis, as well as newly identified pathways involved in intracellular lipid and cholesterol homeostasis, insulin signaling, transcriptional regulation, and oxidative stress. Additional gene targets include alpha inhibin, which is essential for normal Sertoli cell development, and genes involved with communication between Sertoli cells and gonocytes. The common targeting of these genes by a select group of phthalates indicates a role for their associated molecular pathways in testicular development and offers new insight into the molecular mechanisms of testicular dysgenesis. PMID:15728792

Liu, Kejun; Lehmann, Kim P; Sar, Madhabananda; Young, S Stanley; Gaido, Kevin W

2005-02-23

304

Pentasomy 49,XXXXY diagnosed in utero: case report and systematic review of antenatal findings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Pentasomy 49,XXXXY is a rare sex chromosome polysomy usually diagnosed postnatally by the combina- tion of mental retardation, facial dysmorphism, and genital, cardiac and skeletal malformations. Prenatal detection of 49,XXXXY is unusual and may be incidental due to non-specific ultrasound (US) findings. We report a case of 49,XXXXY diagnosed prenatally and present a literature review of the few prenatally diagnosed cases. METHODS: We searched the PubMed electronic database without year and language restriction, using the keywords 'Prenatal', 'Diagnosis', and '49,XXXY', performing a systematic review. RESULTS: We report a 35-year-old patient with normal first-trimester US but increased combined risk for trisomies 18 and 13. Amniocentesis at 16 weeks of gestation revealed a 49,XXXXY karyotype. Pregnancy was terminated at 19 weeks' gestation, and a male fetus with facial dysmorphism and hypospadia was delivered. A total of 12 articles were identified in the systematic review. All were case reports and dated from 1980 until 2008. The mean maternal age was 34.8 years (range 30-41). The most common prenatal US feature was cystic hygroma, present in 5 cases. Hypogenitalism was the most common macroscopic clinical feature identified after pathology examination in 7 cases. In 2 cases, there was an increase in first-trimester combined risk for trisomy 21. CONCLUSIONS: Pentasomy 49,XXXXY is associated with a variety of non-specific US findings, of which cystic hygroma was the commonest. No specific sequence of findings could be identified in this review.

Peitsidis P; Manolakos E; Peitsidou A; Petersen MB; Tsoplou P; Kadir R; Agapitos E

2009-01-01

305

Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Weakness in the Preterm Diaphragm Is Associated with Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Diaphragmatic contractility is reduced in preterm lambs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero. The mechanism of impaired fetal diaphragm contractility after LPS exposure is unknown. We hypothesise that in utero exposure to LPS induces a deficiency of mitochondrial complex activity and oxidative damage in the fetal diaphragm. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-established preterm ovine model of chorioamnionitis: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA) saline or 10 mg LPS, at 2 d or 7 d prior to surgical delivery at 121 d GA (term?=?150 d). The fetus was killed humanely immediately after delivery for tissue sampling. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared from the isolated diaphragm and mitochondrial electron transfer chain activities were evaluated using enzymatic assays. Oxidative stress was investigated by quantifying mitochondrial oxidative protein levels and determining antioxidant gene and protein (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase 1) expression. The activity of the erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant signalling pathway was examined by quantifying the Nrf2 protein content of cell lysate and nuclear extract. A 2 d LPS exposure in utero significantly decreased electron transfer chain complex II and IV activity (poxidative stress and electron chain dysfunction in the fetal diaphragm, that is further exacerbated by impairment of the antioxidant signalling pathway and decreased antioxidant activity.

Song, Yong; Pinniger, Gavin J.; Bakker, Anthony J.; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Noble, Peter B.; Berry, Clare A.; Pillow, Jane J.

2013-01-01

306

In utero infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus modulates leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar fluid of suviving piglets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is well known that piglets congenitally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be viremic at birth, and that preweaning mortality due to secondary infections often increases during acute outbreaks of PRRS. Therefore, an immunosuppressive effect of in utero infection has been suggested. The aim of the present study was to characterise the changes of leukocyte populations in piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. A total of 27 liveborn uninfected control piglets and 22 piglets infected transplacentally with a Danish strain of PRRSV were included. At 2 and 4 weeks of age, 21 of 22 (96%) and 7 of 14 (50%) examined infected piglets were still viremic, whereas PRRSV could not be detected in the six infected piglets examined at 6 weeks of age. Flow cytometry analysis was used to determine the phenotypic composition of leukocytes in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 2-, 4- and 6-week-old infected piglets and age-matched uninfected controls.The key observation in the present study is that high levels of CD8+ cells constitute a dominant feature in peripheral blood and BALF of piglets surviving in utero infection with PRRSV. In BALF, the average high level of CD8+ cells in 2-week-old infected piglets (33.4±12.6%) was followed by a decline to 7.3±3.0 and 11.1±3.0% at 4 and 6 weeks of age. BALF of control piglets contained 1.6±0.9, 2.3±1.8 and 1.9±0.5% CD8+ cells, only. In peripheral blood, however, the average number of CD8+ cells remained at high levels in the infected piglets throughout the post-natal experimental period (2.8±1.9, 2.9±1.8 and 3.2±1.7×106 CD8+ cells/ml at 2, 4 and 6 weeks, respectively). In the controls, the average levels of CD8+ cells were 0.9±0.2, 1.9±1.7 and 1.6±0.5×106/ml, respectively. Furthermore, the numbers of CD2+, CD4+CD8+ and SLA-classII+ cells, respectively, in peripheral blood, together with the levels of CD2+ and CD3+ cells in BALF were increased in the infected piglets infected in utero compared to the uninfected controls. The kinetic analyses carried out in the present study reflect that in utero infection with PRRSV modulates immune cell populations in peripheral blood and BALF of surviving piglets. The observed changes are characterised by high levels of CD8+ cells supporting an important role of these cells in PRRSV infection. The present results, however, do not support the existence of post-natal immunosuppression following in utero infection with PRRSV.

Nielsen, J.; BØtner, Anette

2003-01-01

307

Characterization of placental cholesterol transport : ABCA1 is a potential target for in utero therapy of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are born with multiple congenital abnormalities. Postnatal cholesterol supplementation is provided; however, it cannot correct developmental malformations due to in utero cholesterol deficit. Increased transport of cholesterol from maternal to fetal circulation might attenuate congenital malformations. The cholesterol transporters Abca1, Abcg1, and Sr-b1 are present in placenta; however, their potential role in placental transport remains undetermined. In mice, expression analyses showed that Abca1 and Abcg1 transcripts increased 2-3-fold between embryonic days 13.5 and 18.5 in placental tissue; whereas, Sr-b1 expression decreased. To examine the functional role of Abca1, Abcg1 and Sr-b1 we measured the maternal-fetal transfer of (14)C-cholesterol in corresponding mutant embryos. Disruption of either Abca1 or Sr-b1 decreased cholesterol transfer by approximately 30%. In contrast, disruption of the Abcg1 had no effect. Treatment of pregnant C57Bl/6 female mice with TO901317, an LXR-agonist, increased both Abca1 expression and maternal-fetal cholesterol transfer to the fetus. In an SLOS mouse model (Dhcr7(-/-)), which is incapable of de novo synthesis of cholesterol, in utero treatment with TO901317 resulted in increased cholesterol content in Dhcr7(-/-) embryos. Our data support the hypothesis that Abca1, and possibly Sr-b1, contributes to transport maternal cholesterol to the developing fetus. Furthermore, we show, as a proof of principle, that modulating maternal-fetal cholesterol transport has potential for in utero therapy of SLOS.

Lindegaard, Marie L; Wassif, Christopher A

2008-01-01

308

Hair and Plasma Data Show That Lopinavir, Ritonavir, and Efavirenz All Transfer From Mother to Infant In Utero, But Only Efavirenz Transfers via Breastfeeding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: As efforts intensify to eliminate perinatal HIV transmission, understanding kinetics of maternal-to-child transfer of antiretrovirals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is critical. Antiretroviral levels in plasma, cord blood, and breastmilk reflect exposure over short intervals. Hair concentrations reflect cumulative exposure and can uniquely quantify in utero transfer of maternal medications to infants. We measured plasma and hair antiretroviral levels in HIV-infected Ugandan mothers and their infants at delivery and during breastfeeding to assess transfer. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women were randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir- or efavirenz-based therapy in a larger trial (the Prevention of Malaria and HIV disease in Tororo, PROMOTE). At 0, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum, plasma antiretroviral levels were measured in 117 mother-infant pairs; hair levels were assayed at 12 weeks. Ratios and correlations of infant:maternal concentrations were calculated. RESULTS: By 12 weeks, 90.4% of mothers reported exclusive breastfeeding. Hair and plasma levels over time suggest moderate (47%) to extensive (87%) in utero transfer of lopinavir and ritonavir, respectively, but negligible transfer of either via breastfeeding. Moderate transfer of efavirenz occurs during pregnancy and breastfeeding (40% cumulative; 15% during breastfeeding). Despite differences in exposure, no infant seroconversions or correlations between infant hair/plasma antiretroviral levels and adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Using a unique approach combining hair and plasma data, we found that different antiretrovirals have distinct kinetics of mother-to-infant transfer. Efavirenz transfers during both pregnancy and breastfeeding, whereas lopinavir and ritonavir transfer only in utero. Further study of the degree and timing of maternal-to-child transfer by antiretroviral will help optimize strategies that protect infants and minimize toxicities during periods of risk.

Gandhi M; Mwesigwa J; Aweeka F; Plenty A; Charlebois E; Ruel TD; Huang Y; Clark T; Ades V; Natureeba P; Luwedde FA; Achan J; Kamya MR; Havlir DV; Cohan D

2013-08-01

309

In utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7-year-old Mexican-American children in the CHAMACOS cohort.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) has been hypothesized to increase risk of obesity later in life. OBJECTIVES: The Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study is a longitudinal birth cohort of low-income Latinas living in a California agricultural community. We examined the relation of in utero DDT and DDE exposure to child obesity at 7 years of age. We also examined the trend with age (2, 3.5, 5, and 7 years) in the exposure-obesity relation. METHODS: We included 270 children with o,p´-DDT, p,p´-DDT, and p,p´-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum during pregnancy (nanograms per gram lipid) and complete 7-year follow-up data including weight (kilograms) and height (centimeters). Body mass index (BMI; kilograms per meter squared) was calculated and obesity was defined as ? 95th percentile on the sex-specific BMI-for-age Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts. RESULTS: At 7 years, 96 (35.6%) children were obese. A 10-fold increase in o,p´-DDT, p,p´-DDT, or p,p´-DDE, was nonsignificantly associated with increased odds (OR) of obesity [o,p´-DDT adjusted (adj-) OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.75, 1.82; p,p´-DDT adj-OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.74; p,p´-DDE adj-OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.72, 2.06]. With increasing age at follow-up, we observed a significant trend toward a positive association between DDT and DDE exposure and odds of obesity. CONCLUSION: We did not find a significant positive relation between in utero DDT and DDE exposure and obesity status of 7-year-old children. However, given the observed trend with age, continued follow-up will be informative.

Warner M; Aguilar Schall R; Harley KG; Bradman A; Barr D; Eskenazi B

2013-05-01

310

The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health.

Tenenbaum JD; Whetzel PL; Anderson K; Borromeo CD; Dinov ID; Gabriel D; Kirschner B; Mirel B; Morris T; Noy N; Nyulas C; Rubenson D; Saxman PR; Singh H; Whelan N; Wright Z; Athey BD; Becich MJ; Ginsburg GS; Musen MA; Smith KA; Tarantal AF; Rubin DL; Lyster P

2011-02-01

311

Electronics - Simple Circuits  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a free 9:55 minute video posted on Teacher Tube about Electronics: Simple Circuits. It covers an introduction to basic electronics such as Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Law, simple circuits, series and parallel circuits. The presentation is easy to follow and offers good examples of simple circuitry. The video is a great resource for any technology classroom.

2008-11-14

312

Library Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Library Resources Literature Search via PubMed NOTE: PubMed replaces Entrez (previously limited to Molecular Biology references in Medline). Searches are now free, with no account required, either for Grateful Med or PubMed. National Library of Medicine NIH

313

Introduction to Electronics Industry  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Work-Ready Electronics, a project of the Advanced Technological Education program, this module walks visitors through the basic of the electronics industry, including different industry categories, and the overall process that moves the industry along. There is a quiz to test what students learned in the module in the Knowledge Probe section, and the Learning Resources section contains two activities to help cement student understanding. There are also further resources - both print and Web based - for more information and a Knowledge Game, which consists of a crossword reiterating the material covered. The Notebook function allows visitors to take notes and review them at any time. This is an excellent resource for introductory electronics classes, or for students just entering electronics technician programs.

2008-09-04

314

Sex-dependent behavioral changes in rat offspring after in utero administration of a single low dose PBDE 47  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increasing levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental and human samples has resulted in intensive discussion regarding possible hazard identification and risk assessment in the last years. In rodents, exposure to PBDE mixtures or single congeners has resulted in a mixed induction of CYP450- dependent enzymes, showing increased activity of hepatic EROD and PROD. In addition, genotoxicity has been observed in recombination assays, and neurotoxicity has been reported in mice exposed during development. Acute and sub-chronic exposures of mice and rats to a PBDE mixture (DE-71) cause dose-dependent reductions in serum concentrations of thyroxin (T4), and stressinduced elevations in plasma corticosterone. Further, some hydroxylated metabolites of PBDE congeners exhibit a higher potency in vivo than T4 in competitive binding to human transthyretin (TTR), the transport protein mediating transfer of thyroid hormones across the placenta and into the brain. The available information in the literature clearly indicates that PBDEs are potent neurotoxicants, causing effects at doses lower than that able to disrupt thyroid hormone profiles and change CYP 450 activities. Neurobehavior effects, which includes defects in learning and memory, and changes in nicotinic receptors were found at doses starting at 0.45 ppm in mouse (9). The congeners, PBDE 47 and PBDE 99, have also been shown to cause permanent aberrations in spontaneous behavior in mice which was more pronounced with increasing age. PBDE 47 is the most predominant congener found in environmental and human samples, including human breast milk. Its presence in breast milk highlights the importance of evaluating possible effects following early developmental exposure and because this period represents a critical time which an organism is extremely susceptible to minor changes in hormonal milieu. Variances in terms of time point and concentration of exposure to steroids can lead to an organizational change which could manifest itself in an irreversible fashion at later time points in life. We administered a single dose to gravid dams on gestation day 6 of either 140 {mu}g/kg BW or 700 {mu}g/kg BW of the congener, 2,2'4,4'-tetrabromo diphenyl ether (PBDE 47). These doses are pertinent to human exposure levels because a study by She et al. found a mean level of 33.3 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat in human breast adipose tissue with a range from 7.01 to 196 {mu}g PBDE 47 /kg fat (10). In this study, peri-pubertal behavior effects were evaluated in rat offspring after in utero administration of low dose PBDE 47.

Kuriyama, S.N.; Talsness, C.E.; Chahoud, I. [Charite Univ. Medical School Berlin (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Dept. Toxicology, Campus Benjamin Franklin

2004-09-15

315

Behavioral consequences of in utero exposure to mercury vapor: alterations in lever-press durations and learning in squirrel monkeys.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to mercury vapor in utero results in the accumulation of mercury in the cerebellum, hippocampus, and other regions of the nervous system associated with motor function and learning, but little is known about the functional consequences of prenatal exposure. The offspring of pregnant squirrel monkeys exposed to 0.5 or 1.0 mg/m3 of mercury vapor during the last 2/3 or more of gestation were studied. Median maternal blood levels ranged from 0.025 to 0.18 microgram/g and exposures were estimated to range from 20 to 62 micrograms/day, with cumulative doses of 1304 to 4305 micrograms. Unexposed monkeys born at about the same time served as controls. The monkeys' lever pressing was maintained under various Concurrent Random-Interval Random-Interval schedules of reinforcement. Time allocation on each lever was examined during behavioral transitions and in steady state. No difference in sensitivity to reinforcer ratios was identified in steady state, but there was much more variability in the steady-state performance of exposed monkeys, as indicated by the standard deviation of the regression, than in controls. Logistic regression was used to examine the transition to new schedule parameters. Exposed monkeys were found to produce smaller or slower transitions than controls. The magnitude and stability of lever-press durations for controls and exposed monkeys were indistinguishable early in the experiment, but at the end the exposed monkeys had longer lever-press durations and the session-to-session variability was much greater. One monkey's exposure began during the third week of gestation (earlier than any of the others) and the behavior of this monkey was so erratic that some of the analyses could not be accomplished. Long-term effects of prenatal mercury vapor exposure included instability in lever-press durations and steady-state performance under concurrent schedules of reinforcement as well as aberrant transitions. The levels used were close to those reported in occupational settings under conditions of poor hygiene, but were at least 10- to 50-fold greater than those more commonly reported.

Newland MC; Warfvinge K; Berlin M

1996-08-01

316

TAT-mediated transduction of MafA protein in utero results in enhanced pancreatic insulin expression and changes in islet morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alongside Pdx1 and Beta2/NeuroD, the transcription factor MafA has been shown to be instrumental in the maintenance of the beta cell phenotype. Indeed, a combination of MafA, Pdx1 and Ngn3 (an upstream regulator of Beta2/NeuroD) was recently reported to lead to the effective reprogramming of acinar cells into insulin-producing beta cells. These experiments set the stage for the development of new strategies to address the impairment of glycemic control in diabetic patients. However, the clinical applicability of reprogramming in this context is deemed to be poor due to the need to use viral vehicles for the delivery of the above factors. Here we describe a recombinant transducible version of the MafA protein (TAT-MafA) that penetrates across cell membranes with an efficiency of 100% and binds to the insulin promoter in vitro. When injected in utero into living mouse embryos, TAT-MafA significantly up-regulates target genes and induces enhanced insulin production as well as cytoarchitectural changes consistent with faster islet maturation. As the latest addition to our armamentarium of transducible proteins (which already includes Pdx1 and Ngn3), the purification and characterization of a functional TAT-MafA protein opens the door to prospective therapeutic uses that circumvent the use of viral delivery. To our knowledge, this is also the first report on the use of protein transduction in utero. PMID:21857924

Vargas, Nancy; Álvarez-Cubela, Silvia; Giraldo, Jaime A; Nieto, Margarita; Fort, Nicholas M; Cechin, Sirlene; García, Enrique; Espino-Grosso, Pedro; Fraker, Christopher A; Ricordi, Camillo; Inverardi, Luca; Pastori, Ricardo L; Domínguez-Bendala, Juan

2011-08-04

317

Effect of in utero-administered coumestrol, equol, and organic selenium on biomarkers for phase 2 enzyme capacity and redox status  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of in utero administration of coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast on selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes, plasma hormone levels, and markers for redox status in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The test compounds were administered via the diet to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats throughout gestation. Within 24 h following delivery dams and offspring were sacrificed, and blood, liver and reproductive organs were sampled. Coumestrol, equol, and selenium-enriched yeast did not significantly affect hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), quinone reductase (QR), or RBC glutathione peroxidase (GP(x)) in the offspring, whereas significant increases in GST QR, and GP(x) activities in dams were observed following administration of selenium-enriched yeast. The level of 17beta-estradiol in offspring from coumestrol-exposed dams was significantly increased compared with the control. The present results indicate that selenium-enriched yeast, coumestrol, andequol affect selected hepatic phase 2 enzymes and GP(x) in RBC in dams, whereas the offspring in general were refractive to the employed treatments. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether the observed in utero effects imposed by the selected plant compounds confer permanent alterations on the health status of the animal resulting in an altered resistance to cancer.

Kramer, F.; Jensen, P. S.

2003-01-01

318

Normal mammary gland morphology in pubertal female mice following in utero and lactational exposure to genistein at levels comparable to human dietary exposure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to genistein (0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day) on mammary gland morphology in female B6D2F1 mice at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures. The effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES; 0, 0.1, 1, 10 microg/kg/day) on the mammary gland was also examined as a positive estrogenic control. Pregnant females were treated by daily gavage from gestational day 12 to postnatal day (PND) 20. Female offspring were weaned on PND21 and mammary gland whole mounts were examined for growth (length and area of the epithelial tree), proliferation (number of terminal end buds (TEBs)), and differentiation (density of alveolar buds (ABs)) on PND49. The highest dose of DES induced a significant increase in mammary gland growth (P<0.05) and also decreased the number of TEBs (P<0.06). The density of ABs was not significantly affected by DES. By contrast to DES, genistein had no effect on mammary gland morphology at any dose. These results suggest that in utero and lactational exposure to genistein at levels comparable to or greater than human exposures do not adversely affect mammary gland development in pubertal female B6D2F1 mice.

Fielden MR; Fong CJ; Haslam SZ; Zacharewski TR

2002-07-01

319

In utero and early-life exposure of rats to a Wi-Fi signal: screening of immune markers in sera and gestational outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An experimental approach was used to assess immunological biomarkers in the sera of young rats exposed in utero and postnatal to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields. Pregnant rats were exposed free-running, 2 h/day and 5 days/week to a 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi signal in a reverberation chamber at whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0, 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg (with 10, 10, 12, and 9 rats, respectively), while cage control rats were kept in the animal facility (11 rats). Dams were exposed from days 6 to 21 of gestation and then three newborns per litter were further exposed from birth to day 35 postnatal. On day 35 after birth, all pups were sacrificed and sera collected. The screening of sera for antibodies directed against 15 different antigens related to damage and/or pathological markers was conducted using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No change in humoral response of young pups was observed, regardless of the types of biomarker and SAR levels. This study also provided some data on gestational outcome following in utero exposure to Wi-Fi signals. Mass evaluation of dams and pups and the number of pups per litter was monitored, and the genital tracts of young rats were observed for abnormalities by measuring anogenital distance. Under these experimental conditions, our observations suggest a lack of adverse effects of Wi-Fi exposure on delivery and general condition of the animals.

Aït-Aïssa S; Billaudel B; Poulletier de Gannes F; Ruffié G; Duleu S; Hurtier A; Haro E; Taxile M; Athané A; Geffard M; Wu T; Wiart J; Bodet D; Veyret B; Lagroye I

2012-07-01

320

Saskatchewan resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned. (ndh).

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Water resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report discusses the environmental effects on the water resources of the region. Water quality concerns in the region include: (1) point and non-point sources of pollution, (2) toxic substances found in both sediments and wildlife of some reservoirs, and (3) occurrences of low dissolved oxygen levels downstream of certain dams. Each of these concerns are discussed with respect to the aquatic environments of the region.

NONE

1995-10-01

322

Engineering Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

The American Society for Mechanical Engineers (ASME) was founded in 1880 by a small group of leading industrialists, and has grown since that time to include over 120,000 members in over 150 countries. This section of their website brings together a clutch of resources for those seeking to learn about career paths in the field. There are several items here: "Mechanical Engineering A to Z," "ME and MET: Which Path Will You Take?," "What is a Mechanical Engineer?," and "Why Knot? A Little Fun With Mechanical Engineering." The first resource allows users to learn about the "A to Z" of this field via fun games, quizzes, and interactives having to do with mechanical engineering. The "What is a Mechanical Engineer?" pamphlet provides answers to this question by looking at how these professionals work on power stations, mobile phones, and complex movie cameras. Visitors won't want to miss the other two resources here, which round out a great way to get young people thinking about joining this noble profession.

2013-01-11

323

RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las células mesenquimáticas que van a derivar en músculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los niños, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera década). Se clasifican en forma histológica en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomórficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican según la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres (more) resultados se evalúa la sobrevida a los 2 años (90% de mortalidad a los dos años). A continuación presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patológico se demostró un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de útero Abstract in english Rabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade). They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

Hurel M, Ernesto; Evans M, Gregorio; Poulsen R, Ronald; Gómez P, Hugo

2003-01-01

324

RABDOMIOSARCOMA ALVEOLAR DE UTERO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los rabdomiosarcomas constituyen un tipo raro de sarcoma que se origina en las células mesenquimáticas que van a derivar en músculo estriado. De ocurrencia mayoritaria en la infancia (50-55% de los sarcomas de los niños, de ellos el 70% ocurre en la primera década). Se clasifican en forma histológica en embriones, botriodes, alveolar y pleomórficas. Estos tumores se diagnostican en raras ocasiones. Se etapifican según la IRSG de Estados Unidos. Debido a los pobres resultados se evalúa la sobrevida a los 2 años (90% de mortalidad a los dos años). A continuación presentamos el poco afortunado caso de una paciente manejada en nuestro servicio, en cuyo estudio patológico se demostró un rabdomiosarcoma alveolar de úteroRabdomyosarcoma constitutes a rare type of sarcoma that it is originated in the mesenchymal cells that are going to derive in striated muscle. Are more common in childhood (50-55% of sarcomas of the children, of them 70% happens in a the first decade). They are classified histologicaly in embryonic, botryoid, alveolar and pleomorphic. These tumors are diagnosed very seldom. We present the unfortunate case of a patient handled in our service, in whose pathological study a uterine alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma was demonstrated

Ernesto Hurel M; Gregorio Evans M; Ronald Poulsen R; Hugo Gómez P

2003-01-01

325

INDUCTION OF CYP1A1 AD CYP1B1 AND FORMATION OF DNA ADDUCTS IN C57BL/6, BALB/C, AND F1 MICE FOLLOWING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE  

Science.gov (United States)

Fetal mice are more sensitive to chemical carcinogens than are adults. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated differences in the mutational spectrum induced in the Ki-ras gene from lung tumors isolated from [D2 x B6D2F1]F2 mice and Balb/c mice treated in utero with 3¿m...

326

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT), masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea.Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anesthetic considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a private highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia) by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Juan Camilo Ospina-García; Carolina Wuesthoff-Prieto; Santiago Eslava-Cerón

2012-01-01

327

EXIT: tratamiento exútero intraparto: Reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura/ EXIT: ex-utero intrapartum treatment: A case report and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción y objetivo: la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) permite el aseguramiento de la vía aérea fetal mientras se mantiene el soporte uteroplacentario íntegro. El objetivo de reportar este caso es describir el procedimiento y hacer una revisión de la literatura mundial respecto a consideraciones anestésicas y complicaciones asociadas. Materiales y métodos: presentamos el caso de una neonato femenina de 39 semanas de gestación que nace mediante (more) la técnica Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT) debido a una potencial obstrucción de la vía aérea detectada en una ecografía de tercer trimestre. Se realizó una búsqueda sistemática usando las palabras clave: Tratamiento exútero intraparto (EXIT), masas cervicales congénitas y CHAOS en las bases de datos Medline via Pub Med, Ovid, y la base latinoamericana SciELO. Resultados: se encontraron un total de 183 artículos, de los cuales 76 estaban relacionados directamente con el tema, de estos se seleccionaron 8 reportes de caso, 2 series de casos y 14 revisiones del tema. Conclusiones: la estrategia EXIT prueba ser una herramienta útil en el adecuado manejo de los neo-natos con obstrucciones congénitas de la vía aérea. Abstract in english Introduction and objective: The EXIT procedure (ex-utero intrapartum treatment) is aimed at securing the fetal high airway whilst maintaining integral uteroplacentary circulation. The purpose of reporting this case was to describe the procedure and review the worldwide literature regarding anesthetic considerations and associated complications. Materials and methods: The case of a 39-week gestation female neonate is presented; she was born at the Clínica del Country (a p (more) rivate highlevel healthcare general hospital located in Bogota, Colombia) by the ex-utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) technique due to a potential obstruction of the airway detected during third-trimester echography. A systematic search was made of Medline databases via PubMed, Ovid, and the SciELO Latin-American database using the following key words: EXIT, ex-utero intrapartum treatment, congenital cervical mass, CHAOS. Results: 183 articles were found, of which 76 were directly related to the topic; 8 case reports, 2 case series and 14 reviews of the topic were selected. Conclusion: The EXIT strategy has proved to be a useful tool in the suitable management of neonates suffering congenital obstruction of the airway.

Ospina-García, Juan Camilo; Wuesthoff-Prieto, Carolina; Eslava-Cerón, Santiago

2012-06-01

328

PAH Particles Perturb Prenatal Processes and Phenotypes: Protection from Deficits in Object Discrimination Afforded by Dampening of Brain Oxidoreductase Following In Utero Exposure to Inhaled Benzo(a)pyrene  

Science.gov (United States)

The wild-type (WT) Cprlox/lox (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, Cpr) mouse is an ideal model to assess the contribution of P450 enzymes to the metabolic activation and disposition of environmental xenobiotics. In the present study, we examined the effect of in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] aerosol on Sp4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)–dependent systems as well as a resulting behavioral phenotype (object discrimination) in Cpr offspring. Results from in utero exposure of WT Cprlox/lox mice were compared with in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring mice. Null mice were used as they do not express brain cytochrome P4501B1–associated NADPH oxidoreductase (CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase), thus reducing their capacity to produce neural B(a)P metabolites. Subsequent to in utero (E14–E17) exposure to B(a)P (100 ?g/m3), Cprlox/lox offspring exhibited: (1) elevated B(a)P metabolite and F2-isoprostane neocortical tissue burdens, (2) elevated concentrations of cortical glutamate, (3) premature developmental expression of Sp4, (4) decreased subunit ratios of NR2B:NR2A, and (5) deficits in a novelty discrimination phenotype monitored to in utero exposed brain-Cpr-null offspring. Collectively, these findings suggest that in situ generation of metabolites by CYP1B1-associated NADPH oxidoreductase promotes negative effects on NMDA-mediated signaling processes during the period when synapses are first forming as well as effects on a subsequent behavioral phenotype.

Chadalapaka, Gayathri; Ramesh, Aramandla; Khoshbouei, Habibeh; Maguire, Mark; Safe, Stephen; Rhoades, Raina E.; Clark, Ryan; Jules, George; McCallister, Monique; Aschner, Michael; Hood, Darryl B.

2012-01-01

329

Electronic Aggression: New Technology and Youth Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks Electronic Aggression On this Page Publications Additional CDC Resources Additional ... used to describe this type of violence, electronic aggression is the term that most accurately captures all ...

330

Resource abundance and resource dependence in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper reconsiders the 'curse of resources' hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence varies with institutional quality. Resource abundance/rents has a positive impact on economic growth, while resource dependence has a negative impact. The impact of the 'West China Development Drive' policy, started in 2000, is substantial, and this is investigated through a comparative analysis based on cross-section samples, and through a panel-data timevarying coefficient approach for West and East provinces. Resource effects do change after the policy shock.

2010-01-01

331

Repetitive exposure to a 7 Tesla static magnetic field of mice in utero does not cause alterations in basal emotional and cognitive behavior in adulthood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past three decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used in obstetrics to aid diagnostics of maternal and fetal conditions and has generally been considered a safe imaging method. However, the development of higher-performance systems employing, for example, stronger fields to improve the technique's diagnostic potential, necessitates on-going safety evaluation. Rodent studies provide an excellent opportunity to investigate not only acute but also long-term effects of magnetic field exposure in a systematic manner, and a behavioral analysis might help to uncover subtler effects which might result from magnetic field exposure of the vulnerable developing brain. We conducted a comprehensive investigation of emotional and cognitive behavior in adult mice which had been repeatedly exposed to a 7 Tesla static magnetic field in utero. Using well-validated tests, we did not observe any adverse behavioral alterations regarding emotional behavior as well as spatial and emotional learning.

Hoyer C; Vogt MA; Richter SH; Zaun G; Zahedi Y; Maderwald S; Ladd ME; Winterhager E; Grümmer R; Gass P

2012-08-01

332

Repetitive exposure to a 7 Tesla static magnetic field of mice in utero does not cause alterations in basal emotional and cognitive behavior in adulthood.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the past three decades, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly used in obstetrics to aid diagnostics of maternal and fetal conditions and has generally been considered a safe imaging method. However, the development of higher-performance systems employing, for example, stronger fields to improve the technique's diagnostic potential, necessitates on-going safety evaluation. Rodent studies provide an excellent opportunity to investigate not only acute but also long-term effects of magnetic field exposure in a systematic manner, and a behavioral analysis might help to uncover subtler effects which might result from magnetic field exposure of the vulnerable developing brain. We conducted a comprehensive investigation of emotional and cognitive behavior in adult mice which had been repeatedly exposed to a 7 Tesla static magnetic field in utero. Using well-validated tests, we did not observe any adverse behavioral alterations regarding emotional behavior as well as spatial and emotional learning. PMID:22484359

Hoyer, Carolin; Vogt, Miriam A; Richter, S Helene; Zaun, Gregor; Zahedi, Yasmin; Maderwald, Stefan; Ladd, Mark E; Winterhager, Elke; Grümmer, Ruth; Gass, Peter

2012-03-30

333

Air resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

NONE

1995-10-01

334

Mineral resources  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

1991-01-01

335

Effects of protein restriction in utero on the metabolism of mink dams (Neovison vison) and on mink kit survival as well as on postnatal growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Protein restriction in utero may give rise to restricted growth as well as induce metabolically related diseases. In order to determine the suitability of mink as an animal model for metabolism studies, the effects of protein restriction during gestation on dam and kit performance must first be determined. Mink dams were fed an adequate protein (AP; crude protein:fat:carbohydrate ratio of 31:55:14% of metabolizable energy, ME) or a low protein diet (LP; 19%:49%: 32% of ME) during the last 21.2 ± 3.3 days of gestation, followed by an adequate diet during lactation. Respiration and balance experiments were performed during late gestation and twice during lactation. The dietary treatment only affected energy metabolism traits significantly during the treatment period in late gestation, such that LP dams oxidized less protein (12% vs 23% of heat production, HE, P = 0.001) but more carbohydrate (37% vs 26% of HE, P -0.75.day-1, P < 0.05) than AP dams. Reproductive performance and kit organ growth were not affected by diet. Kit losses up to weaning were higher in LP than AP dams (2.0 vs 1.4, P < 0.05). LP fetuses weighed less (8.3 vs 11.6 g, P < 0.001) and were shorter (6.2 vs 7.6 cm, P < 0.001) than AP fetuses, however, differences might have been due to different implantation times. LP kits weighed 8.5% less than AP kits at birth, and remained lighter until 21 days of age. The LP diet caused growth restriction and increased kit mortality indicating that the dietary protein supply during late gestation was suboptimal to re-quirements. The long-term consequences of protein restriction in utero in terms of permanent metabolic changes in adulthood now need to be investigated.

Kristine Vesterdorf; Adrian Harrison; Connie Frank Matthiesen; Anne-Helene Tauson

2012-01-01

336

In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) affects tooth development in rhesus monkeys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current tolerable daily intake (TDI) of dioxin and dioxin related compounds has been set at 4 pg TEQ/kg/day in Japan. This value was calculated from the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL) in experimental animals, mostly rodents. Gray et al. reported that a single oral dose of 200 ng/kg of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to pregnant rats on day 15 of gestation resulted in abnormalities of reproductive organs in the offspring. The maternal body burden at this dose was measured to be 86 ng/kg. To attain this body burden level, human daily intake was calculated to be 43.6 pg/kg/day. An uncertainty factor of 10 was applied to this value, and the human TDI was established. However, due to great differences in the biological half life of TCDD between human and rodents, the validity of this calculation is questioned. To obtain more reliable LOAEL in the second generation, we initiated a long-term study in rhesus monkeys in 1999. In rodents, teeth are known to be targets of developmental toxicity of dioxin. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure affects rat incisor and molar development. In humans also tooth abnormalities were reported among populations exposed to dioxins. In our monkey experiment, some young were stillborn or died neonatally. These animals provided us with a unique opportunity to study tooth development in primate young exposed to TCDD in utero and lactationally. By macroscopic observation we found some tooth abnormalities among died young exposed to TCDD5. This prompted us to examine surviving young by radiography. This is an interim report of our findings in these young.

Yasuda, Iku; Kazuhiro, Tsuga; Yasumasa, Akagawa [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Mineo, Yasuda; Hiroshi, Sumida [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan); Akihiro, Arima; Toshio, Ihara [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd., Kagoshima (Japan); Shunichiro, Kubota [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Kazuo, Asaoka [Kyoto Univ., Inuyama (Japan). Primate Research Institute; Takumi, Takasuga [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

2004-09-15

337

EXIT (Ex utero Intrapartum Treatment) in lymphatic malformations of the head and neck: discussion of three cases and proposal of an EXIT-TTP (Team Time Procedure) list.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Ex utero Intrapartum Treatment (EXIT) is a technique to secure the fetal airway while oxygenation is maintained through utero-placental circulation. The aim of the study is to present three cases of fetal lymphatic malformation of the head and neck that required EXIT and to summarize EXIT details. METHODS: The cases were studied before the delivery and EXIT was planned with a multidisciplinary team. The key factors of EXIT are considered and the type, stage and clinical score of the three lymphatic malformations are defined. RESULTS: In the three cases of EXIT the time working on placental support to secure the airway was 9, 7, and 9 min, respectively (from the hysterotomy to clamping the umbilical cord). Procedures performed on the airway were laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy in the first case, laryngoscopy and intubation in the second one, laryngoscopy, drainage of the lymphatic macro-cyst, and intubation in the third case. A sketching to detail the EXIT steps are presented: EXIT-Team Time Procedure list (EXIT-TTP list). Lymphatic malformations were classified as mixed (micro/macro-cystic) in two cases, and macro-cystic in one. de Serres Stage was IV, V and II. Therapy varied in the three neonates (surgery alone, surgery+Picibanil+Nd-YAG, or Picibanil alone). CONCLUSIONS: In case of prenatal suspicion of airway obstruction, EXIT should be planned with a multidisciplinary team. The EXIT-Team Time Procedure list (EXIT-TTP list), reviews the most critical phases of the procedure when different teams are working together. The type of lymphatic malformation, the anatomic location and the clinical score predict the outcome.

Stefini S; Bazzana T; Smussi C; Piccioni M; Frusca T; Taddei F; Tomasoni G; Recupero D; Cavazza A; Villani P; Nicolai P; Eivazi B; Wiegand S; Werner JA; Schmidt S; Maier RF; Torossian A

2012-01-01

338

Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP).  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data. PMID:20850466

Ovacik, Meric A; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y; Gaido, Kevin W; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G; Androulakis, Ioannis P

2010-09-17

339

Energy resources in California  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides a concise synopsis and visual representation of California's energy resources, current uses of these resources, and new, innovative ways to use these resources in the future. Chapter One identifies the state's energy resources and their locations; Chapter Two discusses current uses; and Chapter Three describes potential uses of these resources.

1981-11-01

340

Linguistics Resources on the Internet  

Science.gov (United States)

This site is provided by the Summer Institute of Linguistics, located at the International Linguistics Center in Dallas, Texas. The focus of the whole site is the study of minority languages and cultures around the world. The Academic domains represented include linguistics, anthropology, translation, literacy, language learning, and computing. The Linguistics Resources on the Internet section contains annotated listings of resources of interest to the linguistics, computational linguistics and natural language processing fields of study. The page is divided into eight sections including computing resources (including links to text and speech analysis, morphology and phonology, and lexical software); journals and newsletters; conferences and meetings and electronic texts, dictionaries and data. The individual sections contain extensive lists of links, many of which are briefly annotated.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

DW3 Classical Music Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This site, hosted by the Duke University Music Library, is a sizable and well-organized metasite for classical music resources. Sections include Composer Homepages, Chronologies and Necrologies, National and Regionally Oriented Pages, Organizations and Centers for Scholarly Research, Electronic Journals and Newsletters, Genre-Specific Pages, and Databases (over 40). With the exception of the Chronologies and Necrologies and Databases sections, the featured links are not annotated. An internal search engine is also provided.

342

Water Resources Management ?????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water Resources Management is an international, multidisciplinary forum for the presentation of original contributions and the exchange of knowledge and experience on the management of water resources. In particular, the journal publishes contributions on: water resources assessment, developm...

343

Solar radiation resource assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

1990-11-01

344

Evolução de 58 fetos com meningomielocele e o potencial de reparo intra-útero Fetal myelomeningocele and the potential in-utero repair: follow-up of 58 fetuses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O diagnóstico pré natal da meningomielocele (MM) permite melhor planejamento de sua abordagem e, mais recentemente , um possível reparo intra-útero. OBJETIVO: Descrição da evolução perinatal de fetos com MM, acompanhados em um centro de referência em Medicina Fetal, identificando os possíveis fetos candidatos à cirurgia intra-uterina. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva descritiva de 58 casos de MM fetal, atendidos no CAISM-UNICAMP, de janeiro de 1997 a dezembro de 2001, identificando-se os casos cuja indicação de cirurgia fetal seria possível. RESULTADOS: Média da idade gestacional ao diagnóstico de 29 semanas (17-39); nível da lesão acima da região sacral em 85%; associação com hidrocefalia em 86%; taxa de complicações cirúrgicas de 39%. Na evolução, 98% apresentaram bexiga neurogênica e 60% deficiência neuro-mental. O potencial reparo intra-útero foi de 42%. CONCLUSÃO: MM está associada a graves e frequentes sequelas. Quase um terço dos nossos casos poderiam ter tido a cirurgia fetal como opção terapêutica.INTRODUCTION: Prenatal diagnosis of myelomeningocele (MM) allows planning its management and, recently, a possible in utero repair. OBJECTIVE: To describe the perinatal outcome of fetuses with MM, in a Fetal Medicine Unit, identifying possible candidates for the in utero surgical repair. METHODO: Retrospective and descriptive study of 58 cases of prenatally diagnosed MM, at CAISM-UNICAMP, from January 1997 to December 2001, identifying possible fetal candidates for in utero repair. RESULTS: the diagnosis mean gestacional age was 29 weeks (17-39); level of lesions was above sacral region in 85%, association with hydrocephaly in 86%. Surgical complications were present in 39% of the neonates. During follow-up, 98% presented neurogenic bladder and 60% neurological/mental handicap. Twenty eight fetuses (42%) could have indication of in utero repair. CONCLUSION: MM is associated with severe and frequent poor results. Almost one third of our cases could had fetal repair as a treatment choice.

Lourenço Sbragia; Isabela Nelly Machado; Carlos Eduardo Braidos Rojas; Helder Zambelli; Márcio Lopes Miranda; Maria Otília Bianchi; Ricardo Barini

2004-01-01

345

Custom power applications as a distributed resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Distributed resources and custom power applications are described as follows: (1) Distributed resources. The application of dispersed generation, storage, and load control for reduced system costs, (2) Custom power. The application of advanced power electronic equipment for increased reliability for preferred customers. The application of distributed resources may result in lower reliability and power quality for customers on selected feeders because of the lower reliability of generation and storage equipment compared to the reliability of system upgrades. Custom power is a natural complement for distributed resources, providing increased reliability to preferred customers on affected feeders. Custom power technologies include the application of power electronic converters operating at distribution voltages to mitigate disturbances at customer load sites.

Richardson, D.

1995-12-01

346

In utero and lactational exposure of male rats to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. 3. Effects on spermatogenesis and reproductive capability.  

Science.gov (United States)

When administered in overtly toxic doses to postweanling male rats, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces adverse effects on the reproductive system including a decrease in spermatogenesis. Because the male reproductive system may be particularly susceptible to toxic insult during the perinatal period, the effects of in utero and lactational TCDD exposure on its development were examined. Male rats born to dams given TCDD (0.064, 0.16, 0.40, or 1.0 micrograms/kg, po) or vehicle on Day 15 of gestation were evaluated at various stages of development; effects on spermatogenesis and male reproductive capability are reported herein. Testis, epididymis, and cauda epididymis weights were decreased in a dose-related fashion at 32, 49, 63, and 120 days of age, that is, when males were at the juvenile, pubertal, postpubertal, and mature stages of sexual development, respectively. When measured on Days 49, 63, and 120, daily sperm production by the testis was reduced at the highest maternal TCDD dose to 57-74% of the control rate. Cauda epididymal sperm reserves in 63- and 120-day-old males were decreased to as low as 25 and 44%, respectively, of control values, although the motility and morphology of these sperm appeared to be unaffected. The magnitude of the effects described above tended to lessen with time; nevertheless, the decreases in epididymis and cauda epididymis weights, daily sperm production, and cauda epididymal sperm number were statistically significant at the lowest maternal dose tested (0.064 micrograms TCDD/kg) on Day 120 and at most earlier times. To determine if in utero and lactational TCDD exposure also affects male reproductive capability, rats were mated at approximately 70 and 120 days of age with control females. Little if any effect on fertility was seen, and the survival and growth of offspring was unaffected. These results are not inconsistent with the pronounced reductions in daily sperm production and cauda epididymal sperm reserves caused by perinatal TCDD exposure since rats produce and ejaculate far more sperm than are required for normal fertility. The TCDD-induced reduction in spermatogenesis cannot be accounted for by concurrent effects on plasma follicle-stimulating hormone or androgen concentrations or by undernutrition. To investigate the nature of the spermatogenic lesion, leptotene spermatocyte to Sertoli cell ratios were determined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1585364

Mably, T A; Bjerke, D L; Moore, R W; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A; Peterson, R E

1992-05-01

347

Doses to the embryo/fetus and neonate from intakes of radionuclides by the mother. Part 1: Doses received in utero and from activity present at birth  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report considers the consequences of occupational exposures leading to intakes of radionuclides by women who are, or may become, pregnant. Estimates are given of potential doses to offspring following intakes of a selected range of naturally occurring and artificial radionuclides that might arise for different contamination scenarios in the workplace. The radionuclides covered are of interest from both routine operations and accidental releases. Doses can arise both from the transfer of radionuclides to the embryo and fetus, and from activity in the mother's tissues. The relative contributions of these two sources vary widely depending on the emissions of each radionuclide. Doses are also calculated for the lifetime of the newborn child from activity present at birth. The total dose coefficient for the offspring (the sum of the in utero and postnatal doses) calculated in this report is compared to the dose coefficients recommended by ICRP for workers. Of particular interest are cases where the offspring dose is greater than the worker dose since these are the cases where the normal standards for protection of workers may not afford sufficient protection to the offspring, isotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulphur, iodine and the alkaline earth elements fall into this category. Isotopes of calcium and phosphorus, show the greatest differences between offspring and worker doses with the ratio of the two being over 15 for ingestion of calcium-45 or phosphorus-32. In utero doses for the actinides such as plutonium-239 are at most only a few per cent of the corresponding worker dose In some cases intakes by the mother that occurred well before pregnancy can lead to significant doses to the fetus; this is of particular relevance to the advance planning of protection for female workers. A general implication of this report is that intakes of some radionuclides may need to be restricted to lower levels than those that would lead to a dose to the worker of 1 mSv. This report thus provides the basis for the guidance given by HSC in the 1999 Regulations. This report and the work it describes was funded by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Its contents, including any opinions and/or conclusions expressed, are those of the authors alone and do not necessarily reflect HSE policy. (author)

Phipps, A.W.; Smith, T.J.; Fell, T.P.; Harrison, J.D

2001-12-01

348

Hard electronics; Hard electronics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

1998-03-01

349

Lipopolysaccharide-induced weakness in the preterm diaphragm is associated with mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction and oxidative stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diaphragmatic contractility is reduced in preterm lambs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in utero. The mechanism of impaired fetal diaphragm contractility after LPS exposure is unknown. We hypothesise that in utero exposure to LPS induces a deficiency of mitochondrial complex activity and oxidative damage in the fetal diaphragm. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-established preterm ovine model of chorioamnionitis: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA) saline or 10 mg LPS, at 2 d or 7 d prior to surgical delivery at 121 d GA (term?=?150 d). The fetus was killed humanely immediately after delivery for tissue sampling. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared from the isolated diaphragm and mitochondrial electron transfer chain activities were evaluated using enzymatic assays. Oxidative stress was investigated by quantifying mitochondrial oxidative protein levels and determining antioxidant gene and protein (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase 1) expression. The activity of the erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant signalling pathway was examined by quantifying the Nrf2 protein content of cell lysate and nuclear extract. A 2 d LPS exposure in utero significantly decreased electron transfer chain complex II and IV activity (p<0.05). A 7 d LPS exposure inhibited superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expression at gene and protein levels, and Nrf2 pathway activity (p<0.05) compared with control and 2 d LPS groups, respectively. Diaphragm mitochondria accumulated oxidised protein after a 7 d LPS exposure. We conclude that intrauterine exposure to LPS induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and electron chain dysfunction in the fetal diaphragm, that is further exacerbated by impairment of the antioxidant signalling pathway and decreased antioxidant activity. PMID:24039949

Song, Yong; Pinniger, Gavin J; Bakker, Anthony J; Moss, Timothy J M; Noble, Peter B; Berry, Clare A; Pillow, Jane J

2013-09-06

350

Impact of in utero exposure to EtOH on corpus callosum development and paw preference in rats: protective effects of silymarin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY) ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH). In the current study our aim was to determine if laterality preference and corpus callosum development were altered in rat offspring whose mothers were provided with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH throughout gestation. Methods We provided pregnant Fisher/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% ethanol derived calories (EDC) throughout the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin was co administered with EtOH to a separate experimental group. We tested the offspring for laterality preference at age 12 weeks. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later corpus callosum extraction. Results We observed incomplete development of the splenium in the EtOH-only offspring. Callosal development was complete in all other treatment groups. Rats from the EtOH-only group displayed a left paw preference; whereas control rats were evenly divided between right and left paw preference. Inexplicably both SY groups were largely right paw preferring. Conclusions The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet did confer some ameliorative effects upon the developing fetal rat brain.

Moreland Nicol; La Grange Linda; Montoya Rebecca

2002-01-01

351

Evaluation of endocrine disrupting effects of nitrate after in utero exposure in rats and of nitrate and nitrite in the H295R and T-screen assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studies of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in vitro assays, the H295R assay and T-screen. There were no consistent indications that nitrate induces anti-androgenic effects in male fetuses or that prenatal nitrate exposure affected the thyroid axis. However, a more comprehensive study with long-term exposure before and during pre- and postnatal development would be relevant to sufficiently address the concerns based on the indications for endocrine disrupting effects in adult animals.

Hansen PR; Taxvig C; Christiansen S; Axelstad M; Boberg J; Kiersgaard MK; Nellemann C; Hass U

2009-04-01

352

Evaluation of endocrine disrupting effects of nitrate after in utero exposure in rats and of nitrate and nitrite in the H295R and T-screen assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studies of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in vitro assays, the H295R assay and T-screen. There were no consistent indications that nitrate induces anti-androgenic effects in male fetuses or that prenatal nitrate exposure affected the thyroid axis. However, a more comprehensive study with long-term exposure before and during pre- and postnatal development would be relevant to sufficiently address the concerns based on the indications for endocrine disrupting effects in adult animals. PMID:19190123

Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla; Christiansen, Sofie; Axelstad, Marta; Boberg, Julie; Kiersgaard, Maria Kristina; Nellemann, Christine; Hass, Ulla

2009-02-03

353

In utero transplantation of adult bone marrow decreases perinatal lethality and rescues the bone phenotype in the knockin murine model for classical, dominant osteogenesis imperfecta  

Science.gov (United States)

Autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) caused by glycine substitutions in type I collagen is a paradigmatic disorder for stem cell therapy. Bone marrow transplantation in OI children has produced a low engraftment rate, but surprisingly encouraging symptomatic improvements. In utero transplantation (IUT) may hold even more promise. However, systematic studies of both methods have so far been limited to a recessive mouse model. In this study, we evaluated intrauterine transplantation of adult bone marrow into heterozygous BrtlIV mice. Brtl is a knockin mouse with a classical glycine substitution in type I collagen [?1(I)-Gly349Cys], dominant trait transmission, and a phenotype resembling moderately severe and lethal OI. Adult bone marrow donor cells from enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) transgenic mice engrafted in hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues differentiated to trabecular and cortical bone cells and synthesized up to 20% of all type I collagen in the host bone. The transplantation eliminated the perinatal lethality of heterozygous BrtlIV mice. At 2 months of age, femora of treated Brtl mice had significant improvement in geometric parameters (P IUT as a promising approach for the treatment of genetic bone diseases.

Panaroni, Cristina; Gioia, Roberta; Lupi, Anna; Besio, Roberta; Goldstein, Steven A.; Kreider, Jaclynn; Leikin, Sergey; Vera, Juan Carlos; Mertz, Edward L.; Perilli, Egon; Baruffaldi, Fabio; Villa, Isabella; Farina, Aurora; Casasco, Marco; Cetta, Giuseppe; Rossi, Antonio; Frattini, Annalisa; Marini, Joan C.; Vezzoni, Paolo

2009-01-01

354

Evidence for interplay between genes and maternal stress in utero: monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates effects of life events during pregnancy on infant negative emotionality at 5?weeks.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The low activity variant of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) functional promoter polymorphism, MAOA-LPR, in interaction with adverse environments (G?×?E) is associated with child and adult antisocial behaviour disorders. MAOA is expressed during foetal development so in utero G?×?E may influence early neurodevelopment. We tested the hypothesis that MAOA G?×?E during pregnancy predicts infant negative emotionality soon after birth. In an epidemiological longitudinal study starting in pregnancy, using a two stage stratified design, we ascertained MAOA-LPR status (low vs. high activity variants) from the saliva of 209 infants (104 boys and 105 girls), and examined predictions to observed infant negative emotionality at 5?weeks post-partum from life events during pregnancy. In analyses weighted to provide estimates for the general population, and including possible confounders for life events, there was an MAOA status by life events interaction (P?=?0.017). There was also an interaction between MAOA status and neighbourhood deprivation (P?=?0.028). Both interactions arose from a greater effect of increasing life events on negative emotionality in the MAOA-LPR low activity, compared with MAOA-LPR high activity infants. The study provides the first evidence of moderation by MAOA-LPR of the effect of the social environment in pregnancy on negative emotionality in infancy, an early risk for the development of child and adult antisocial behaviour disorders.

Hill J; Breen G; Quinn J; Tibu F; Sharp H; Pickles A

2013-06-01

355

Evidence for interplay between genes and maternal stress in utero: monoamine oxidase A polymorphism moderates effects of life events during pregnancy on infant negative emotionality at 5?weeks.  

Science.gov (United States)

The low activity variant of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) functional promoter polymorphism, MAOA-LPR, in interaction with adverse environments (G?×?E) is associated with child and adult antisocial behaviour disorders. MAOA is expressed during foetal development so in utero G?×?E may influence early neurodevelopment. We tested the hypothesis that MAOA G?×?E during pregnancy predicts infant negative emotionality soon after birth. In an epidemiological longitudinal study starting in pregnancy, using a two stage stratified design, we ascertained MAOA-LPR status (low vs. high activity variants) from the saliva of 209 infants (104 boys and 105 girls), and examined predictions to observed infant negative emotionality at 5?weeks post-partum from life events during pregnancy. In analyses weighted to provide estimates for the general population, and including possible confounders for life events, there was an MAOA status by life events interaction (P?=?0.017). There was also an interaction between MAOA status and neighbourhood deprivation (P?=?0.028). Both interactions arose from a greater effect of increasing life events on negative emotionality in the MAOA-LPR low activity, compared with MAOA-LPR high activity infants. The study provides the first evidence of moderation by MAOA-LPR of the effect of the social environment in pregnancy on negative emotionality in infancy, an early risk for the development of child and adult antisocial behaviour disorders. PMID:23480342

Hill, J; Breen, G; Quinn, J; Tibu, F; Sharp, H; Pickles, A

2013-05-07

356

Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Effects of Nitrate after In Utero Exposure in Rats and of Nitrate and Nitrite in the H295R and T-Screen Assay  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Animal studies have shown that nitrate acts as an endocrine disrupter affecting the androgen production in adult males. This raises a concern for more severe endocrine disrupting effects after exposure during the sensitive period of prenatal male sexual development. As there are no existing studies of effects of nitrate on male sexual development, the aim of the study was to examine how in utero exposure to nitrate would affect male rat fetuses. Pregnant dams were dosed with nitrate in the drinking water from gestational day (GD) 7 to GD21 at the following dose levels 17.5, 50, 150, 450, and 900 mg/l. At GD21, fetuses were examined for anogenital distance, plasma thyroxine levels, testicular and plasma levels of testosterone and progesterone, and testicular testosterone production and histopathology. In addition, endocrine disrupting activity of nitrate and nitrite were studied in two in vitro assays, the H295R assay and T-screen. There were no consistent indications that nitrate induces anti-androgenic effects in male fetuses or that prenatal nitrate exposure affected the thyroid axis. However, a more comprehensive study with long-term exposure before and during pre- and postnatal development would be relevant to sufficiently address the concerns based on the indications for endocrine disrupting effects in adult animals.

Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Taxvig, Camilla

2009-01-01

357

Renewable resource policy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This comprehensive volume covers the history, laws, and important national policies affecting renewable resource management. The author traces the history of renewable natural resource policy and management in the US, describes the major federal agencies and their functions, and examines the evolution of the primary resource policy areas. Renewable Resource Policy provides valuable insight into the often neglected legal administrative, and bureaucratic aspects of natural resource management. This book is a definitive and essential source of information that brings together a remarkable range of information in a coherent, integrated form. It should prove to be an invaluable tool for all those involved with the use and protection of the natural resources.

Adams, D.A.

1993-01-01

358

The Shadow Uniform Resource Locator  

Science.gov (United States)

Citation of scientific materials published on the Internet is often cumbersome because of unwieldy uniform resource locators (URLs). The authors describe a format for URLs that simplifies citation of scholarly materials. Its use depends on a simple HTML device, the “refresh page.” Uniform citation would follow this format: [Author I. Title of article. http://domain/year/month-day(e#).html ]. The HTML code for such a page is: . The code instructs the browser to suppress the content of the refresh page and bring up the title page of the cited article instead. Citations would be succinct and predictable. An electronic journal would not need to alter its existing file hierarchy but would need to establish a distinct domain name and maintain a file of refresh pages. Utilization of the “shadow” URL would bring us one step closer to truly universal resource locators.

DiCarlo, Joseph V.; Pastor, Xavier; Markovitz, Barry P.

2000-01-01

359

Economics of exhaustible resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This dissertation deals with various issues of resource depletion, beginning with a rather comprehensive review of the literature. The resource scarcity is the first issue dealt with, where differentiation is made between Ricardian and Pure scarcities of exhaustible resources. While the Ricardian scarcity is properly acknowledged and modeled in the resource literature, the fact that the resource stocks are always decreasing with extraction (i.e., the pure scarcity) is overlooked. One important conclusion of the scarcity analysis is that the steady-state point defining the equilibrium values for the nonresource output to capital and the resource flow to resource stock ratios, is found to be a moving one, as a result of the increasing scarcity mechanism. Another observation about the literature is that there is a marked bias in favor of long run, developed economies' problems and resource inputs as opposed to the problems of developing economies and resource exports. Thus, a theoretical framework is developed where not only resource inputs and exports are analyzed but resource exports are advanced as a vehicle for development. Within the context of this theoretical framework, it is concluded that optimality dictates that the resource inputs and exports, expressed per unit of the capital stock, be declining over time. Furthermore, the resource exports are proposed as the domestic substitute for foreign aid.

Rabhan, S.A.

1986-01-01

360

Innovations in electronic services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Dzia?anie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

Dagmara Wach

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Arctic energy resources  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Papers were presented under the session headings: occurrence of energy resources technological/economic aspects of exploration; exploitation of Arctic energy resources and environmental and social impact. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

Rey, L. (ed.)

1983-01-01

362

Geospatial Studies Resource Links  

Science.gov (United States)

This website, from Northern Virginia Community College, provides a number of links to resource materials useful for geospatial education. Materials for curriculum development, general information for GIS users and resource materials for general geography are included.

2011-09-12

363

Energy resources of Montana  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Geological Map 28 was prepared by the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology in order to show the locations of energy resources in Montana in 1982. The resources are geothermal, oil shale, uranium and thorium, coal, oil and gas.

Cole, G.A.; Berg, R.B.; Cromwell, V.A.; Sonderegger, J.L. (comps.)

1982-01-01

364

Human Resource Administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 14 papers in this volume were presented at the 1976 national conference of the American Society for Public Administration and concern human resource administration and delivery systems. They are organized in five sections: human resource administratio...

C. G. Buntz

1976-01-01

365

Ambient Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

2012-10-01

366

Energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is a presentation on energy resources through photochemistry and catalysis. Topics covered include: light-induced and thermal electron-transfer reactions; molecular engineering in photoconversion systems; the role of porphyrins in natural and artificial photosynthesis; photosynthesis and photocatalysis with semiconductor powders; and electrically conductive polymer layers on semiconductor electrodes.

Gratzel, M.

1983-01-01

367

Resource use efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this chapter we concentrate on the efficiency of use in fixing carbon and accumulating biomass of those resources most often of interest to ecophysiologists: light, nutrients, water, and carbon. A plant uses these in a variety of ways to enable it to survive, grow, and reproduce. Resources also have a role in the gathering of other resources. In most natural environments, one or more resources will be in limited supply, at least for a portion of each year or for a part of the plant`s life cycle, or both. This shortage will limit physiological activity and growth. Knowledge of how plants use resources is basic to an understanding of the biology of ecosystems and of competition between species. Efficiency of use of resources has traditionally been determined by calculating ratios of productivity per unit of resource [i.e., resource use efficiencies (RUEs); carbon use is often expressed as relative growth rate (RGR)]. Although RUEs and comparisons of values from different species can often be useful, they are frequently used incautiously. Comparisons have been made at a range of physical and temporal scales, often using the same terminology at each level of scale, frequently incorporating different meanings of productivity or different measures of resource use, sometimes with both different. Species will have evolved a higher RUE in response to a shortage of the resource in their environment. A resource shortage can result from an inherently poor supply of the resource in the environment and from competition for the resource by other plants. Mechanisms that allow plants to grow in an environment that is resource limited can be physiological, anatomical, morphological, ontogenetic, or phenological. RUEs of different resources will evolve separately, presumably in relation to the limitations of the resources in that environment and to other selective pressures.

Sheriff, D.W.; Margolis, H.A.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Reich, P.B.

1995-07-01

368

Electronic Recruitment at CERN  

CERN Multimedia

The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

2004-01-01

369

Spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity are differentially sensitive to the availability of choline in adulthood as a function of choline supply in utero.  

Science.gov (United States)

Altered dietary choline availability early in life leads to persistent changes in spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in adulthood. Developmental programming by early choline nutrition may determine the range of adult choline intake that is optimal for the types of neural plasticity involved in cognitive function. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a choline chloride deficient (DEF), sufficient (CON), or supplemented (SUP) diet during embryonic days 12-17 and then returned to a control diet (1.1 g choline chloride/kg). At 70 days of age, we found that DEF and SUP rats required fewer choices to locate 8 baited arms of a 12-arm radial maze than CON rats. When switched to a choline-deficient diet (0 g/kg), SUP rats showed impaired performance while CON and DEF rats were unaffected. In contrast, when switched to a choline-supplemented diet (5.0 g/kg), DEF rats' performance was significantly impaired while CON and SUP rats were less affected. These changes in performance were reversible when the rats were switched back to a control diet. In a second experiment, DEF, CON, and SUP rats were either maintained on a control diet, or the choline-supplemented diet. After 12 weeks, DEF rats were significantly impaired by choline supplementation on a matching-to-place water-maze task, which was also accompanied by a decrease in dentate cell proliferation in DEF rats only. IGF-1 levels were elevated by both prenatal and adult choline supplementation. Taken together, these findings suggest that the in utero availability of an essential nutrient, choline, causes differential behavioral and neuroplastic sensitivity to the adult choline supply. PMID:18778697

Wong-Goodrich, Sarah J E; Glenn, Melissa J; Mellott, Tiffany J; Blusztajn, Jan K; Meck, Warren H; Williams, Christina L

2008-09-04

370

Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis.

Higo, H.; Lee, J.Y.; Satow, Y.; Higo, K. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

1989-01-01

371

Embolization of Angiographically Visible Type I and II Utero-ovarian Anastomoses during Uterine Artery Embolization for Fibroid Tumors: Impact on Symptom Recurrence and Permanent Amenorrhea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the incidences of symptom recurrence and permanent amenorrhea following uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic fibroid tumors in patients with type I and II utero-ovarian anastomoses (UOAs) with versus without ovarian artery embolization (OAE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective, institutional review board-approved study of 99 women who underwent UAE for symptomatic fibroid tumors from April 2005 to October 2010 was conducted to identify patients who had type I or II UOAs at the time of UAE. Based on the embolization technique, patients were categorized into standard (ie, UAE only), combined (ie, UAE and OAE), and control (patients without UOAs who underwent UAE) groups. Data collected included patient characteristics, procedural technique and findings, symptom recurrence, secondary interventions, and permanent amenorrhea. Statistical analysis was performed with the Fisher exact test, with significance reached at P < .05. RESULTS: Twenty patients (20.2%; mean age, 46.9 y ± 6.3) had type I (n = 3) or II (n = 17) UOAs. Thirteen (65%) underwent UAE only (standard group) and seven (35%) underwent UAE and OAE (combined group). There were no significant differences between groups in demographics or in the incidence of permanent amenorrhea after procedures (follow-up, 561 d ± 490). There was a significantly higher incidence of symptom recurrence in the standard group compared with the control group (P = .01), with no differences between combined and control groups (P = 1). CONCLUSIONS: There were no statistical differences in permanent amenorrhea rates in the groups studied, with significantly higher symptom recurrence rates observed when OAE was not performed in the setting of UOA.

Salazar GM; Gregory Walker T; Conway RF; Yeddula K; Wicky S; Waltman AC; Kalva SP

2013-09-01

372

Detection of in utero marijuana exposure by GC-MS, ultra-sensitive ELISA and LC-TOF-MS using umbilical cord tissue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking marijuana during pregnancy can cause health problems in the neonate. The detection of exposure can guide treatment to meet the short- and long-term medical and social needs. Umbilical cord tissue was analyzed for 11-nor-delta-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and compared with ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Fortified extracts of drug-free cord tissue were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the LC-TOF-MS and ELISA assays, and 16 de-identified patient specimens previously analyzed by GC-MS were tested for THC-COOH by both methods. The cutoffs were 0.050 ng/g for the GC-MS assay, 0.1 ng/g for the ELISA assay and 1 ng/g for the LC-TOF-MS assay. Twelve specimens were negative by all three methods. Seven specimens were positive by GC-MS with concentrations from 0.066 to 6.095 ng/g. ELISA and LC-TOF-MS did not detect one specimen that was positive by GC-MS. LC-TOF-MS missed one specimen that was detected by GC-MS and ELISA. Five positive specimens were detected by all three methods. These results were consistent with the cutoff for each method. No false positives were detected by LC-TOF-MS or ELISA. Umbilical cord tissue is a viable specimen for the detection of in utero marijuana exposure. ELISA and GC-MS were more sensitive than LC-TOF-MS for the detection of THC-COOH in cord tissue, with the GC-MS method providing superior sensitivity. PMID:23843423

Chittamma, A; Marin, S J; Williams, J A; Clark, C; McMillin, G A

2013-07-10

373

Oxidative DNA damage and repair in children exposed to low levels of arsenic in utero and during early childhood: Application of salivary and urinary biomarkers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study aimed to assess arsenic exposure and its effect on oxidative DNA damage and repair in young children exposed in utero and continued to live in arsenic-contaminated areas. To address the need for biological specimens that can be acquired with minimal discomfort to children, we used non-invasive urinary and salivary-based assays for assessing arsenic exposure and early biological effects that have potentially serious health implications. Levels of arsenic in nails showed the greatest magnitude of difference between exposed and control groups, followed by arsenic concentrations in saliva and urine. Arsenic levels in saliva showed significant positive correlations with other biomarkers of arsenic exposure, including arsenic accumulation in nails (r=0.56, P<0.001) and arsenic concentration in urine (r=0.50, P<0.05). Exposed children had a significant reduction in arsenic methylation capacity indicated by decreased primary methylation index and secondary methylation index in both urine and saliva samples. Levels of salivary 8-OHdG in exposed children were significantly higher (~4-fold, P<0.01), whereas levels of urinary 8-OHdG excretion and salivary hOGG1 expression were significantly lower in exposed children (~3-fold, P<0.05), suggesting a defect in hOGG1 that resulted in ineffective cleavage of 8-OHdG. Multiple regression analysis results showed that levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in saliva and urine had a significant positive association with salivary 8-OHdG and a significant negative association with salivary hOGG1 expression.

Hinhumpatch P; Navasumrit P; Chaisatra K; Promvijit J; Mahidol C; Ruchirawat M

2013-10-01

374

Cytokine profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to investigate at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after birth cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and bronchial lymph node cells from piglets infected in utero with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Technically, by flow cytometry we were able to measure gamma interferon (gamma-IFN), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-4 (IL-4), and IL-8 levels. In general, we found increases in the percentages of IL-4-, gamma-IFN-, and TNF-alpha-producing lymphocytes in the infected piglets compared to the percentages in the uninfected control animals, while there was a decrease in the percentage of IL-8-producing monocytes. We believe that these findings reflect a general lymphocyte activation stage that is created due to the infection and that occurs in combination with impairment of the monocyte function, possibly due to the ongoing viral replication in these cells. Single-cell bronchial lymph node preparations exhibited very much the samecytokine profiles as peripheral blood mononuclear cells except for a lack of IL-8 production. When the levels of the individual cytokines in the three groups of PRRSV-infected piglets were compared, the levels of cytokine expression at 4 weeks diverged from those at 2 and 6 weeks, in that there was a significant decrease in the numbers of lymphocytes producing gamma-IFN and TNF-alpha. This tendency was also observed among blood monocytes and lymph node macrophages. Possible reasons for this temporary immunosuppression in the piglets at 4 weeks are discussed.

Aasted, B.; Bach, P.

2002-01-01

375

Fetal complete common atrioventricular canal defect: spontaneous closure of the ventricular septal defect--in utero anatomic evolution and postnatal outcomes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: We describe in utero anatomic evolution and postnatal outcome of complete common atrioventricular canal defect (CCAVCD). METHODS: Retrospective data on 31 fetuses with CCAVCD were analyzed. We reviewed prenatal and postnatal echocardiograms, karyotype, and postnatal outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 20 fetuses had complete data, 18 with serial fetal echocardiograms and postnatal data and 2 terminations. At initial examination, isolated CCAVCD was seen in 12 (67%) fetuses while 6 (33%) were associated with heterotaxy syndrome. On follow-up, 4 fetuses (22%) had spontaneous closure of the inlet ventricular septal defect (VSD) component of the CCAVCD, seen both at 30 to 35 weeks of gestation and on postnatal echocardiograms. These 4 fetuses had previously demonstrated CCAVCD between 18 and 25 weeks of gestation. A total of 15 (83%) patients underwent operative correction, 10 with isolated complete atrioventricular septal defect and 5 with heterotaxy had surgical repair. Four infants in whom spontaneous intrauterine closure of the VSD component was observed had no VSD noted at surgery and underwent closure of primum atrial septal defect and repair of the left atrioventricular (AV) valve cleft. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that CCAVCD diagnosed during fetal life is not a static anomaly. In our series, an inlet VSD less than 4 mm and Rastelli type A anatomy (AV valve attachment to septal crest) during second trimester may evolve during third trimester by formation of AV sulcus pouch and spontaneous closure of the VSD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report such anatomic evolution of CCAVCD in the fetus. This information is vital for appropriate counseling for expectant parents.

Adebo D; Louis JS; Prosen T; Sivanandam S

2013-04-01

376

Detection of in utero marijuana exposure by GC-MS, ultra-sensitive ELISA and LC-TOF-MS using umbilical cord tissue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Smoking marijuana during pregnancy can cause health problems in the neonate. The detection of exposure can guide treatment to meet the short- and long-term medical and social needs. Umbilical cord tissue was analyzed for 11-nor-delta-9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and compared with ultra-sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS). Fortified extracts of drug-free cord tissue were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the LC-TOF-MS and ELISA assays, and 16 de-identified patient specimens previously analyzed by GC-MS were tested for THC-COOH by both methods. The cutoffs were 0.050 ng/g for the GC-MS assay, 0.1 ng/g for the ELISA assay and 1 ng/g for the LC-TOF-MS assay. Twelve specimens were negative by all three methods. Seven specimens were positive by GC-MS with concentrations from 0.066 to 6.095 ng/g. ELISA and LC-TOF-MS did not detect one specimen that was positive by GC-MS. LC-TOF-MS missed one specimen that was detected by GC-MS and ELISA. Five positive specimens were detected by all three methods. These results were consistent with the cutoff for each method. No false positives were detected by LC-TOF-MS or ELISA. Umbilical cord tissue is a viable specimen for the detection of in utero marijuana exposure. ELISA and GC-MS were more sensitive than LC-TOF-MS for the detection of THC-COOH in cord tissue, with the GC-MS method providing superior sensitivity.

Chittamma A; Marin SJ; Williams JA; Clark C; McMillin GA

2013-09-01

377

Migration of cells from the yolk sac to hematopoietic tissues after in utero transplantation of early and mid gestation canine fetuses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation offers a means of early intervention for the treatment of diseases before birth. Delivery of cells to the yolk sac is a minimally invasive approach that results in low levels of chimerism. However, there is little information on the optimal doses, timing of delivery, and migration of transplanted cells from the yolk sac into the fetus. METHODS: Varying cell doses of mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow mononuclear cells labeled with fluorescent supraparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and a fluorescent intracellular dye, 5- and 6-([(4-chloromethyl)benzoyl]-amino) tetramethylrhodamine, were transplanted under ultrasound guidance to the yolk sacs of day 25 or day 35 canine fetuses. Ex vivo whole body fluorescence imaging and microscopy of tissue sections were correlated with the presence of iron oxide in injected and control fetuses. RESULTS: Day 25 and day 35 recipients showed similar survival rates after injection of cells into yolk sacs, although increased fetal morality was associated with cell doses greater than 10 cells/kg to day 25 fetuses. The fluorescence and iron oxide signals were predominantly localized to the abdominal regions, with no fluorescence visible in yolk sacs. Microscopy of tissues revealed colocalization of fluorophore with iron oxide in donor cells detected in the fetal livers and bone marrow of recipients 7 and 17 days after receiving mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow mononuclear cells. CONCLUSIONS: These studies demonstrated that cells injected into the yolk sacs of early gestation canine fetuses migrate to recipient hematopoietic tissues. Thus, yolk sac injection offers a safe and effective approach for engraftment of cells to fetal hematopoietic tissues.

Vaags AK; Gartley CJ; Halling KB; Dobson H; Zheng Y; Foltz WD; Dick AJ; Kruth SA; Hough MR

2011-04-01

378

Executive Function Deficits and Social-Behavioral Abnormality in Mice Exposed to a Low Dose of Dioxin In Utero and via Lactation  

Science.gov (United States)

An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation.

Endo, Toshihiro; Kakeyama, Masaki; Uemura, Yukari; Haijima, Asahi; Okuno, Hiroyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Tohyama, Chiharu

2012-01-01

379

Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo(a)pyrene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 ..mu..g benzol(a)pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

Urso, P.; Gengozian, N.

1984-01-01

380

Subnormal expression of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses in progeny disposed toward a high incidence of tumors after in utero exposure to benzo[a]pyrene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pregnant mice were exposed to 150 ?g benzol[a]pyrene (BaP) per gram of body weight during fetogenesis (d 11-17 of gestation) and the progeny were assayed for humoral and cell mediated immune responses at different time intervals after birth. Immature offspring (1-4 wk) were severely suppressed in their ability to produce antibody (plaque-) forming cells (PFC) against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and in the ability of their lymphocytes to undergo a mixed lymphocyte response (MLR). Lymphocytes from these progeny showed a moderate to weak capacity to inhabit production of colony-forming units (CFU) in host spleens following transfer with semiallogeneic bone marrow (BM) cells into lethally x-irradiated recipients syngeneic to the BM (in vivo graft-versus-host response, GVHR). A severe and sustained suppression in the MLR and the PFC response occurred from the fifth month up to 18 mo. The in vivo GVHR, also subnormal later in life, was not as severely suppressed as the other two parameters. Tumor incidence in the BP-exposed progeny was 8- to 10-fold higher than in those encountering corn oil alone from 18 to 24 mo of age. These data show that in utero exposure to the chemical carcinogen BaP alters development of components needed for establishing competent hemoral and cell-mediated functions of the immune apparatus and leads to severe and sustained postnatal suppression of the defense mechanism. The immunodeficiency exhibited, particularly in the T-cell compartment (MLR, GVHR), before and during the increase in tumor frequency, may provide a favorable environment for the growth of nascent neoplasms induced by BaP. 30 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Native American Educational Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

This page from the Northwest Center for Sustainable Resources (NCSR) includes a number of educational resources having to do with the Native American perspective on environmental science. The materials are intended to assist educators in integrating this important perspective into their curriculum. Printed resources, curriculum activities, videos a